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  Subjects -> ANTHROPOLOGY (Total: 398 journals)
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BOGA : Basque Studies Consortium Journal
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ISSN (Print) 2325-7628
Published by Boise State University Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Attitude and Attitudinal Structures Toward Physical Education and Their
           Influences on Physical Activity Behavior

    • Authors: Yubing Wang et al.
      Abstract: Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine middle and high school students’ cognitive and affective attitude and their cognitive-affective attitudinal structures toward physical education (PE). The effects of cognitive and affective attitude and attitudinal structures on physical activity (PA) in PE and outside of school were also examined. Methods: 1773 Chinese middle and high-school students participated in this study. SEM, Chi-square test, ANOVAs, and Contingency tables were adopted to address the research questions. Results: The results showed that most students (>90%) were holding positive cognitive and affective attitude toward PE. Students’ affective attitude significantly influences their PA in PE and outside of school. Most students were holding the positive cognitive-positive negative attitudinal structure toward PE. Conclusions: All these findings lay important foundations for future theoretical advancement about attitude toward PE and provide guidance for PE teachers on attitude intervention and PA promotion.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Apr 2024 15:11:51 PDT
       
  • Dynamics of Price Clustering in the Pakistan Stock Exchange

    • Authors: Ahmed S. Baig et al.
      Abstract: Purpose – In this paper, the authors study the phenomenon of price clustering in the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX), a market viewed as one of the best-performing stock markets in the world during 2014–2017. The authors study the effect of stock-level variables on price clustering and analyze the determinants of the cross-sectional patterns of price clustering in the PSX, in particular the causal link between price clustering and political instability.Design/methodology/approach – The authors’ dataset comprises daily observations on 100 PSX stocks spanning from January 1, 2009 to June 30, 2019. The authors use multivariate regression and spectral analysis to shed light on the dynamics of stock price clustering in PSX.Findings – The authors document abnormally high levels of stock price clustering, particularly on integer increments, in PSX. The nature of stock price clustering in PSX is consistent with the negotiation hypothesis of Harris (1991). The levels of stock price clustering on PSX are persistent and contain a cyclical component. Furthermore, the authors find that political uncertainty in Pakistan is a significant contributor to the high levels of price clustering on PSX. The authors’ conclusions are robust to alternative econometric specifications and different measures of price clustering and political uncertainty.Practical implications – The authors’ findings are of interest to investors and policymakers. Since price clustering decreases market quality and degrades the information content of stock prices, the authors’ study shows that price efficiency in PSX has not improved despite major reforms over the last decade. One practical implication of the authors’ results is that investors should be cautious while rebalancing portfolios around political events such as general elections because stock price clustering increases in the PSX during these periods. As a result, stock prices are likely to deviate from their intrinsic values.Originality/value – Research on price clustering is limited to developed markets, and emerging/frontier markets have been largely overlooked. The phenomenon of price clustering in the PSX has yet to be studied, despite the relevance of the PSX for emerging/frontier market investors.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Apr 2024 15:05:37 PDT
       
  • A Source for ‘The Luck of Roaring Camp’

    • Authors: Tara Penry
      Abstract: Readers have puzzled over the origin of ‘The Luck of Roaring Camp’ (1868), the tragicomic tale of a baby born in a California mining camp and the first piece of writing to bring national acclaim to author Bret Harte. Biographer George Stewart declared in 1931, ‘The sudden appearance of the Luck was about as close to a miracle as one finds in literary history’.1 Gary Scharnhorst brought the miracle down to earth when he discovered that Bret Harte and his wife had lost an infant son ten months before the story’s publication.2 This fact helped to explain—perhaps—Harte’s choice of subject (a birth) and the sentimental tone that Stewart called a ‘conversion’ from Harte’s satiric early journalism.3 But the archive of California ephemera holds another backstory. A speech given by a California visitor in 1864 anticipated multiple features of Bret Harte’s breakout short story.The connection between the speech and Bret Harte may be traced to Harte’s first appearance on a title page (Figure 1). On 9 September 1864, the San Francisco chapter of the Society of California Pioneers celebrated the anniversary of California’s statehood with a parade, a speech, a commissioned poem, and a reception. The job office of the Daily Alta California printed the speech, the poem, and the newspaper’s account of the day in a thirty-two-page booklet.4 The orator was a five-month visitor to the Pacific coast and Unitarian minister from New York City, Henry Whitney Bellows, known for founding a medical relief society for soldiers’ aid.5 Twenty-eight-year-old Bret Harte contributed the poem. Since Harte’s poem-of-the-day also appeared elsewhere, the booklet would seem to be (for Harte scholarship) a surplus edition of a text already known, merely a proud chapter in the life of a young author, but for the contents of Bellows’s lecture. The seasoned orator engaged his audience with a notable figure of speech—the allegoric figure of an infant California raised by the state’s mining pioneers. ‘The Luck of Roaring Camp’ echoes this figure of speech as well as other features of Bellows’s text.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Apr 2024 14:53:49 PDT
       
  • Improving Predictive Power Through Deep Learning Analysis of K-12 Online
           Student Behaviors and Discussion Board Content

    • Authors: Jui-Long Hung et al.
      Abstract: Purpose – For studies in educational data mining or learning Analytics, the prediction of student’s performance or early warning is one of the most popular research topics. However, research gaps indicate a paucity of research using machine learning and deep learning (DL) models in predictive analytics that include both behaviors and text analysis.Design/methodology/approach – This study combined behavioral data and discussion board content to construct early warning models with machine learning and DL algorithms. In total, 680 course sections, 12,869 students and 14,951,368 logs were collected from a K-12 virtual school in the USA. Three rounds of experiments were conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.Findings – The DL model performed better than machine learning models and was able to capture 51% of at-risk students in the eighth week with 86.8% overall accuracy. The combination of behavioral and textual data further improved the model’s performance in both recall and accuracy rates. The total word count is a more general indicator than the textual content feature. Successful students showed more words in analytic, and at-risk students showed more words in authentic when text was imported into a linguistic function word analysis tool. The balanced threshold was 0.315, which can capture up to 59% of at-risk students.Originality/value – The results of this exploratory study indicate that the use of student behaviors and text in a DL approach may improve the predictive power of identifying at-risk learners early enough in the learning process to allow for interventions that can change the course of their trajectory.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Apr 2024 14:43:27 PDT
       
  • Evaluating Racial and Ethnic Invariance Among the Correlates of Guilty
           Pleas: A Focus on the Effect of Court Legitimacy, Attorney Type,
           Satisfaction, and Plea-Offer Evaluation

    • Authors: Chae M. Jaynes et al.
      Abstract: Objectives Research has identified racial and ethnic disparities in rates of guilty pleas relative to trial where minorities are more likely to proceed to trial, though little research has explored the source of this disparity.Methods Using an adult nationwide sample and a vignette methodology, this research uses Ordinary Least Squares regression to explore differences in White, Black, and Hispanic defendants’ willingness to accept a guilty plea (WTAP).Results Though there are not significant direct effects of race or ethnicity on initial WTAP, there are racial/ethnic differences in theoretical antecedents of WTAP such as perceived probability of conviction, court legitimacy, and attorney type. However, there are not differences in the effects of theoretical antecedents on WTAP across race or ethnicity. Significant differences by race/ethnicity also emerge following a defense attorney's evaluation of an offer and are conditional on guilt.Conclusions Racial/ethnic differences in rates of plea acceptance are likely due to cumulative racial/ethnic differences in antecedents of WTAP, differences in the effect of attorney evaluation by race/ethnicity, and/or factors that were not directly examined in this study such as variation in plea offers. Implications for future research on the nexus between plea bargaining and race/ethnicity are discussed.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Apr 2024 14:30:28 PDT
       
  • Mary Clearman Blew

    • Authors: Evelyn I. Funda
      Abstract: Defying the Welch family edict to “Never speak aloud of what you feel deeply,” Mary Clearman Blew has garnered national recognition as an eminent writer in the American west by choosing to write candidly about the riddle of her family, their deeply felt losses, and her sense of “the contradictions of double vision, of belonging in place and being out of place” (Balsamroot 4; Bone Deep 174). Unsparingly honest and accessible in eight books of fiction and nonfiction, in person Blew is, nevertheless, a quiet, dignified, and reserved woman who still thinks of herself as a bookworm, the girl who barely managed to escape from the Montana ranch.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:41 PDT
       
  • Alonzo "Old Block" Delano

    • Authors: Nicolas S. Witschi
      Abstract: When Alonzo Delano died on 8 September 1874, newspapers throughout the Northern California region lamented the passing of a favorite local celebrity. A death notice issued by the Sacramento Union on 10 September (reprinted a day later by San Francisco’s Daily Alta California), observed that Delano “was known by reputation throughout the State as an author and a man of integrity. [. . .] He was a writer of much native humor and plainness of speech, abounding in facts, anxious to do justice to all and injury to none.” The San Francisco Chronicle echoed this sentiment, adding that he “was a writer of considerable ability.” A longer obituary from the Grass Valley Union, the newspaper in Delano’s adopted hometown, observed that he “was known all over the State as a writer for the papers, and for books which he published. [. . .] ‘Old Block,’ under which name he wrote, is as familiar on this coast as any household word” (10 September, reprinted by the Sacramento Union on 11 September). Even the New York Times, in which a few years earlier Delano had published a series of correspondence about life in California, carried on 23 September a five-sentence obituary that noted, in accord with the others, that upon “Arriving in California without capital, he speedily became one of the most active men in the State, as a writer displaying talent of a peculiar order, over the signature of‘Old Block.’”
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:40 PDT
       
  • Reading Helen Hunt Jackson's Ramona

    • Authors: Karen E. Ramirez
      Abstract: Helen Hunt Jackson was one of America’s most renowned and prolific female writers of the 1870s and 1880s, best known during her lifetime (1830-1885) and into the early twentieth century for her poetry, domestic essays, travel sketches, and moralistic novels. However, as Jackson herself predicted, her most enduring legacy is her writing advocating American Indian rights (Higginson, “Helen” 151). Most significantly, her 1884 novel Ramona protests American Indian displacement in southern California and, more broadly, criticizes Anglo-American conquest through land acquisition. A bestseller when it appeared, Ramona has never gone out of print; has been translated into many languages; was adapted for four movie productions between 1910 and 1936; was scripted for several theater versions as well as the annual Ramona Outdoor Play, held annually in Hemet, California, since 1923; and was the source of a Ramona-centered tourist industry in southern California between 1887 and the 1950s (Moylan 226, DeLyser 80-81). The publication of two new paperback editions of Ramona, in 2002 and 2005, suggests the novel’s continued popularity and its importance in the study of American literature.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:40 PDT
       
  • Louis Owens

    • Authors: Linda Lizut Helstern
      Abstract: “'I prefer infinitions to definitions,’” Alex Yazzie, the cross-dressing Navajo anthropologist in Louis Owens’ Bone Game, declares (46). So did Louis Owens. In his life, in his death, and above all in his writing, Louis Owens (1948-2002), novelist, essayist, literary and cultural critic, crossed boundaries and refused definitions. Born in Lompoc, California, Owens came to understand the arid landscape of the west through the lens of his early childhood in the Yazoo bottoms of Mississippi. He was a Native mixedblood who acknowledged not only his multi-tribal heritage, Choctaw on his father's side and Cherokee on his mother’s, but the Irish heritage his parents shared. He was an academic with a fund of practical knowledge, from auto mechanics to woodworking, as much at home fighting wildfires as conducting research in a library archive. The man who was named Crosscut Saw Champion of the Prescott National Forest in 1977 received the American Book Award twenty years later.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:39 PDT
       
  • James Stevens

    • Authors: James H. Maguire
      Abstract: By 1930, James Stevens had gained a national reputation as one of the Northwest’s most promising and outspoken young writers. Seventy-five years later, he has slipped so far into obscurity that relatively few people know of his contributions not only to Northwest writing but also to American literature in general and to the literature of the American West in particular. His tall tales made Paul Bunyan one of the great heroes of American popular culture. The controversial literary manifesto he co-authored with Oregon author H. L. Davis led to a new era in the history of the Northwest’s literature. And Stevens’s short stories and novels celebrated the spirit and achievements of workingmen such as loggers, teamsters, and miners whose lives he saw as being almost as heroic as the lives of Homer’s ancient Greek warriors. In his best novel, Big Jim Turner (1948), Stevens created a would-be modern-day Homer who tells about the creative force unleashed by living and working in the Northwest and by reading in its public libraries.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:38 PDT
       
  • Gary Paul Nabhan

    • Authors: Gioia Woods
      Abstract: Between spoonfuls of posole at the Morning Glory Cafe in Flagstaff, Arizona, Gary Paul Nabhan mused about the distinctive character of western American literature. “What is western literature about'” I asked him. Without hesitation, he replied, “It is about a process of disorientation and reorientation.” The mountains, sand dunes, and canyons of the western landscape govern western imagination. That landscape, he believes, is responsible for the dis- and reorientation that characterizes the work of many western writers. Nabhan continued, “I should say that in an odd way, that’s even true of Native American literature [....] Leslie Silko writes about the process of reorientation.” Nabhan looked around the small diner, decorated with local art and furnished with an antique stove used as a buffet for the fresh salsa and chips. The chalkboard menu reflected the best of locally grown food made to serve mouth-watering recipes from Mexico and the Middle East. Nabhan took another bite of his posole, swallowed thoughtfully, and reflected on the tradition of immigrant literature in the west: “The pioneer mentality only captures a portion of the distinctiveness of the west. Whether it was Europeans coming to dry lands from more humid areas, or Mexicans coming northward, those who arrived in the west were amazed by how much the landscape dominates our very concepts” (Woods).
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:38 PDT
       
  • Josephine Miles

    • Authors: Erik Muller
      Abstract: “You could say I saw California grow up. Right along with me!” So Josephine Miles linked her life and region (Childress 40). The link between her poetry and California has not always been declared by the poet or detected by her readers. Miles mused upon the problem: “Sometimes there’s a certain kind of critic that says I’m a California poet [. . .] he says I have a lot of loose lines and a lot of locale. But then another critic will say, ‘She’s not to be identified as anything but English because her poetry is rather neat and universal’” (Marie 37). While Denis Donoghue cannot find “a California element in her sensibility” (443), Donald Davie detects in Miles “that California aspiration” to place poetry back into “the humdrum of daily life” (85).
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:37 PDT
       
  • Maxine Hong Kingston

    • Authors: Charles L. Crow
      Abstract: “The history of the intermingling of human cultures is a history of trade—in objects like the narwhal’s tusk, in ideas, and in great narratives.”
      —Barry Lopez, Arctic DreamsThe Woman Warrior (1976), Maxine Hong Kingston’s first book, made her famous. Her arrival coincided with, and helped to fuel, an awareness of literature by women and ethnic minorities, and a change in the literature studied in high-school and college classrooms. Today Kingston is one of the most frequently taught of living American authors. Her works are studied in courses in English, women’s studies, Asian studies, ethnic studies, postmodern literature, postcolonial literature, “magic realism,” history, and autobiography. Discussion of Kingston has in fact changed our understanding of several of these categories.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:36 PDT
       
  • Ana Castillo

    • Authors: Sara L. Spurgeon
      Abstract: It may seem odd to call Ana Castillo a western writer, considering she has lived most of her life in Chicago. Geographically, this city would not generally qualify as “western.” But the images, tensions, and themes that drive Castillo’s work are the same that currently challenge traditional definitions of the “west” as a place bounded strictly by geography. Historically, of course, Chicago at one time imagined itself as the prototypical western city, but the frontier moved on, and with it the American notion of what the west was, where it was located, what it looked like, and who inhabited it. Frontiers, in fact, have traditionally been vital in determining what Americans consider the west. From the perspective of Anglo New England, it was what Daniel Boone was traversing in the wilds of Kentucky. Later it was the Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains, the deserts of Nevada, the U.S.-Mexican borderlands. California' Maybe yes, maybe no. Some argue it is the least “western” of the western states despite its location; others insist it is the most western because of everything but its longitude.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:36 PDT
       
  • Robet Roripaugh

    • Authors: John D. Nesbitt
      Abstract: In an essay entitled “Literature of the Cowboy State” in 1978, Robert Roripaugh opened his discussion by declaring, “As far as serious literature from the American West is concerned, the least known, most neglected and uncataloged body of writing [. . .] is that of Wyoming” (26). He goes on to assert that there is little consistency “in the state’s literary output” (26). Twenty-five years later, Roripaugh’s remarks are still valid. Despite an attempt by several well-meaning scholars in the late 1980s to put together a literary anthology for the centennial of Wyoming’s statehood, and despite the recent compilation of a state literary anthology by the Wyoming Center of the Book, to date there has been no coherent literary history written. As Roripaugh also notes in his essay, Wyoming has produced no major literary figure.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:35 PDT
       
  • Michael McClure

    • Authors: Rod Phillips
      Abstract: The author of more than twenty volumes of poetry, over twenty plays, two novels, and three collections of essays, Michael McClure is one of the most prolific and enduring figures to emerge from the Beat movement. As one of the five poets to begin his career at the Six Gallery reading in 1955, the reading which launched the Beat movement, he shares a long and rich history with Allen Ginsberg, Philip Whalen, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Gary Snyder, Philip Lamantia, and many other writers of San Francisco’s Beat period.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:34 PDT
       
  • Lawson Fusao Inada

    • Authors: Shawn Holliday
      Abstract: On February 19, 1942, approximately ten weeks after Japanese fighter planes attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt approved Executive Order 9066, which authorized the removal of all people of Japanese descent from vulnerable areas of the United States’ west coast. Meant as a security measure to protect the dams, power plants, harbors, railroads, and airports from spies who would attempt to compromise America’s vulnerable infrastructure, this order eventually led to the complete removal of all Japanese from Arizona, California, Oregon, and Washington, relocating 120,000 people by mid-1942 (Only What xi-xii). Such actions were fueled as much by hysteria and fear concerning a possible invasion as they were by sixty years of racism that began in the 1880s with the first wave of Japanese immigration.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:34 PDT
       
  • Reading Louise Erdrich's Love Medicine

    • Authors: P. Jane Hafen
      Abstract: The writings of Louise Erdrich not only reflect their author’s multilayered, complex background but they also confound a variety of literary genre and cultural categories. Although Erdrich is known primarily as a successful contemporary Native American writer, her finely polished writing reveals both her Turtle Mountain Chippewa and Euroamerican heritages. Nevertheless, her diverse imageries, subjects, and textual strategies reaffirm imperatives of American Indian survival. She prescribes the literary challenge for herself and other contemporary Native writers in her essay “Where I Ought to Be: A Writer’s Sense of Place”: “In the light of enormous loss, [contemporary Native writers] must tell the stories of contemporary survivors while protecting and celebrating the cores of cultures left in the wake of the catastrophe” (1). Standing at the center of her work is the acclaimed novel, Love Medicine (1984, revised and expanded 1993). Subsequent novels return to the themes, characters, and places established in Love Medicine and create an epic tale of survival among Ojibwe Indians in the northern plains.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:33 PDT
       
  • Reading Marilynne Robinson's Housekeeping

    • Authors: James H. Maguire
      Abstract: “Marilynne Robinson has written a first novel that one reads as slowly as poetry—and for the same reason: The language is so precise, so distilled, so beautiful that one doesn’t want to miss any pleasure it might yield up to patience” (Schreiber 14). Many other reviewers, critics, and general readers agree with reviewer Le Anne Schreiber that Robinson’s novel is beautifully written. And since Housekeeping’s virtual poetry echoes the beauty of the language found in works of nineteenth-century American writers such as Herman Melville and Emily Dickinson, it comes as no surprise that Robinson’s favorite authors are the American Romantics.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:32 PDT
       
  • J. Ross Brown

    • Authors: Peter Wild
      Abstract: Caught by his own whimsical pen often used to illustrate his books, the writer sits on a log with sketch pad in hand. He’s in the midst of a vast, wild country. Behind him are mountains and, closer, an apparently abandoned adobe. Beneath a sans-souci floppy hat, he gazes over spectacles comically slid down his nose with that look of the artist in the intense act of considering a scene or of a schoolmarm about to scold. Yet there’s also a different kind of tension to his body. One eyebrow is raised, almost as if he’s listening for something behind him, ready to leap to his feet and defend himself against what might be creeping up—a threat confirmed by the rifle at the ready across his knees. That is, the sketch captures the airiness of art combined with danger, resulting in a self-mocking, ironic humor. Here, a sensitive aesthete is commenting on trying to make art in a land where the ruling, everyday concern is for Apaches lurking in the bushes, ready to come screaming out and riddle travelers with arrows. The wry caption: “The Fine Arts in Arizona” (Adventures in the Apache Country 126).
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:32 PDT
       
  • Frank Chin

    • Authors: John Charles Goshert
      Abstract: Born in Berkeley in 1940, Frank Chin lived in the Motherlode country of California’s Sierra foothills during the Second World War before returning to the San Francisco Bay Area. He attended the University of California at Berkeley as an English major, but was drawn away to work for railroad companies throughout the west. Such early experiences of movement and transience would provide the foundations for the shifting settings of much of his drama, fiction, and criticism that would follow; additionally, this transience would also underlie the complex tone, treatment, and perception of Asian American identity that characterizes his work and distinguishes Chin from many of his contemporaries in literature and criticism. As Dorothy Ritsuko McDonald comments, Chin has constantly worked to reclaim the history of Chinese Americans as a “valiant, vital part of the history of the American West," to counter dominant narratives and historical fantasies about passive, obedient, humble, and effeminate Asian Americans (ix). As though countering such preconceptions about Asian American passivity through physical as well as creative activity, Chin has led a relatively transient life, although primarily along Interstate 5 between Washington and California. “Fed up with the Bay Area,” he recalls, Chin moved south to work with the East-West Players; and, although no longer with the group, he continues to live and work in Los Angeles.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:31 PDT
       
  • William Kittredge

    • Authors: Ron McFarland
      Abstract: Equally at home whether speaking before the Humanities Colloquium at Cedar City, Utah, the Nature Conservancy at Bend, Oregon, the Regional Newswriting Colloquium at Salt Lake City, or the Wyoming Outdoor Council at Sheridan, William (Bill) Kittredge has emerged over the past thirty years as one of the most prolific and outspoken exponents of the New West. He has edited or co-edited seven anthologies ranging in nature from Great Action Stories (1977) and Stories into Film (1979) to the monumental Montana compilation, The Last Best Place (1988) and The Portable Western Reader (1997). He is the author of two notable collections of short stories, The Van Gogh Field and Other Stories (1978) and We Are Not in This Together (1984), and his dozens of presently uncollected short stories have appeared in such magazines as Harper’s and Paris Review. During the mid-1980s he coauthored, with Steven M. Krauzer, a series of nine popular westerns known as the Cord novels, under the pseudonym Owen Rountree.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:30 PDT
       
  • Reading Louis L'Amour's Hondo

    • Authors: Joseph Mills
      Abstract: I don't give a damn what anyone else thinks, I know it’s literature and I know it will be read 100 years from now.
      —Louis L'Amour on his work (Jackson 168)In 1946, publisher and editor Leo Margulies invited Louis L’Amour to a party in New York. Each of them had a problem. L’Amour, having served in the Army during World War II, had recently returned to the States to discover the pulp fiction markets in which he had established himself as a writer were changing. In the 1930s, he had sold numerous adventure, sports, and detective stories to magazines such as Thrilling Adventures and Lands of Romance. Now, because of television, cheap paperbacks, and other cultural forces, these markets were disappearing. As L’Amour put it, “I wrote pulps for several years and at the end of the time I was making a very good living at it. Then overnight they were gone like snow in the desert” (Davidson, Lupoff, and Wolinsky 164). One genre, however, was flourishing. The western was entering a golden age. In 1945, there were over three dozen markets for western stories (Cawelti 31). In 1950, at least 110 western films were made (Levy 75), and by the end of the decade westerns accounted for a significant percentage of published fiction. For people in the industry like Margulies, the problem was finding enough material. He asked L’Amour, “Why don’t you write me some Western stories' I need Westerns in the worst way” (Davidson, Lupoff, and Wolinsky 164). L’Amour agreed to try. In the next three years, he would produce almost a hundred stories for magazines such as Popular Western, Thrilling Westerns, and Texas Rangers. It was an unexpected development for someone who, by his own admission, “never really intended to write Westerns at all” (Dye 355).
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:30 PDT
       
  • Abigail Scott Duniway

    • Authors: Debra Shein
      Abstract: In 1895, as she launched a new journal dedicated to bringing equal rights to all the women of America, Abigail Scott Duniway had already been a key figure in the national woman’s movement for over two decades. And during those years, dramatic changes had been taking place. As she wrote, “though ‘Liberty for all the inhabitants of the land’ has not yet been secured, we have made much permanent progress, and now nobody doubts our ultimate success” (“Salutatory” PE 16 Aug. 1895). At the beginning of Duniway’s career, women’s rights were severely restricted. With few exceptions, marriage brought an end to a woman’s legal identity altogether; it meant entering into a state of civil death. A wife had no official existence apart from her husband’s. Under the principle of coverture (in which a woman is said for legal purposes to be covered, or overshadowed, by her husband’s presence), the two were made one, and that one was the masculine partner in the enterprise. In that era, married women in most of the U.S. couldn’t sign contracts, had no title to their own earnings or to property, nor any claim to their children in case of separation or divorce (Flexner, Century 7-8). But by the end of 1896, Idaho and Utah would join Wyoming and Colorado as full suffrage states, and enormous strides would be made on multiple fronts in the equal rights battle. The age of the New Woman, who had “recently discovered herself in sufficient numbers to awaken the alarm of her adversaries,” was dawning—and she had in large part been conjured by the imaginations of her pioneer foremothers, who had dared to dream, and to express those dreams in writing, as did the woman her contemporaries referred to as “Mrs. Duniway.”
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:29 PDT
       
  • Gretel Ehrlich

    • Authors: Gregory L. Morris
      Abstract: As a Western writer, Gretel Ehrlich is something of a curious case. By birth a Californian, Ehrlich has nevertheless shaped her identity as a Western writer by experience gathered elsewhere in the West. At the same time, while Ehrlich has lived and written extensively about her life in north-central Wyoming—and built her considerable reputation upon that work—the arc of her experience has carried her for the moment back to her native California. This movement from place to place (Ehrlich has been a writer of many places in her career) suggests a dominant tension in her life and work: that of locating oneself in time and place, of determining the nature of home.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:29 PDT
       
  • New Formalist Poets of the American West

    • Authors: April Linder
      Abstract: In the late 1970s and early eighties, when most American poets were writing autobiographical free-verse lyrics, a handful of mavericks flouted literary fashion. They used rhyme, meter, and regular form—both traditional and innovative—and tried narrative, satire, and light verse. In an essay entitled “Can Poetry Matter'” (1991) one of these poets, Dana Gioia, accused contemporary poets of writing mostly for each other. “The poetry boom has been a distressingly confined phenomenon,” he wrote. “Decades of public and private funding have created a large professional class for the production of teachers, graduate students, editors, publishers, and administrators. Based mostly in universities, these groups have gradually become the primary audience for contemporary verse” (2). As poets moved into the academy, Gioia argued, poetry lost relevance to the public at large. With their audience dwindling to a subculture of specialists, most poets became reluctant to write negative reviews. Readers hoping to find good new poetry among the volumes of mediocre work received little help from critics.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:28 PDT
       
  • Desert Literature: The Early Period

    • Authors: Peter Wild
      Abstract: Although not entirely free, ours is a fairly easy ride when it comes to living on deserts. Today, in order to survive, few people out in the lands of the giant cactus and the Gila monster eat grasshoppers or spend day after day hoeing beans in the punishing 110° heat. Instead, today’s residents enjoy a created world of air-conditioned homes, schools, and shopping malls. The point is that few people live in the desert anymore. They live on it. Theirs is a colonial society, imposed on the land, fed from the outside, and infused with the life-giving juice of energy from distant places.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:27 PDT
       
  • Reading Wallace Stegner's Angle of Repose

    • Authors: Russell Burrows
      Abstract: Wallace Stegner must have felt he was gambling as he settled on Angle of Repose (1971) as the title for his most important novel—the one that would go on to win a Pulitzer Prize (1972). “Angle of repose” happens to be a bit of technical jargon from mining, and Stegner meant to extend it to marriage. This unlikely metaphor begins with the practical understanding that mine debris will tumble downhill only so far, because as a slope levels out, the rocks and the gravels and the like will start to pile up at their respective “angles of repose.” And so, too, will the married at some point reach a kind of repose—that is, if the married mean to stay that way.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:27 PDT
       
  • Reading A.B. Guthrie's The Big Sky

    • Authors: Fred Erisman
      Abstract: Shortly after midday on 31 August 1837, thirty-four-year-old Ralph Waldo Emerson stepped before the Harvard chapter of the Phi Beta Kappa Society in Cambridge, Massachusetts, preparing to give the annual oration associated with the university’s commencement exercises. In the audience, in addition to some two hundred students, were such luminaries as the physician-essayist Oliver Wendell Holmes, the Abolitionist Wendell Phillips, the poet James Russell Lowell, and the governor of Massachusetts, Edward Everett, who later became president of Harvard. Emerson’s presentation, entitled “The American Scholar,” lasted for slightly more than an hour (Richardson 261-63).
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:26 PDT
       
  • Dana Gioia

    • Authors: April Linder
      Abstract: The poet Dana Gioia is a pivotal figure in contemporary American letters. One of the most respected and vocal writers identified with the controversial movement commonly called the New Formalism, Gioia has helped to redefine the face of contemporary poetry. In his 1991 Atlantic Monthly essay, “Can Poetry Matter'” Gioia critiqued the American poetry scene, arguing that contemporary poets were writing mainly for an audience of other poets. He claimed that because poets weren’t trying to reach a general audience, contemporary poetry generally was going unread by non-poets, even by college graduates who regularly read novels. Gioia blamed the loss of general readers on the wholesale influx of poets into the academy, arguing that American poets had stopped paying attention to the needs of general readers. Moreover, in Gioia’s view, as poetry’s audience shrank and became more specialized, poets in turn became more defensive about their own importance and therefore less willing to write critical reviews of poetry. This lack of candid reviewing resulted in a confused and ultimately skeptical audience. In “Can Poetry Matter'” Gioia set forth a remedy for this malady, challenging contemporary poets to take a more visionary approach toward their art. He also provided a series of practical steps for reinvigorating poetry and for bringing it to a general readership.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:25 PDT
       
  • Desert Literature: The Modern Period

    • Authors: Peter Wild
      Abstract: Today’s desert writing is so diffuse, ranging from detective novels to spiritual guides, that it would seem impossible to make much sense of this popular genre. However, if we put it in context, looking at the changing attitudes toward deserts over the sweep of the years and at the books growing out of them, what at first appears an impenetrable welter begins to make sense.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:25 PDT
       
  • Narrow Way to Nearby

    • Authors: David Robertson
      Abstract: Rain was the forcast. Rain was in the air. Rain was on the ground in puddles. Ecotourist drove east through the morning drizzle in his new black Honda down Old Davis Road to California Fish and Game. After he was pasted with a name tag and scanned for metal, he boarded the bus for a slow ride to an island of mud in the middle of Yolo Bypass. Fences kept invited guests apart from an impromptu stage. Bleachers for the press rimmed the perimeter. Reporters in raincoats slouched near their cameras covered in plastic. A big wooden sign anchored with bales of hay spoke how much cooperation it took between a government and its people to preserve wildlife for egret watchers and duch hunters. An agent of the Secret Service attached teh Seal of the President of the United States to the podium. It looked like a velcro job.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:24 PDT
       
  • Desert Literature: The Middle Period - J. Smeaton Chase, Edna Brush
           Perkins, and Edwin Corle

    • Authors: Peter Wild
      Abstract: Whether through religion, sex, or art, people crave excitement, to be elevated above ordinary experiences. A frequent theme both in our lives and in literature, this desire often involves the interplay of fantasy and reality. Is Hamlet indeed mad—does he actually see camels in the clouds—or is he quite coolly calculating, shrewdly manipulating people' For our part, when we fall in love, are we being led yet again by our delusions toward disaster'
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:23 PDT
       
  • Ivan Doig

    • Authors: A. Carl Bredahl
      Abstract: The big sky of the American West has the striking effect of focusing the viewer’s attention on both land and sky. On America’s Great Plains and High Desert, the sky dominates, forcing the eye away from the traditional Judeo-Christian vertical orientation and toward the horizon, generating a remarkable sense of balance. American Western narrative carries this story of balance and possibility. The Westerner finds himself accepting the landscape, indeed drawing upon it for physical and spiritual sustenance. Even the most imposing of surfaces—the landscape of eastern Utah or of the Dakota badlands—share a vulnerability with man as evidenced by erosion, but at the same time they offer a visible stability compared to the temporality of his threescore and ten. Man is not alien here; the physical world is part of who he is.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:23 PDT
       
  • Reading Willa Cather's The Song of the Lark

    • Authors: Evelyn Funda
      Abstract: When Willa Gather sent her publisher the manuscript for The Song of the Lark in March 1915, she wrote him that unless he had lived in the West, he couldn’t possibly understand how much of the region she had put into the novel. It expressed the “My country, ’tis of thee” feeling that the West always gave her, and, she concluded, when she grew old and couldn’t explore the desert anymore, all she need do to recapture the sense of place would be to lift the lid of the novel (Willa Gather to Ferris Greenslet, March 28, 1915—I paraphrase here because a stipulation to Gather’s will prevents the direct quotation of her letters). While ostensibly Gather’s book is about the rise of Wagnerian opera diva Thea Kronborg to stardom at the New York Met (hardly, one might think, the stuff of “real” Western literature), the book is indeed suffused with Western dreams of pioneering, Western values, Western heroics. In more than just the desert landscape of early chapters, The Song of the Lark is a Western book that asks questions fundamental to Gather’s thinking in the first half of her career: Can the highest aspirations of art find their genesis in the West, a place seemingly so hostile to high art' Can someone with the imagination and drive of a Thea translate her Western experiences into a meaningful artistic career that finds an audience outside of that region'
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:22 PDT
       
  • Rick Bass

    • Authors: O. Alan Weltzien
      Abstract: In July 1992, Newsweek ran an article titled “Don’t Fence Them Out,” a piece that explores the Intermountain literary renaissance of the past few decades. The article includes a sidebar describing places where there are “Too many writers,” listing “Albuquerque,” “Portland,” and “All of Montana.” The same sidebar includes four titles under the heading “Books walking off the shelves out West (but good luck finding 'em back East).” One of those works listed is Rick Bass’s The Ninemile Wolves (1992), his sixth book. Bass’s career substantiates the prideful claim reflected in the title of Montana’s centennial literary anthology, The Last Best Place (1988). The seminal fact in Bass’s life has been his move, with his girlfriend (now wife), Elizabeth Hughes, to the very northwest corner of Montana from Jackson, Mississippi, in the summer of 1987. For Bass, the Yaak River Valley is the Last Best Place. Before the move, he had been working as a petroleum geologist out of Jackson and had published two books of essays, The Deer Pasture (1985) and Wild to the Heart (1987). Since the move, he has published nine additional books and gained a national, if not international, readership.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:21 PDT
       
  • Reading Richard Brautigan's Trout Fishing in America

    • Authors: Joseph Mills
      Abstract: Last summer, I hiked along the Tomales Point trail in Point Reyes, a National Seashore, north of San Francisco. On my left was the Pacific Ocean, and on my right were fields that were once dairylands but are now a Tule elk preserve.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:21 PDT
       
  • Joy Harjo

    • Authors: Rhonda Pettit
      Abstract: Who is Joy Harjo' To anyone familiar with Native American writing and/or contemporary poetry, the obvious answer to this question might be: a Native American poet. Readers familiar with her work might also consider her a Western U. S. writer, since she lives in the Southwest and uses Western landscapes and locales as settings, as vehicles for psychological probing, and as subjects endowed with transcendent power. If these labels seem reductive, other cultural and literary locations Harjo occupies complicate the issue of her identity.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:20 PDT
       
  • Alberto Ríos

    • Authors: Peter Wild
      Abstract: Caught up in the current cultural ferment involving race, sex, and ethnic identity, people tend to forget. The all-time best-selling novel in the nineteenth-century United States was an antislavery book written by a woman, and in the 1920s black writer W. E. B. Du Bois was widely celebrated by a large number of critics. Periodically over the course of the nation’s history, both as concerns the general culture and our literature specifically, what we today call minorities, and how we perceive them, have exerted huge influences, shaping much of our lives, from what we wear and eat to what we read. Around the turn of the century, Western writer Mary Austin, dressed in what she imagined was the elegant garb of a Paiute princess, sat up in a tree writing delicate stories about desert Indians. More practically, over the decades the makers of ketchup and other condiments have fun-owed their brows at the bounding sales of hot sauce, spurred by the growth and influence of the nation’s Hispanic population.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:19 PDT
       
  • Vern Rutsala

    • Authors: Erik Muller
      Abstract: According to one version of regionalism, the poet readily draws from the experience of living in a particular place. The poet’s youthful books, like many first novels, depict the autobiography and the home scene. Later, the poet learns to generalize from the local or to abandon it altogether for a broader, more significant canvas. The poet progresses to writing about the universal.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:19 PDT
       
  • Laura Jensen

    • Authors: Dina Ben-Lev
      Abstract: Poet and critic Tess Gallagher has described Laura Jensen as “the Einstein of the ordinary.” Just as Einstein's theories disrupted the then common-sense understanding of a universe governed by immutable laws, Jensen’s poems transform our view of the everyday things we take for granted, the ordinary birds and flowers we no longer notice. “Behind a poem is a bad intention / to make the reader worry deeply,” Jensen writes in “What Is Poetry'”, a poem from her first chapbook (After 16). Her poems “worry” us because they force us to confront our fear of the unpredictability of the world. J. Bronowski, describing the magnitude of Einstein’s accomplishments, reminds us that within his lifetime Einstein linked forces previously thought to be separate and distinct: “Einstein joined light to time, and time to space; energy to matter, matter to space, and space to gravitation” (256). Jensen’s work achieves something similar, on a more domestic scale. Her celebrations of ordinary miracles are rendered in startling metaphors and unexpected juxtapositions of imagery.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:18 PDT
       
  • Garrett Hongo

    • Authors: Laurie Filipelli
      Abstract: Garrett Kongo’s poetic voice rises from cultural, historical, and personal memories. As a Yonsei (a fourth-generation Japanese American) born in Hawai i and raised largely in Los Angeles, his concerns span time and place, and his style links Asian and European traditions. He writes from the crowded trains and serene temples of his ancestral homeland, the lush jungles and active volcanoes of his birthplace, and the racial tension and dispossession of life in urban America, fitting the pieces together in a mosaic of self, family, and culture.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:18 PDT
       
  • Bernard DeVoto

    • Authors: Russell Burrows
      Abstract: Bernard DeVoto spent the years of the Second World War hard at work on two books. Although very different from one another, both books happened to have Western settings, far from the home DeVoto had been making for himself and his family in Cambridge, Massachusetts. One of these books seemed to pour itself from him, mounting to 100,000 words, then swelling to 150,000, and rounding out at about 170,000. Its subject was the mountain fur trade, the larger-than-life stories of Jim Bridger, Kit Carson, Tom Fitzpatrick, Joe Meek, Chief Joseph, Black Hawk, and many other trappers and natives. Making the book even more colorful was a graphic inset, the reproduction of a major historical recovery: this was a collection of paintings that had been done by Alfred Jacob Miller, one of the first artists to have made a record of the frontier. DeVoto gave his book the familiar title Across the Wide Missouri, which for a time may have blurred its formidability. However, his work was quickly recognized as a critical success, which included winning a Pulitzer in history and taking another award in the field, a Bancroft Prize.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:17 PDT
       
  • Frank Bergon

    • Authors: Gregory L. Morris
      Abstract: The story of Frank Bergon and of his fiction might well be said to begin with his grandparents. Bergon’s maternal grandparents—Esteban and Petra Mendive—both came to America, around the turn of the century, from the Basque region of Spain. His grandfather, born in Guernica, arrived first and eventually met his wife-to-be—a mail-order bride—at the train station in Salt Lake City. The two moved to Battle Mountain, Nevada, and there started a grocery and the Basque hotel; Bergon remembers, in fact, his grandmother operating the hotel until well into her eighties and well after her husband’s death. Esteban and Petra Mendive would have eight children; the second of the eight would be Bergon’s mother.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:16 PDT
       
  • Janet Campbell Hale

    • Authors: Frederick Hale
      Abstract: In the early 1970s, at an early stage of the “Native American Renaissance,” a period that witnessed a recrudescence of tribal literary efforts, historical consciousness, and demands for civil rights, Janet Campbell Hale quietly began to make her mark on the Native American cultural landscape. A young member of the Coeur d’Alene tribe, she was then residing in the San Francisco area and had written a novel for adolescents titled The Owl’s Song, which inaugurated a noteworthy career in ethnic fiction and has gone through many printings. Like most other Native American authors, Hale has not been highly prolific with the pen. Nevertheless, she has written books of poetry, autobiography, and fiction. Most of her work vividly reflects her background in a Plateau Indian culture, but it also sheds much light on her displacement from it and on her often tribulative life in ethnically disparate urban areas of the Pacific Northwest and northern California. Coupled with her facility as a writer, this dual cultural-geographical focus (relatively new in Native American literature when she began her career) ensures Hale a place in the annals of Western American literary history. The magnitude of that niche will presumably depend on the scope and quality of her production in the twenty-first century.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:16 PDT
       
  • Richard Ronan

    • Authors: Jane VanStavern
      Abstract: The new world, the new times, the new peoples, the new vistas, need a tongue according . . .
      —Walt WhitmanRichard Louis Ronan was a poet, playwright, and ikebana flower designer who lived in San Francisco with his partner, Bill Pittman, during the 1980s. He died of AIDS in 1989 at age 43, having produced six collections of poetry, seven plays, and several unpublished manuscripts. He received not only a Dodge Foundation Grant to teach poetry but also, while studying at Berkeley, the Emily Cook and Eisner Prizes. His versatility did not prevent him from excelling in several poetic forms: he wrote one of the strongest collections of narrative poetry published this half of the century, and the tension of his warring Zen and Catholic sensibilities gave life to an extraordinary lyric-dramatic poetry of the body.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:15 PDT
       
  • George Bird Grinnell

    • Authors: Robley Evans
      Abstract: As the United States frontier moved west in the nineteenth century, it developed as a locus for the myth of the American superman, a fabled combination of self-reliance and self-development in which the frontiersman fought savage beasts and wild Indians to push a great civilization through plains and forests to the Pacific Ocean. Ironically, to participate in the frontier’s expansion was to contribute to its destruction: as destiny and technology seemed to carry the nation toward its grand fulfillment, the wilderness with its challenging animals and murderous savages diminished. By the 1880s, thoughtful Americans believed that the West could no longer provide the character-building battlefield as it was known to Daniel Boone, Davy Crockett, or pioneer women on the Oregon Trail. As the United States reached its geographical limits and its position as an industrial power after the Civil War, the need seemed to arise for a supportive mythic vision, one that would encourage not only the preservation of wilderness values but also their use in justifying America’s development into an empire-building society. As an American myth, the frontier ethos would provide continued revitalization of the nation, keeping it from degenerating into “soft” European or “feminized” ways, as Theodore Roosevelt called them.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:14 PDT
       
  • Theodore Strong Van Dyke

    • Authors: Peter Wild
      Abstract: Few writers, no matter how popular in their day, can point to “firsts” in their literary careers. As to Theodore Strong Van Dyke, in the midst of the booming land sales of the 1880s, when trainloads of Midwesterners crowded into southern California to be fleeced by ready hucksters, Van Dyke sowed doubts about the direction which was applauded as progress. Particularly through his lightly sardonic novel Millionaires of a Day (1890), this friend of John Muir and Theodore Roosevelt initiated an American uneasiness that the hoopla over the region, and over the American West generally, was false, “. . . a fantasy of development gone wrong” (Wyatt 158). More than that, Millionaires is so artfully written it is “the classic” on the subject, the model for other writers following in Van Dyke’s wake (Walker 117).
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:14 PDT
       
  • Tess Gallagher

    • Authors: Ron McFarland
      Abstract: The voice of the poet may be one or polyvocal: bardic, prophetic, political, satiric, meditative, bucolic, sentimental, nostalgic. The voice of the poet may be deep or shallow, profound or silly, complex or easy, loud or soft. Nothing guarantees that we will like the work of any given poet except our own direct engagement with the poems. If some of our friends tell us we will like, or dislike, Tess Gallagher’s poems, it is probably because of something they know about us or about the poems themselves, and that something is most likely the voice they hear, whether consciously or not, from us and from the poems. Surely, though, the best way to discover a poet is on our own. We run into his or her work somewhere, and something about that voice reaches us. Becoming readers of Tess Gallagher, on the one hand, or of David Wagoner, on the other, should tell us something of ourselves. I assume that you are already attracted to Gallagher’s poems, or else you would not be reading this. Reading what follows should tell you something about Tess Gallagher’s poems and stories, and maybe, in an odd way, something about yourself.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:13 PDT
       
  • Jane Gilmore Rushing

    • Authors: Lou H. Rodenberger
      Abstract: Jane Gilmore Rushing begins an article entitled “People and Place,” commissioned by The Writer (September 1969) after publication of her second novel, with this self-assessment: “I think I am what you call a regional writer.” Such candid acknowledgement by a writer of what she perceives her role to be in the literary world is rare. Most writers steer clear of the designation of “regionalist,” even those whose works convey a powerful sense of place. Nevertheless, Jane Rushing’s explanation of her authorial selfimage dispels any doubt that she does indeed see herself as a regionalist, whose mission is to share with her readers the people and the place she knows best, her fellow Texans and the Rolling Plains of west Texas, where she was bom.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:12 PDT
       
  • Thomas and Elizabeth Savage

    • Authors: Sue Hart
      Abstract: Although Elizabeth Fitzgerald and Thomas Savage were born on opposite sides of the country, from early on it seemed as if they were as destined for each other as they were for careers in writing.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:12 PDT
       
  • Mark Medoff

    • Authors: Rudolf Erben
      Abstract: Mark Medoff grew up in the East, lives in the New West, but dreams of the Old West. In his essay “Adios, Old West,” he nostalgically calls himself a “child of the Old West” (1). Medoffs protagonists likewise romanticize the Western American past because they associate it with their own youthful innocence. But they learn to live with the far less romantic realities of an increasingly eastemized West. Like Medoff, they know that cowboys can no longer be role models. While they regret the decline of the heroic tradition, they realize that they cannot emulate outdated stereotypes. In his drama, Medoff redefines the Western heroic tradition and creates new myths for the New West.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:11 PDT
       
  • Caroline Lockhart

    • Authors: Norris Yates
      Abstract: When Caroline Lockhart traveled the mere four blocks to her editorial office at the Cody, Wyoming Enterprise, she often rode horseback and wore boots, spurs, and a Stetson. “Clumping and jingling” (Boyett 21 Aug. 1989: A-10), she played in person the two roles she consistently projected in her fiction: exemplar of how a woman with courage, will power, and initiative could attain goals traditionally reserved for men, and preserver of what she considered the most admirable and picturesque elements of Old West culture. During her long and eventful life, she pioneered as a woman reporter, crusaded as an editor, thrived as a rancher—and as an author, wrote seven novels in the formula Western vein. Of these works, “Me—Smith” (1911), The Lady Doc (1912), and The Fighting Shepherdess (1919) are the most provocative, but the other four also deserve rescue from the virtual oblivion into which all seven have fallen.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:11 PDT
       
  • Harold Bell Wright

    • Authors: Lawrence V. Tagg
      Abstract: In 1894 a penniless and ailing twenty-two-year-old man went into the Ozark Mountains near the town of Branson in southwestern Missouri in the hope of regaining his health. While his efforts were successful, the trip also set in motion the experiences that led to the writing of some of the most popular Western novels of the period, best sellers that brought fame and fortune to their author—Harold Bell Wright. He spent the next fifty years in the American West, and when he died he left behind a legacy of epic stories about the Ozarks, California, and Arizona.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:10 PDT
       
  • Laura Ingalls Wilder

    • Authors: Fred Erisman
      Abstract: A fluke of geography makes ours a westward-moving culture. Explorers and European settlers, the Atlantic at their backs, necessarily moved westward in their endeavors, and the pattern was begun. Succeeding eras saw new populations, the Gold Rush, and the Homestead Act, steadily pushing the line of settlement westward, until movement to the west became intimately associated in the public mind with the course of “progress” and the advancement of the nation. From this association come two of the most evocative of American cultural myths, those shared stories in a society’s history that provide “a symbolizing function that is central to the cultural functioning of the society that produces them....[and contain] all of the essential elements of our world view” (Slotkin 16). They are the beliefs that bind us together as a culture and that color our view of ourselves, our society, and our nation.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:09 PDT
       
  • Rex Beach

    • Authors: Abe C. Ravitz
      Abstract: One apocalyptic adventure marked the productive life and prolific literary career of Rex Ellingwood Beach (1877-1949), novelist, journalist, pioneer screenwriter, and sportsman: at the turn of the century as a spirited twenty-three-year-old spoiling for adventure and seeking quick wealth, he joined the mass of frenzied humanity heading for the gold fields of the Klondike. Though a fortune in nuggets eluded him and though his land speculation never brought the truly big score, Rex Beach discovered something more valuable than “gold in the pan": Alaska.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:09 PDT
       
  • Ann Zwinger

    • Authors: Peter Wild
      Abstract: At Constant Friendship, the Zwingers' hideaway in the Colorado Rockies, daughter Sara lounges on the raft in the middle of the lake. In the meadow, her sister Jane chases butterflies, while the family’s German shepherd, Graf, romps at her heels. Susan is off hiking in the surrounding forest. Meanwhile, the girls' father, a pilot retired from the Air Force, manfully hammers away on his latest building project. Nearby, his wife sits at her ease, sketching a plant she brought back from this morning’s stroll, then rushes to the spotting scope to identify a strange bird circling the pines.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:08 PDT
       
  • William Allen White

    • Authors: Diane Dufva Quantic
      Abstract: William Allen White was inevitable in Kansas: someone who epitomized the central nature of the region was bound to appear. White s career in journalism, politics, and literature reflects the radical changes in the American West between the Civil War and World War II. At the same time, his life reflects mainstream American values. Centrifugal forces that originated in his acquaintance with state and national people and events drew him East, but centripetal forces drew him back to Emporia: the newspaper business, his family, his genuine commitment to the town itself. Although his attempts to balance these varied interests produced obvious tensions in his life, they were also the sources of his strength as the “Sage of Emporia.”
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:07 PDT
       
  • Ishmael Reed

    • Authors: Jay Boyer
      Abstract: Ishmael Reed's beginnings as a writer can be traced to the East, to New York and New Jersey. Born in 1938, he attended the University of Buffalo. Then, after supporting himself through a series of temporary jobs, he found an apartment in New York City’s Hell's Kitchen district, went to work for the Newark Advance, set about writing his first novel, The Free-Lance Pallbearers, and published the first of his poetry in national anthologies.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:07 PDT
       
  • Peggy Pond Church

    • Authors: Shelley Armitage
      Abstract: Peggy Pond Church wrote one of the best-selling nonfiction books in University of New Mexico Press history, The House at Otowi Bridge (1959). Nevertheless, she was chiefly a poet. Critics of Southwestern and Western letters generally have praised her exceptional talents, citing not only her steady maturing ear, but her polished forms and regional voice. She published eight volumes of poetry during her life and was honored in 1984 with the New Mexico Governor's Award for Literature. Fifty years before, Elizabeth Shepley Sergeant prophesied in The Saturday Review of Literature that here was “a pristine young poetess . . . probably the first real New Mexican to produce a book of undeniable poetic promise out of her region and her life” (34). Certainly two other awards—The Longmont, given for the outstanding merit of The House at Otowi Bridge, and the Julia Ellsworth Ford Foundation prize for her humorous children's tale, The Burro of Angelitos—certified that a graceful stylist was at work in producing nonfiction as well. Church ranks first among writers published by the Rydal Press in the Writers’ Editions of the 1920s and 1930s, and her accomplishments as a poet began during a flowering of New Mexico arts and letters. Because of her poetic gift of language, when the New York Times Book Review asked playwright Lanford Wilson to tell its readers what were the best books of 1982, he instead lauded Otowi Bridge, which he had just discovered. Though Church is still regarded as a local or regional writer, her work has begun, deservedly, to attract a wider readership.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:06 PDT
       
  • William Humphrey

    • Authors: Mark Royden Winchell
      Abstract: Unlike Europeans, Americans inhabit a vast land with a short history. For that reason, we have always tended to mythologize our experience in terms of space rather than time. In his essay “Boxing the Compass,” Leslie Fiedler even goes so far as to argue that American Literature can be broken down into regional subgenres—the Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western. Most readers, however, would recognize only two of these categories. Whether or not there is such a thing as an “Eastern” or a “Northern,” the South and the West clearly have been ahead—or perhaps behind—the rest of the country in cherishing a sense of sectional identity. The possibilities for song and story are particularly intriguing for writers who can claim citizenship in both regions. Such is the case of the East Texas native William Humphrey.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:06 PDT
       
  • Bess Streeter Aldrich

    • Authors: Abigail Ann Martin
      Abstract: “Nebraska,” wrote Bess Streeter Aldrich, “is only the state of my adoption, but I am sure that I feel all the loyalty for it which the native-born bears . . . while I am not a native Nebraskan, the blood of the midwestern pioneer runs in my veins and I come rightly by my love for the Nebraska pioneer and admiration for the courage and fortitude which he displayed in the early days of the state s history ...” (Introduction to The Rim of the Prairie).
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:05 PDT
       
  • Winston M. Estes

    • Authors: Bob J. Frye
      Abstract: Winston Estes is a regional writer. His published and unpublished fiction, with few exceptions, focuses on the Southwest—Texas in particular. In November 1973 his fourth book, A Simple Act of Kindness (1973), received the Southwest Fiction Award from the Border Regional Library Association in El Paso. Among his hundreds of unpublished letters is one of 21 September 1970 to P.G. Wodehouse. After thanking Wodehouse for his kind remarks about Estes's first novel, Another Part of the House (1970), Estes notes that he is about to finish his next book: “It, too, has a Texas setting. I’ve spent years trying to break away from that little town, those people, that scenery, but no matter what I write, it comes out Texas.”
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:04 PDT
       
  • Lawerence Clark Powell

    • Authors: Gerald Haslam
      Abstract: Passion is the trait that most marks the varied careers of Lawrence Clark Powell. Not blind passion, of course, but as innovative librarian, as educator, as scholar, as critic, and as novelist, he has proceeded with an ardor that stands out: this son of the Southwest cares. Little is merely perfunctory or abstract in Powell’s work.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:04 PDT
       
  • Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca

    • Authors: Peter Wild
      Abstract: Recounting his adventures on an unknown continent, Cabeza de Vaca passes on a story he heard in an Indian village:
      They said that a little man wandered through the region whom they called Badthing [Mala Cosa]. He had a beard and they never saw his features distinctly. When he came to a house, the inhabitants trembled and their hair stood on end. A blazing brand would suddenly shine at the door as he rushed in and seized whom he chose, deeply gashing him in the side with a very sharp flint two palms long and a hand wide. He would thrust his hand through the gashes, draw out the entrails, cut a palm's length from one, and throw it on the embers. Then he would gash an arm three times, the second cut on the inside of the elbow, and would sever the limb. A little later he would begin to rejoin it, and the touch of his hands would instantly heal the wounds. (90)A chilling or preposterous tale, depending on one's viewpoint, but in any case a colorful one.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:03 PDT
       
  • Caroly Ryrie Brink

    • Authors: Mary E. Reed
      Abstract: For a gifted storyteller with the ability to pluck the extraordinary from the ordinary, the occasion of Carol Ryrie Brink’s birth would give her the opportunity to introduce herself into a particular place and time. Her life tentatively began on 28 December 1895. She grew up hearing the story of that winter evening from her grandmother until it became her own. Her grandfather, Dr. William W. Watkins, arrived at the Ryries' house on a sleigh pulled through the snow by his high-stepping horse. As the doctor pumped the baby’s small arms up and down and blew his tobacco-scented breath into the cold, still body, an anxious father and exhausted mother waited to hear the thin cry. As Brink tells in her reminiscences, “I gave a sharp cry and began what has been a marvelous and rewarding journey, a thing too precious to be minimized, my lovely life” (Chain of Hands 6).
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:02 PDT
       
  • Jeanne Williams

    • Authors: Judy Alter
      Abstract: Author of fifty books, all but two of them fiction, Jeanne Williams is a prolific and versatile novelist. She has over ten million books in print and has three times won the Spur Award for fiction from Western Writers of America and once the prestigious Levi Strauss Golden Saddleman Award for the Best Western Book of the Year. She writes convincingly of England, Medieval Wales, Norway, Mexico, and the United States, especially the frontier in Kansas, Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. In spite of this wide-ranging subject matter, the American West and its history remain an enduring interest, and Williams has written of Indians, Mennonites and Mormons, Basque sheepherders and Arizona miners, lumberjacks and bird watchers, army wives and cattle ranchers.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:01 PDT
       
  • James D. Houston

    • Authors: Jonah Raskin
      Abstract: Wallace Stegner defined one of the dilemmas facing the Western American regional writer when he observed, “The moment we segregate a writer and put the tag ‘Western’ on him we have implicitly downgraded him into some secondary category. If he's a writer we truly admire, we more often than not forget the regional limitation and think of him simply as a contemporary writer” (Stegner and Etulain 137). James D. Houston—a student of Stegner's at Stanford University and a long-time admirer of Stegner's work—has wrestled with this dilemma and has expressed a deep-seated ambivalence about his own identity and place as a Western writer. He has wanted to be known as a California regionalist, and he has accepted and worked within the confines of Western fiction. But he has also thought of himself as a writer who speaks for the American nation, and he has rebelled against the confines of the region. Casting himself as a literary cartographer, he has mapped not only the ways that California reflects the national pattern but also the ways that it offers distinctive variations.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:01 PDT
       
  • Dee Brown

    • Authors: Lyman B. Hagen
      Abstract: In 1974, Choice magazine voiced a widely held opinion when it characterized Dee A. Brown as “a distinguished writer of Western history” (284). By then he had also become known to a wide audience as a first-rate storyteller. Yet prior to the publication in 1970 of Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, he had labored in relative obscurity, athough writing a steady stream of novels, articles, and historical reference books. Then the success and acceptance of Bury My Heart lifted him to national prominence.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:00 PDT
       
  • Paula Gunn Allen

    • Authors: Elizabeth I. Hanson
      Abstract: “The breed is an Indian who is not an Indian.”
      Paula Gunn Allen, “A Stranger in My Own Life”At the center of Paula Gunn Allen’s vision of self and art is an individual alienated within. For Allen the idea of the “breed” reflects a preoccupation with alienation as a personal and as an aesthetic experience. Allen’s biography, her understanding of Native American literature, and her works of art and criticism are informed by the consciousness that “breeds” are aliens to traditional Native Americans and yet also aliens among whites. To know Allen’s life and work is to reflect deeply on the meaning of “breed” in Native American experience. Also, to know her life and work is to gain peculiar insight into the transformative art concealed within the alien’s exceptionally acute visionary power. To stand outside, to be and yet not to be, becomes, at least in Allen’s case, a source of subtle self-exploration as well as extraordinary art.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:51:00 PDT
       
  • George Wharton James

    • Authors: Peter Wild
      Abstract: The teenager mouthing poems before a mirror in an English industrial town would go on to enthrall overflow audiences at the San Diego Exposition of 1916. Away from the podium, he would earn large reputations as an anthropologist, explorer, social reformer, and booster of his adopted land. Along the way, he picked up some smudges: accusations of lying, of questionable tactics in selfpromotion, and of heinous sexual acts. Above all, he would write, producing much curious froth, such as The Story of Captain: The Horse with the Human Brain. The title alone shows how far George Wharton James would swing off into fantasyland. But on the other end of the spectrum, The Wonders of the Colorado Desert and several other volumes enriched the nascent tradition of Western American literature. Perhaps more importantly, James’s observations on other writers of his region, though not always accurate according to today’s critical lights, would lend shape to that emerging tradition and help it thrive. But first, he would have to cross an ocean and then a continent.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:59 PDT
       
  • Matt Braun

    • Authors: Robert L. Gale
      Abstract: Matthew Braun is a successful author of Western novels and criticism of Western fiction. He was bom outside Elk City, Oklahoma, in 1932. His family tree includes hunters, settlers, ranchers, stock inspectors, and members of the Cherokee tribe. From his early years Matt Braun associated with Cherokee and Osage Indians. During World War II, while his father was in the U.S. Navy and his mother worked at an army base, Braun went to a military academy in Bartlesville. After attending another academy at Claremore, he enrolled in a junior college, then graduated from Florida State University in 1954, with a degree in journalism. He then spent two years in the Army, taking ranger training, then teaching survival tactics, and close-quarter and hand-to-hand armed combat at Fort Benning and Fort Stewart, and was honorably discharged as a first lieutenant. During this time, Braun also honed his skills as a middleweight boxer, horseman, crack shot, and hunter (shooting only what he ate).
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:58 PDT
       
  • John Graves

    • Authors: Dorys Crow Grover
      Abstract: John Graves, a Texas-born naturalist, visited the Brazos River in north-central Texas in 1957, after a decade of world wandering, and wrote a farewell to a river, a book that has become a pastoral classic in American belles-lettres. Goodbye to a River has since been joined by two other nature volumes, and all three have earned for Graves a considerable reputation for his literary style. M. E. Bradford writes that Graves’s voice is “deceptively simple and disarmingly personal in its flavor” (“John Graves” 142). In his craft, he joins fellow Texans Roy Bedichek and J. Frank Dobie, and his name should be added to the list of contemporary nature writers—including Edward Abbey, Annie Dillard, Louis Bromfield, John McPhee, and Gary Snyder—for he has inherited that peculiar combination of autobiography, natural history, and philosophy which can be traced to early naturalists William Bartram, Henry David Thoreau, and John Muir.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:58 PDT
       
  • David Henry Hwang

    • Authors: Douglas Street
      Abstract: I am much better now .... My parents—they don’t know nothing about the world, about watching Benson at the Roxy, . . . downshifting onto the Ventura Freeway at midnight. They’re yellow ghosts and they’ve tried to cage me up with Chinese-ness when all the time we were in America. So, I’ve had to work real hard—real hard—to be myself. To not be a Chinese, a yellow, a slant, a gook. To be just a human being, like everyone else. I’ve paid my dues. And that’s why I am much better now. I’m making it, you know' I’m making it in America. (FOB 36)Traditionally, the predominant images of the Asian and the Asian-American in popular culture have been created and exploited by Westerners. This historical evolution of the “coolie” laborer and laundryman, Bret Harte’s so-called “heathen Chinee’,” has largely resulted from Old West myth-making. The Chinese railroad worker of the last century hammered together America’s backbone while his own was being broken. Yet generations of Asian-Americans have chosen to forget this heritage. As articulated above by playwright David Henry Hwang, it stands as an obstacle to assimilation into the majority culture. Instead they risk becoming “yellow ghosts,” trapped within stereotypes, the perpetual “Hop Sings” of the American “Ponderosa.” But for Hwang and a new generation of Asian-American voices, the keys to unlock the vitality of their heritage are to be found in the American West—the railroad, the Mother Lode, the bygone joss houses in gold rush towns like Chinese Camp. In these lie the Oriental heritage and the anguish of forgotten Western American trailblazers.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:57 PDT
       
  • David Wagoner

    • Authors: Ron McFarland
      Abstract: Writing for Mademoiselle in the spring of 1971, David Wagoner described his introduction to the Northwest as an ordeal lasting some five minutes. He had grown up in Whiting, Indiana, where his father had worked as a smelter at the steel mills in the industrial wasteland between Gary, Indiana, and Chicago, Illinois. Those images from his childhood are recorded in his first collection of poems, Dry Sun, Dry Wind (1953), and in five novels which are centered in the urban Midwest. But in 1971 the forty-five-year-old poet and novelist could speak not as a Midwesterner, but as a Westerner: “I parked my car on an off-shoot of a gravel road along the Olympic Peninsula’s Hoh River near one of the last two virgin rain forests in North America . . . , took one look at the maze of sword ferns, huckleberry, wildflowers, seedling firs, moss and incredibly welcoming greenness of a world I’d never imagined, and started walking straight in, as though I expected to be met by God. But the god turned out to be Pan, and when I’d finished my panicky circles in his honor a few hours later, I clung to my rediscovered steering wheel with what felt like a new wisdom. I was no longer a Middle Westerner” (246).
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:56 PDT
       
  • Joseph Wood Krutch

    • Authors: Paul N. Pavich
      Abstract: Joseph Wood Krutch’s first encounter with the West was a turning point in his life. In his autobiography, More Lives Than One, he says, “No sooner were we speeding along the roller coaster road which leads across the undulating desert towards Albuquerque than I felt a sudden lifting of the heart. It seemed almost as though I had lived there in some happier previous existence and was coming back home” (308). This sense of being at home was to lead him to abandon his academic life at Columbia University as well as his position as prominent critic of the New York theater in order to move to the desert near Tucson. There he would become an articulate spokesman for the essential value of man’s relationship to his natural environment. This brief study serves as an introduction to his nature writing and social criticism after the mid-1940s when he had come under the influence of both Thoreau and the Southwest. My main focus will be an examination of his work from the last two decades of his life when he had become one of the foremost intellectuals in America.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:56 PDT
       
  • Tony Hillerman

    • Authors: Fred Erisman
      Abstract: Readers quickly discover that there are three Tony Hillermans. One is the reporter, the streetwise observer of all the grandeur and all the depravity of the human race. Another is the storyteller, the person who sees in life’s events an endless source of entertainment. The third is the Southwestemer, a native of the region acutely aware of the locale’s complex uniqueness and the strata of human history that it embraces. All three personae merge in Hillerman’s writings, placing him solidly in the veritistic tradition established almost a century ago by Hamlin Garland. Writing in Crumbling Idols (1894), Garland calls for a new literary realism that will capitalize upon the artistic possibilities of the diverse regional materials of the United States. This realism, he says, will derive from the native’s sense of the basic human truths present in local materials: “The real utterance of a city or a locality can only come when a writer is bom out of its intimate heart. To such a one, nothing will be ‘strange’ or ‘picturesque’; all will be familiar, and full of significance or beauty” (61).
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:55 PDT
       
  • Ernest Haycox

    • Authors: Richard W. Etulain
      Abstract: In the mid-1950s noted journalist and historian Bernard De Voto referred to novelist Ernest Haycox (1899-1950), as “the old pro of horse opera,” the writer who “came closer than anyone else to making good novels” of the popular Western. Haycox, continued De Voto, “left his mark—I should say brand—on the style as well as the content of the Western” (14). In the nearly two generations since Haycox’s death many other commentators on the Old West as well as several writers of Westerns have agreed with De Voto in assigning Ernest Haycox a pivotal role in the development of the fictional Western. While specialists in Western American literature frequently dismiss Haycox and other writers of Westerns, those acquainted with the popular genre often compare his fiction favorably with that of Zane Grey, Luke Short, and Louis L’Amour.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:55 PDT
       
  • Edward Dorn

    • Authors: William McPheron
      Abstract: Edward Dorn is a political poet committed to the ideals of democratic culture. A fierce partisan of the free play of critical thought, he is acutely sensitive to the socio-economic forces aligned against an open society. “Democracy,” he insists, “literally has to be cracked on the head all the time to keep it in good condition” (Contemporary
      Authors 129), and he understands its most serious enemy to be capitalism’s enormous power, which in the post-World Wai- II era has reached beyond the marketplace to infiltrate and control every aspect of American life. Though he despises the bourgeois ethos that sustains these commercial interests, Dorn remains hostile to all parties and ideologies, rejecting liberal pieties as well as conservative platitudes. He advocates neither party nor platform but offers instead a tensely alert mind that challenges every form of political and cultural authority. The result is a series of imaginative, intellectually provocative, and steadily more disturbing images of the American nation.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:54 PDT
       
  • Kenneth Rexroth

    • Authors: Lee Bartlett
      Abstract: In his introduction to a festschrift for Kenneth Rexroth, Geoffrey Gardner points out that “one of the great paradoxes of Rexroth’s enormously paradoxical career is that his widest reputation is for being the promoter of some vaguely defined avant garde of which he is also a member.” This is both true and unfortunate: true because Rexroth has done much to aid younger writers through the years (he was a presiding figure over at least two important “movements” in contemporary writing—the first San Francisco Renaissance of the forties, which brought attention to writers like Robert Duncan, William Everson, Philip Lamantia, and Thomas Parkinson, and the later Beat Generation, which proved a breakthrough for Allen Ginsberg, Gary Snyder, Michael McClure, Philip Whalen, and others); unfortunate because Rexroth’s efforts in this area, and his finely-honed polemical skill which he put at the service of those writers and causes he believed in, have tended to overshadow (and he is not unlike Ezra Pound in this regard) his achievement as a poet.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:53 PDT
       
  • John C. Van Dyke: The Desert

    • Authors: Peter Wild
      Abstract: During the late spring of 1898, a strange figure made his way eastward through windy San Gorgonio Pass and disappeared into the thousands of square miles of desert beyond. He didn’t know where he was going, his horse carried only Spartan supplies, and, to top off his prospects, he was seriously ill. The few men who watched him leave civilization shook their heads. Surely he would die out there in the uninhabited, bleak spaces stretching off for hundreds of miles, die of starvation, thirst, snake bite, madness—almost pick what you will. At the time, coastal southern California was booming with agricultural schemes and the beginnings of industry, but hope-filled residents contemplating the unappealing regions inland shared a centuries-old notion about deserts. They were useless and threatening, no places for a white man.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:52 PDT
       
  • D'Arcy McNickle

    • Authors: James Ruppert
      Abstract: A man of many talents, D’Arcy McNickle was noted as a public official, historian, Indian Rights advocate, and novelist. Through his writing and years of tireless public and personal service, McNickle influenced the history of white/Indian interaction, an interaction which was the focus of his energies and intellect. Today many scholars consider him to be the grandfather of Modern Native American Literature and Modern Native American Ethnohistory.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:52 PDT
       
  • Lanford Wilson

    • Authors: Mark Busby
      Abstract: Vincent, the main character in Lanford Wilson’s first Broadway play, The Gingham Dog, explains that he left his small Kentucky town for New York because he was “sick of small peopleambitions—hopes—small hopelessness,” and he thought that New Yorkers “could comprehend something outside themselves, respond.” It was perhaps a similar attraction that brought Lanford Wilson from a small farm near Ozark, Missouri, to the bright lights of the Great White Way, but just as Vincent eventually discovers, Wilson learned that continuing connections with one’s region remain. He also knows that coming home is not always wrapped in comfortable nostalgia. Nonetheless, some of Lanford Wilson’s greatest successes as a playtvright have come when he husbanded his Midwestern roots as the subjects for his plays.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:51 PDT
       
  • Helen Hunt Jackson

    • Authors: Rosemary Whitaker
      Abstract: Amherst, Massachusetts, is noted as the birthplace of Emily Dickinson, universally recognized as one of America’s finest poets. Yet in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Amherst was better known as the birthplace of Helen Hunt Jackson, who had been a childhood friend of Emily Dickinson’s and had become a prominent writer while Dickinson remained in obscurity. Emily and Helen were two of the “Amherst girls,” an unusual group of offspring of Amherst College faculty, administrators, and trustees. One of the group, Emily Fowler, who acquired some brief notice as an author, wrote about her youth, “There was a fine circle of young people in Amherst, and we influenced each other strongly. We were in the adoring mood, and I am glad to say that many of those idols who composed this group had talent enough for twice their number, and in their respective spheres of mothers, authors, or women, have been notable and admirable” (Sewall, Life 369).
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:50 PDT
       
  • Ole Edvart Rølvaag

    • Authors: Ann Moseley
      Abstract: Like the Norwegian folk hero the Ash Lad whom he was so fond of writing about, Ole Edvart Rølvaag's life and works can be seen as a search for the truth about himself and his world—both the Norwegian world whence he came and the American world to which he came. Combining realism with myth, Rølvaag explores the physical, psychological, and moral effects of Midwestern life on the immigrant pioneer as well as the rich mythic background that supports and universalizes the characters, structures, and themes of his fiction. In his analysis of the tension between Norwegian cultural traditions and the American Dream of prosperity and happiness, however, Rølvaag identifies a primary source of the individuality and alienation that are inherent in American literature. Paradoxically, his examination of the polarities of the Old World and the New, the material and the spiritual, the individual and society, identity and alienation, is also quintessentially American, for as Richard Chase has observed, “The imagination that has produced much of the best and most characteristic American fiction has been shaped by the contradictions and not by the unities and harmonies of our culture” (The American Novel 1). In Rølvaag's fiction these contradictions within his own personality and within the American character are best expressed in Per Hansa and Beret of Giants in the Earth, his masterpiece.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:50 PDT
       
  • John Gregory Dunne

    • Authors: Mark Royden Winchell
      Abstract: In the January 1981 issue of Horizon, John Lahr writes: “California is a state of amateur outdoorsmen—of runners, of swimmers, of bikers, of sailors, and of golfers. Here, the surface of life can be enjoyed without analysis. Amidst the sun, surf, and caesar salads, intellectual stimulation is never a high priority.” He goes on to trash those who “never question the consequences of Los Angeles or the California scene . . . —the general absence of community, the moral stupor, the greedy self-aggrandizement, and the emotional impoverishment that characterize and enchant the place” (“Entrepreneurs” 39). These comments, so typical of a certain anti-California mentality, would scarcely be worth our notice except that they are contained in a particularly mean-spirited attack on two of the most prominent writers of the contemporary American West—Joan Didion and John Gregory Dunne. Because of Didion’s heritage as a fifth-generation Californian, her identity as a Western writer is generally conceded and has been frequently discussed. Transplanted from the East, Dunne’s roots do not go as deep as hers, but he compensates by writing with a convert’s zeal about his adopted home. Since an examination of Dunne as a naturalized Westerner is long overdue, let us leave the moral posturings of John Lahr to see what all the fuss is about.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:49 PDT
       
  • Simon Ortiz

    • Authors: Andrew Wiget
      Abstract: The emergence of a contemporary literature written in English by Native Americans has forced yet another reassessment of what constitutes a “Western American” literature. That Native American writers like Leslie Silko, N. Scott Momaday, and James Welch have been well-received both by academe and the mass market suggests on the one hand that these Native American writers have a good deal in common with Anglo-American literary traditions, both canonical and popular. On the other hand, the fact that they can be identified as “Native American” because of their preoccupation with particular themes or attitudes toward their art suggests that there is an alternative framework for evaluation.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:48 PDT
       
  • John Nichols

    • Authors: Peter Wild
      Abstract: Liza Minnelli leaps into most people’s minds at the mention of The Sterile Cuckoo. Starring in the film released by Paramount in 1969, she played a teenager at turns vivacious and vulnerable, always intriguingly unpredictable. Even now, much of the public retains the image of endearing, if somewhat fey, co-ed Minnelli bubbling through the bittersweet adventures of a campus love affair. Her performance, perhaps more than the novel of the same title published four years earlier, launched John Nichols’ career by ingratiating the author with an American audience easily spellbound by youthful verve.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:48 PDT
       
  • Elmer Kelton

    • Authors: Lawrence Clayton
      Abstract: Although Elmer Kelton is well known as a livestock journalist, he has produced twenty-six novels in which—with two exceptions—he has chronicled the settlement of the Texas frontier. He begins his study with the days of early settlement by Anglos in the Stephen F. Austin Colony in southeast Texas and includes the war with Mexico, the Civil War, and the burgeoning of the cattle kingdom. He ends his Texas saga in the modem period with an aging rancher battling drought and federal bureaucracy.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:47 PDT
       
  • Robert Cantwell

    • Authors: Merrill Lewis
      Abstract: Robert Emmett Cantwell died at seventy in New York City on 8 December 1978 with his roots in the Pacific Northwest unacknowledged and his varied career as a professional writer still largely unrecognized and unaccounted for. The career that started with the publication of a short story, "Hang by My Thumbs,” in 1929 and included the publication of two highly regarded novels, Laugh and Lie Down in 1931 and The Land of Plenty in 1934, seemed to have receded into obscurity.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:46 PDT
       
  • Charles Sealsfield

    • Authors: Walter Grünzweig
      Abstract: The death of an aging, terminally ill American in the small city of Solothurn, Switzerland, on 26 May 1864, did not receive much public attention at first. Charles Sealsfield had lived on his small estate for some six years and was generally regarded as an eccentric, a writer who had known fame in his earlier days but who had long since resigned himself to a peaceful existence in Switzerland, one of the few non-autocratic countries in Europe at that time. To everyone’s surprise, however, the execution of his last will revealed that the old writer was not born in Pennsylvania, as his U.S. passport indicated, but in Poppitz, a small village in Southern Moravia, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (today Czechoslovakia). It appeared that his true name was Karl Postl, that he was born in Poppitz in the year 1793, and that his father, Anton Postl, was a farmer in the same village, employed by a monastic order with headquarters in Prague.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:46 PDT
       
  • John Haines

    • Authors: Peter Wild
      Abstract: The sun shines dully through the winter gray for a few hours, then pitches feebly down. Blackness creeps back to cover the frozen forest stretching for hundreds of miles in every direction. Through the psychotically long night the temperature moves down toward thirty, forty, maybe fifty, degrees or more below zero. Central Alaska is a grim place.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:45 PDT
       
  • William Everson

    • Authors: Lee Bartlett
      Abstract: No modern poet has been more dedicated to the American West as both place and idea than William Everson. From his first chapbook. These Are the Ravens (1935), to his most recent full-length volume of poetry. Masks of Drought (1981), and his prose meditations, Birth of a Poet (1982), Everson has asked us again and again to understand the power of what he calls the “archetype of the West": “the Western writer stands as term of the American impulse, and as term he constitutes its mainstream rather than a merely peripheral and incidental relevance” (Archetype West 147). While during the eighteen years he spent as Brother Antoninus, a Dominican monk, the poet’s concerns with his region were at times overshadowed by an ongoing conflict between the spirit and the flesh as the religious quest unfolded, it was even then his sense of place which sustained his life and nurtured his art:
      One of the deepest needs of the human soul is for centeredness, a focus of coherence and signification which confers meaning on the shapelessness of temporal existence. Of many possibilities perhaps the most basic, after man’s awareness of the family, is the apprehension of his immediate locale .... As such, the recourse to landscape in the need for coherence has from time immemorial elevated man to his most profound religious intuitions. Mountains, valleys, rivers, islands. Always he has looked to the configuration of the world about him for the face of God. ("The Regional Incentive," Earth Poetry 195)
      And in the West, it is a face writ large.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:44 PDT
       
  • Barry Lopez

    • Authors: Peter Wild
      Abstract: In 1685, the people of Ansbach, Germany, chased a wolf. After finally killing it, they dressed the dead animal as a man, fixed a human mask to the carcass, then strung it up in the town square. Two hundred and ninety years later, Edward Abbey, a part-time forest ranger, writer, and self-styled hermit, wrote The Monkey Wrench Gang (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1975). In his picaresque novel, a merry band of malcontents roars over the mountains and through the canyons of the American Southwest on midnight forays. They burn down signs advertising real estate and pour Karo syrup into the bowels of bulldozers.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:44 PDT
       
  • Western American Literary Criticism

    • Authors: Martin Bucco
      Abstract: The Westward Movement carried with it much of the transatlantic and colonial heritage. In 1758 almanac-maker Nathaniel Ames prophetically remarked: “So Arts and Sciences will change the Face of Nature in their Tour from Hence over the Appalachian Mountains to the Western Ocean." This conviction J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur also upheld in his Letters from an American Farmer (1782). Of course, most frontier folk preferred practical education, many even attributing book lamin’ to Old Nick. Still, from the beginning there was Western literary criticism—notions, talk, jottings about Western themes, Western writings, Western writers.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:43 PDT
       
  • William Saroyan

    • Authors: Edward Halsey Foster
      Abstract: What is there still to say about William Saroyan' Was he, after all, primarily a writer of his time—whom we read mainly to recover a sense of what his generation enjoyed' Was he, finally, as many have insisted, an entertainer, pleasant to read but easy to forget'
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:42 PDT
       
  • Sophus K. Winther

    • Authors: Barbara Howard Meldrum
      Abstract: Like Wallace Stegner, Sophus Keith Winther feels uncomfortable with the label “Western writer.” For Stegner, the label too often smacks of horse-opera: outworn myths that lacked historical basis to begin with. Winther’s objection has less to do with subject matter, more to do with theme and character: regionalism—whether Western or Southern, or Wessex—too often exploits superficial traits of a locality, whereas enduring literature reveals the universal drama of the human condition (“The Limits of Regionalism”). Stegner and Winther agree, however, that a writer should begin with what he or she knows best; if one’s experience is Western, then Western regionalism may well be the soil in which one’s art will germinate. Winther’s Grimsen trilogy is firmly rooted in the Nebraska farmlands, and his Beyond the Garden Gate fairly shimmers with the lush, rainsoaked Willamette Valley of Oregon. The places where he grew up have become the vital scenes for his fiction; his characters, often recognizably drawn from real life, work out their destinies in a social context that is indigenous to the natural setting.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:42 PDT
       
  • Richard Hugo

    • Authors: Donna Gerstenberger
      Abstract: Of the Pacific Northwest’s four major modern poets—Richard Hugo, Theodore Roethke, William Stafford, and David Wagoner—only Richard Hugo was born and reared in the region, a fact which significantly marks the experience of his poems. In fact, if one set out to imagine Northwest lives spanning the last sixty years, one of those imagined lives ought to look very much like Hugo’s, except, of course, that out of his life he made poetry.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:41 PDT
       
  • James Welch

    • Authors: Peter Wild
      Abstract: On their way to work, Americans hurried past disciples of Hare Krishna, orange-robed and seemingly from another planet, chanting in the streets. Home again that night they watched Neil Armstrong tread the lunar rubble, or they gaped at villages swelling up in instant clouds of napalm. In a land that idolized youth, college students were “trashing” their own campuses, while young blacks, in a strange counterpart to the war in far-off Asia, were setting fire to their own ghettos. The greatest scandal since Teapot Dome was about to give yet another violent shake to Americans’ confidence in who they were and where they were speeding, bewildered, into the future.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:40 PDT
       
  • Preston Jones

    • Authors: Mark Busby
      Abstract: When Preston Jones burst upon the national scene, it was like an unknown store clerk strapping on a .45 to take on the established gunslinger in the middle of the street. Suddenly Jones was famous. His picture appeared on the covers of Smithsonian and Saturday Review. He was the subject of a PBS television special. He was compared with Tennessee Williams and Eugene O’Neill. (Saturday Review’s cover asked: “Has Texas Spawned a New O’Neill'”) His three plays, collectively titled A Texas Trilogy, enjoyed a great deal of success after they opened at the Dallas Theater Center (where Jones had worked as an actor for thirteen years before he gained recognition as a playwright) and traveled north toward New York. The plays were especially well-received in Washington where, playing in repertory, they had an extended run at the Kennedy Center.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:40 PDT
       
  • Struthers Burt

    • Authors: Raymond C. Phillips Jr.
      Abstract: If the pen is mightier than the sword, Maxwell Struthers Burt was a stalwart warrior. Poet, essayist, novelist, short story writer, librettist, reviewer, author of a literary manifesto, contributor to letter-to-the-editor columns, and personal letter writer, Burt seems never to have stopped writing over a career of a half-century. His principal publisher was Charles Scribner’s Sons, which, under the editorial leadership of Maxwell Perkins, published the work of Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Thomas Wolfe, and a variety of other respected writers. Burt’s articles, essays, poems, and stories appeared in many of the most successful magazines in America: Scribner's Magazine, The Saturday Evening Post, The Red Book Magazine, Ladies’ Home Journal, and The North American Review. He wrote scores of reviews for such publications as The Saturday Review of Literature, the New York Times, and the Philadelphia Record. Untiringly, Burt sent his views to the editors of far-flung newspapers: the Jackson's Hole Courier, the St. Petersburg Times, the Princeton Alumni Weekly, and the New York Herald Tribune. The “Most Unforgettable Character” he had ever met. an old-time cowboy named Cal Carrington, was the subject of Burt’s article in The Reader’s Digest. When totalitarianism threatened the writers’ freedom in 1941, Burt wrote and circulated the American
      Authors ’ Manifesto, which was signed by one hundred writers, including E. B. White, Frank Waters, Floyd Dell, and Max Lerner. The Best Short Stories of 1915 honored Burt’s “The Water-Hole,” and his fine story “Each in His Generation” won first prize in the 0. Henry Memorial Award competition in 1920. Respected, frequently praised, and widely read in the 1920s and 1930s, Burt, the stalwart warrior, is today a forgotten soldier.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:39 PDT
       
  • Mabel Dodge Luhan

    • Authors: Jane V. Nelson
      Abstract: Mabel Dodge Luhan is best known for her social affairs in Florence, New York City, and Taos, and for her remarkable ability to meet and court influential people such as Gertrude Stein, Isadora Duncan, John Reed, and D.H. Lawrence. Her activities in Taos, comprising the second half of her life, have attracted the most attention. There she married a Pueblo Indian and persuaded several writers and artists to visit her, helping to establish the basis for a lively community of artists. She is an acknowledged influence on such writers as Willa Gather, Mary Austin, D.H. Lawrence, and Frank Waters. In the 1920s, Luhan herself decided to pursue a career in writing. Within a decade she published six books. All autobiographical, these books provide the high quality gossip expected by her public; but they also contain much more than the personal memories that are still valuable to social historians. Claiming to have experienced a spiritual conversion in Taos, Luhan writes from the perspective of a converted prophet. In her works, consequently, she defines a romantic and mystical vision of the Southwest shared by many of her guests and friends in Taos.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:38 PDT
       
  • Horace McCoy

    • Authors: Mark Royden Winchell
      Abstract: Upon returning from Paris in 1946, Vogue editor Allene Talmey observed: “Everyone in the knowledgeable world talks about American writers, about a curious trinity: Hemingway, Faulkner, and McCoy” ("Paris Quick Notes/About Sartre, Gide, Cocteau, Politics,/The Theatre, and Inflation," Vogue, January 15, 1947, p. 92). Although he has long had an enthusiastic following overseas, the California novelist Horace McCoy (1897-1955) is virtually unknown in the United States. Here, all five of his novels are out of print and the published scholarship on those novels is minimal. Nevertheless, McCoy was a serious artist who helped extend the boundaries of the indigenously American genre of hard-boiled or tough-guy fiction. Moreover, his life and work demonstrate the paradoxical significance of the West within our national mythology.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:37 PDT
       
  • Will Henry / Clay Fisher

    • Authors: Robert L. Gale
      Abstract: Henry Wilson Allen is a controversial and exciting Western author. He is also perhaps the most underrated, persistently overlooked of the major writers of the American West. He has used two pen names —"Clay Fisher" and "Will Henry" —and his own name in two forms (Henry Wilson Allen and Henry W. Allen) to sign a total of more than fifty books, almost all of them novels, from 1950 to the present.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:37 PDT
       
  • Benjamin Capps

    • Authors: Ernest B. Speck
      Abstract: One might assume that a requisite for becoming a successful novelist about the Southwest is to be born in Archer County, Texas. Both Benjamin Capps and Larry McMurtry were born there, but their interests are different. Capps has been concerned with the background of his region, while McMurtry treats contemporary themes. Capps has now published eight novels, plus three pieces of non-fiction, about the West.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:36 PDT
       
  • Scandinavian Immigrant Literature

    • Authors: Christer Lennart Mossberg
      Abstract: When today’s "Midwest” opened to settlers in the nineteenth century, hundreds of thousands of European immigrants joined Americans streaming into the area. Eventually, these immigrants constituted almost half the population of the plains and prairies. Although many old country habits and traditions disappeared quickly under the pressure to assimilate, several immigrant groups persisted in using their own languages to record their lives. Scandinavian immigrants left one of the richest records of Western farmlife in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, not only in their diaries, journals, and ethnic histories, but particularly in their literature. Over eighty novels and short story collections trace the Scandinavian farmsteading experience in Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, Wisconsin, the Dakotas, Nebraska, and Kansas.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:35 PDT
       
  • Clarence King

    • Authors: Peter Wild
      Abstract: “The young men were scattering in all directions,” says Van Wyck Brooks of the United States in the 1870s (New England: Indian Summer, 1865-1915, p. 184). Having survived the Civil War, the Union appeared vital in body and spirit. Railroads and telegraph lines spread across the country, binding the resource-rich territories of the American West with the rapidly industrializing East. Armed with the confidence that we now call "nineteenth-century optimism," and justified by what the Andrew Carnegies and John D. Rockefellers of the day thought of as "progress” shored by Social Darwinism, men scrambled for their share of nature’s treasure chest.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:35 PDT
       
  • George R. Stewart

    • Authors: John Caldwell
      Abstract: When George Stewart's father, looking for better health and a new start, moved his family from western Pennsylvania to southern California, he placed them into the great stream of emigrants that crossed America in search of a better life in the West. This Western living experience has had a strong shaping influence upon George Stewart, both as a scholar and as a writer. Although his interests have been very broad, a major part of his work has been Western, centering on the San Francisco Bay area and the valleys, mountains, and plains that lead to it.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:34 PDT
       
  • Joaquin Miller

    • Authors: Benjamin S. Lawson
      Abstract: When Joaquin Miller died in 1913, he had been conspicuous on the American literary scene for over forty years. Given to seeing his literary career as an analogue to the actual exploration and settling of the West, he conceived, enacted, and recorded an eventful life in which he himself figures most prominently. Miller had created a public image, which was probably a self-image as well, of himself as writer and as Westerner. His prose and poetry are sometimes marked by the romantic excesses of Byron or Swinburne; and his life and work include picturesque posings as the Wild Westerner. But the two impulses are not always reconciled. Like Mark Twain, whose genius, some say, was thwarted by his early environment, Miller’s expression might have found more natural, appropriate outlets in other surroundings. At least we can say that his readers often find a jarring contrast between his native American materials and his self-conscious poeticizing of them in European modes. It is nonetheless as a Western writer that Miller made his mark.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:33 PDT
       
  • Dorothy Johnson

    • Authors: Judy Alter
      Abstract: Although her work is primarily rooted in her home state of Montana, Dorothy Johnson was not born a Westerner. Her birthplace was a farm in McGregor, Iowa, a town in the heart of the Midwest. Born on December 19, 1905, she was christened Dorothy Marie Johnson and called Marie by friends and family until she went to college.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:33 PDT
       
  • Janet Lewis

    • Authors: Charles L. Crow
      Abstract: Janet Lewis’s writing career has spanned nearly sixty years, long enough for her to reflect, were she interested in the subject, on the disparity between excellence and fame. She has published poetry, short stories, essays, children’s books, opera libretti, and novels. She has been praised by distinguished writers and critics, including Theodore Roethke and Donald Davie. Two of her novels, The Wife of Martin Guerre and The Trial of Soren Quist, have been hailed as masterpieces. She remains little known, however, even though she has a circle of enthusiastic admirers.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:32 PDT
       
  • C.L. Sonnichsen

    • Authors: Joyce Gibson Roach
      Abstract: El Paso is located at almost the farthest point of West Texas, where the Rio Grande River begins its sweep into the Big Bend country. Strangers find it a region extreme in its limitless supply of nothing. Even natives joke about the area. It is a place where “every living thing seems prepared to fight for its life. Even the plants go armed and hardly a shrub can be found without a spine or fang somewhere" (Roy Bean, p. 71). Texans do not expect a man from Minnesota with a Ph.D. from Harvard to write affectionately about the sand, sun, and stickers; to embrace that region’s history as his own; or to find anything amusing about the climate.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:32 PDT
       
  • Don Berry

    • Authors: Glen A. Love
      Abstract: In his first two novels of the early Oregon country, Trask and Moontrap, Northwestern author Don Berry placed himself within what has come to be perhaps the essential tradition in serious Western American literature. Like such earlier writers as Willa Gather, Robinson Jeffers, and Walter Van Tilburg Clark, and like his contemporary fellow-Northwesterner Gary Snyder, Don Berry conveys to us a sacramental belief that transcendent power or energy awaits man’s explorations within the natural world. Further, Berry’s work asserts that this participation, this ultimate reconciliation with the patterns of earth and sky, water and rock, must be undertaken in defiance of the conventional social order if one would reach his full potentiality for human freedom and awareness. That meaning is conveyed to us in the central figures of Trask and Webb in Berry’s first novels, and in a somewhat different form through the spiritual discoveries of Ben Thaler, the first-person narrator of Berry’s third novel, To Build a Ship.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:31 PDT
       
  • Charles Alexander Eastman (Ohiyesa)

    • Authors: Marion W. Copeland
      Abstract: Because Charles Eastman’s best known book is his earliest, Indian Boyhood (1902), and because that autobiography and its sequel, From the Deep Woods to Civilization (1916), have been most often used as sources for studies of the cultural transition of the Sioux, the literary value of those and of Eastman’s later books has gone largely unexamined. Eastman subtitled the 1916 volume The Autobiography of an Indian, but one cannot therefore assume that the conventions of European-American autobiography control Eastman’s work.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:30 PDT
       
  • Ruth Suckow

    • Authors: Abigail Ann Hamblen
      Abstract: In her Memoir Ruth Suckow speaks of the small Iowa town where she was born as a place that looked ahead toward fresh beginnings. She describes other towns where she lived as older and more settled. But all of them, she implies, are dependent upon the sunshine, rains, and rich fields of the great farming region that is known as the Midwest, the Middle West, or Mid-America.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:30 PDT
       
  • Alfred Henry Lewis

    • Authors: Abe C. Ravitz
      Abstract: He was a cowboy and a lawyer, a journalist and a novelist. At ease passing the time of day with drifters in front of Melinda's House of Call at Watrous (Mora County) in the sparse territory of New Mexico or debating socio-economic philosophy with sophisticated Tammany politicians just outside City Hall in New York, Alfred Henry Lewis—Western regionalist and Eastern muckraker—was enchanted by America’s land of legend and myth beyond the frontier, and he forever glanced backward with nostalgia at his “pampas years,” when he roved "for many moons" between “the Canadian in the Panhandle and the Gila in Arizona.” Although he eventually established himself as a big-city newspaperman associated as editorialist and Washington Bureau Chief with William Randolph Hearst—to whom Lewis dedicated his first published volume of Western sketches—the man’s major orientation was not toward the “scoop,” or other sensationalist copy for printer’s ink. The glamour of his early experiences focussed Lewis’s creative vision on territories beyond the Mississippi: Kansas City, Missouri; Las Vegas, New Mexico; Tombstone, Arizona. In at least seven books he closely described life in a frontier town as seen through the eyes of an elderly prairie dog called, simply, the Old Cattleman, whose dialect wisdom brought Old West perspectives into the mind’s eye of Eastern readers. Indeed, according to historian Howard Mumford Jones, the famed raconteur of Alfred Henry Lewis soon became as legendary a figure hovering over the American landscape as “Captain John Smith and Daniel Boone” (The Age of Energy: Varieties of American Experience, 1865-1915, p. 89).
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:29 PDT
       
  • Virginia Sorensen

    • Authors: L L. Lee et al.
      Abstract: “If you burrow for roots, it was the fault of my grandmother,” the protagonist of Virginia Sorensen’s novel The Man with the Key remarks. And although we must ignore the half-ironic reference to a fault—and remind ourselves that an author’s characters are not the author—this metaphor is an exact image of Virginia Sorensen’s world and of her works. Sorensen has published eight novels, most of them about the American West, as well as a number of short stories and a group of children’s books. Her roots are the very essence of almost all, and certainly of the best, of her writing—roots that stirred her creative imagination. They are roots deep in a richly complex and yet somehow simple and clear childhood as a believing member of "a peculiar people,” to use their own phrase. Her people are the Mormons or, more formally, members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints—and the center of their world is Utah.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:28 PDT
       
  • Charles Warren Stoddard

    • Authors: Robert L. Gale
      Abstract: Charles Warren Stoddard (1843-1909) was a personable San Francisco bohemian with a flair for precious poetics and a gift for describing Western and foreign locales. He became the friend of distinguished writers both regionally and internationally known, but he also became a self-indulging old sybarite who neglected his great literary talent. He is best known for his brilliant South-Sea Idyls, Mashallah!, The Lepers of Molokai, A Troubled Heart, In the Footprints of the Padres, The Island of Tranquil Delights, and several shorter works, and also for his friendship with such diverse personalities as Ina Coolbrith, Prentice Mulford, Mark Twain, Father Damien, and Robert Louis Stevenson. At his best, he deserves comparison with Lafcadio Hearn, Pierre Loti, Bret Harte, and John Henry Cardinal Newman. If his weaker works should be forgotten, his personality and kindnesses to others, especially his California friends, should never be.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:28 PDT
       
  • Edward Abbey

    • Authors: Garth McCann
      Abstract: To an assembly of professional historians meeting in Colorado in August 1974, Vine Deloria, Jr., complained that the accumulated bulk of research and writing dealing with the cowboy, cavalry, and fndian era of the American West stands in stark contrast to the dearth of attention paid by historians to what has happened since Wounded Knee. Everyone, apparently, knows all the cliches about the old West, but few know anything at all about the new West—about its history, its meaning, its place within developing American culture.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:27 PDT
       
  • George Catlin

    • Authors: Joseph R. Millichap
      Abstract: George Catlin, the first and best observer of the Plains Indians, died in 1872, impoverished and ignored. As America enters its third century as a nation, it seems that American history might have caught up with him. In the 1970’s Catlin at last is receiving the attention which is his due as an adventurer, as an anthropologist, and as an artist, both literary and graphic. His drawings, paintings, and lithographs are being shown in museums and libraries across the country; his most important book, Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs and Conditions of the North American Indians (1841) has been republished in a very fine paperbound edition by Dover Press; and selections from North American Indians along with beautiful color reproductions have been edited for a new deluxe art volume. These publications will make easily accessible the accurate observation of the Plains Indian which has heretofore been the almost exclusive domain of those ethnologists who have had to dig up books long out of print. Several articles reappraising the life and works of Catlin have appeared in both popular and scholarly journals. Several more are planned, including a scholarly biography.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:26 PDT
       
  • Josiah Gregg and Lewis H. Garrard

    • Authors: Edward Halsey Foster
      Abstract: New Mexico and that vast region spanned by the Santa Fe trail—a region utterly unlike anything east of the Mississippi—must have seemed enormously exotic and exciting to Americans a hundred and fifty years ago. It was a segment of the continent which most Americans knew only through books, and there were many of them, highly colored and occasionally inaccurate, to satisfy, or increase, their curiosity. American interest in the region expanded as the decades passed and culminated, of course, in the Mexican War and American possession of the Southwest.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:26 PDT
       
  • E.W. Howe

    • Authors: Martin Bucco
      Abstract: Edgar Watson Howe’s quaint niche in American literary history rests squarely on his first and best novel, The Story of a Country Town (1882). In 1856 the infant Howe and his parents trekked West, "to grow up with the country.” But unlike the early work of Bret Harte, Edward Eggleston, and Mark Twain, Howe’s Country Town blasted the Jeffersonian garden with the raw winds of Darwinism and Necessity and stressed Western drabness and tragic failure. His early hardships on the land, in printshops, and at home informed both his grim fiction and his country-town journalism. Before he became celebrated in America and abroad as the “Country-Town Philosopher," the “Kansas Diogenes,” and the "Sage of Potato Hill," this ambivalent editor-novelist had anticipated not only young Hamlin Garland’s bleak Middle Border and old Mark Twain’s “damned human race,” but also twentieth-century American literary Naturalism and the obliquity of the modern psyche.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:25 PDT
       
  • Hamlin Garland: The Far West

    • Authors: Robert Gish
      Abstract: Hamlin Garland is regarded today with both condescension and respect. His Middle-Western writings, the early and later phases of his work, are more highly regarded than are the Far-Western writings of his middle phase. The cause of this unevenness in the Garland canon can be traced to his attraction to history and story, propaganda and art, Realism and Romanticism. The boundaries of fiction and non-fiction contract and expand throughout Garland’s work, just as in his life he trailed and back-trailed from the Midwest to the East and West. In this sense Garland’s writing is inseparably autobiographical and regional; and his search for the “right” literary form parallels his westering in search of identity and “home.”
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:24 PDT
       
  • John G. Neihardt

    • Authors: Lucile F. Aly
      Abstract: In the literature celebrating the rugged spirit and tenacious optimism of the American West, John G. Neihardt, a Nebraska poet, raised one of the most vigorous voices. It sounds in his lyrics and rings through his epic masterwork, A Cycle of the West, in blended notes of wonder at the universe and deeper strains of human sorrow. His inspiration came from what he called the “glorious experience of living."
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:24 PDT
       
  • Gertrude Atherton

    • Authors: Charlotte S. McClure
      Abstract: Gertrude Atherton's story-chronicle of old Spanish and new American California appeared at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of her sixty-year-long career. Eighteen of her thirty-four novels, three of her four collections of short stories, and all three of her histories drew their inspiration from California, covering the area in the years from the 1800’s through the 1930's.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:23 PDT
       
  • Bill Nye: The Western Writings

    • Authors: David B. Kesterson
      Abstract: Though closely identified with the American West, Edgar Wilson Nye was born in the East and lived most of his life in the Midwest and South. Born in Shirley, Maine, on August 25, 1850, the eldest son of Franklin and Elizabeth Mitchell (Loring) Nye, Edgar was to remain a New Englander for only two years. As his future friend and lecture partner James Whitcomb Riley would later write in a comic account of Nye’s life, “At two years of age he took his parents by the hand, and, telling them that Piscataquis County was no place for them, he boldly struck out for St. Croix County, Wisconsin, where the hardy pioneer soon made a home for his parents” (J. B. Pond, Eccentricities of Genius, pp. 241-42).
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:22 PDT
       
  • Jack Schaefer

    • Authors: Gerald Haslam
      Abstract: In 1945 Jack Schaefer, then a Norfolk, Virginia, newspaper editor, decided to write a story “to prove that there is no reason why an attempt cannot be made to create literature about the west as about the east or the south or any place anywhere.” He set his story in a Wyoming valley torn by conflict between pioneer farmers and a resident cattle baron trying to retain the open range. Then he introduced a palladin figure called Shane.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:22 PDT
       
  • Stewart Edward White

    • Authors: Judy Alter
      Abstract: "I never go anywhere for material,” Stewart Edward White once told an interviewer. "If I did, I should not get it. ... I go places merely because for one reason or another, they attract me. Then, if it happens that I get close enough to the life, I may later find that I have something to write about. A man rarely writes anything convincing unless he has lived the life; not with his critical faculty alert but wholeheartedly and because, for the time being, it is his life” (Overton, When Winter Comes to Main Street, p. 64).White, a friend of Theodore Roosevelt, was an advocate of Roosevelt’s doctrine of the strenuous life which stressed hard work and physical exercise as the means to strength of character. He was also one of a school of writers such as Owen Wister and Jack London who believed that the writer must be a man of action. Certainly, White’s life testifies to this belief in the strenuous life, for he followed wherever his taste for adventure led him—Michigan, Arizona, South Dakota, California, Alaska, and Africa. He found something to write about in each adventure; and in a career of over sixty-four years, he wrote almost a book a year. His published works include twenty-four volumes of nonfiction and thirty-four of fiction. Almost all are either directly autobiographical or have strong autobiographical elements, a characteristic which gives them authenticity and which serves as a unifying element for the wide diversity of White’s literary accomplishments.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:21 PDT
       
  • Frederic Remington

    • Authors: Fred Erisman
      Abstract: To an entire generation of readers, Frederic Remington was the spokesman for the American West. For almost a quarter of a century, from 1886 until his death in 1909, his drawings and paintings, published in Harper’s Weekly, The Century, Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, Collier’s, and other large-circulation magazines of the time, gave to many readers their only glimpses of Western life and the western landscape. The popular acclaim for his work was echoed by the American art establishment. During his lifetime, Remington was elected to membership in the National Academy of Design and awarded an honorary Bachelor of Fine Arts by Yale University; in his last years his paintings and bronzes were exhibited and sold by Tiffany’s and Knoedler’s, two of the most prestigious of New York firms. In the years following his death, his stature grew still greater. Three major museums, the Amon Carter Museum of Western Art in Fort Worth, Texas; the Thomas Gilcrease Institute of American History and Art in Tulsa, Oklahoma; and the Remington Art Museum in Ogdensburg, New York, feature extensive collections of his works, while smaller holdings can be found in museums from the Smithsonian Institution to the Whitney Museum in Cody, Wyoming.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:20 PDT
       
  • Zane Grey

    • Authors: Ann Ronald
      Abstract: No one knows how many words Zane Grey wrote for publication, but the estimates vary between five million and nine million. No one knows how many copies of his novels have been sold, but the number must be well over forty million. No one knows how many different languages his novels have been translated into, or how many copies of those translations have been sold, but again, the figures must be high. Ultimately, no one knows how large an audience Zane Grey’s novels have reached, either directly or through serialization and reprint, as well as through movies and television. One can guess conservatively, though, that his audience numbers well over 250 million. Two generations of Americans grew up on The Heritage of the Desert, Riders of the Purple Sage, Desert Gold, The Light of Western Stars, and fifty-four subsequent novels of the West, besides a variety of such other offerings as short story collections, books for boys, and tales of hunting and fishing.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:20 PDT
       
  • George Frederick Ruxton

    • Authors: Neal Lambert
      Abstract: In the spring of 1847 at Fort Leavenworth on the Indian frontier a group of United States Dragoons stood staring at a remarkable frontier figure with a “Mahogany-coloured face” and dressed in “the pride of fringed deerskin and porcupine quills.” The costume was creating "no little difference of opinion amongst the troopers” as to which Indian tribe the figure might belong to.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:19 PDT
       
  • Washington Irving: The Western Works

    • Authors: Richard H. Cracroft
      Abstract: Early in the fall of 1832, while steaming down the Ohio River toward its confluence with the Mississippi, the steamboat Illinois, en route to St. Louis, collided with the Yellowstone with such force that the Illinois was nearly sunk. The accident, though minor, has symbolic value in a study of Washington Irving as a Western writer, for Irving was aboard the Illinois, traveling toward Independence, Missouri, where the famous author would begin a month-long tour on the prairies of Oklahoma—the Southwest. Aboard the Yellowstone, a packet belonging to the American Fur Company, were fur traders and trappers in the employ of John Jacob Astor and his partners. The packet was completing a record-breaking trip to Fort Union at the mouth of the Yellowstone River.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:18 PDT
       
  • H.L. Davis

    • Authors: Robert Bain
      Abstract: “Ex-Cowboy's Novel Wins Harper Prize" announced the New York Times in August of 1935 when H. L. Davis’ Honey in the Horn won the $7,500 Award. Davis received the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1936 and established himself nationally as a Western writer of talent and consequence. During the next twentyfour years, he published seven books—four more novels, a collection of poems which he had written between 1919 and 1933, a volume of stories and sketches which had been published in magazines between 1929 and 1941, and a series of essays about the Northwest.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:17 PDT
       
  • Frederick Manfred

    • Authors: Joseph M. Flora
      Abstract: Alan Swallow has designated Frederick Manfred, along with other writers of the American West, a maverick. The mavericks are serious writers who have pursued their themes without much recognition from the Eastern press, partly, Swallow felt, because the Eastern press has not understood the Western themes or techniques or has been too contemptuous to make the effort. The truth of Swallow’s contention of prejudice is difficult to assess. But there is, in any event, a group of Western writers who have gone on—sometimes with little recognition—pursuing their themes, meditating on the West, writing their books. Alan Swallow was friend to many of these writers. It was, in fact, Swallow's reputation for helping the neglected writer that brought Manfred to Swallow's door with a novel that no other publisher wanted. Swallow published not only that novel, but also other Manfred titles, some re-issues. By deed and word, Alan Swallow affirmed that Frederick Manfred is an important American writer.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:17 PDT
       
  • Walter Van Tilburg Clark

    • Authors: L. L. Lee
      Abstract: In October 1950, Walter Van Tilburg Clark said of The Track of the Cat that it was "another step forward in my constant effort to personalize the land and put the human tragedy back into its natural setting" (N.Y. Herald Tribune Book Review, Oct. 8, 1950, p. 18). Here, in a few precise words, is the essence of Clark's intention and of his vision, for his work, as different as his novels and his short _ stories might be from one another on the surface, was built upon· that simple and yet intricate vision of man in relationship to his world.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:16 PDT
       
  • Bret Harte

    • Authors: Patrick Morrow
      Abstract: Bret Harte is well known as the first internationally famous writer of short stories about the West. “The Luck of Roaring Camp,” “The Outcasts of Poker Flat," and “Tennessee’s Partner,” all published in the late 1860's, earned Harte the recognition of the nation's popular audience and approval by Emerson, Lowell, Longfellow, Howells, and other leading literary men of the day. In 1870 Harte, then editor of the San Francisco-based Overland Monthly, published “Plain Language from Truthful James,” better known as “The Heathen Chinee.” Hawked on the street corners, endlessly reprinted, the poem created a national sensation. Soon afterwards, Harte took his family East, where during the next several years his popularity declined almost as quickly as it had ascended. In 1875, following unsuccessful attempts as a lecturer, novel writer, and dramatist, he accepted the position of United States consul to Crefeld, Germany. After years in Crefeld and later Glasgow, Harte left the consular service and lived the rest of his life in England. He was in poor health during this long, later period, but still managed to write memoirs, literary criticism, numerous letters, and an enormous amount of popular fiction about the long-gone California Gold Rush days. His wife and one son joined him near London in the 1890’s. Although Harte never returned to his homeland, he maintained a strong loyalty to America despite numerous published and private attacks, often stemming from those jealous of his popularity.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 20:50:15 PDT
       
  • Fluvial Acoustics of CON1W, Dry Creek Experimental Watershed

    • Authors: Scott Gauvain et al.
      Abstract: This dataset includes infrasound, audible sound, photos, and video recorded near CON1W in Dry Creek Experimental Watershed outside Boise, ID.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 15:44:50 PDT
       
  • Luminous Radio Emission from the Superluminous Supernova 2017ens at 3.3 Yr
           After Explosion

    • Authors: Raffaella Margutti et al.
      Abstract: We present the results from a multiyear radio campaign of the superluminous supernova (SLSN) SN 2017ens, which yielded the earliest radio detection of an SLSN to date at the age of ∼3.3 yr after explosion. SN 2017ens was not detected at radio frequencies in the first ∼300 days but reached Lν ≈ 1028 erg s−1 cm−2 Hz−1 at ν ∼ 6 GHz, ∼1250 days post explosion. Interpreting the radio observations in the context of synchrotron radiation from the supernova shock interaction with the circumstellar medium (CSM), we infer an effective mass-loss rate Ṁ ≈ 10−4 M☉ yr−1 at r ∼ 1017 cm from the explosion's site, for a wind speed of vw = 50–60 km s−1 as measured from optical spectra. These findings are consistent with the spectroscopic metamorphosis of SN 2017ens from hydrogen poor to hydrogen rich ∼190 days after explosion reported by Chen et al. SN 2017ens is thus an addition to the sample of hydrogen-poor massive progenitors that explode shortly after having lost their hydrogen envelope. The inferred circumstellar densities, implying a CSM mass up to ∼0.5 M☉, and low velocity of the ejection suggest that binary interactions (in the form of common-envelope evolution and subsequent envelope ejection) play a role in shaping the evolution of the stellar progenitors of SLSNe in the ≲ 500 yr preceding core collapse.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 13:07:43 PDT
       
  • The Dynamic Universe: Realizing the Potential of Classical Time Domain and
           Multimessenger Astrophysics

    • Authors: Steve B. Howell et al.
      Abstract: In parallel with the multi-messenger revolution, major advances in time-domain astronomy across multiple science disciplines relevant to astrophysics are becoming more urgent to address. Aside from electromagnetic observations of gravitational wave events and explosive counterparts, there are a number of “classical” astrophysical areas that require new thinking for proper exploration in the time domain. How NASA, NSF, ESA, and ESO consider the 2020 USA Decadal Survey within the astronomy community, as well as the worldwide call to support and expand time domain and multi-messenger astrophysics, it is crucial that all areas of astrophysics, including stellar, galactic, Solar System, and exoplanetary science participate in the discussion, and that it not be made into an exclusive preserve of cosmological, high-energy, explosive and transient science. Time domain astronomy is used to explore many aspects of astrophysics–particularly concerning ground- and space-based mission science goals of exploring how the Universe works, understanding how did we get here, and are we alone. Time domain studies are already built into the core operations of many currently operating and future space telescopes (e.g., Roman, PLATO) as well as current and planned large areal ground-based surveys (e.g., Rubin). Time-domain observations designed for one scientific purpose, also lead to great discoveries in many other science areas. The recent advent of user-friendly hardware, software, observational approaches, and online data infrastructure has also helped make time domain observations especially suitable and appealing for citizen science projects. We provide a review of the current state of TDAMM alerts and observational protocols, revealing a wide array of software and applications, much of which is incompatible. Any conversation regarding TDAMM astrophysics should include all aspects of the field, including those aspects seen as classical applications.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2024 13:07:37 PDT
       
  • Engineering and Sustainable Community Development

    • Authors: Juan Lucena et al.
      Abstract: This book, Engineering and Sustainable Community Development, presents an overview of engineering as it relates to humanitarian engineering, service learning engineering, or engineering for community development, often called sustainable community development (SCD). The topics covered include a history of engineers and development, the problems of using industry-based practices when designing for communities, how engineers can prepare to work with communities, and listening in community development. It also includes two case studies -- one of engineers developing a windmill for a community in India, and a second of an engineer "mapping communities" in Honduras to empower people to use water effectively -- and student perspectives and experiences on one curricular model dealing with community development.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Apr 2024 13:18:13 PDT
       
  • Abolitionist Twilights: History, Meaning, and the Fate of Racial
           Egalitarianism, 1865-1909

    • Authors: Raymond James Krohn
      Abstract: Provides unique insight into Reconstruction's downfall and Jim Crow's emergence. In the years and decades following the American Civil War, veteran abolitionists actively thought and wrote about the campaign to end enslavement immediately. This study explores the late-in-life reflections of several antislavery memorial and historical writers, evaluating the stable and shifting meanings of antebellum abolitionism amidst dramatic changes in postbellum race relations. By investigating veteran abolitionists as movement chroniclers and commemorators and situating their texts within various contexts, Raymond James Krohn further assesses the humanitarian commitments of activists who had valued themselves as the enslaved people's steadfast friends. Never solely against slavery, post-1830 abolitionism challenged widely held anti-Black preju­dices as well. Dedicated to emancipating the enslaved and elevating people of color, it equipped adherents with the necessary linguistic resources to wage a valiant, sustained philanthropic fight. Abolitionist Twilights focuses on how the status and condition of the freedpeople and their descen­dants affected book-length representations of antislavery persons and events. In probing veteran- abolitionist engagement in or disengagement from an ongoing African American freedom struggle, this ambitious volume ultimately problematizes scholarly understandings of abolitionism's racial justice history and legacy.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Apr 2024 13:18:07 PDT
       
  • Non-Invasive Measurement of Trust in Group Interactions

    • Authors: Lee A. Spitzley et al.
      Abstract: Trust between group members has many implications for how well a group performs. In this study, we predict perceived trustworthiness of group members when there are subversive group members. We collected multimodal verbal and nonverbal data from a group interaction experiment. During the interaction, we periodically surveyed the group members about their perceptions of trustworthiness of other group members. We used this data to model the relationship between observable behavior and perceptions of trustworthiness. We report the most predictive features and describe them in the context of existing literature on verbal and nonverbal correlates of trust. This research advances the study of behavioral measurement in groups and the role of behavior on perceived trustworthiness.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Apr 2024 11:47:11 PDT
       
  • Cyberinfrastructure Deployments on Public Research Clouds Enable
           Accessible Environmental Data Science Education

    • Authors: Tyler L. McIntosh et al.
      Abstract: Modern science depends on computers, but not all scientists have access to the scale of computation they need. A digital divide separates scientists who accelerate their science using large cyberinfrastructure from those who do not, or who do not have access to the compute resources or learning opportunities to develop the skills needed. The exclusionary nature of the digital divide threatens equity and the future of innovation by leaving people out of the scientific process while over-amplifying the voices of a small group who have resources. However, there are potential solutions: recent advancements in public research cyberinfrastructure and resources developed during the open science revolution are providing tools that can help bridge this divide. These tools can enable access to fast and powerful computation with modest internet connections and personal computers. Here we contribute another resource for narrowing the digital divide: scalable virtual machines running on public cloud infrastructure. We describe the tools, infrastructure, and methods that enabled successful deployment of a reproducible and scalable cyberinfrastructure architecture for a collaborative data synthesis working group in February 2023. This platform enabled 45 scientists with varying data and compute skills to leverage 40,000 hours of compute time over a 4-day workshop. Our approach provides an open framework that can be replicated for educational and collaborative data synthesis experiences in any data- and compute-intensive discipline.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Apr 2024 11:23:36 PDT
       
  • Fluvial Acoustics of CON1E, Dry Creek Experimental Watershed

    • Authors: Scott Gauvain et al.
      Abstract: This dataset includes infrasound, audible sound, photos, and video recorded near CON1E in Dry Creek Experimental Watershed outside Boise, ID.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Apr 2024 21:13:48 PDT
       
  • Fluvial Acoustics of Lower Gauge, Dry Creek Experimental Watershed

    • Authors: Scott Gauvain et al.
      Abstract: This dataset includes infrasound, audible sound, photos, and video recorded near Lower Gauge in Dry Creek Experimental Watershed outside Boise, ID.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Apr 2024 20:16:56 PDT
       
  • Fluvial Acoustics of Ridenbaugh Diversion Dam

    • Authors: Scott Gauvain et al.
      Abstract: This dataset includes infrasound, audible sound, photos, and video recorded near Ridenbaugh Diversion Dam in Boise, ID.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Apr 2024 19:25:05 PDT
       
  • Fluvial Acoustics of Settlers Dam

    • Authors: Scott Gauvain et al.
      Abstract: This dataset includes infrasound, audible sound, photos, and video recorded near Settlers Dam in Boise, ID.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Apr 2024 18:30:05 PDT
       
  • Post-Fire Hydrologic Analysis: A Tale of Two Severities

    • Authors: Kendra Fallon et al.
      Abstract: Addressing post-fire impacts largely depends on burn “severity.” A singular severity classification that encompasses the holistic effects of fire on all ecosystem processes does not currently exist. Lumping vegetation burn severity and soil burn severity into one metric, or using them interchangeably, can induce large inaccuracies and uncertainties in the intended ecosystem response to forcing. Often, burn “severity” reflects fire impacts on vegetation, which can be measured through remote sensing. Vegetation burn severity is likely more apropos for ecological research, whereas soil burn severity is more relevant for hydrological analyses. This paper reviews different remotely sensed vegetation severity products currently (mis)used for hydrological modeling, provides examples of when vegetation burn severity may (not) match soil burn severity, and summarizes the potential synergistic future of remote sensing with in situ severity metrics. While the focus in this paper is on the western United States, the lessons and principles apply universally.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Apr 2024 15:36:32 PDT
       
  • Reduced Audit Quality Acts: A Review and Organizational Model

    • Authors: Troy A. Hyatt et al.
      Abstract: With increasing regulatory focus on improving audit quality, research on drivers of audit quality remains important to academics, professionals and regulators. One compelling branch of this research focuses on auditors' intentional actions that reduce audit quality, often referred to in the literature as reduced audit quality acts (RAQAs). This paper provides a review and synthesis of the RAQA literature, including a unifying definition for RAQAs and a model for organizing past and future RAQA research. With the model, we explore antecedents to RAQAs as well as the discovery of, responses to and subsequent consequences of RAQAs. We also discuss potential avenues for future research.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Apr 2024 15:15:31 PDT
       
  • Exposure of Future Nuclear Energy Infrastructure to Climate Change
           Hazards: A Review Assessment

    • Authors: Joana Portugal-Pereira et al.
      Abstract: This review discusses climate hazards and specific risks associated with existing and new nuclear power plants under global warming level futures, with an emphasis on water-based risks for plants that rely on traditional water-cooling processes. Projected hazards, including extreme heatwaves, sea-level rise, and altered precipitation patterns pose significant challenges to the safe and efficient operation of nuclear plants. Additional risks include reduced water-cooling system efficiency, clogging due to biological contamination of water streams, water access issues in reactors during droughts, disruptions from extreme storms, and coastal sea level rise. These findings emphasise the importance of formulating appropriate adaptation strategies that incorporate enhanced safety measures in the planning and design of new nuclear facilities. Incorporating these specific risks into mitigation scenarios and decision-making processes for nuclear energy expansion or modernisation is crucial to improve the resilience of such infrastructure in the face of a changing climate.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Apr 2024 14:14:45 PDT
       
  • Fluvial Acoustics of Diversion Dam

    • Authors: Scott Gauvain et al.
      Abstract: This dataset includes infrasound, audible sound, photos, and video recorded near Diversion Dam outside Boise, ID.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Apr 2024 13:05:04 PDT
       
  • Whitewater Sound Dependence on Discharge and Wave Configuration at an
           Adjustable Wave Feature

    • Authors: Taylor A. Tatum et al.
      Abstract: Stream acoustics has been proposed as a means of monitoring discharge and wave hazards from outside the stream channel. To better understand the dependence of sound on discharge and wave characteristics, this study analyzes discharge and infrasound data from an artificial wave feature which is adjusted to accommodate daily changes in recreational use and seasonal changes in irrigation demand. Monitorable sound is only observed when discharge exceeds ∼35 m3/s, and even above that threshold the sound-discharge relationship is non-linear and inconsistent. When sound is observed, it shows consistent dependence on wave type within a given year, but the direction of this dependence varies among the 3 years studied (2016, 2021, and 2022). These findings support previous research that establishes discharge and stream morphology as relevant controls on stream acoustics and highlights the complex, combined effects of these variables.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Apr 2024 12:54:17 PDT
       
 
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