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  Subjects -> ANTHROPOLOGY (Total: 398 journals)
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BOGA : Basque Studies Consortium Journal
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2325-7628
Published by Boise State University Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Parent Perceptions of Their Child's Coach: Coaching Knowledge,
           Behavior, and Interpersonal Relationships

    • Authors: Eric Martin
      Abstract: The two most significant agents for youth athletes are coaches and parents. Even though the parent-child and coach-athlete relationship has been well explored, the relationship between parents and coaches has remained largely unexamined in the literature. Therefore, the current project surveyed 251 parents of children involved in the USTA 10 & Under tennis program concerning parent perceptions of their coach and the coach-parent relationship. Overall, parents rated their relationship with their coach as positive and communicated with them frequently on several aspects of the tennis environment and their child’s development. Additionally, parents saw their child’s coach as knowledgeable and positive. Even though these coaches were highly effective, attention should be paid to ensuring communication between parents starts early to prevent further issues and ensure parents are well-informed on how they can best support their child’s development.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 09:36:09 PDT
       
  • ScholarWorks Statistics - July 2022

    • Authors: ScholarWorks
      Abstract: For the month of July 2022, ScholarWorks recorded a total of 39,318 full-text and additional file downloads, 52 video streams, and 15,451 page views.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 12:01:00 PDT
       
  • Exploring Gender-Based Correlates of Physical Activity in School-Age
           Children: A Worldwide Perspective

    • Authors: Katie Sell et al.
      Abstract: Statistics from the last few decades reveal drastic increases in childhood obesity in many nations (Vincent, Pangrazi, Raustorp, Tomson, & Cuddihy, 2003). On an international scale, inappropriate nutrition/diet, genetics, and physical inactivity among children are cited as key contributors to this obesity epidemic (Garcia, Garcia, Floyd, & Lawson, 2002). The positive correlation between inactivity and obesity has been documented for many years. Inactive children as young as 3-4 years of age are more likely to remain inactive compared to their more-active peers (Pate, Baranowski, Dowda, & Trost, 1996). As a result, they are more likely to experience health problems later in childhood and as adults (Trost et al., 2002).
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 10:39:13 PDT
       
  • The Effectiveness of Facebook as a Social Network Intervention to Increase
           Physical Activity in Chinese Young Adults

    • Authors: Patrick W.C. Lau et al.
      Abstract: Introduction: Facebook, one of the worlds' most popular online social networks, is easy to access and cost-effective. Its use to enhance individual's physical activity (PA) participation should be examined. This research reviews the effectiveness and successful features of Facebook for influencing PA behaviors in young adults (Study 1), and empirically examines the efficacy of the features purported in increase PA via a Facebook intervention (Study 2).Methods: In Study 1, PubMed, Medline, SPORT Discus, ERIC, and Embase were searched for articles that identified successful features and effectiveness of Facebook PA interventions published between January 2005 and February 2022. In Study 2, a 4-week Facebook PA intervention with University students was conducted using features identified in Study 1. The PA behaviors with objective (ActiGraph) and subjective (questionnaire) measures, perceived PA level, stage of readiness, effectiveness, and efficiency of Facebook were examined.Results: Study 1 concluded that the most effective strategies for producing significant PA changes in young adults using a PA Facebook intervention included the following: Adding behavior modification (goal setting and self-monitoring), using influence agents, recruiting members of an existing network with the snowball technique, being attentive to group size, enhancing social support with motivational quotes, interactive posts, opinion polls, increasing tailored feedback, and providing educational information. Study 2 found no significant difference in PA between the intervention and the control groups, as measured objectively, but the subjective reporting of PA behavior was higher in the intervention group. Compared to the control group, the Facebook PA intervention group reported more positive change in perceived stage of readiness in PA participation, commuting type, sport type, sport venue, sport emotion, and fast breathing or sweating. When features were ranked by the Facebook PA intervention group, motivation (supports from your friends) and tailored feedback (the responses from your friends are really personal and fits you) were the top two ranked features.Conclusion: The use of influence agents in the Facebook PA intervention could address exercise preference and facilitate higher program engagement. Significant differences related to commuting type, sport types, sport venue barriers, and exercise intensity across groups were noteworthy and warrant additional investigation in the future.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Jul 2022 13:58:46 PDT
       
  • V2W-BERT: A Framework for Effective Hierarchical Multiclass Classification
           of Software Vulnerabilities

    • Authors: Siddhartha Shankar Das et al.
      Abstract: We consider the problem of automating the mapping of observed vulnerabilities in software listed in Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) reports to weaknesses listed in Common Weakness Enumerations (CWE) reports, a hierarchically designed dictionary of software weaknesses. Mapping of CVEs to CWEs provides a means to understand how they might be exploited for malicious purposes, and to mitigate their impact. Since manual mapping of CVEs to CWEs is not a viable approach due to their ever-increasing sizes, automated approaches need to be devised but obtaining highly accurate mapping is a challenging problem. We present a novel Transformer-based learning framework (V2W-BERT) in this paper to solve this problem by bringing together ideas from natural language processing, link prediction and transfer learning. Our method outperforms previous approaches not only for CWE instances with abundant data to train, but also for rare CWE classes with little or no data. Using vulnerability and weakness reports from MITRE and the National Vulnerability Database, we achieve up to 97% prediction accuracy for randomly partitioned data and up to 94% prediction accuracy in temporally partitioned data. We demonstrate significant improvements in using historical data to predict weaknesses for future instances of CVEs. We believe that our work will would influence the design of better automated mapping approaches, and also that this technology could be deployed for more effective cybersecurity.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Jul 2022 09:27:47 PDT
       
  • Statistical Mechanic and Phenomenological Approaches to Isomeric Effects
           in Thermodiffusion

    • Authors: Semen N. Semenov et al.
      Abstract: We present a model that explains variance in the thermodiffusion of hydrocarbon isomers in binary liquid mixtures. The model relies on material transport equations for binary nonisothermal liquid systems that were derived through a nonequilibrium thermodynamic approach in a previous work, coupled with one of two methods: (i) use of equilibrium chemical potentials for each component under conditions of constant pressure, derived using statistical mechanics or (ii) use of the temperature derivative of chemical potential expressed phenomenologically as molecular entropy. The model is evaluated using Soret coefficients (ST) measured in binary solutions of heptane isomers in benzene. The statistical mechanic approach yields moderately acceptable agreement with experimental data. The phenomenological approach, which relies on both measured and calculated values of molecular entropy from the literature, yields values of ST centered around the experimental data, with the scatter likely due to poor precision in the measured or calculated values of entropy. For the latter case, we identify several methods for calculating entropy that yield good agreement with experimental data.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Jul 2022 08:41:10 PDT
       
  • A Stochastic Simulation Model for Assessing the Masking Effects of Road
           Noise for Wildlife, Outdoor Recreation, and Bioacoustic Monitoring

    • Authors: Cory A. Toth et al.
      Abstract: Traffic noise is one of the leading causes of reductions in animal abundances near roads. Acoustic masking of conspecific signals and adventitious cues is one mechanism that likely causes animals to abandon loud areas. However, masking effects can be difficult to document in situ and the effects of infrequent noise events may be impractical to study. Here, we present the Soundscapes model, a stochastic individual-based model that dynamically models the listening areas of animals searching for acoustic resources (“searchers"). The model also studies the masking effects of noise for human detections of the searchers. The model is set in a landscape adjacent to a road. Noise produced by vehicles traveling on that road is represented by calibrated spectra that vary with speed. Noise propagation is implemented using ISO-9613 procedures. We present demonstration simulations that quantify declines in searcher efficiency and human detection of searchers at relatively low traffic volumes, fewer than 50 vehicles per hour. Traffic noise is pervasive, and the Soundscapes model offers an extensible tool to study the effects of noise on bioacoustics monitoring, point-count surveys, the restorative value of natural soundscapes, and auditory performance in an ecological context.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Jul 2022 08:41:01 PDT
       
  • Hidden Phylogenomic Signal Helps Elucidate Arsenurine Silkmoth Phylogeny
           and the Evolution of Body Size and Wing Shape Trade-Offs

    • Authors: Jesse R. Barber
      Abstract: One of the key objectives in biological research is understanding how evolutionary processes have produced Earth’s diversity. A critical step toward revealing these processes is an investigation of evolutionary tradeoffs—that is, the opposing pressures of multiple selective forces. For millennia, nocturnal moths have had to balance successful flight, as they search for mates or host plants, with evading bat predators. However, the potential for evolutionary trade-offs between wing shape and body size are poorly understood. In this study, we used phylogenomics and geometric morphometrics to examine the evolution of wing shape in the wild silkmoth subfamily Arsenurinae (Saturniidae) and evaluate potential evolutionary relationships between body size and wing shape. The phylogeny was inferred based on 782 loci from target capture data of 42 arsenurine species representing all 10 recognized genera. After detecting in our data one of the most vexing problems in phylogenetic inference—a region of a tree that possesses short branches and no “support” for relationships (i.e., a polytomy), we looked for hidden phylogenomic signal (i.e., inspecting differing phylogenetic inferences, alternative support values, quartets, and phylogenetic networks) to better illuminate the most probable generic relationships within the subfamily. We found there are putative evolutionary trade-offs between wing shape, body size, and the interaction of fore- and hindwing (HW) shape. Namely, body size tends to decrease with increasing HW length but increases as forewing (FW) shape becomes more complex. Additionally, the type of HW (i.e., tail or no tail) a lineage possesses has a significant effect on the complexity of FW shape. We outline possible selective forces driving the complex HW shapes that make Arsenurinae, and silkmoths as a whole, so charismatic.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Jul 2022 08:40:56 PDT
       
  • Effects of Spatial and Temporal Variability in Surface Water Inputs on
           Streamflow Generation and Cessation in the Rain–Snow Transition Zone

    • Authors: Ernesto Trujillo
      Abstract: Climate change affects precipitation phase, which can propagate into changes in streamflow timing and magnitude. This study examines how the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall and snowmelt affects discharge in rain–snow transition zones. These zones experience large year-to-year variations in precipitation phase, cover a significant area of mountain catchments globally, and might extend to higher elevations under future climate change. We used observations from 11 weather stations and snow depths measured from one aerial lidar survey to force a spatially distributed snowpack model (iSnobal/Automated Water Supply Model) in a semiarid, 1.8 km2 headwater catchment. We focused on surface water input (SWI; the summation of rainfall and snowmelt on the soil) for 4 years with contrasting climatological conditions (wet, dry, rainy, and snowy) and compared simulated SWI to measured discharge. A strong spatial agreement between snow depth from the lidar survey and model (r2 = 0.88) was observed, with a median Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) of 0.65 for simulated and measured snow depths at snow depth stations for all modeled years (0.75 for normalized snow depths). The spatial pattern of SWI was consistent between the 4 years, with north-facing slopes producing 1.09–1.25 times more SWI than south-facing slopes, and snowdrifts producing up to 6 times more SWI than the catchment average. Annual discharge in the catchment was not significantly correlated with the fraction of precipitation falling as snow; instead, it was correlated with the magnitude of precipitation and spring snow and rain. Stream cessation depended on total and spring precipitation, as well as on the melt-out date of the snowdrifts. These results highlight the importance of the heterogeneity of SWI at the rain–snow transition zone for streamflow generation and cessation, and emphasize the need for spatially distributed modeling or monitoring of both snowpack and rainfall dynamics.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Jul 2022 08:30:09 PDT
       
  • Ethical Implications for Children’s Use of Search Tools in an
           Educational Setting

    • Authors: Monica Landoni et al.
      Abstract: In the classroom, search tools enable students to access online resources. While these tools have many benefits in theory, in practice there are also ethical issues to consider. In this article, we discuss a number of ethics-related problems teachers are faced with and they need to find solutions for. Based on our own research experience developing and deploying information discovery tools for the classroom (both in a traditional classroom setting and on the Internet due to the ongoing outbreak of COVID-19), we share insights about ethics and the role of the expert-in-the-loop, teachers, both as co-design partners and liaisons between search tools and students. Furthermore, we introduce a set of guidelines, EMILIA, to assist teachers in recognizing and reflecting on ethical issues that arise from their use of search tools in the classroom.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Jul 2022 08:12:18 PDT
       
  • The Role of Steps and Game Elements in Gamified Fitness Tracker Apps: A
           Systematic Review

    • Authors: Aatish Neupane et al.
      Abstract: This article reviews 103 gamified fitness tracker apps (Android and iOS) that incorporate step count data into gameplay. Games are labeled with a set of 13 game elements as well as meta-data from the app stores (e.g., avg rating, number of reviews). Network clustering and visualizations are used to identify the relationship between game elements that occur in the same games. A taxonomy of how steps are used as rewards is provided, along with example games. An existing taxonomy of how games use currency is also mapped to step-based games. We show that many games use the triad of Social Influence, Competition, and Challenges, with Social Influence being the most common game element. We also identify holes in the design space, such as games that include a Plot element (e.g., Collaboration and Plot only co-occur in one game). Games that use Real-Life Incentives (e.g., allow you to translate steps into dollars or discounts) were surprisingly common, but relatively simple in their gameplay. We differentiate between task-contingent rewards (including completion-contingent and engagement-contingent) and performance-contingent rewards, illustrating the differences with fitness apps. We also demonstrate the value of treating steps as currency by mapping an existing currency-based taxonomy onto step-based games and providing illustrations of nine different categories.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Jul 2022 08:12:13 PDT
       
  • Dataset for Surface Soil Property and Processes Following the 2015 Soda
           Fire at the Reynolds Creek Critical Zone Observatory in SW Idaho

    • Authors: Kathleen A. Lohse et al.
      Abstract: Wildfires are increasing in frequency and extent in the Western United States with climate change and expansion of invasive plant species. On August 10, 2015, the Soda Fire initiated and burned 113,000 hectares (279,000 acres) of sagebrush steppe habitat in southwestern Idaho; it was contained on August 22, 2015. Approximately 29% of the RCEW CZO was burned, and fire severity was rated predominately moderate severity in the areas of study. Aboveground biomass was largely eliminated by the fire. Given the focus of the RCEW CZO on improving prediction and understanding of soil carbon at the pedon to landscape scale, the Soda Fire provided a unique opportunity to ask examine how fire alters soil carbon pools and processes and their recovery. We selected two catchments, one that had been burned and one that had remained unburned and held other state factors such as granite parent material, climate, topography and vegetation relatively constant. We measured soil surface properties and processes (0-2 cm depth) at 2 and 37-months post-fire, at four paired plant-interplant locations on north- and south-facing aspects in each of these catchments. We report soil pH, electrical conductivity, soil organic carbon (SOC) (%), soil nitrogen (N) (%) and isotopes of C and N, modeled bulk density, pyrogenic carbon, soil inorganic carbon, and isotopes of carbonate. We also report carbon mineralization incubation experiments where we incubated soils at 60% water holding capacity for 4 hr for 4 days total to determine potential carbon mineralization rates and cumulative carbon mineralized.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jul 2022 11:53:32 PDT
       
  • Fairness in Information Access Systems

    • Authors: Michael D. Ekstrand et al.
      Abstract: Recommendation, information retrieval, and other information access systems pose unique challenges for investigating and applying the fairness and non-discrimination concepts that have been developed for studying other machine learning systems. While fair information access shares many commonalities with fair classification, there are important differences: the multistakeholder nature of information access applications, the rank-based problem setting, the centrality of personalization in many cases, and the role of user response all complicate the problem of identifying precisely what types and operationalizations of fairness may be relevant.In this monograph, we present a taxonomy of the various dimensions of fair information access and survey the literature to date on this new and rapidly-growing topic. We preface this with brief introductions to information access and algorithmic fairness to facilitate the use of this work by scholars with experience in one (or neither) of these fields who wish to study their intersection. We conclude with several open problems in fair information access, along with some suggestions for how to approach research in this space.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jul 2022 10:59:05 PDT
       
 
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