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Society and Culture in South Asia
Number of Followers: 3  
 
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ISSN (Print) 2393-8617 - ISSN (Online) 2394-9872
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Book review: Sharmistha Saha, Theatre and National Identity in Colonial
           India: Formation of a Community Through Cultural Practice

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      Authors: Preeti Kalra
      Pages: 142 - 144
      Abstract: Society and Culture in South Asia, Volume 8, Issue 1, Page 142-144, January 2022.
      Sharmistha Saha, Theatre and National Identity in Colonial India: Formation of a Community Through Cultural Practice. Aakar Books, Delhi, 2018, 253 pp., ₹695.00 (hardback), ISBN: 978-93-5002A-523-9.
      Citation: Society and Culture in South Asia
      PubDate: 2022-01-21T01:29:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23938617211032329
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Book review: Wendy Doniger, The Ring of Truth and Other Myths of Sex and
           Jewelry

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      Authors: Ankita Chakrabarty
      Pages: 144 - 147
      Abstract: Society and Culture in South Asia, Volume 8, Issue 1, Page 144-147, January 2022.
      Wendy Doniger, The Ring of Truth and Other Myths of Sex and Jewelry. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2017. 424 pp., ₹413, ISBN: 978-0-19-026711-7
      Citation: Society and Culture in South Asia
      PubDate: 2022-01-21T01:30:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23938617211040330
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Book review: Anil Kumar (Ed.), Women, Gender, and Justice: Issues and
           Perspectives

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      Authors: Abhiruchi Ojha
      Pages: 147 - 149
      Abstract: Society and Culture in South Asia, Volume 8, Issue 1, Page 147-149, January 2022.
      Anil Kumar (Ed.), Women, Gender, and Justice: Issues and Perspectives. Delhi: Pragati Publications, 2019, xxiv + 248 pp., ₹895, ISBN: 978-81-7307-176-8.
      Citation: Society and Culture in South Asia
      PubDate: 2022-01-21T01:31:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23938617211040334
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Book review: Awadhendra Sharan, Dust and Smoke: Air Pollution and Colonial
           Urbanism, India, c.1860-c.1940

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      Authors: Anuja Dutta
      Pages: 149 - 151
      Abstract: Society and Culture in South Asia, Volume 8, Issue 1, Page 149-151, January 2022.
      Awadhendra Sharan, Dust and Smoke: Air Pollution and Colonial Urbanism, India, c.1860-c.1940. New Delhi: Orient BlackSwan Private Limited, 2020, ix+319 pp., ₹795. ISBN 9789390122868.
      Citation: Society and Culture in South Asia
      PubDate: 2022-01-21T01:30:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23938617211047749
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Book review: J. Daniel Elam, Impossible and Necessary: Anticolonialism,
           Reading, and Critique

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      Authors: Rohan Basu
      Pages: 151 - 153
      Abstract: Society and Culture in South Asia, Volume 8, Issue 1, Page 151-153, January 2022.
      J. Daniel Elam, Impossible and Necessary: Anticolonialism, Reading, and Critique. Hyderabad: Orient Blackswan, 2021, 212 pp., ₹895, ISBN: 9788194925835
      Citation: Society and Culture in South Asia
      PubDate: 2022-01-21T01:31:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23938617211057312
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Book review: Prathama Banerjee, Elementary Aspects of the Political:
           Histories from the Global South

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      Authors: Wriddhibrata Saha
      Pages: 154 - 156
      Abstract: Society and Culture in South Asia, Volume 8, Issue 1, Page 154-156, January 2022.
      Prathama Banerjee, Elementary Aspects of the Political: Histories from the Global South. Hyderabad: Orient BlackSwan, 2021. 284 pp., ₹625, ISBN: 9789354420023.
      Citation: Society and Culture in South Asia
      PubDate: 2022-01-21T01:31:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23938617211057311
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Agonistic Terms of Peace in Kashmir: Kashmiriyat, Distributive Politics
           and Islam

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      Authors: Rayees Ahmad Dar
      Abstract: Society and Culture in South Asia, Ahead of Print.
      Kashmiriyat as a peculiar secular formation posits Rishi tradition as central to Islam in Kashmir. However, the dialectical process of Islamic acculturation also led the Muslim identity in Kashmir to disentangle itself from any essential association with it. The article, thus, argues that Kashmiriyat alone cannot underpin any inclusive notion of democracy in Kashmir. In so far as Kashmiriyat is concerned with the religious orthodoxy implicated in subversion and violence, it is argued that religious orthodoxy, irrespective of its sociopolitical implications, being the only mode of social representation of religion cannot be eliminated in any ultimate sense. Nevertheless, it is the social antagonism that makes any religious orthodoxy to emerge, transform and ultimately face its own contingency. Thus, more than any narrative of harmony and co-existence surrounding Kashmiriyat, it is the democratic space reflective of the underlying sociopolitical antagonisms that can channelise orthodoxy in a socially productive manner. The article also highlights that the process of socio-economic development in Kashmir (referred to here as ‘distributive politics’) straddles different discourses and mainly enhances the discursive depth of the narrative in power.
      Citation: Society and Culture in South Asia
      PubDate: 2022-07-28T07:50:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23938617221105578
       
  • Contradictions in Nation-Building: The Story of the Kandyans

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      Authors: Hasimi Lecamwasam
      Abstract: Society and Culture in South Asia, Ahead of Print.
      The evolution of the ‘Kandyans’ of Sri Lanka, now considered a (culturally distinct) part of the country’s Sinhala majority, presents an intriguing puzzle. Even though they currently very much identify with the nationalist imagination and unitary state project of the greater Sinhala collectivity, they were historically the first in the island to forward a federal demand. As such, inquiring into how the Kandyans found it possible to integrate, politico-ideologically as much as materially, to the majority polity promises to be a worthy pursuit. It is even more intriguing when one considers the retention of their cultural distinction from other Sinhalese, notwithstanding politico-ideological integration. In seeking answers to this puzzle, the present study reveals that the plantation economy, administrative restructuring of the island and the choice of Buddhism as the exemplification of the cultural identity of Sri Lanka have been instrumental in the formation as well as subsequent dilution of the Kandyan identity over time. In this equation, the colonial intervention ironically has been crucial in marking the distinction of Kandy’s identity, and—rather unwittingly—its later integration with the larger Sinhala polity as well.
      Citation: Society and Culture in South Asia
      PubDate: 2022-07-04T05:35:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23938617221105641
       
  • ‘We Are Victims of Genocide’: Struggle for Survival and Dignity Among
           the Rohingya Refugees in Bangladesh

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      Authors: Saiful Huq Omi
      Abstract: Society and Culture in South Asia, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Society and Culture in South Asia
      PubDate: 2022-07-01T11:31:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23938617221099602
       
  • Humayun Azad and the Contemporary Relevance of His Writings for the
           Bangladeshi Youth

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      Authors: Asmaul Husna
      Abstract: Society and Culture in South Asia, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Society and Culture in South Asia
      PubDate: 2022-06-29T09:54:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23938617221099532
       
  • ‘Once Upon a Time in the Land of Grave-Holes’: Cheran’s
           Poetry in Sri Lanka

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      Authors: Anushiya Ramaswamy
      Abstract: Society and Culture in South Asia, Ahead of Print.
      My essay looks at the Sri Lankan-born Tamil poet Cheran Rudhramoorthy’s recent poetry collections, Ajnar (‘Trauma’, 2018) and Tinai Mayakkam allathu Nenjodu Killarthal (‘Binary Overlapping or Struggles with the Heart’, 2019). Published almost a decade after the final war—the massacre of Sri Lankan Tamils by the state’s armed forces at Mullivaikal on 18 May 2009—these poems provide a searing counter-narrative to the official justifications. The finality of what took place at Mullivaikal, when what seemed like all the powers of the world had conspired to draw the 30-year Tamil militancy to an end, has provided Sri Lankan Tamils with a historical moment tied to a specific locus.2 The Ajnar and Tinai Mayakkam poems present Cheran as a poet for the dispossessed. These poems with their split movements between the homeland and new snowscapes erase the borders between the refuges of the diaspora and a lost island.Cheran’s poems and other writings—on grief, love, land and exile—are made amid unimaginable state-sponsored violence against minority bodies. In this essay, I provide a historico-cultural background in terms of the various discourses that were coming into prominence in the 1960s and 1970s as Cheran came of age—for instance, the remnants of colonial racism that provided the impetus to a post-independence nationalism, a thriving literary caste-driven Saivism, and the manifestation of an authoritarian state apparatus and its militant opposition.
      Citation: Society and Culture in South Asia
      PubDate: 2022-06-26T08:10:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23938617221099534
       
  • Poetic Imagining(s) in South Asia: Writing Nation Through Sensibilities of
           Resistance

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      Authors: Mallika Shakya
      Abstract: Society and Culture in South Asia, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Society and Culture in South Asia
      PubDate: 2022-06-26T08:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23938617221101931
       
  • Book review: Ethiraj Gabriel Dattatreyan, The Globally Familiar: Digital
           Hip Hop, Masculinity and Urban Space in Delhi

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      Authors: Vinay Brandon
      Abstract: Society and Culture in South Asia, Ahead of Print.
      Ethiraj Gabriel Dattatreyan, The Globally Familiar: Digital Hip Hop, Masculinity and Urban Space in Delhi. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2020. xiii + 250 pp., US$25.95 (paper), ISBN: 978-1-4780; US$99.95 (cloth), ISBN: 978-1-4780-1015-9; US$26.50 (electronic), ISBN: 978-1-4780-1015-0.
      Citation: Society and Culture in South Asia
      PubDate: 2022-06-26T08:08:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23938617221100597
       
  • Book review: Nicholas H. A. Evans, Far from the Caliph’s Gaze: Being
           Ahmadi Muslim in the Holy City of Qadian

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      Authors: Suhail Ahmed
      Abstract: Society and Culture in South Asia, Ahead of Print.
      Nicholas H. A. Evans, Far from the Caliph’s Gaze: Being Ahmadi Muslim in the Holy City of Qadian (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2020), 240 pp. US$125, ISBN: 9781501715686 (Hardback).
      Citation: Society and Culture in South Asia
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T04:52:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23938617221098258
       
  • Subversive Narratives of Borders and Nations: A Reading of Debendranath
           Acharya’s Jangam and Amitav Ghosh’s The Glass Palace

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      Authors: Lakhipriya Gogoi
      Abstract: Society and Culture in South Asia, Ahead of Print.
      The proposed paper studies the narratives of ‘borders’ and ‘nations’ on the border lands between India and Burma invoking two works of fiction written in Assamese and English respectively. Jangam (1982) an Assamese novel by Debendranath Acharya is read with The Glass Palace (2000) by Amitav Ghosh to study the stateless lives of people who become victims of operative forces controlling the exclusionary lines of border and nation. Set on the backdrop of World War II, both the novels address the ramifications of border and nation in the lives of common people. They probe less explored geography of the Indo-Burmese border and the ebbs and flows during the colonial and post-colonial times. Popular representations depicting this particular geography have remained elusive, comparing for example, the Indo-Pakistan border. It is argued that the historical narratives of cross border migrations in the colonial times can be reviewed through regional writers’ expressions about home and homelessness. The fixity of borders and the consequent realisations of belonging to a nation for both the Indian migrants in Burma and their counterparts in India not only call for fluidity in the way home and homelessness are understood, but also are read against the temporal re-imaginings of national identities. Exploring beyond the historical records of such episodes, these works of fiction offer nuanced and poignant picture of what politics does to everyday human life. The contorted lives of migrants crossing these contested borders suggest that borders are sites of negotiations where ideas of nation and nationalism are constantly interrogated and ideas of ‘insider/outsider’ and ‘home/world’ are redefined.
      Citation: Society and Culture in South Asia
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T04:30:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23938617221098261
       
  • Women Writing Poetry in Afghanistan: A Conversation with Raha Azar

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      Authors: Habib Farzad
      Abstract: Society and Culture in South Asia, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Society and Culture in South Asia
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T05:47:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23938617221098813
       
  • Psycho-scapes: Fictionalising Nations and Nationalisation of the Self in
           Bilal Tanweer’s The Scatter Here Is Too Great

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      Authors: Ifrah Afzal
      Abstract: Society and Culture in South Asia, Ahead of Print.
      Bilal Tanweer’s debut novel, The Scatter Here Is Too Great, brings to forefront the metaphor for living in the Pakistani society and discusses what it means to be a nation through blending narratives imbibed in its social milieu. The fiction not only speaks of a nation wrought in a nationalist consciousness culturally, emotionally and aesthetically but also questions what it means to be separating the ‘world’ from ‘home’ and the ‘self’ from the ‘nation’ itself. Through the representation of the private psycho-scape, the ‘I’, Tanweer captures the scattered imaginings of various identities into a national domain. The novel is explored through several features of conscious interiority, mind words and metaphorical mental idioms where the characters are ‘introceived’ through poetic examination of internal organs such as the heart, eye and mind which ironically have become a part of the scattered clutter outside like the body parts after a violent explosion. In an interview, Tanweer agrees that, ‘When you visit a country, you actually visit a city. You rarely visit a country’ (Rehman, Interview by Bilal Tanweer, 2018). For him, the cityscape of Karachi becomes the microcosm of a maelstrom whose macrocosm significantly is Pakistan. His literary craft rejects monolithism and weaves through sensibilities among the lowest strata of the society to portray a conundrum which becomes the final representation of his nation.
      Citation: Society and Culture in South Asia
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T05:46:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23938617221098271
       
  • Challenging the Romance of the Techno/Metropolis: The Social Critique of
           the ‘City’ in Zac O’Yeah’s Crime Trilogy

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      Authors: Somdatta Bhattacharya, Navami T. S.
      Abstract: Society and Culture in South Asia, Ahead of Print.
      Following the American discovery of the high concentration of skilled IT professionals in Bengaluru, the Karnataka Government announced its IT policies in the late 1990s which changed the city from a placid ‘pensioners’ paradise’ to the bustling ‘Silicon Valley of India’. With almost an explosion of disruptive changes, the topography and the demography of the city both saw a dramatic transformation. The ‘Mr Majestic Trilogy’ (2012–2017) by Zac O’Yeah is a crime-detection series set in post-millennial Bengaluru. The current paper argues that it is possible to read this crime novel series as a social critique of the changing (social) spaces and interactions in the city, albeit these are represented with humour and light-heartedness in his novels. The paper seeks to read the novels as representing the specificities of the urban experience in this global South Asian city, and as bringing to the fore the dialectics of space and spatiality, especially as it embraces a neoliberal wave of globalisation. It looks at the narratives’ engagement with various aspects of urban experience, including crime and migration, and also investigates the network of relationships that the novels explore in their depiction of the urban/hinterlands duality. For its purposes, the paper borrows insights from theorists of space and urbanity.
      Citation: Society and Culture in South Asia
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T12:12:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23938617221098315
       
  • Book review: Yogesh Snehi and Lallan S. Baghel (Eds.), Modernity and
           Changing Social Fabric of Punjab and Haryana

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      Authors: Radha Kapuria
      Abstract: Society and Culture in South Asia, Ahead of Print.
      Yogesh Snehi and Lallan S. Baghel (Eds.), Modernity and Changing Social Fabric of Punjab and Haryana (Shimla and Delhi: Indian Institute of Advanced Study and Primus Books, 2018); 453 pp. ₹1,295. ISBN: 978-93-86552-98-3.
      Citation: Society and Culture in South Asia
      PubDate: 2022-05-30T10:54:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23938617221098276
       
  • Book review: Dwaipayan Banerjee, Enduring Cancer: LIFE, DEATH and
           Diagnosis in Delhi

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      Authors: Hardik Dua
      Abstract: Society and Culture in South Asia, Ahead of Print.
      Dwaipayan Banerjee, Enduring Cancer: LIFE, DEATH and Diagnosis in Delhi (Durham: Duke University Press, 2020), 240 pp. US$25.95, ISBN: 9781478012214 (eBook).
      Citation: Society and Culture in South Asia
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T08:23:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23938617221098273
       
  • The Melody of Universalism: Political Thought in Rabindra Sangeet

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      Authors: Sucharita Sen
      Abstract: Society and Culture in South Asia, Ahead of Print.
      This article searches for Tagore’s political thought by an analysis of his songs. Existing literature has largely focussed on Tagore’s novels, letters, poems and short stories to understand his political vision. In this article, I argue that in tandem with his literary compositions, Tagore’s musical creations also have the potential to shed much light on his political thought. A keen observer of social upheavals, Tagore aimed to resolve the specific problems which were paralysing the Bengal of his times. So emerged his songs promoting Hindu–Muslim unity, India’s composite culture and spiritual regeneration of the human soul. Beneath these apparently different themes, there remained an urge for universalism, fraternity and unity which was abound in his musical expositions. This article deconstructs Tagore’s songs to analyse their meaning and their relation to the wider contemporary cultural ambience. The political thought of Tagore, as reflected in his songs, however, should not be interpreted independent of and abstracted from his literary contributions. This article, therefore, situates his songs in the ongoing discourse on Tagore’s political thought, alongside his stories, poems and novels.
      Citation: Society and Culture in South Asia
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T05:25:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23938617221080439
       
  • Remembering the Present: Maps, Identity and Memory in Naga Politics

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      Authors: Ilito H. Achumi
      Abstract: Society and Culture in South Asia, Ahead of Print.
      The article maps the changes in the geographies, political ideologies and splintered identities that has brought about uncertainty in the assumed homogenous category ‘Naga identity’. It investigates the influence of geographies in the ideological dilemmas and political engagements of the Nagas, and discusses how collective memory, nostalgias, desires and emotions tied to the Naga’s past implicates upon the conceptualisations of Naga identity. The article maps the collective memory of the World Wars, 1947, 1963 and how these remembering impacts upon the identity politics of the Nagas. Collective remembering and forgetting plays a pivotal role in the identification processes of their genealogies, brotherhood and clans. Today, the geo-body of Nagaland and its geographical division into central, eastern and western reflects the present political alliances of the Nagas. Naga’s political alliances and formations of Eastern Naga People’s Organisation, Tenyimia Nagas and Central Nagaland Tribes Council is a clear case of reconstructing political identity along the culture and geographies of Naga society. Discussions on the political life of the Nagas post 1947 and after 1963, the birth of a new state and post 1990s, brings out the compelling inter-linkages of Naga identity, Culture, Politics, Geography and collective memory.
      Citation: Society and Culture in South Asia
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T07:44:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23938617221076174
       
  • Clapping Along or Clapping Back: Of the Discourse of Hijra Community’s
           Resilient Happiness in Y-Film’s Hum Hain Happy

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      Authors: Prerna Subramanian
      Abstract: Society and Culture in South Asia, Ahead of Print.
      Eva Illouz, whilst discussing her text Manufacturing Happy Citizens in an interview, points out that happiness in a neoliberal economy has become a way to measure our self-worth especially as it is individualised. Being happy, thus, means to be able to strive despite the odds and yet be optimistic: to be happy in a neoliberal setup is to be resilient. Indeed, resilience means bouncing back and putting your best foot forward in the gravest of circumstances, showing strength when things are against you: to be happy despite the odds. Keeping this aspect of resilience in mind, this essay is interested in broaching a more specific question: what happens when a structurally marginalised group is called resilient—when value of the group is solely located in its capacity to bounce back and remain within and not resist status-quo' The structurally marginalised group I will be referring to is the hijra community in India and I will discuss the idea of happiness in a video produced by Y films, the youth division of one of India’s biggest film production houses: Yash Raj films. The music video produced in 2016 is named ‘Hum Hain Happy (We are happy)’, a Hindi rendition of Pharrell William’s famous song of the same name, features six hijra community members from the city of Mumbai. The essay here offers a ‘friendly critique’ of the video’s efforts towards mainstreaming trans inclusion in representational practices which romanticise the struggle of the marginalised by valorising resilience as an inspirational response to systemic inequality. My critique, thus, does not invalidate representational practices in total but calls for looking at the dominant logics through which such representation is rendered possible. In so doing, I look at how the video’s narrative serves to quell collective resistance by translating individual resilience within status quo as happiness. On one hand, the makers of the video see the oppressed as valuable and respectable only in term of their resilient happiness and relatedly, by pedestalising this resilience as inspirational, essentialise/naturalise systemic inequalities and conditions of struggle. Anything that deters from this pedestal then is naturally seen as a negative response and not aspirational/inspirational. The essay first contextualises the video in the contemporary conditions of transgender rights in India and then proceeds to analyse its content regarding the narrative of resilience which obscures the conditions of transgender struggles in India, while elevating their positive attitude as inspirational, effectively obscuring the realities and possibilities of righteous rage and resistance.
      Citation: Society and Culture in South Asia
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T05:17:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23938617221076181
       
  • Buddhist Reformist Movement in Sri Lanka under the British Rule:
           Manufacturing of ‘Buddhist-Modern’ Subjects

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      Authors: Anushka Kahandagamage
      Abstract: Society and Culture in South Asia, Ahead of Print.
      The Buddhist reformist movement of nineteenth century Sri Lanka was a composite of wealth and the knowledge of the emerging local middle-class. The new middle class owned trades and industries, which facilitated the vast colonial economy. The Buddhist reformist movement, constituted of the new middle class, was engaged in manufacturing Buddhist-modern subjects to fill the emerging need for the modern labour force. The movement established regulated institutions—schools, industrial schools, work plants—which produced docile bodies. The movement created an ideology through a plethora of publications both in local and English language to sustain the forming socio-economic structures. The reformist movement crawled into the spaces where surveillance is difficult and started changing those spaces and people according to the new market structures. New ‘scientific’ institutional models from the West were introduced to the island, fusing them with Buddhism. The new elites empowered with wealth were searching for power, in local entities, where the caste was still prominent, and in the British spaces, where the race was prominent. Against this background, the growing middle class devised a governing mechanism that could be acceptable by both Western and local groups—making of Buddhist modern subjects.
      Citation: Society and Culture in South Asia
      PubDate: 2022-03-14T12:18:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23938617221076180
       
  • Is Tribe a Homogeneous Category' Evidence From Tripura in North-East
           India

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      Authors: Saqib Khan
      Abstract: Society and Culture in South Asia, Ahead of Print.
      Anthropological–sociological studies since the colonial period in India largely saw tribes as homogeneous, unchanging and undifferentiated groups which were free from conflicts or exploitation. This article critiques this notion of tribe and shows heterogeneity within tribes through an analysis of the social history of Tripura in the north-east region of India and mass movement of tribal organisations like the Ganamukti Parishad therein in the late 1940s, 1950s and 1960s. As a princely State, Tripura showed the presence of socio-economic exploitation and contradiction between social strata in the second half of nineteenth century. In the late 1940s, the GMP formulated a notion of tribe that intersected the categories of peasant and class. It was the result of this formulation that class unity between tribal and non-tribal (Bengali) peasantry was an important pivot in its mass movement during this period. In addition, the development of landed class among Tripura tribes over the last few decades is a new and important feature of the state’s agrarian structure, and was further proof of the development of socio-economic heterogeneity within tribes. This article, thus, argues for a dynamic notion of tribe that changes with time and has close linkages with other categories like peasant and class.
      Citation: Society and Culture in South Asia
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T09:25:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23938617221076175
       
 
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