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BOGA : Basque Studies Consortium Journal
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2325-7628
Published by Boise State University Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Zinc–Acetate–Amine Complexes as Precursors to ZnO and the Effect of
           the Amine on Nanoparticle Morphology, Size, and Photocatalytic Activity

    • Authors: Josh Eixenberger et al.
      Abstract: Zinc oxide is an environmentally friendly and readily synthesized semiconductor with many industrial applications. ZnO powders were prepared by alkali precipitation using different [Zn(acetate)2(amine)x] compounds to alter the particle size and aspect ratio. Slow precipitations from 95 °C solutions produced micron-scale particles with morphologies of hexagonal plates, rods, and needles, depending on the precursor used. Powders prepared at 65 °C with rapid precipitation yielded particles with minimal morphology differences, but particle size was dependent on the precursor used. The smallest particles were produced using precursors that yielded crystals with low aspect ratios during high-temperature synthesis. Particles produced during rapid synthesis had sizes ranging from 21–45 nm. The materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, BET, and diffuse reflectance. The materials prepared using precursors with less-volatile amines were found to retain more organic material than ZnO produced using precursors with more volatile amines. The amount of organic material associated with the nanoparticles influenced the photocatalytic activity of the ZnO, with powders containing less organic material producing faster rate constants for the decolorizing of malachite green solutions under ultraviolet illumination, independent of particle size. [Zn(acetate)2(hydrazine)2] produced ZnO with the fastest rate constant and was recycled five times for dye degradation studies that revealed minimal to no reduction in catalytic efficiency.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Jan 2023 11:08:32 PST
  • Phosphine Generation Pathways on Rocky Planets

    • Authors: Arthur Omran et al.
      Abstract: The possibility of life in the venusian clouds was proposed in the 1960s, and recently this hypothesis has been revived with the potential detection of phosphine (PH3) in Venus' atmosphere. These observations may have detected ∼5–20 ppb phosphine on Venus (Greaves et al., 2020), which raises questions about venusian atmospheric/geochemical processes and suggests that this phosphine could possibly be generated by biological processes. In such a claim, it is essential to understand the abiotic phosphorus chemistry that may occur under Venus-relevant conditions, particularly those processes that may result in phosphine generation. Here, we discuss two related abiotic routes for phosphine generation within the atmosphere of Venus. Based on our assessment, corrosion of large impactors as they ablate near Venus' cloud layer, and the presence of reduced phosphorus compounds in the subcloud layer could result in production of phosphine and may explain the phosphine detected in Venus' atmosphere or on other rocky planets. We end on a cautionary note: although there may be life in the clouds of Venus, the detection of a simple, single gas, phosphine, is likely not a decisive indicator.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Jan 2023 13:41:47 PST
  • NSF Supported Socio-Environmental Research: How Do Crosscutting Programs
           Affect Research Funding, Publication, and Citation Patterns'

    • Authors: Kendra E. Kaiser et al.
      Abstract: Recognizing the continued human domination of landscapes across the globe, social-ecological systems (SES) research has proliferated, necessitating interdisciplinary collaborations. Although interdisciplinary research started gaining traction in academic settings close to 50 years ago, formal frameworks for SES research did not develop until the late 1990s. The first National Science Foundation (NSF) funding mechanism specifically for interdisciplinary SES research began in 2001 and the SES-specific Coupled Natural Human (CNH) Systems program began in 2007. We used data on funded NSF projects from 2000 to 2015 to examine how SES research was funded, where the research is published, and the scholarly impact of SES research. Despite specific programs for funding SES research within the NSF, this type of research also received funding from non-SES mission programs (e.g., Ecosystem Science constituted 19% of grants in our study, and Hydrology constituted 16% of grants). Although NSF funding for SES research originates from across programs, the majority of products are published in journals with a focus on ecological sciences. Grants funded through the Coupled Natural Human Systems programs were more likely to publish at least one paper that was highly interdisciplinary (Biological Sciences [BE-CNH] constituted 70% of grants in program, and Geosciences [GEO-CNH] constituted 48% of grants) than the traditional disciplinary programs (Ecology [ES], 35% and Hydrology, 27%). This result highlights the utility of these cross-cutting programs in producing and widely disseminating SES research. We found that the number of citations was higher in BE-CNH and ES than other programs, pointing to greater scholarly impact of SES research in these NSF programs. Through our research, we identified the need for institutions to recognize research products and deliverables beyond the “standard” peer-reviewed manuscripts, as SES and interdisciplinary research and unconventional research products (e.g., popular press articles, online StoryMaps, workshops, white papers) continue to grow and are important to the broader societal impact of these types of research programs. This project demonstrates that the outcomes and products of grants awarded through the NSF CNH programs are important to furthering SES research and the programs should be valued and expanded in the future.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Jan 2023 13:28:36 PST
  • "Falling out of a Picture": The Australian Landscape in D.H.
           Lawrence's Kangaroo

    • Authors: Cheryl Hindrichs
      Abstract: "[T]he mind and the terrain shape each other: every landscape is a landscape of desire to some degree, if not always for its inhabitants"Rebecca Solnit (Landscapes 9)Modernist writers, captivated by the work of mapping the complex terrain of desire, present a variety of encounters with, studies on, and reinventions of the landscape. Although critical attention has focused on the fláneur in the cityscape, a focus on pastoral and hybrid (suburban) landscapes can reveal the way modernism engages with these terrains in order to "make it new" in aesthetics (the mythical method T.S. Eliot identified with James Joyce's Ulysses) and critique the "new" of modernity (mass culture and globalization). Novels and poetry from the year 1992, which Michael North has read as a defining moment in mapping modernism, evidence a multifarious and wide-ranging engagement with the landscape, including Eliot's The Wasteland, Joyce's Ulysses, Rebecca West's The Judge and Virginia Woolf's Jacob's Room. In each, characters' interactions with pastoral, hybrid, and metropolitan landscapes frame central questions about identity in modernity. Landscape likewise plays a crucial role in framing questions of national and gender identity in D.H. Lawrence's 1922-1923 novel Kangaroo, a novel, however, ill at ease with the modernist response to modernity.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Jan 2023 13:28:31 PST
  • Buying Their Way In: Redistribution of Campaign Resources as a Path to
           State Legislative Leadership for Women

    • Authors: Jaclyn J. Kettler
      Abstract: Women continue to be underrepresented in legislative leadership. This is concerning in U.S. legislatures, where leaders have substantial control over resources and policymaking. As an outgroup, women face additional barriers to power in politics, making it difficult to become a legislative leader. How can women gain influence within their political party' I argue one potential path for overcoming these barriers is the redistribution of campaign resources to other party actors, which helps facilitate connections in the party. These relationships help candidates gain influence, and they can draw on them for support in the legislature. Do women candidates redistribute funds to other actors' If they do, is it an effective path to leadership positions in their state parties' I address these questions using social network analysis and campaign contributions from the 2012 elections in six states. I find that by establishing connections to other party actors through the redistribution of their campaign resources, women candidates can increase their influence in the party and their likelihood of becoming a legislative leader. Moreover, traditional paths to power like seniority help men but not women obtain leadership positions. Even though constraints on power still exist for women in politics, this research highlights an alternative path to influence for women in state legislatures.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Jan 2023 12:06:21 PST
  • Elucidating the Synergic Effect in Nanoscale MoS2/TiO2 Heterointerface for
           Na-Ion Storage

    • Authors: Chunrong Ma et al.
      Abstract: Interface engineering in electrode materials is an attractive strategy for enhancing charge storage, enabling fast kinetics, and improving cycling stability for energy storage systems. Nevertheless, the performance improvement is usually ambiguously ascribed to the “synergetic effect”, the fundamental understanding toward the effect of the interface at molecular level in composite materials remains elusive. In this work, a well-defined nanoscale MoS2/TiO2 interface is rationally designed by immobilizing TiO2 nanocrystals on MoS2 nanosheets. The role of heterostructure interface between TiO2 and MoS2 by operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction (sXRD), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and density functional theory calculations is investigated. It is found that the existence of a hetero-interfacial electric field can promote charge transfer kinetics. Based on operando sXRD, it is revealed that the heterostructure follows a solid-solution reaction mechanism with small volume changes during cycling. As such, the electrode demonstrates ultrafast Na+ ions storage of 300 mAh g−1 at 10 A g−1 and excellent reversible capacity of 540 mAh g−1 at 0.2 A g−1. This work provides significant insights into understanding of heterostructure interface at molecular level, which suggests new strategies for creating unconventional nanocomposite electrode materials for energy storage systems.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Jan 2023 11:44:05 PST
  • From Childhood Obesity Risk to Healthy Growth in the U.S.: A 10-Year
           Social Work Research & Policy Update

    • Authors: Brittany R. Schuler et al.
      Abstract: Childhood obesity is a major health issue and a prominent chronic health condition for children in the United States (U.S.), caused by a multitude of factors. Most existing models of childhood obesity prevention have not worked, yielding little to no effect on improving weight status or the proximal health behaviors most attributed to obesity risk: nutritional intake, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep. There is an urgent need for new approaches to prevent health disparities that are responsive to impacts of economic inequality on healthy child growth in marginalized populations. In this Short Commentary, a social justice update is provided to motivate a new generation of research that promotes equitable and healthy child growth under present-day social, economic, and political circumstances. Social work-specific research and policy recommendations are provided to guide future research that targets underlying social and economic determinants of weight-related health disparities in childhood. Recommendations include research on cross-disciplinary metrics to better capture reductions in health disparities and the development and testing of policy and system interventions that address structural issues and strengthen health resources in marginalized communities. Progress in reducing disparities in childhood obesity will likely remain inhibited until recommendations from social work research are incorporated to strengthen existing medical and public health models and redirect the childhood obesity epidemic toward equitable, healthy child growth.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Jan 2023 11:11:02 PST
  • Architectural Control of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Phenotype Through Nuclear

    • Authors: Janet Rubin et al.
      Abstract: There is growing appreciation that architectural components of the nucleus regulate gene accessibility by altering chromatin organization. While nuclear membrane connector proteins link the mechanosensitive actin cytoskeleton to the nucleoskeleton, actin’s contribution to the inner architecture of the nucleus remains enigmatic. Control of actin transport into the nucleus, plus the presence of proteins that control actin structure (the actin tool-box) within the nucleus, suggests that nuclear actin may support biomechanical regulation of gene expression. Cellular actin structure is mechanoresponsive: actin cables generated through forces experienced at the plasma membrane transmit force into the nucleus. We posit that dynamic actin remodeling in response to such biomechanical cues provides a novel level of structural control over the epigenetic landscape. We here propose to bring awareness to the fact that mechanical forces can promote actin transfer into the nucleus and control structural arrangements as illustrated in mesenchymal stem cells, thereby modulating lineage commitment.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Jan 2023 11:06:35 PST
  • Measuring Engineering Students’ Engagement in Sustainability Design

    • Authors: Karen Perez et al.
      Abstract: Within industries, governments, and accreditation organizations, there has been a push to incorporate sustainability concepts into engineering education. Universities like Boise State University (BSU) are starting to place greater emphasis on the inclusion of sustainability concepts in different engineering program curricula. As part of a project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the BSU mechanical engineering program is integrating sustainability concepts specifically by using active learning modules (ALMs) suitable for each level of student education, progressing from freshman to senior. ALMs have shown to be more effective in improving motivation in the classroom compared to traditional learning. To measure motivation, a modified survey instrument was developed for distribution to BSU mechanical engineering (ME) students and alumni; both the student and alumni survey was modified using the American Society of Mechanical Engineerings’ (ASME) 2008 sustainability survey with a combination of a study by Natasha Lanziner (2017). Current mechanical engineering students were surveyed to gauge their knowledge and attitudes towards sustainability in the curriculum, and mechanical engineering alumni were surveyed to determine which sustainability practices are utilized in their workplace. By applying a quantitative approach to the survey instrument, Boise State Engineering students and alumni will have the opportunity to express their perception of BSU’s current integration of sustainability concepts. The quantitative data will be interpreted through a statistical analysis using Python. The data presents common sustainability trends based on the gender demographics of both students and alumni data. Specifically, the student data illustrates their general thoughts regarding ALMs and sustainability; most students, especially women, showed interest in sustainability when they were exposed to a BSU alumni applying sustainability into their design work. As a general trend based on the alumni data, women also tended to feel less confident in applying sustainability into their design work but were more interested in the concept than men. This paper will be used to suggest improvements in ALMs related to sustainability concepts at Boise State University.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Jan 2023 11:06:30 PST
  • A Lost Generation: Perpetual Education Insecurity Among the Rohingya

    • Authors: Robin E. Al-Haddad et al.
      Abstract: Education security exists when every child has equal access to quality education. Rohingya refugee children suffer widespread rates of education insecurity both in their home country, Myanmar and in their host country, Bangladesh. While the right to education is recognized in several human rights instruments, access to education is not ubiquitous, making the ability to achieve this right challenging for many Rohingya. Government restrictions on accredited education, COVID-19 related school closures, failures in launching a pilot of the Myanmar curriculum, and recent government plans to relocate refugees to Bhasan Char Island have created a ‘lost generation’ of Rohingya youth. This study traces the development of education insecurity among the Rohingya, a stateless ethnic minority group who fled to Bangladesh in 2017 in response to ethnic violence in Myanmar. Drawing upon available literature and primary fieldwork, this study examines the social, cultural, and political determinants of learning opportunities for Rohingya children.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Jan 2023 11:05:09 PST
  • The Fly and the Displaced Self: Affective Potential in the Epiphanic
           Moments of Mansfield, Woolf, and Lawrence

    • Authors: Cheryl Hindrichs
      Abstract: The literary criticism of Christina Alt, Bonnie Kime Scott, Christine Froula and Derek Ryan, to name a few, has shown how attention to the nonhuman provides insight into the epistemological changes in science, ethics and aesthetics in the modernist period. But why study flies' Virginia Woolf, Katherine Mansfield and D. H. Lawrence used a veritable zootopia in their diaries, letters, essays and fiction, but a fly is not an obvious choice for a spirit animal or sobriquet. Nonetheless, each writer reflects on the relationship between self and other by portraying protagonists’ interaction with or appropriation of the identity of an insect.The portrayal of a fly is not new, but its use by Woolf, Mansfield and Lawrence is singular for its decentring of experience and for derailing the expected narrative frame, thus making possible an experience or emotion that has eluded or been contained by generic approaches. For example, two notable fly appearances include Emily Dickinson, whose poetry anticipated modernist experiment, particularly in ‘I heard a Fly buzz – when I died’, and high modernist James Joyce's ‘Lestrygonians’ episode in Ulysses, ‘Stuck on the pane two flies buzzed, stuck.’ Their words, which have an extraordinary emotional punch, seem entirely at odds with their (dis)orienting focus – a fly. How could – or rather why should – the buzzing of a fly move the mind to a still point, contemplating mortality, love, loss and desire' Both Dickinson and Joycedepict protagonists who first register a fly, an utterly other and irrelevant presence, during a moment the reader knows is an existential and emotional crisis – for Dickinson's poet the deathbed, for Joyce's Leopold Bloom the fact that his wife will that afternoon be in bed with another man. Contrapuntally, both moments conclude by repeating with a variation the fact of the fly so that the protagonists’ suppressed knowledge is revealed. The fly opens a defamiliarised perspective for the subject – indeed makes the subject his or her own object of observation; that is, the protagonists observe themselves as they might an insect. Then the fly reorients them to the mundane.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Jan 2023 09:57:24 PST
  • Precise Zircon U-Pb Dating of the Mesoproterozoic Gawler Large Igneous
           Province, South Australia

    • Authors: Elizabeth A. Jagodzinski et al.
      Abstract: The Mesoproterozoic Gawler Range Volcanics and Benagerie Volcanic Suite of the Gawler Craton and Curnamona Province, South Australia, together with associated intrusive magmatism, define an intracontinental, subaerial large igneous province (LIP) preserving an estimated 110 000 km3 of volcanic rock, which hosts one of the world's largest orebodies, the Fe oxide-Cu-Au-U deposit at Olympic Dam, and numerous other related Cu-Au deposits. New high-precision Chemical Abrasion Isotope Dilution Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CA-TIMS) U-Pb dates on volcanic zircons allow for regional correlations between stratigraphic units of the GRV and BVS, and an understanding of how magmatic styles, temperatures, composition and mantle source input evolve over the duration of the LIP. The new dates indicate that the entire volcanic province erupted over a geologically short time interval of less than 10 million years, from c. 1595 to 1586 Ma, culminating in a widespread, voluminous flood rhyolite province that erupted in less than 1.5 million years, and most likely in 260,000 years or less. This follows a pattern of volcanism that is similar in duration and volume to mafic and bimodal continental LIPs, of which the mafic-dominated Phanerozoic continental flood basalt provinces are the more common end member.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2023 14:29:10 PST
  • Emplacement of the Franklin Large Igneous Province and Initiation of the
           Sturtian Snowball Earth

    • Authors: Mark D. Schmitz
      Abstract: During the Cryogenian (720 to 635 Ma ago) Snowball Earth glaciations, ice extended to sea level near the equator. The cause of this catastrophic failure of Earth’s thermostat has been unclear, but previous geochronology has suggested a rough coincidence of glacial onset with one of the largest magmatic episodes in the geological record, the Franklin large igneous province. U-Pb geochronology on zircon and baddeleyite from sills associated with the paleo-equatorial Franklin large igneous province in Arctic Canada record rapid emplacement between 719.86 ± 0.21 and 718.61 ± 0.30 Ma ago, 0.9 to 1.6 Ma before the onset of widespread glaciation. Geologic observations and (U-Th)/He dates on Franklin sills are compatible with major post–Franklin exhumation, possibly due to development of mafic volcanic highlands on windward equatorial Laurentia and increased global weatherability. After a transient magmatic CO2 flux, long-term carbon sequestration associated with increased weatherability could have nudged Earth over the threshold for runaway ice-albedo feedback.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2023 14:29:04 PST
  • Auditor Response to Changing Risk: Money Market Funds During the Financial

    • Authors: Kyle D. Allen et al.
      Abstract: Audits provide monitoring for investors. The collapse of markets across the financial crisis made assets more difficult to value, which increased risk for auditors. The money markets were at the center of the financial crisis increasing audit engagement risk on money market funds, which at the time of the crisis were highly opaque. Measuring the response to increased engagement risk with audit fees, this study finds that auditors increase their fees for the riskiest class of funds. However, no evidence was found that audit fees increased as funds increased their holdings in the riskiest class of securities.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2023 13:38:29 PST
  • Northeast Florida: A New Hotspot for Hurricane Damage'

    • Authors: William R. Dally et al.
      Abstract: Until recent Hurricanes Matthew and Irma struck northeast Florida, Hurricane Dora had been the first and only hurricane-strength storm in recorded history to strike the region. The area had gradually become regarded as a safe spot as storms at that latitude generally curved away from Jacksonville and northeast Florida, and turned north to make landfall in the Carolinas. Unknown to most, Vilano Beach had been experiencing steady yet chronic beach erosion and was already in a highly vulnerable state in many places when the recent storms struck. The cause of the ongoing background erosion continues to be a source of contention among residents and some experts. This paper presents prestorm historic beach conditions, the potential causes and progression of erosional events surrounding Hurricanes Matthew and Irma at three locations in northeast Florida, and an assessment of protection measures implemented by homeowners. Observations made during field investigations show that bulkheads constructed to protect single or multiple houses exacerbate erosion at the ends of the bulkheads. This results in both failure of the bulkheads as well as increased erosion for neighboring properties.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2023 13:00:52 PST
  • The Nutritional Condition of Moose Co-Varies with Climate, but Not with
           Density, Predation Risk, or Diet Composition

    • Authors: Jennifer S. Forbey et al.
      Abstract: A fundamental question about the ecology of herbivore populations pertains to the relative influence of biotic and abiotic processes on nutritional condition. Nutritional condition is influenced in important, yet poorly understood, ways by plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) which can adversely affect a herbivore’s physiology and energetics. Here we assess the relative influence of various abiotic (weather) and biotic (intraspecific competition, predation risk and diet composition) factors on indicators of nutritional condition and the energetic costs of detoxifying PSMs for the moose population in Isle Royale National Park (U.S.A.). Specifically, we observed interannual variation in the ratio of urea nitrogen to creatinine (UN:C), an indicator of nutritional restriction, over 29 years and the ratio of glucuronic acid to creatinine (GA:C), an indicator of energetic investment, in detoxifying PSMs over 19-years. Both UN:C and GA:C were measured in samples of urine-soaked snow. Most importantly, climatic factors explained 66% of the interannual variation in UN:C, with moose being more nutritionally stressed during winters with deep snow and during winters that followed warm summers. None of the biotic factors (density, predation, diet composition) were useful predictors of UN:C or GA:C. The absence of a relationship between diet composition and either UN:C or GA:C suggests that the nutritional ecology of wild herbivores is probably complicated by fine-scale variation in protein content and concentrations of PSMs amongst plants of the same species. UN:C increased with GA:C at both the individual and population-level. That result is consistent with detoxification being energetically costly, such that it impairs nutritional condition and also highlights how spatio-temporal variation in the intake and detoxification of PSMs may influence population dynamics. Lastly, because we observed interannual variation in nutritional condition over three decades and detoxification over two decades these findings are relevant to concerns about how herbivore populations respond to climate change.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2023 12:01:56 PST
  • Mule Deer Do More with Less: Comparing Their Nutritional Requirements and
           Tolerances with White-Tailed Deer

    • Authors: Anna R. Staudenmaier et al.
      Abstract: Congeneric species often share ecological niche space resulting in competitive interactions that either limit co-occurrence or lead to niche partitioning. Differences in fundamental nutritional niches mediated through character displacement or isolation during evolution are potential mechanisms that could explain overlapping distribution patterns of congenerics. We directly compared nutritional requirements and tolerances that influence the fundamental niche of mule (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus), which occur in allopatry and sympatry in similar realized ecological niches across their ranges in North America. Digestible energy and protein requirements and tolerances for plant fiber and plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) of both deer species were quantified using in vivo digestion and intake tolerance trials with six diets ranging in content of fiber, protein, and PSMs using tractable deer raised under identical conditions in captivity. We found that compared with white-tailed deer, mule deer required 54% less digestible protein and 21% less digestible energy intake per day to maintain body mass and nitrogen balance. In addition, they had higher fiber, energy, and dry matter digestibility and produced glucuronic acid (a byproduct of PSM detoxification) at a slower rate when consuming the monoterpene α-pinene. The mule deers’ enhanced physiological abilities to cope with low-quality, chemically defended forages relative to white-tailed deer might minimize potential competitive interactions in shared landscapes and provide a modest advantage to mule deer in habitats dominated by low-quality forages.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2023 12:01:50 PST
  • An Amino-Terminal Fragment of Apolipoprotein E4 Leads to Behavioral
           Deficits, Increased PHF-1 Immunoreactivity, and Mortality in Zebrafish

    • Authors: Madyson M. McCarthy et al.
      Abstract: Although the increased risk of developing sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) associated with the inheritance of the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) allele is well characterized, the molecular underpinnings of how ApoE4 imparts risk remains unknown. Enhanced proteolysis of the ApoE4 protein with a toxic-gain of function has been suggested and a 17 kDa amino-terminal ApoE4 fragment (nApoE41-151) has been identified in post-mortem human AD frontal cortex sections. Recently, we demonstrated in vitro, exogenous treatment of nApoE41-151 in BV2 microglial cells leads to uptake, trafficking to the nucleus and increased expression of genes associated with cell toxicity and inflammation. In the present study, we extend these findings to zebrafish (Danio rerio), an in vivo model system to assess the toxicity of nApoE41-151. Exogenous treatment of nApoE41-151 to 24-hour post-fertilization for 24 hours resulted in significant mortality. In addition, developmental abnormalities were observed following treatment with nApoE41-151 including improper folding of the hindbrain, delay in ear development, deformed yolk sac, enlarged cardiac cavity, and significantly lower heart rates. A similar nApoE31-151 fragment that differs by a single amino acid change (C>R) at position 112 had no effects on these parameters under identical treatment conditions. Decreased presence of pigmentation was noted for both nApoE31-151- and nApoE41-151-treated larvae compared with controls. Behaviorally, touch-evoked responses to stimulus were negatively impacted by treatment with nApoE41-151 but did not reach statistical significance. Additionally, triple-labeling confocal microscopy not only confirmed the nuclear localization of the nApoE41-151 fragment within neuronal populations following exogenous treatment, but also identified the presence of tau pathology, one of the hallmark features of AD. Collectively, these in vivo data demonstrating toxicity as well as sublethal effects on organ and tissue development support a novel pathophysiological function of this AD associated-risk factor.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2023 12:01:43 PST
  • Spatial Models Can Improve the Experimental Design of Field-Based
           Transplant Gardens by Preventing Bias Due to Neighborhood Crowding

    • Authors: Andrii Zaiats et al.
      Abstract: Field-based transplant gardens, including common and reciprocal garden experiments, are a powerful tool for studying genetic variation and gene-by-environment interactions. These experiments assume that individuals within the garden represent independent replicates growing in a homogenous environment. Plant neighborhood interactions are pervasive across plant populations and could violate assumptions of transplant garden experiments. We demonstrate how spatially explicit models for plant–plant interactions can provide novel insights on genotypes' performance in field-transplant garden designs. We used individual-based models, based on data from a sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) common garden, to simulate the impact of spatial plant–plant interactions on between-group differences in plant growth. We found that planting densities within the range of those used in many common gardens can bias experimental outcomes. Our results demonstrate that higher planting densities can lead to inflated group differences and may confound genotypes' competitive ability and genetically underpinned variation. Synthesis. We propose that spatially explicit models can help avoid biased results by informing the design and analysis of field-based transplant garden experiments. Alternately, including neighborhood effects in post hoc analyses of transplant garden experiments is likely to provide novel insights into the roles of biotic factors and density dependence in genetic differentiation.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2023 12:01:35 PST
  • Bench-Scale Investigation of Remote Detection of Clay Pockets in Granular

    • Authors: Nick W. Hudyma et al.
      Abstract: The detection of deleterious materials in compacted soil fills is an important part of earthwork construction. These materials are often identified a priori using laboratory techniques such as the visual assessment of sieve analyses. However, it is possible that deleterious materials, such as clay pockets, can be larger than particles characterized in laboratory tests. Bench scale imaging using simulated unmanned aerial vehicle flights were conducted to determine if clay pockets, 15.24 cm by 15.24 cm by 5 cm thick, could be detected in granular soils. The imaging techniques employed were digital imaging, thermal imaging, and electromagnetic imaging. All imaging techniques could be used to identify clay pockets at the surface, but only electromagnetic imaging could detect clay pockets beneath the surface. The clay pockets were easily identifiable at depths of 2.5 cm and 15.2 cm in fine sand. When buried in pea gravel, the clay pockets were identifiable only at a depth of 2.5 cm. The clay pockets could not be identified when buried in gravel sized particles.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Jan 2023 13:52:38 PST
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