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  Subjects -> ANTHROPOLOGY (Total: 398 journals)
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  • Dataset for a Laser Ultrasound System to Non-Invasively Measure
           Compression Waves in Granular Ice Mixes

    • Authors: James Christopher McCaslin et al.
      Abstract: Accurate knowledge of snow mechanical properties, including Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and density, is critical to many areas of snow science and to snow-related engineering problems. To facilitate the assessment of these properties, an innovative non-contacting laser ultrasound system (LUS) has been developed. This system acquires ultrasound waveform data at frequencies ranging from tens to hundreds of kHz in a controlled cold-lab environment. Two different LUS devices were compared in this study to determine which recorded more robust ultrasound in granular ice mix samples. We validated the ultrasound observations with poro-elastic traveltime modeling based on physical and empirical constitutive relationships, comparison to and replication of previous studies, and the use of other accredited snow property measurement systems, i.e., the SnowMicroPen. For ice mixes, we determined that the PSV-400 Scanning Vibrometer (Polytec GmbH) produces higher quality ultrasonic wavefield observations (i.e. has a better signal-to-noise ratio) than the VibroFlex Fiber Vibrometer (Polytec GmbH) in the lab conditions tested here. Using the PSV-400, we then demonstrate the utility of this new LUS to study the relationship between snow compression-wave speed and density during snow compaction experiments.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Feb 2024 09:10:00 PST
  • Exciton Delocalization in a Fully Synthetic DNA-Templated Bacteriochlorin

    • Authors: Olga A. Mass et al.
      Abstract: A bacteriochlorophyll a (Bchla) dimer is a basic functional unit in the LH1 and LH2 photosynthetic pigment–protein antenna complexes of purple bacteria, where an ordered, close arrangement of Bchla pigments—secured by noncovalent bonding to a protein template—enables exciton delocalization at room temperature. Stable and tunable synthetic analogs of this key photosynthetic subunit could lead to facile engineering of exciton-based systems such as in artificial photosynthesis, organic optoelectronics, and molecular quantum computing. Here, using a combination of synthesis and theory, we demonstrate that exciton delocalization can be achieved in a dimer of a synthetic bacteriochlorin (BC) featuring stability, high structural modularity, and spectral properties advantageous for exciton-based devices. The BC dimer was covalently templated by DNA, a stable and highly programmable scaffold. To achieve exciton delocalization in the absence of pigment–protein interactions critical for the Bchla dimer, we relied on the strong transition dipole moment in BC enabled by two auxochromes along the Qy transition, and omitting the central metal and isocyclic ring. The spectral properties of the synthetic “free” BC closely resembled those of Bchla in an organic solvent. Applying spectroscopic modeling, the exciton delocalization in the DNA-templated BC dimer was evaluated by extracting the excitonic hopping parameter, J to be 214 cm−1 (26.6 meV). For comparison, the same method applied to the natural protein-templated Bchla dimer yielded J of 286 cm−1 (35.5 meV). The smaller value of J in the BC dimer likely arose from the partial bacteriochlorin intercalation and the difference in medium effect between DNA and protein.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2024 10:21:40 PST
  • Nature's Best Hope (Lecture)

    • Authors: Douglas Tallamy
      Abstract: Recent headlines about global insect declines and three billion fewer birds in North America are a bleak reality check about how ineffective our current landscape designs have been at sustaining the plants and animals that sustain us. Such losses are not an option if we wish to continue our current standard of living on Planet Earth. The good news is that none of this is inevitable. Choosing the right plants for our landscapes will not only address the biodiversity crisis but help fight our climate crisis as well. Tallamy will discuss simple steps that each of us can - and must - take to reverse declining biodiversity, why we must change our adversarial relationship with nature to a collaborative one, and why we, ourselves, are nature’s best hope.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Feb 2024 17:29:44 PST
  • Mesic Vegetation Persistence: A New Approach for Monitoring Spatial and
           Temporal Changes in Water Availability in Dryland Regions Using Cloud
           Computing and the Sentinel and Landsat Constellations

    • Authors: Nawaraj Shrestha et al.
      Abstract: Climate change and anthropogenic activity pose severe threats to water availability in drylands. A better understanding of water availability response to these threats could improve our ability to adapt and mitigate climate and anthropogenic effects. Here, we present a Mesic Vegetation Persistence (MVP) workflow that takes every usable image in the Sentinel (10-m) and Landsat (30-m) archives to generate a dense time-series of water availability that is continuously updated as new images become available in Google Earth Engine. MVP takes advantage of the fact that mesic vegetation can be used as a proxy of available water in drylands. Our MVP workflow combines a novel moisture-based index (moisture change index - MCI) with a vegetation index (Modified Chlorophyll Absorption Ratio Vegetation Index (MCARI2)). MCI is the difference in soil moisture condition between an individual pixel's state and the dry and wet reference reflectance in the image, derived using 5th and 95th percentiles of the visible and shortwave infra-red drought index (VSDI). We produced and validated our MVP products across drylands of the western U.S., covering a broad range of elevation, land use, and ecoregions. MVP outperforms NDVI, a commonly-employed index for mesic ecosystem health, in both rangeland and forested ecosystems, and in mesic habitats with particularly high and low vegetation cover. We applied our MVP product at case study sites and found that MVP more accurately characterizes differences in mesic persistence, late-season water availability, and restoration success compared to NDVI. MVP could be applied as an indicator of change in a variety of contexts to provide a greater understanding of how water availability changes as a result of climate and management. Our MVP product for the western U.S. is freely available within a Google Earth Engine Web App, and the MVP workflow is replicable for other dryland regions.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Feb 2024 10:17:00 PST
  • A Jurassic Metamorphic-Anatectic Event in the Jiaodong Peninsula, Eastern

    • Authors: Lishuang Liu et al.
      Abstract: Migmatite, generated from anatexis or partial melting, links metamorphism with magmatism and can be used to investigate the source of magmas. Zircon and titanite, as refractory minerals in migmatite, can illuminate both the conditions of partial melting and the sources of associated granites. Mesozoic granitoids in the Jiaodong Peninsula, eastern China, have been studied extensively for their origins as partial melts of the lower continental crust. However, Jurassic metamorphism and partial melting of their hypothesized parent rocks have rarely been reported and discussed. In this study, we investigated the morphology, interior structure, U-Pb geochronology, and trace element compositions of zircon and titanite from diverse migmatites in the Yantai-Rushan area of the Jiaodong Peninsula. For leucosomes, inherited metamorphic and magmatic (or anatectic) zircon cores yield Paleoproterozoic ages, indicating a North China affinity; in contrast, anatectic zircon domains with high rare earth element concentrations show Jurassic ages of 160–154 Ma. For mafic melanosomes, metamorphic zircon and titanite yield ages of 154–149 Ma and c. 150 Ma, respectively; in contrast, two inherited metamorphic zircons record Triassic ages, suggesting an affinity with the ultrahigh-pressure rocks in the Sulu orogen. For granites, the oldest age of anatectic zircons is 175 Ma. Altogether, these data demonstrate a long-lived (c. 25 Myr), Jurassic, metamorphic-anatectic event in the Jiaodong Peninsula. These new findings prove that three lithotectonic units—the Jiaobei terrane, Sulu orogen, and preexisting granites in the Jiaodong Peninsula—were all sources for protracted Jurassic partial melting. This study deepens our understanding of the links between metamorphism and magmatism in demonstrating the diverse rock types that simultaneously source granites.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Feb 2024 10:02:36 PST
  • Thermal Transient PDC Behavior Induced by Topographic Drops: A Test Case
           at Mt. St. Helens, USA

    • Authors: Matteo Trolese et al.
      Abstract: Topography plays an important yet uncertain role in modulating the temporal and spatial evolution of the internal structure of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). Understanding such changes is critical to characterize PDC transport regimes and their hazard. Here we combine paleomagnetic data from PDC deposits of the 18 May 1980 Mt. St. Helens eruption with numerical outcomes to capture spatio-temporal temperature variations induced by topography. We show that emplacement temperatures along the northwest flank of the volcano are ≃ 100°C colder than those recorded along the northeast flank in response to proximal topographic drops. We further report that such vertical drops lead to an initial transient regime where the PDC internal temperature, velocity, and concentration stratification is altered for periods of time that are proportional to the ratio between the drop height and the square root of the current thickness. The topographic control on PDC dynamics is attenuated moving away from the drops or when a stationary phase is attained. Collectively, our results highlight that topographic regions promoting the flow separation/reattachment process are associated with vigorous entrainment of ambient air in the lower portion of PDCs. Low temperature variability is observed in the absence of such topographic irregularities. Based on our findings, we propose a local sedimentation rate of ≃ 150 ± 100 mm s−1 for PDC deposits in a proximal reattachment region. This investigation demonstrates the importance of transient processes in PDC dynamics, introducing a new methodology to measure sedimentation rates, and highlighting that flow-topography feedbacks should be considered to assess hazards.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Feb 2024 10:02:30 PST
  • Where Is the North': Southern Ruptures in Decolonizing Theory

    • Authors: Ahsan Kamal et al.
      Abstract: Calls for decolonizing theory, knowledge, methods, and the university have taken hold of academia. However, critics have pointed out that these projects are primarily located in the global North and distanced from actual political struggles. This paper proposes a way to disaggregate different elements of the North and evaluate the “decolonization” potential in relation to broader anticolonial political geographies. We define the North as an orientation toward the capitalist-colonial world and Northness as a relational property along three axes of geographical location, social position, and institutional vocation. Applying this, we review historic trends in decolonization thought by using a stylistic scheme of three southern ruptures: resistance to colonial conquest, postcolonial arrivals into the Northern academy, and transnational convergence. This analytical lens cautions against giving primacy to issues of marginalized social position over geographic location and institutional vocation, while also offering a political economic focus on postcolonial engagements with anticolonial politics. We call for attending to the current conjuncture characterized by increasing decolonial discourse alongside southern ruination by aligning epistemic endeavors with social movement struggle.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Feb 2024 09:35:36 PST
  • Polyhedral Specification and Code Generation of Sparse Tensor Contraction
           with Co-Iteration

    • Authors: Tuowen Zhao et al.
      Abstract: This article presents a code generator for sparse tensor contraction computations. It leverages a mathematical representation of loop nest computations in the sparse polyhedral framework (SPF), which extends the polyhedral model to support non-affine computations, such as those that arise in sparse tensors. SPF is extended to perform layout specification, optimization, and code generation of sparse tensor code: (1) We develop a polyhedral layout specification that decouples iteration spaces for layout and computation; and (2) we develop efficient co-iteration of sparse tensors by combining polyhedra scanning over the layout of one sparse tensor with the synthesis of code to find corresponding elements in other tensors through an SMT solver.We compare the generated code with that produced by a state-of-the-art tensor compiler, TACO. We achieve on average 1.63× faster parallel performance than TACO on sparse-sparse co-iteration and describe how to improve that to 2.72× average speedup by switching the find algorithms. We also demonstrate that decoupling iteration spaces of layout and computation enables additional layout and computation combinations to be supported.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Feb 2024 15:49:23 PST
  • Communication Technology and Social Support to Navigate Work/Life Conflict
           During Covid-19 and Beyond

    • Authors: Inyoung Shin et al.
      Abstract: Drawing on a national survey of 447 U.S. workers who transitioned to remote work during COVID-19, this study examined how different types of communication technologies (CTs) used for work and private life were associated with work/life conflicts and perceptions of social support across different relationship types (coworker, family, and friends). Findings indicated that work/life conflicts became aggravated when the use of CTs violated relational norms (e.g., mobile texting with coworkers and emailing with family and friends). On the other hand, uses of CTs that were perceived to offer access to social support (e.g., instant messaging with coworkers and friends) were related to lower work/life conflict. Social media (e.g., Facebook) had a direct relationship to higher work/life conflict, but an indirect relationship to lower work/life conflict through social support. Overall, findings suggest that individuals attempt to create work/life boundaries by selecting specific CTs when physical work/life boundaries are collapsed.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Feb 2024 14:46:52 PST
  • Self-Terminating, Heterogeneous Solid–Electrolyte Interphase Enables
           Reversible Li–Ether Cointercalation in Graphite Anodes

    • Authors: Dawei Xia et al.
      Abstract: Ether solvents are suitable for formulating solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI)-less ion-solvent cointercalation electrolytes in graphite for Na-ion and K-ion batteries. However, ether-based electrolytes have been historically perceived to cause exfoliation of graphite and cell failure in Li-ion batteries. In this study, we develop strategies to achieve reversible Li–solvent cointercalation in graphite through combining appropriate Li salts and ether solvents. Specifically, we design 1M LiBF4 1,2-dimethoxyethane (G1), which enables natural graphite to deliver ~91% initial Coulombic efficiency and>88% capacity retention after 400 cycles. We captured the spatial distribution of LiF at various length scales and quantified its heterogeneity. The electrolyte shows self-terminated reactivity on graphite edge planes and results in a grainy, fluorinated pseudo-SEI. The molecular origin of the pseudo-SEI is elucidated by ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. The operando synchrotron analyses further demonstrate the reversible and monotonous phase transformation of cointercalated graphite. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of Li cointercalation chemistry in graphite for extreme-condition batteries. The work also paves the foundation for understanding and modulating the interphase generated by ether electrolytes in a broad range of electrodes and batteries.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Feb 2024 14:28:52 PST
  • Ion Irradiation and Examination of Additive Friction Stir Deposited 316
           Stainless Steel

    • Authors: Priyanka Agrawa et al.
      Abstract: This study explored solid-state additive friction stir deposition (AFSD) as a modular manufacturing technology, with the aim of enabling a more rapid and streamlined on-site fabrication process for large meter-scale nuclear structural components with fully dense parts. Austenitic 316 stainless steel (SS) is an excellent candidate to demonstrate AFSD, as it is a commonly-used structural material for nuclear applications. The microstructural evolution and concomitant changes in mechanical properties after 5 MeV Fe++ ion irradiation were studied comprehensively via transmission electron microscopy and nanoindentation. AFSD-processed 316 SS led to a fine-grained and ultrafine-grained microstructure that resulted in a simultaneous increase in strength, ductility, toughness, irradiation resistance, and corrosion resistance. The AFSD samples did not exhibit voids even at 100 dpa dose at 600 °C. The enhanced radiation tolerance as compared to conventional SS was reasoned to be due to the high density of grain boundaries that act as irradiation-induced defect sinks.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Feb 2024 14:28:43 PST
  • Partisanship on the Playground: Expressive Party Politics Among Children

    • Authors: J. Celeste Lay et al.
      Abstract: The beliefs and behaviors of U.S. adults are increasingly sorted and polarized along partisan lines. We draw on studies of partisanship and social identity formation to argue that children develop partisanship as a social identity during the political socialization process. For a group of children, their partisan social identity produces an affective (and largely negative) evaluation of the political world. Analyzing survey data collected from 1500+ children ages 6–12 in 2017 and 2018, we show that some children develop a partisan identity as they learn about politics that operates similarly to other social identities like gender and race. Children’s partisanship is associated with negative affective evaluations of politics, particularly leaders of the other political party. Using an innovative measurement tool, we show affective, negative reactions in children’s open-ended responses, including when they are asked to draw a political leader. Other children simply learn about politics without developing partisan identities and thus hold more positive affective evaluations of the political system.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Feb 2024 13:33:07 PST
  • Inhaled Epoprostenol Compared with Nitric Oxide for Right Ventricular
           Support After Major Cardiac Surgery

    • Authors: Kamrouz Ghadimi et al.
      Abstract: Background: Right ventricular failure (RVF) is a leading driver of morbidity and death after major cardiac surgery for advanced heart failure, including orthotopic heart transplantation and left ventricular assist device implantation. Inhaled pulmonary-selective vasodilators, such as inhaled epoprostenol (iEPO) and nitric oxide (iNO), are essential therapeutics for the prevention and medical management of postoperative RVF. However, there is limited evidence from clinical trials to guide agent selection despite the significant cost considerations of iNO therapy.Methods: In this double-blind trial, participants were stratified by assigned surgery and key preoperative prognostic features, then randomized to continuously receive either iEPO or iNO beginning at the time of separation from cardiopulmonary bypass with the continuation of treatment into the intensive care unit stay. The primary outcome was the composite RVF rate after both operations, defined after transplantation by the initiation of mechanical circulatory support for isolated RVF, and defined after left ventricular assist device implantation by moderate or severe right heart failure according to criteria from the Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support. An equivalence margin of 15 percentage points was prespecified for between-group RVF risk difference. Secondary postoperative outcomes were assessed for treatment differences and included: mechanical ventilation duration; hospital and intensive care unit length of stay during the index hospitalization; acute kidney injury development including renal replacement therapy initiation; and death at 30 days, 90 days, and 1 year after surgery.Results: Of 231 randomized participants who met eligibility at the time of surgery, 120 received iEPO, and 111 received iNO. Primary outcome occurred in 30 participants (25.0%) in the iEPO group and 25 participants (22.5%) in the iNO group, for a risk difference of 2.5 percentage points (two one-sided test 90% CI, –6.6% to 11.6%) in support of equivalence. There were no significant between-group differences for any of the measured postoperative secondary outcomes.Conclusions: Among patients undergoing major cardiac surgery for advanced heart failure, inhaled pulmonary-selective vasodilator treatment using iEPO was associated with similar risks for RVF development and development of other postoperative secondary outcomes compared with treatment using iNO.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2024 15:50:11 PST
  • Self-Efficacy, Grit, and Rural Career Aspirations Among Early Career
           Nurses: A Repeated Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Daniel Terry et al.
      Abstract: Background Global nursing workforce shortage represents an impediment to the delivery of safe, evidence-based healthcare. Despite collective efforts, a consistent stream of nurses leaving the profession remains, particularly within the first five years of practice, which is exacerbated in rural communities. The aim of the study was to compare self-efficacy, grit, and rural career aspirations among nursing graduates between their second and fourth year of their nursing profession.Methods As part of a longitudinal investigation, a repeated cross-sectional design was utilised. Participants included, 117 (response rate 52.2%) who completed an online questionnaire 18–24 months after graduating, and 32 participants (response rate of 21.0%) who agree to repeat the questionnaire 36–48 months after graduating. The questionnaire included demographic, employment, and measures examining general and occupational self-efficacy, grit, and rural career aspirations.Results No differences between general and occupational self-efficacy or grit were identified between second- and fourth-year nurses. In addition, the importance placed on undertaking rural career also remains unchanged. However, a higher proportion of fourth year nurses were more likely to be in management or were considering leaving the profession.Conclusions This examination of early career nurses, now in their second and fourth-year post-graduation highlights self-efficacy, grit, and rural career aspirations remains stable between two- and four-years following graduation, while nursing in their fourth year were more likely to consider leaving the profession. Nursing retention is a ‘Wicked Problem’ that is unavoidably a complex amalgam of macro, meso and micro factors that we are yet to fully appreciate.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2024 13:57:19 PST
  • The Pharmacy Community Apgar Questionnaire: A Modified Delphi Technique to
           Develop a Rural Pharmacist Recruitment and Retention Tool

    • Authors: Daniel R. Terry et al.
      Abstract: Introduction: An adequate healthcare workforce remains essential for the health of rural communities. Strategies to address rural health workforce challenges have often centred on the medical and nursing workforce; however, addressing the rural pharmacist workforce also remains critical as they are often the first point of contact for health advice. Initiatives have increased pharmacist supply; however, key issues such as poor attraction, recruitment, and retention to rural areas remain. The aim of this study was to support the recruitment and retention of pharmacists in rural areas of Australia through the development of the Pharmacy Community Apgar Questionnaire (PharmCAQ).Methods: A modified Delphi technique was employed to develop the PharmCAQ. A panel of experts were purposively selected. Eight representatives were from organisations with rural experience relevant to the study including the Society of Hospital Pharmacists of Australia, the Pharmaceutical Society of Australia, the Pharmacy Guild of Australia, the Pharmacy Board of Australia, and a representative of a government health agency, who also leads a hospital pharmacy. Three additional participants included local and international academics with health policy and rural health workforce expertise. All participants participated in three separate focus groups of 45–60 minutes duration, where the review and refinement of factors that drive recruitment and retention of pharmacist were discussed. Face and content validity was achieved through the representatives, while internal consistency was achieved when the tool was piloted among 10 rural pharmacists in rural Victoria.Results: Fifty key factors that impact the recruitment and retention of pharmacists were identified, developed and succinctly described. All factors were grouped into five classifications: (1) geographic, (2) economic and resources, (3) practice and scope of practice, (4) practice environment and (5) community practice support. After final consensus, the factors and their definitions formed the final questionnaire. Lastly, the reliability of PharmCAQ was determined, with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.852.Conclusion: While the development and use of the Apgar questionnaire for the recruitment and retention of health professionals is not a novel idea, seeking to specifically focus on pharmacists is unique. However, 10 factors were similar to factors associated with rural recruitment and retention of both physicians and nurses; they encompassed geographic, community support, and economic and resource factors. Regardless of similarities or differences between health professions in terms of recruitment and retention, as a mechanism for addressing the worsening health professional shortage currently experienced in rural areas, the PharmCAQ was developed to support the recruitment and retention of the pharmacist workforce in rural areas.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2024 13:57:14 PST
  • Lived Experiences and Insights into the Advantages Important to Rural
           Recruitment and Retention of General Practitioners

    • Authors: Daniel R. Terry et al.
      Abstract: Introduction: Despite existing studies in this field, community factors behind recruiting and retaining rural general practitioners (GPs) are not fully understood. To address this issue, the Community Apgar Questionnaire (CAQ) was developed to extend the understanding of communities’ assets and capabilities that impact GP recruitment and retention. However, more in-depth insights are vital to develop a comprehensive approach.Methods: This mixed methods study was administered using face-to-face structured interviews with a total of 40 health service representatives. All interviews lasted 35–40 minutes and were audio-taped. Qualitative data were generated from the extended responses to the structured questions of the CAQ and later transcribed. Thematic analysis was conducted in relation to explanations, elaborations, and relevant strategic approaches to improving workforce retention.Results: The qualitative findings illuminated the most important advantages of recruiting and retaining GPs were linked to medical support, hospital and community support, and economic factors, while the challenges were related to geographic factors. The underlying reasons for and nature of those advantages and challenges reinforce that health professionals’ decisions to stay or leave are complex and multifactorial.Conclusion: The originality of the study rests on the administration of the CAQ accompanied by the opportunity for participants to provide extended responses, which gives critical insights into the complexities of rural recruitment and retention. As such, the results confirm the need for a flexible multifaceted response to improving rural GP workforce and informs decision-making in terms of addressing workforce issues within the scope of available resources and capacity.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2024 13:57:09 PST
  • Community Assets and Capabilities to Recruit and Retain GPS: The Community
           Apgar Questionnaire in Rural Victoria

    • Authors: Daniel R. Terry et al.
      Abstract: Introduction: Rural communities continue to experience significant challenges recruiting and retaining physicians. The Community Apgar Questionnaire (CAQ) was developed in Idaho in the USA to comprehensively assess the characteristics associated with successful recruitment and retention of rural physicians. The CAQ has been utilised and validated across the USA; however, its value in rural Australia has not been examined. The objective of this study was to use the CAQ in rural Australia to examine its utility and develop a greater understanding of the community factors that impact general practitioner (GP) recruitment and retention.Method: The project conducted structured face-to-face interviews with hospital chief executive officers (CEOs) and directors of clinical services (DCSs) from 14 of the 21 (76%) health services that agreed to participate in rural north-eastern Victoria, Australia. The interviews were undertaken to complete the CAQ, which contains 50 questions centred on factors that influence physician recruitment and retention. Once completed, CAQs were scored by assigning quantitative values to a community's strengths and challenges including the level of importance placed on each factor. As such, the most important factors in physician recruitment, whether they are advantages or challenges for that community, were then weighed for their relative importance. Scores were then combined to create a CAQ score. To ensure reliability and validity of the results, three additional CAQs were purposefully administered to key general practices within the region.Results: The 14 rural communities exhibited cumulative CAQ scores ranging from a high of 387 to a low score of 61. This suggests the tool was sensitive enough to differentiate between communities that were high and low performers in terms of physician recruitment. The groups of factors that had the greatest impact on recruitment and retention were ranked highest to lowest and included medical support, hospital/community support, economic, scope of practice and geographic factors. Overall, the highest individual factors to impact recruitment and retention were perception of quality, hospital leadership, nursing workforce and transfer arrangements. Conversely, the lowest factors and challenges to recruitment and retention were family related, specifically spousal satisfaction and access to schools.Conclusions: Hume, in rural Victoria, was the first international site to implement the CAQ to differentially diagnose a community's relative strengths and challenges in recruiting and retaining GPs, while supporting health facilities to prioritise achievable goals to improve long-term retention strategies. It provided each community with a tailored gap analysis, while confidentially sharing best practices of other health facilities. Within Hume, open communication and trust between GPs and health facility leadership and nursing staff ensures that GPs can feel valued and supported. Possible solutions for GP recruitment and retention must consider the social, employment and educational opportunities that are available for spouses and children. Participation in the program was useful as it helped health facilities ascertain how they were performing while highlighting areas for improvement.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2024 13:57:03 PST
  • Simulated Wildfire Smoke Significantly Alters Sperm DNA Methylation
           Patterns in a Murine Model

    • Authors: Adam Schuller et al.
      Abstract: Wildfires are now a common feature of the western US, increasing in both intensity and number of acres burned over the last three decades. The effects of this changing wildfire and smoke landscape are a critical public and occupational health issue. While respiratory morbidity due to smoke exposure is a priority, evaluating the molecular underpinnings that explain recent extrapulmonary observations is necessary. Here, we use an Apoe−/− mouse model to investigate the epigenetic impact of paternal exposure to simulated wildfire smoke. We demonstrate that 40 days of exposure to smoke from Douglas fir needles induces sperm DNA methylation changes in adult mice. DNA methylation was measured by reduced representation bisulfite sequencing and varied significantly in 3353 differentially methylated regions, which were subsequently annotated to 2117 genes. The differentially methylated regions were broadly distributed across the mouse genome, but the vast majority (nearly 80%) were hypermethylated. Pathway analyses, using gene-derived and differentially methylated region-derived gene ontology terms, point to a number of developmental processes that may warrant future investigation. Overall, this study of simulated wildfire smoke exposure suggests paternal reproductive risks are possible with prolonged exposure.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2024 13:56:59 PST
  • A Survey of Solo Works for the Violoncello: A Guide to 200 Selected Pieces
           from the Literature from 1689-2023

    • Authors: Brian Hodges
      Abstract: A Survey for Solo Works for the Violoncello is a resource for cellists and non-cellists alike. Spanning the history of the cello through the lens of the pieces written for it, the reader will gain insight into the pieces, composers, and players that shaped the cello's destiny from its earliest entries to the current day. The book surveys the breadth of music written for the cello and is organized into three main genres of compositions: Unaccompanied Works, Works with Piano, and Works for Cello and Orchestra.The reader will encounter, in great detail, 200 works from the Baroque to present day, including standard works and those that are lesser known. Recognized composers of cello music, such as Bach, Beethoven, Brahms, Dvorak, Shastakovich, Kodaly, and Britten are, of course, present, but that only tells part of the story. This survey shines a light on composers and pieces not as well known that deserve their place in study and performance.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Feb 2024 15:07:34 PST
  • The Evolution of Participatory Policy-Making for Regional Power Grids

    • Authors: Nicholas Johnson et al.
      Abstract: In the United States, Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) are critical for maintaining electric reliability and facilitating the shift toward more efficient and sustainable electric power systems. RTOs are voluntary member-driven organizations that engage hundreds of stakeholders in policy decisions affecting planning, markets, and operations. RTOs have evolved into highly complex and interdependent systems with internal feedback among and within RTO functions, and external feedback from emerging technologies and federal and state clean energy policies. In the PJM Interconnection, the expanded scope of responsibilities, complexity, and member body size has created tensions within the stakeholder processes that has led some to question the efficacy of existing decision-making structures. We develop a case study of recent tensions within the PJM stakeholder process and argue that the source of many of these tensions is a fundamental change in the organizational nature of PJM and other RTOs.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Feb 2024 10:31:04 PST
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