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  Subjects -> ANTHROPOLOGY (Total: 398 journals)
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Pragmatics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.64
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1018-2101 - ISSN (Online) 2406-4238
Published by John Benjamins Pub Co Homepage  [61 journals]
  • Responses to English compliments on language ability

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      Authors: Randa Saleh Maine Alharbi; Pat Strauss Lynn Grant
      Abstract: Employing a cross-generational perspective, this study attempts to deepen our understanding of the politeness strategies Saudi females use when responding to compliments in English from an English speaker. The study investigated how Saudi females from two generations respond to compliments in an educational setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Participants included sixty-two female undergraduate students and sixty-four female lecturers from one university in the KSA. Following a mixed methods approach, the study included two primary sources of data: a quantitative Discourse Completion Task questionnaire for eliciting compliment responses (CRs) from the two generations; and qualitative semi-structured interviews with six participants from each group. Findings indicate that participants from both groups tended to accept compliments although there was a tendency to question the sincerity of the compliments.
      PubDate: 2024-02-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • The cyclic nature of negation: From implicit to explicit

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      Authors: Ruti Bardenstein
      Abstract: The Hebrew negation adverbial bilti ‘not’ seems to function very differently in Biblical Hebrew than it does in Contemporary Hebrew. This paper addresses this difference and discusses its evolution. The main question addressed in this paper is: How has Hebrew bilti, originally an exceptive marker (with sentential scoping), ended up functioning solely as a privative in contemporary Hebrew' First, this paper argues that the biblical usage of bilti was expanded and turned into a polyfunctional (or ‘polysemous’) item. This happened via a constructionalization process which led to grammatical changes (‘grammaticalization’): The initially implicated negation (via a generalized implicature) turned explicit (semantic). In addition, in Hebrew’s later periods, the usage of bilti was narrowed and it became a privative. Thus, firstly, a pragmatically motivated path of constructionalization of bilti in Biblical Hebrew is suggested. That is, the “pragmatic negation” that arose via a generalized implicature shifted to the semantic level (performing semantic negation, explicit negation). Secondly, bilti’s functions in post-biblical Hebrew periods are outlined, tracing its narrowing functions until its fixation in Contemporary Hebrew as a privative.
      PubDate: 2024-02-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • Language practices and policies of Singaporean-Japanese families
           in Singapore

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      Authors: Francesco Cavallaro; Yan Kang Tan, Wenhan Xie Bee Chin Ng
      Abstract: The few studies on Family Language Policy in Singapore (FLP) have generally focused on FLP in local and immigrant Chinese families. This article explores language policies that seem to undergird Singaporean-Japanese families’ language practices. In-depth interviews and observations with five such families showed that Japanese only functions as the language of communication between the Japanese parents and their children if parents have invoked particular language policies to support its transmission and use at home. For most families, English was the main medium of communication among family members. Language policies and practices in these families were heavily influenced by the value emplaced on each language within the parents’ linguistic repertoire and their beliefs regarding language learning.
      PubDate: 2024-02-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • Didn’t she say to you, “Oh my God! In Pafos'”

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      Authors: Constantina Fotiou
      Abstract: This study examines the linguistic and discursive format as well as the functions of hypothetical quotations in everyday, informal conversations amongst Greek Cypriot friends. Drawing from a dataset of 270 minutes of naturally-occurring conversations, this study documents the linguistic format of sixty-one hypothetical quotations and examines why speakers resort to formulating such quotations to begin with. To do so, Goffman’s (1981) work on footing and participation framework is employed along with an analysis of these quotations in interaction following the work of Goodwin (2007). This study shows that most instances of hypothetical quotations are formulated as direct quotations. There can be both self- and other-quotations, and the quotative can take various forms. Hypothetical quotations serve an array of discursive functions, such as showing the listener’s involvement in an interaction, creating humour, supporting one’s argument or refuting the argument of the other, in line with other studies in the literature.
      PubDate: 2024-02-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • Transcending the senpai ‘senior’/kōhai ‘junior’ boundary through
           cross-speaker repetition in Japanese

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      Authors: Saeko Machi
      Abstract: This study explores the role of cross-speaker repetition in creating interpersonal connections between interactants in Japanese. The analysis focuses on Japanese non-reciprocal conversations between senpai ‘senior’ and kōhai ‘junior’ interactants, where the kōhai are normatively expected to speak using the honorific desu/masu markers. The analysis demonstrates that in such conversations, the kōhai sometimes drop the honorific markers while repeating the senpai’s utterances, thereby momentarily transcending the vertical boundary separating them from the senpai. Two types of plain form repetition are presented: (1) the kōhai repeat the senpai’s funny and/or questionable comments to savor the expressions, and (2) the kōhai repeat the senpai’s ideas, wishes or assessments to synchronize with the senpai. The analysis explicates how cross-speaker repetition allows the kōhai to drop the honorific markers in a way that is acceptable to the senpai. This study underscores the significance of the cross-speaker repetition device for creating harmonious relationships in Japanese.
      PubDate: 2024-02-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • Millennial identity work in BlablaCar online reviews

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      Authors: María de la O Hernández-López
      Abstract: In the age of Internet communication, car sharing as well as other types of sharing (accommodation, offices, etc.) has led to the emergence of the so-called sharing economy platforms, such as BlaBlaCar. Previous studies have demonstrated that millennials (i.e., those born between 1981 and 1999) are the most representative generational cohort regarding their interests in activities organized around BlaBlaCar and similar sites (Činjarević, Kožo and Berberović 2019). One direct consequence of this fact is that the way in which millennials communicate in this particular affinity space (Gee 2005; Jenkins 2006) may be highly informative of their discursive identities (Bucholtz and Hall 2005).Against this backdrop, this study examines 1,000 online reviews taken from www.BlablaCar.es, in order to, first, understand how millennials conceptualize their experiences in BlaBlaCar; second, examine how identity emerges through labels and implicatures (Bucholtz and Hall 2005); and third, discuss and understand the relationship between the discourse identity shaped in BlaBlaCar reviews and millennials’ social identity. The findings reveal that BlaBlaCar reviews are highly informative of users’ identities and their relational needs. Also, these reviews no longer comply with traditional definitions of ‘consumer reviews’, and a re-conceptualization is needed.
      PubDate: 2024-02-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • The pragmatics of alternative futures in political discourses

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      Authors: Ali Basarati; Hadaegh Rezaei Mohammad Amouzadeh
      Abstract: We shall concentrate on how the construction and modality system of alternative futures in political discourses are influenced by the construal of past-to-present threats and preemptive politics. Using Dunmire’s (2005) proposed framework and further explorations by Cap (2020) on the subject, we approach twenty of Trump’s speeches on Iran, from 2017–2020. Our analyses indicated that the construction of alternative futures is modified by the evaluations of Iran’s past-to-present status and the politics of preemption. This relationship modifies the speaker’s epistemic judgment on the certainty of the privileged future, the cause-effect relation, and the sceptic views on the successful implementation of preemptive measures, resulting in the articulation of the privileged future through probabilistic and dynamic modalities. Moreover, the privileged future is conceptualised as necessary through deontic modality. By contrast, the realisation of the oppositional future is articulated through unmediated modality pinpointing the status that will materialise in light of inaction and negligence.
      PubDate: 2023-10-26T00:00:00Z
       
  • Intergenerational interviews in Negev Arabic

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      Authors: Roni Henkin
      Abstract: Communication strategies used for conversational repair in Negev Arabic are examined here in a 170,000-word corpus of intergenerational interviews, with university students interviewing their relatives, over age 55, in the Bedouin community in the Negev, southern Israel. Since the traditional language and narrative style of the elderly are largely unfamiliar to the young generation in terms of lexicon, discourse structure and cultural norms, progressivity was often interrupted for purpose of repair. Other-initiated self-repair sequences were particularly frequent: the student asks a metalinguistic or referent-tracking question, or inquires about past customs, and the interviewee explains; additional turns may contain candidate understanding moves and confirmation, before resuming progressivity of the narrative sequence. Gaps were sometimes mediated by a middle-generation ‘broker’ interlocutor. Conversational repair was found to be frequent in facilitating both intelligibility and comprehensibility in these intergenerational conversations.
      PubDate: 2023-10-26T00:00:00Z
       
  • Korean imperatives at two different speech levels

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      Authors: Mary Shin Kim
      Abstract: Korean imperatives are differentiated by speech levels or levels of honorification. Accordingly, most research on Korean imperatives examines them from the perspective of politeness and interpersonal relations. This study takes a different approach, focusing on two types of non-honorific imperative turn design: one with the intimate speech level imperative e/a and the other with the plain speech level imperative ela/ala. Close examination of the forms in naturally occurring conversation provides a clearer picture of when and how the use of these imperatives is warranted by specific interactional configurations and contexts in everyday Korean talk-in-interaction. This study shows that alternate imperatives do not simply index politeness or social status, but are important resources for implementing separate action formats that pursue divergent interactional trajectories.
      PubDate: 2023-10-26T00:00:00Z
       
  • How broadcasters enhance rapport with viewers in live streaming commerce

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      Authors: Xingsong Shi; Huanqin Dou
      Abstract: Despite the increasing research interest, the existing literature on live streaming commerce as a new e-commerce mode is still in its infancy. Based on 100 live streaming commerce videos from the top two broadcasters on Taobao Live in China, this study conducted a genre-based discourse analysis to investigate the move pattern in this new genre. The study draws on rapport management theory to scrutinize the linguistic functions of the moves, to explore how the broadcasters managed to enhance broadcaster-viewer relationship. Our findings may further our understanding of live streaming commerce as a new form of digital genre, and shed light on how successful broadcasters may strategically manage their relationship with viewers through well-organized discourse forms. Theoretically, the present research may contribute to the literature of employing rapport management theory in the discourse domain by extending it into a new digital genre analysis. Practically, our findings may provide implications for relevant practitioners.
      PubDate: 2023-10-26T00:00:00Z
       
  • “Let’s … together”

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      Authors: Xiaochun Sun; Xinren Chen
      Abstract: This study, drawing on a modified version of Spencer-Oatey’s Rapport Management Model (2008), attempts to probe into the underexplored phenomenon of apparent rapport management in Chinese directive public signs in terms of face, sociality rights and obligations, interests, and interactional goals. Based on the analysis of data collected from four cities in China, this study demonstrates how some Chinese producers of directive public signs make varying and various discursive efforts to enhance rapport with the general public. It is argued that this “personalization” characteristic of Chinese directive public signs suggests their producers’ attempt at doing rapport with the public. This research, while extending the scope of discussion on rapport management from the interpersonal to the public sphere, might serve to explain why some Chinese directive public signs (directives in particular) are not terse.
      PubDate: 2023-10-26T00:00:00Z
       
  • If I testify about others, my testimony is valid

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      Authors: Xin Zhao; Yansheng Mao
      Abstract: While trustworthiness has been found to exert a vital influence on the success of an online medical crowdfunding (Ba et al. 2021), scarce studies have investigated the concepts and culture of trust in Eastern scenarios like China (Wang 2020). This is the first study aiming to discursively analyze how other-justified discourses, i.e., enhancing objectivity and trustworthiness through other people’s comments, contribute to obtaining potential donors’ trust in Chinese online medical crowdfunding encounters. Through the discourse analysis of 496 other-justified comments on fifty pieces of fully-funded online medical crowdfunding projects, it is found that four different types of people (a family member, a person in the same business or occupation, a classmate, a friend) offer evidence through other-justified discourses oriented towards ethos, experience, and emotion. The Wu-Lun (five ethic orders) in the acquaintance society is the underlying theoretical rationale that supports the credibility of other-justified discourse, which provides a novel research perspective for the dissemination and transitivity of trust in online medical crowdfunding. The findings serve to offer commenters an array of other-justified orientations and identity choices to engage more prospective backers in a medical donative event. The results highlight that crowdfunders not only need to display a compelling narrative strength but also raise awareness to enhance the trustworthiness of their projects, especially focusing on shreds of evidence provided by a third-person comment.
      PubDate: 2023-10-26T00:00:00Z
       
  • Concepts and context in relevance-theoretic pragmatics

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      Authors: Agnieszka Piskorska; Manuel Padilla Cruz
      PubDate: 2023-09-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • Ad hoc concepts and the relevance heuristics

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      Authors: Benoît Leclercq
      Abstract: The idea that interpreting a lexeme typically involves a context-dependent process of meaning construction has in recent years become common ground in linguistic theory. This view is very explicit in relevance theory (Sperber and Wilson 1995), which posits that speakers systematically infer ad hoc concepts (Carston 2002). Such an approach raises theoretical issues, though. First, it directly poses a challenge for the exact nature of (and difference between) concepts and ad hoc concepts (Carston 2002, 249). In addition, as Wilson (2011, 2016) and Carston (2013, 2016) point out, this view also uncovers the following paradox: if speakers are assumed to follow a path of least effort (relevance heuristics), why should they so systematically infer ad hoc concepts rather than test the encoded concept first' The aim of this paper is to reflect on this theoretical puzzle. It will first be argued that the hypotheses formulated both by Wilson and by Carston seem rather post hoc and fail to fully resolve the apparent paradox. Attention will then be given to the assumed nature of (ad hoc) concepts to show that the problem can be resolved when an alternative (non-atomic) view of concepts in terms of meaning potential is adopted.
      PubDate: 2023-09-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • Paralanguage and ad hoc concepts

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      Authors: Manuel Padilla Cruz
      Abstract: Ad hoc concept construction is regarded as a case of free pragmatic enrichment, so it is presented as a non-linguistically mandated process that is automatically accomplished during mutual parallel adjustment. Recent research suggests that this lexical pragmatic process may be marked and steered by various linguistic elements. These include evaluative morphemes, lexical and phrasal items adjacent to content words, and stylistic resources like repetition or rewording. This paper argues that paralanguage may fulfil a similar enacting function and finetune the conceptual representations arising from content words on the grounds of idiosyncratic, context-dependent features or shades, as well as propositional and non-propositional information about the speaker’s psychological states. However, the paper restricts this function to expressive interjections, prosodic inputs like pitch, contrastive stress and pace or tempo, and gestural inputs such as language-like gestures, pantomimes and emblems. Conative interjections, intonation and proper gesticulation would be excluded from contributing to lexical pragmatic processes.
      PubDate: 2023-09-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • Non-literal uses of proper names in XYZ constructions

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      Authors: Ewa Wałaszewska
      Abstract: The paper focuses on non-literal uses of proper names in XYZ constructions, such as the use of the personal name Donald Trump in Boris Johnson is the Donald Trump of UK politics or ‘5G’ is the Donald Trump of telecom, and argues that such uses can be best accounted for by relevance theory. While in their primary use, proper names uniquely denote specific individuals and have no meaning on their own, in their secondary uses, they act as common nouns, capable of conveying non-literal meanings. In relevance theory, such non-literal uses can be explained in terms of lexical modulation or ad hoc concept formation. The analysis of selected examples shows that while some of the XYZ constructions can be seen as metaphors, others are better described as category extensions, and it substantiates the relevance-theoretic claim that there is no clear cut-off point between the two varieties of loose use.
      PubDate: 2023-09-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • Perceptual resemblance and the communication of emotion
           in digital contexts

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      Authors: Ryoko Sasamoto
      Abstract: Online communication has created new ways to express emotions, including emoji and reaction GIFs. Emoji are often discussed as signs for meaning-making, adding emotional tone to communication. Reaction GIFs express emotions and attitudes in a playful manner. This study shows that through the lens of cognitive pragmatics, these phenomena are not distinct. Both are cases of non-verbal communication pointing to the communicator’s emotional state. Drawing on relevance-theoretic notions of the showing-meaning continuum and perceptual resemblance, along with relevance-theoretic analyses of metaphor and irony, I argue that emoji and reaction GIFs provide clues to ostension and communicate emotions by virtue of perceptual resemblance between what they represent and the communicator’s emotional state. I will also argue that both emoji and GIFs can involve echoic use of language, enabling the communicator to convey their attitude.
      PubDate: 2023-09-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • Deceptive clickbaits in the relevance-theoretic lens

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      Authors: Maria Jodłowiec
      Abstract: This paper explores the nature of clickbaiting as a form of viral journalism from a relevance-theoretic perspective (Sperber and Wilson 1995; Wilson and Sperber 2012). The focus is on deceptive clickbaits, i.e., manipulative internet headlines whose interpretation, based on the way they are worded, leads to opening an information gap, thus luring the reader into clicking on the link provided with a view to increasing the website traffic. It is highlighted that such headlines exploit linguistic underdeterminacy, and unlike felicitous headlines, which provide an accurate representation of the article content and therefore play the role of relevance optimizers (Dor 2003), deceptive clickbaits induce recipients to generate interpretations which arouse their intense curiosity but are ultimately incompatible with the article’s content. The paper shows how relevance theory can explain the interpretation bias that the reader of deceptive clickbaits falls prey to and advances the idea that there is affinity in this respect between deceptive clickbaits and jokes.
      PubDate: 2023-09-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • Metarepresentational phenomena in Japanese and English

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      Authors: Seiji Uchida
      Abstract: Contrastive studies of languages usually focus on differences in lexical items, syntactic structures, semantic expressions, collocations, and so on. In the present paper we take a cognitive pragmatic approach, assuming that metarepresentation in the sense of Sperber (2000) and Wilson (2000) offers a crucial perspective in such studies. We discuss how the speech act component of higher-level explicatures is linguistically realized in Japanese and English, focusing on sentence adverbials, ‘because’ clauses, speech act particles, reported speech, private predicates, and desiderative predicates. We conclude that in the Japanese language, information concerning the speech act component tends to be linguistically realized, while such information is not necessarily realized in English. We suggest that this cognitive pragmatic approach can be applied to other languages where higher-level explicatures are basically explicit as in Japanese or implicit as in English.
      PubDate: 2023-09-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • On the manifestness of assumptions

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      Authors: Didier Maillat
      Abstract: Right from the outset, relevance theory (Sperber and Wilson 1986/1995) tried to define interpretation as a process of context elaboration. Interpretation is seen as a path of least effort leading to the selection of a set of most accessible assumptions. One of the central aspects of this context elaboration process lies in the fact that contextual assumptions are not randomly scattered in the hearer’s cognitive environment. Instead, relevance theory claims that there are some organising principles ordering contextual assumptions and determining which will be accessed first and, therefore, which will be retained as part of the optimally relevant interpretation.The main organising principle is captured by the notion of manifestness, which combines two distinct properties of contextual assumptions: their accessibility and their strength in the cognitive environment. Sperber and Wilson (1986/1995) define them as a function of the processing history of an assumption for the former and the confidence with which an assumption is held for the latter.In this paper, I will explore the explanatory potential of manifestness by putting the notions of strength and accessibility to work on two current trends in pragmatic research, namely commitment (Ifantidou 2001; Boulat and Maillat 2017, 2023; Mazzarella et al. 2018; Bonalumi et al. 2020) and emotion (Moeschler 2009; Dezecache et al. 2013, 2015; Wharton and Strey 2019; Wilson and Carston 2019; Saussure and Wharton 2020; Wharton et al. 2021). My goal will be to show how these two dimensions of manifestness, as they were developed in the very early days of RT, can provide us with new theoretical insights in the study of human communication. In this paper, I will argue that, beyond their usefulness in providing a guiding principle for the comprehension procedure, the strength and accessibility of contextual assumptions can also advantageously shed light on other phenomena like commitment and emotions.
      PubDate: 2023-09-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • Has madam read Wilson (2016)'

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      Authors: Agnieszka Piskorska
      Abstract: This paper offers an account of Polish addressative forms encoding deference and familiarity in terms of the relevance-theoretic notion of procedural meaning, which underlies a heterogeneous range of phenomena linked to different cognitive domains. The procedure encoded by pronouns used referentially can be seen as targeting the domain of inferential comprehension and contributing to the truth-conditional meaning of an utterance by identifying a referent of a pronoun. It is claimed here that addressative forms marking the politeness distinction encode another procedure, targeting the social cognition module and activating the hearer’s readiness to identify the form as (in)congruent with social norms. It is argued that the politeness element in addressative forms does not involve conceptual encoding. The potential of the T/V forms for giving rise to stylistic effects is also explored. It is suggested that the proposal can be extended to other languages with the T/V distinction.
      PubDate: 2023-09-29T00:00:00Z
       
 
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