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  Subjects -> ANTHROPOLOGY (Total: 398 journals)
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Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.375
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 16  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0165-005X - ISSN (Online) 1573-076X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2468 journals]
  • Hallucinations and Hallucinogens: Psychopathology or Wisdom'

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      Abstract: Hallucinations are currently associated almost exclusively with psychopathological states. While it is evident that hallucinations can indicate psychopathology or neurological disorders, we should remember that hallucinations also commonly occur in people without any signs of psychopathology. A similar case occurs in the case of hallucinogenic drugs, which have been long associated with psychopathology and insanity. However, during the last decades a huge body of research has shown that certain kinds of hallucinations, exerted by hallucinogenic drugs, may serve to improve mental health. We propose that, in light of historical, epidemiological, and scientific research, hallucinations can be better characterized as a common phenomenon associated sometimes with psychopathology but also with functional and even beneficial outcomes. In the last sections of the manuscript, we extend our argument, suggesting that hallucinations can offer a via regia to knowledge of the mind and the world. This radical shift in the cultural interpretation of hallucinations could have several implications for fields such as drug policy, civil law, and psychiatry, as well as for the stigma associated with mental disorders.
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
       
  • Minding our Minds: Obsessive-Compulsiveness, Psychiatry, and Psychology

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      Abstract: Obsessive–compulsive features are commonly found in high-achieving people including psychiatrists, psychologists, and scientists. These traits have a substantial but unrecognized cultural influence on psychiatric and psychological science and practice. This article reviews obsessive–compulsive mechanisms and discusses the ways they both promote and impede psychiatric and psychological science and practice. It examines them in relation to two of the dominant psychiatric and psychological paradigms of our era, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM), and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Finally, the article suggests that better awareness of our collective obsessive–compulsive tendencies can facilitate a cultural shift toward a broader, more useful science of mind and brain, as well as therapies informed by more comprehensive scientific understanding.
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
       
  • The New ICD-11 Prolonged Grief Disorder Guidelines in Japan: Findings and
           Implications from Key Informant Interviews

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      Abstract: Prolonged grief disorder (PGD) is a new mental health disorder, recently introduced in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), World Health Organization Classification of Diseases (WHO). The new ICD-11 guidelines reflect an emerging wave of interest in the global applicability of mental disorders. However, the selection of diagnostic core features in different cultural contexts has yet to be determined. Currently, there is debate in the field over the global applicability of these guidelines. Using semi-structured interviews with 14 key informants, we explored the acceptability of ICD-11 guidelines for PGD according to Japanese health professionals as key informants. The interviews revealed symptoms of grief possibly missing in the ICD-11 PGD guidelines including somatization and concepts such as hole in the heart. Additionally, sociocultural barriers such as stigma and beliefs about the social desirability of emotions may challenge patients’ and clinicians’ acceptance of the new ICD-11 criteria.
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
       
  • Does “Susto” Really Exist' Indigenous Knowledge and Fright Disorders
           Among Q’eqchi’ Maya in Belize

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      Abstract: Susto is one of the most common disorders referenced in the medical anthropological and cultural psychiatric literature. This article questions if “susto” as understood in cultural psychiatric terms, especially in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM), is in fact a single “cultural concept of distress.” There is extensive cross-cultural and intracultural variability regarding fright-related disorders in the ethnographic literature. What is often labeled “susto” may be in reality a variety of distinct disorders, or lacking in the two signature components found in the cultural psychiatric literature: the existence of a “fright,” and subsequent soul loss. There has been significant polysemic and geographical drift in the idiom label, the result of colonialism in Mesoamerica, which has overlayed but not necessarily supplanted local knowledge. Using data from fifteen years of research with Q’eqchi’ (Maya) healers and their patients, we demonstrate how important variability in signs, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of fright-related disorders renders any simple declaration that this is a singular “susto” problematic. We argue for a careful consideration of the knowledge of Indigenous medical specialists charged with treating fright-related disorders and against the inclination to view variability as insignificant. Such consideration suggests that Indigenous forms of fright-related disorder are not susto as presented commonly in the DSM and cultural psychiatric literature.
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
       
  • “Guys with Big Muscles Have Misplaced Priorities”: Masculinities and
           Muscularities in Young South Korean Men’s Body Image

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      Abstract: Men’s body image is an issue of increasing importance as related illnesses continue to grow in prevalence around the world. However, cross-cultural attention to men’s body image experiences has been relatively understudied. Based on data derived from cognitive anthropological methods of cultural domain analysis, I develop the concept of “muscularities” to more effectively examine the expectations inherent in multifarious models of body image men continuously navigate. Related to but distinct from “masculinities”—the recognition of culture-bound hierarchies of ways of doing-being a man—“muscularities” attends to the culturally particular ways in which muscles are conceived and evaluated as indices of socioeconomic status, intelligence, social skills, and professionalism, to name a few. Young South Korean men’s experiences of chan’gŭnyuk (“small muscle”) and manŭn kŭnyuk (“large muscle”) challenge universalist assumptions about the kinds of muscles people value in global perspective, demonstrate the necessity of recognizing multiple muscularities in research, and encourage new directions of inquiry that attend to the consequences of variable embodiments of muscularities.
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
       
  • Spirit Mediumship and Mental Health: Therapeutic Self-transformation Among
           Dang-kis in Singapore

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      Abstract: While some early studies suggested that spirit mediums were psychiatrically ill individuals who found a culturally sanctioned role, subsequent work has found that they are generally in good physical and mental health. While the calling to be a healer often involves an initiatory illness, practitioners go on to play demanding social roles, suggesting that involvement in mediumship may be therapeutic for the practitioner. This study focuses on dang-ki healing, a form of Chinese spirit mediumship practiced in Singapore to explore whether participation in dang-ki healing is therapeutic for the mediums. We interviewed eight dang-kis from five temples about their life trajectories and assessed their mental health status with standardized psychological questionnaires. Most of the dang-kis did not appear to suffer from clinically significant emotional distress. Their narratives suggest that involvement in dang-ki mediumship may have therapeutic effects in which the embodied experience of self plays a central role. The dang-kis experienced changes in social identity, bodily experiences during spirit possession, and their overall sense of self through recurrent possession rituals. In general, the practice of spirit mediumship illustrates how the experiences and meanings of the self are constructed and reconstructed through body-world relations in ways that may confer a sense of wellness and social efficacy.
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
       
  • The Cultural Hybridization of Mothering in French Prison Nurseries: A
           Qualitative Study

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      Abstract: In France, women can be incarcerated during pregnancy and can keep their babies with them in prison up to the age of 18 months. The small number of nurseries in France and their unequal geographic distribution as well as the high percentage of foreign prisoners often result in women's isolation from their usual cultural environment. Family members and cultural community play a crucial role in the process of mothering. The aim of this study is to explore through these mothers’ narratives how they experience the cultural aspects of this process in the prison environment. We conducted semi-structured interviews to collect the experience of 25 mothers and 5 pregnant women in 13 different prison nurseries in France and used interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore the data. Four different themes emerged: prison: repression of cultural practices, prison: a culture of its own, loss of traditional culture, and cultural hybridization. The specific environmental architecture and operating rules in prison nurseries may induce acute repression regarding cultural ways of mothering. Considering both cultural permeability specific to the peripartum period during which women tend to more easily embrace cultural aspects from their environment, and family distance which restrains cultural transmission, these mothers gather multiple factors of vulnerability for full prisonization, as a form of forced assimilation to prison culture. But a sort of specific hybrid prison culture around motherhood seems to emerge instead, in a process similar to creolization.
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
       
  • Senses of Touch: The Absence and Presence of Touch in Health Care
           Encounters of Patients with Mental Illness

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      Abstract: Touch is a fundamental sense and the most unexplored of the five senses, despite its significance for everything we do in relation to ourselves and others. Studies have shown that touch generates trust, care and comfort and is essential for constituting the body. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, this study explores the absence and presence of touch in interactions between people with mental illness and professionals, in health care encounters with general practitioners, neurologists and physiotherapists, as well as masseurs. We found that touch and physical examination of patients with mental illness is absent in health care encounters, leaving the patients with feelings of being out of place, misunderstood, less socially approved and less worthy of trust. Drawing on Honneth and Guenther, we conclude that touch and being touched is an essential dimension of recognition—both of the patients’ bodily sensations and symptoms and of them as human beings, detached from the psychiatric label—as well as contributing to the constitution of self and personhood. These findings confirm that touch works as an existential hinge that affirms a connection between the patient, the body and others and gives a sense of time, space and existence.
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
       
  • Breathing Together: Children Co-constructing Asthma Self-Management in the
           United States

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      Abstract: Pediatric asthma management in the U.S. is primarily oriented around caregivers. As evident in policy, clinical literature and provider practices, this caregiver-centric approach assumes unidirectional transfer of practices and knowledge within particular relational configurations of physicians, caregivers, and children. Reflecting broader societal values and hierarchies, children are positioned as passive recipients of care, as apprentices for future citizenship, and as the responsibility of parents who will train them in the knowledge and labor of asthma management. These ideas, though sometimes contradictory, contribute to a systemic marginalization of children as participants in their health care, leaving a conceptual gap regarding children’s inclusion in chronic illness management: what children’s roles in their health care are or should be. We address this conceptual gap by asking, what does pediatric asthma management look like when we center children, rather than caregivers in our lens' We draw data from a study of asthma management in St. Louis, Missouri, and Gainesville, Florida, which included 41 caregivers, 24 children, and 12 health-care providers. By asking children to show us how they manage asthma, we find that children actively co-construct health practices within broader interdependencies of care and the structural constraints of childhoods.
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
       
  • Food and Trauma: Anthropologies of Memory and Postmemory

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      Abstract: Much has been written about the multifaceted significance of food and eating from an anthropological perspective; the same can be said about the role of food in collective identity construction and nation building. In contrast, the nexus of food, memory, psychological trauma, and disordered eating has been less explored. The aim of this interdisciplinary article is to synthesize available knowledge on this topic by engaging with research literature in fields such as food history, anthropology, sociology, and psychiatry as well as autobiographical works, cookbooks, etc. One main section of the article focuses on the role of food and cooking in exile and refuge. Another section deals with the role of food in the aftermath of historical trauma, whereas a final section discusses various works on disordered eating in the wake of traumatic experiences. In sum, the dual nature of food and cooking—at once concrete and abstract, material and symbolic—offers an arena in which ambivalent memories of trauma can take on tangible form. The concept of postmemory may be useful in understanding how food and cooking can function both as a vehicle and as a remedy for intergenerational trauma.
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
       
  • Experiences of Mothers Who Relinquished Their Child for Adoption in
           Pakistan: A Qualitative Study

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      Abstract: The literature suggests long-term consequences and lack of support for birthmothers following relinquishment of their child for adoption (Memarnia in Listening to the experience of birth mothers whose children have been taken into care or adopted, 2014). But there was not any work done to study in-depth experiences of birthmothers after giving away their child in Pakistan. So, the purpose of the present study was to explore the experiences of mothers who relinquished their child for adoption. As the present study was intended to explore lived experiences of a particular group, the phenomenological research design was used to conduct this qualitative study. An interview protocol was devised to explore the experiences of birthmothers. The sample was comprised of five birthmothers who relinquished their child for adoption and fulfilled the criteria. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the birthmothers, and all the interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed before analysis. Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to interpret the transcripts of interviews. Further, data verification was done through peer scrutiny, by debriefing sessions with the supervisor, and enriches the description of the phenomenon. Four main themes were emerged: Reasons to Relinquish, Psychological Distress, Coping Strategies, and Disenfranchised Grief. The study present that the experience of relinquishment has a negative impact on birthmother and highlights the need for proper measures to regulate the process of adoption and involvement of psychologists during the process of adoption. Moreover, it stresses the need for acknowledgment of the experience and psychological services for birthmothers who relinquish their child.
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
       
  • ‘The High Five Club’: Social Relations and Perspectives on HIV-Related
           Stigma During an HIV Outbreak in West Virginia

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      Abstract: In the United States, HIV outbreaks are occurring in areas most affected by the opioid epidemic, including West Virginia (WV). Cultural Theory contends that multiple cultures co-exist within societies distinguished by their differing intensities of rules or norms of behavior (‘grid’) or degree of group allegiance/individual autonomy (‘group’). Accordingly, we would expect that perceptions about HIV, including stigma, correspond with individuals’ grid/group attributes. To explore this, we conducted qualitative interviews with people who inject drugs (PWID) recruited from a WV syringe service program. This paper focuses on our unexpected findings on stigma during a coinciding HIV outbreak. PWID living homeless identified as belonging to a ‘street family’. Its members were mutually distrustful and constrained by poverty and drug dependence but despite their conflicts, reported openness between each other about HIV + status. Interviewees living with HIV perceived little enacted stigma from peers since the local outbreak. Contrasting stigmatizing attitudes were attributed to the town’s mainstream society. The ‘High Five’ (Hi-V) Club, expressing defiance towards stigmatizing behavior outside the street family, epitomized the tensions between a desire for solidary and mutual support and a fatalistic tendency towards division and distrust. Fatalism may hinder cooperation, solidarity and HIV prevention but may explain perceived reductions in stigma.
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
       
  • “As Long as I Got a Breath in My Body”: Risk and Resistance in
           Black Maternal Embodiment

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      Abstract: “Mothering while black” in Cleveland, Ohio is a radical act. This highly segregated, highly unequal urban environment is replete with the chronic stressors that degrade well-being and diminish survival for Black mothers and their infants; specifically, a maternal mortality rate two and a half times that of their white counterparts and an infant mortality rate nearly three times that of infants born to white mothers. In the midst of such tragedy and disadvantage, Black mothers strive to love and care for their children in ways that mitigate the toxicity of structural racism. The seventeen pregnant and postpartum Black women in this ethnographic study describe transformational experiences with what we label “betterment:” whereby they center their children’s perspective and needs, reconsider their social networks, and focus on the future with an unflinching understanding of the constraints of structural racism. Locating betterment alongside other examples of maternal embodiment and through the rich theoretical lens of Black feminist scholars these participant narratives suggest that the toxic effects of racism and the means to resist them are embodied by Black mothers. A nuanced understanding of Black motherhood disrupts public discourses of blame and responsibility that obscure our collective duty to dismantle structural racism.
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
       
  • The Experience of Psychosis in Psychiatric Inpatients During the COVID-19
           Pandemic Among Unhoused Individuals

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      Abstract: This research investigates the impact of Coronavirus-2019 on individuals without housing and experiencing psychosis using semi-structured qualitative interviews and a case study format. We found that for our participants, life in the pandemic was generally more difficult and filled with violence. Further, the pandemic seemed to impact the content of psychosis directly, such that in some cases voices referred to politics around the virus. Being unhoused during the pandemic may increase the sense of powerlessness, social defeat, and the sense of failure in social interactions. Despite national and local measures to mitigate virus spread in unhoused communities, the pandemic seemed to be particularly hard on those who were unhoused. This research should support our efforts to see access to secure housing as a human rights issue.
      PubDate: 2023-05-28
       
  • “For Me, ‘Normality’ is Not Normal”: Rethinking Medical and
           Cultural Ideals of Midlife ADHD Diagnosis

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      Abstract: According to psychiatry, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition beginning in early life. Psychiatry advocates for early diagnosis to prevent comorbidities that may emerge in untreated cases. “Late”-diagnosis is associated with various hazards that might harm patients’ lives and society. Drawing on fieldwork in Israel, we found that ‘midlife-ADHDers,’ as our informants refer to themselves, express diverse experiences including some advantages of being diagnosed as adults rather than as children. They share what it means to experience “otherness” without an ADHD diagnosis and articulate how being diagnosed “late” detached them from medical and social expectations and allowed some to nurture a unique ill-subjectivity, develop personal knowledge, and invent therapeutic interventions. The timeframe that psychiatry conceives as harmful has been, for some, a springboard to find their own way. This case allows us to rethink ‘experiential time’—the meanings of timing and time when psychiatric discourse and subjective narratives intertwine.
      PubDate: 2023-05-06
       
  • Meaning in Psychosis: A Veteran’s Critique of the Traumas of Racism,
           Sexual Violence, and Intersectional Oppression

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      Abstract: This clinical case study presents the case of a Latina Veteran experiencing psychosis and draws on eclectic theoretical sources, including user/survivor scholarship, phenomenology, meaning-oriented cultural psychiatry & critical medical anthropology, and Frantz Fanon’s insight on ‘sociogeny,’ to emphasize the importance of attending to the meaning within psychosis and to ground that meaning in a person’s subjective-lived experience and social world. The process of exploring the meaning and critical significance of the narratives of people experiencing psychosis is important for developing empathy and connection, the fundamental prerequisite for developing trust and therapeutic rapport. It also helps us to recognize some of the relevant aspects of a person’s lived experiences. To be understood, this Veteran’s narratives must be contextualized in her past and ongoing life experience of racism, social hierarchy, and violence. Engaging in this way with her narratives pushes us towards a social etiology that conceptualizes psychosis as a complex response to life experience, and in her case, a critical embodiment of intersectional oppression.
      PubDate: 2023-05-03
       
  • Time in the State of Dementia Caregiving in South Korea: When Care Becomes
           (Non-)Waiting

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      Abstract: Exploring how time emerges as a central problem for lone family caregivers of people with dementia, this article draws attention to care as a way of being in time with others. In addition to active doings that are oriented toward achieving goods that have drawn much attention in recent anthropological discussion on care, care of an intimate other often entails the state of being for the caregiver on which another person’s way of being in the present heavily relies. Examining how time is experienced among caregivers who strive to live in the dyadic world of home-based dementia care in South Korea, I consider care as (non-)waiting both in the long term, anticipating the end of the state of caregiving, and in everyday life anticipating small and large fluctuations and interruptions. In the state of caregiving, time is experienced as tense, repetitive, and chronic, which needs to be endured in order for an intimate other to be within the family. Lone caregivers’ accounts of the overwhelming weight of care-time both allow and demand us to consider care as a way of being in time with the other, and attend to the experiences of lived time constituted by the difficult intersubjective relationship and its effects on the possibility of having a sense of the near future. This article calls for attention to caregiving as a state in which temporalization becomes challenging, if not impossible.
      PubDate: 2023-04-27
       
  • Corpses in Clinical Space and the Preposterous Temporality of Pandemic
           Care

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      Abstract: Articulations of the chasm between ideal and attainable forms of care surfacing throughout the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic have highlighted the proliferation of unceremonious deaths associated with inequitable conditions. This paper reconsiders the preposterous temporality of pandemic care by following corpses in and out of clinical space. Written from the perspective of a MD/PhD student’s encounter with a corpse replacing the patient on the medicine ward prior to pandemic onset, this paper asks how corpses might interrupt narratives of clinical care. Sifting through Eugène Ionesco’s 1954 play “Amédée,” Édouard Glissant’s rejection of the tragic heroine, Achille Mbembe’s positing of viscerality as autopsy, and David Marriott’s theorization of blackness as corpsing among other engagements, I conceptualize how corpses might refigure clinical spaces as preposterous realms wherein distinctions between a before and after falter. Considering the continuities between an apparent before and after, I argue that the contemporary concerns punctuating the pandemic as a unique period in time might not be as contemporary as they first appear. Taking cues from literary analysis and fictional works, I engage the corpse as a figure that prompts a rethinking of what might constitute ideal as well as failed care. I argue that corpses in clinical space signal a critique of the ideal narrative arc, one that centers the medical provider as heroine/hero in the midst of tragedy. Turning to the corpse as an interruptive figure, I ask what this dominant narrative might ultimately demand of its cast of characters—protégé, provider, and patient.
      PubDate: 2023-04-08
       
  • Living the Process: Examining the Continuum of Coercion and Care in
           Tijuana’s Community-Based Rehabilitation Centers

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      Abstract: In Mexico, community-based, non-biomedical treatment models for substance use are legally recognized in national drug policy, monitored by state-level Departments of Health, and in some cases publicly funded. Academic research on centers that utilize these forms of treatment have focused primarily on documenting their rapid spread and describing their institutional practices, particularly human rights abuses and lack of established biomedical efficacy. In Tijuana, these community-based therapeutic models are shaped by conceptions of health and illness from the local cultural context of the United States-Mexico border zone in ways that do not cleanly match western, biomedical notions of the illness “addiction.” In this article, I examine treatment ethics by exploring the contextually understood need for coerced treatment (i.e., why centers are locked) along with experiences of compulsion in a women’s 12 Step center. These discussions highlight the contested therapeutic value of coercion from multiple perspectives. Utilizing engaged listening around local care practices marks a path for global mental health researchers to understand and sit with difference in order to communicate across opposing viewpoints in the service of mental health equity and best care practices.
      PubDate: 2023-04-06
       
  • The Evolving Culture Concept in Psychiatric Cultural Formulation:
           Implications for Anthropological Theory and Psychiatric Practice

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      Abstract: For thirty years, psychiatrists and anthropologists have collaborated to improve the validity of psychiatric diagnosis. This collaboration has produced the DSM-IV Outline for Cultural Formulation (OCF) and the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI). Nonetheless, some anthropologists have critiqued the concept of culture in DSM-5 as too focused on patient meanings and not on clinician practices. This article traces the evolution of the culture concept from DSM-IV through DSM-5-TR by analyzing publications from the American Psychiatric Association on the OCF and CFI alongside scholarship in psychiatry and anthropology. DSM-IV relied on a culture concept of coherent ethnic communities sharing coherent cultures, primarily for minoritized ethnoracial individuals in the United States. Changing demographics and newer immigration patterns around the world deminoritized the culture concept for DSM-5. After George Floyd’s death and demands for social justice, the culture concept in DSM-5-TR emphasized social structures. The article proposes an intersubjective model of culture through which patients and clinicians work through similarities and differences. It recommends a revised formulation that attends to clinician practices such as communicating, diagnosing, recommending treatments, and documenting, beyond collecting patient meanings. It also raises the question of whether an intersubjective model of culture prompts reconsiderations of culture-related text in other sections of the DSM. The social sciences can redirect attention to the clinician’s culture of biomedicine to close patient health disparities.
      PubDate: 2023-03-24
       
 
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