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  Subjects -> ANTHROPOLOGY (Total: 398 journals)
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Anthropologischer Anzeiger
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.378
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0003-5548 - ISSN (Online) 2363-7099
Published by Schweizerbart Science Publishers Homepage  [23 journals]
  • Genetic landscape of the Hvar Island – highlight of a 50-year long
           bioanthropological research

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      Abstract: Genetic landscape of the Hvar Island – highlight of a 50-year long bioanthropological researchŠarac, Jelena; Auguštin, Dubravka Havaš; Lewis, Ana Perinić; Jarec, Morana; Hodžić, Rafaela Mrdjen; Novokmet, Natalija; Sujoldžić, Anita; Rudan, Pavao
      Anthropologischer Anzeiger, (2022), p. 361 - 397AbstractThe paper presents an overview of the 50-year long bioanthropological research of the Hvar islanders and depicts the maternal and paternal genetic landscape of the Hvar population (mtDNA and NRY lineages) in more detail. MtDNA haplogroups were determined in 169 and NRY haplogroups in 407 autochthonous individuals from the Hvar Island. The relatively high level of diversity of mtDNA and NRY lineages has been observed, however with interesting deviations from both the maternal (F1b1 lineage) and paternal (Q2a1a lineage) perspective. Additionally, population substructuring revealed differences between Hvar communities (east-west substructuring), in line with the ethnohistoric background and observed migration patterns on the island. Genetic analysis of the Hvar islanders presents a highlight of the 50-year long anthropological research on this island and offers insight into the current genetic structure of Dalmatia, Croatia, shaped by dynamic and diverse population movements throughout history.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Osteometric reassociation of commingled human remains from a modern Greek
           sample using bone elements of the craniovertebral junction

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      Abstract: Osteometric reassociation of commingled human remains from a modern Greek sample using bone elements of the craniovertebral junctionLouka, Vasiliki; Anastopoulou, Ioanna; Moraitis, Konstantinos
      Anthropologischer Anzeiger, (2022), p. 399 - 409AbstractThere is a high demand of osteometric methods to address the issue of commingled remains, however, the research in reassociating the crania with C1, and C1 with C2, as part of the craniovertebral junction, is limited. Reassociating crania with the postcranial skeleton can offer beneficial information for personal identification, as the cranium is broadly utilized for sex and age estimation. Moreover, cranium contributes to the facial reconstruction, a useful supplementary method for forensic identification. For this study, measurements were collected from 159 crania and 182 C1 and C2 vertebrae from the Athens Collection, representing adult males and females between 18 and 99 years. A reassociation method was produced utilizing osteometrics of articular surfaces. A supplementary sample of ten individuals was utilized as a test sample, originating from Athens Medical School. Seven equations were generated by simple linear regression analysis for the reassociation of the cranium to C1, and C1 to C2. The blind test results demonstrated that this method can be applied with 80–100% success. Overall, the results indicated that the produced regression models are a useful addition to the existing sorting methodologies, as they can be applied in mixed-sex and/or fragmented commingled osteological assemblages.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Sex estimation from dimensions of the base of the skull in Black South
           Africans

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      Abstract: Sex estimation from dimensions of the base of the skull in Black South AfricansDayal, Manisha R.; Billings, Brendon K.; Brits, Desiré; Abdallah, Abdallah; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Bidmos, Mubarak A.
      Anthropologischer Anzeiger, (2022), p. 411 - 421AbstractThe pelvis and the skull are the two most utilised skeletal elements to estimate sex from skeletonised remains due to their sexually dimorphic traits. However, as increasingly more fragmented remains have been presented for analyses, other bones and their fragments have now been subjected to analyses for sex estimation. In the skull particularly, the base has shown to survive harsh conditions. In this study the foramen magnum region was explored in Black South Africans to estimate sex during forensic analyses. Seven measurements of the foramen magnum and surrounding areas were measured in 120 male and female crania and subjected to discriminant function analyses. The average accuracies for the stepwise discriminant functions ranged from 60–71% whilst the average accuracies for the direct discriminant functions ranged from 63–69%. The average accuracies obtained in this study are similar to other studies performed using the foramen magnum. However, these average accuracies are much lower than other skeletal elements that have been used for sex estimation in South Africans. Thus, the equations in this study should be used with caution and only in the absence of more accurate elements. The cranial base has always shown to have a low to moderate expression of sexual dimorphism. The cranial base of Black South Africans is no different.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Sex determination from human patella in a Polish medieval sample

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      Abstract: Sex determination from human patella in a Polish medieval sampleTomaszewska, Agnieszka; Kwiatkowska, Barbara; Grabka, Dawid
      Anthropologischer Anzeiger, (2022), p. 423 - 432AbstractThis study aimed to address whether the anthropometric features of the patella can be used to determine the sex of the individuals on the basis of the skeletal remains and to set limit values for anthropometric measurements and indicators of the patella in relation to each sex. 71 patellas (32 female and 39 male) from the Middle Ages from Wroclaw, Poland, were analyzed. The measurements (the greatest height, width, thickness, width of the lateral and medial joint surface and the height of these joint surfaces) and ratios were calculated (height to width, height to thickness as well as width to height of lateral and medial joint surfaces) and tested according to sexual dimorphism. The best parameter in terms of discriminatory assessment was the patella’s highest height, which made it possible to classify the sex in 46.5% of cases. However, an index of the sum of the height, width and thickness measurements seems to be even better for differentiating between the sexes, making it possible to correctly classify the sex in 49.3% of cases. Due to some limitations of this study and the need of population-specific standard, it is recommend to employ the patella in sex determination only in cases of fragmented human remains and when no other method can be applied. Further investigation of possible factors influencing the variability of its size and shape should be explored in larger and geographically more diverse samples, and this could contribute to forensic, clinical, anatomical, and anthropological studies in this body part.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The supracondylar process in the skeletal remains of a full-term fetus
           from Central Spain (V–VII century BC)

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      Abstract: The supracondylar process in the skeletal remains of a full-term fetus from Central Spain (V–VII century BC)Dorado-Fernández, Enrique; Ramírez-González, Ildefonso; Parro-González, Loreto; Ruiz-Tagle, Elisa; Paulos-Bravo, Rodrigo; Barrio-Asensio, Carmen; Murillo-González, Jorge
      Anthropologischer Anzeiger, (2022), p. 433 - 437AbstractA rare case in the remains of a full-term fetus was recovered from the archaeological site ‘Arriaca-Zaide’ (Guadalajara, Spain) that dates to the century V–VII BC. The right humerus presents an osseous tubercle, fractured at its end that extends obliquely forward and medially, from the anteromedial aspect of the lower third of the humerus. It is a supracondylar process, a rare osseous anatomic variation. The presence of the supracondylar process in the fetal period allowed us to propose its congenital nature. Furthermore, its disposition and state of ossification allowed us to suggest that it was formed from the ossification center of the humeral diaphysis and not from a secondary ossification center. This case represents the first time that the supracondylar process during the fetal period has been described in the anthropological physical literature.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A comparative analysis of four dental pathologies of the historical
           population of Cortijo Coracho, Roman southern Spain (4th–8th centuries
           AD)

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      Abstract: A comparative analysis of four dental pathologies of the historical population of Cortijo Coracho, Roman southern Spain (4th–8th centuries AD)Diéguez Ramírez, Juan Pablo; Ruiz, Ricardo Ortega; Busom, Júlia Olivé; Ortega, Daniel Botella
      Anthropologischer Anzeiger, (2022), p. 439 - 449AbstractHere we present the dental pathologies found in the population of Cortijo Coracho, which dates from Late Antiquity (4th–8th centuries AD) and is located in the region of Lucena (Córdoba). Using a sample of 160 individuals over the age of twenty years at death, with a total of 1681 dental crowns, the frequency of various oral diseases (dental calculus, alveolar reabsorptions, periodontal diseases, and dental abscesses) were analysed. The frequency of oral disease was compared between the mandible and the maxilla, the anterior and posterior teeth as well as the right and left sides. Consideration was given to ante-mortem tooth loss, which may be caused by dental disease. Statistical analysis showed a significantly greater frequency of oral disease in the posterior teeth of the mandible.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Multidisciplinary analysis of a mummy from the War of the Pacific

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      Abstract: Multidisciplinary analysis of a mummy from the War of the PacificSaldías, Eduardo; Valdebenito, Gabriela; Zamora, Luis; Bastías, Bruno; Flores, Cristian; Vila, Bernardo; Vinueza, Diana; Tornero, Carlos; Malgosa, Assumpció; Becker, Eduardo
      Anthropologischer Anzeiger, (2022), p. 451 - 465AbstractThe War of the Pacific (1879–1884) was a big scale war between Chile against the alliance of Peru and Bolivia. One of the most important battles, the “Batalla del Campo de la Alianza” was situated in the desert near Tacna, Peru. The conditions of this environment favored the conservation of the dead soldiers after many years. Decades ago, the Natural History Museum of Concepción in Chile, received a naturally mummified individual of a probably Chilean soldier as a donation; its uncertain context was never studied nor confirmed. Considering this, our investigation analyzed this body under exploratory methods, ballistic analysis, archaeological contrast, 14C radiocarbon dating, ancient DNA, and isotopic analysis to reconstruct the biological profile of this mummy. The results indicated that the mummy belongs to an adult man between 33–39 years of age (> 1.50 m) and has a perimortem wound in the left flank of the abdomen. CT scan and X-rays revealed the presence of a bullet (Comblain II or Gras) hosted near the L2 vertebra. It is possible that the individual died of bleeding from a gunshot wound done by a long-distance firearm projectile from an inferior level, whose trajectory was from left to right, with slight inclination towards the top, and without a projectile exit. Other analyses confirmed the historical context and suggests the Chilean origin of the mummy. Despite the passage of time and other factors, it was possible to reconstruct the death of this individual thanks to technology and approaches from different disciplines.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Osteoarthritis in past human populations from Radom (14th–17th and
           18th–19th century)

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      Abstract: Osteoarthritis in past human populations from Radom (14th–17th and 18th–19th century)Myszka, Anna; Popowska-Nowak, Elżbieta; Tomczyk, Jacek
      Anthropologischer Anzeiger, (2022), p. 467 - 474AbstractOsteoarthritis (OA) is a widespread skeletal condition in the historical population, but it still raises many methodological and interpretative problems. The present study aimed to examine the osteoarthritic changes (osteophytes, porosity, eburnation) in the skeletal material from Radom (14th–19th century) (Poland), enriching knowledge about osteoarthritis and its prevalence in the past. Additionally, a comparison of OA changes prevalence in two chronological periods (the population from Radom during the 14th–17th century versus the 18th–19th century) was done. In the Late Medieval (14th–17th century) population from Radom, osteoarthritic changes were observed in 22% of individuals (males, 18%; females, 29%) and in the Modern Period Radom (18th–19th century) in 25% individuals (males, 25.7%; females, 26.5%). In both skeletal samples, the greatest number of OA changes was recorded in the hip and elbow. Knee and ankle were the least affected joints. Osteophytes were the most frequently observed type of lesions, while eburnation was the least frequent. Although the higher prevalence of osteoarthritis in the Modern Period in Radom is noted, the differences are not statistically significant. Taking the multifactorial etiology of osteoarthritic changes, and the fact that osteoarthritis, as a single indicator of health, could not tell much about the overall lifestyle of past human populations, one must be caution when drawing unambiguous conclusions according to the simple, linear effect of environmental changes on osteoarthritic changes formation.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Dental evidence of human remains of a Slavic soldier population deported
           in concentration camps during World War II

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      Abstract: Dental evidence of human remains of a Slavic soldier population deported in concentration camps during World War IIMele, Federica; De Donno, Antonio; Sablone, Sara; Leggio, Alessia; Introna, Francesco; Santoro, Valeria
      Anthropologischer Anzeiger, (2022), p. 475 - 480AbstractAims: The aim of this paper was to analyse post-mortem dental records of a collection of 93 skeletal remains exhumed from the ossuary of Bari Municipal Cemetery, Apulia, Italy. These skeletal remains belonged to Slavic soldiers deported in 1941 during World War II in two Italian concentration camps and who died in 1946–1947. Methods: A total number of 1949 teeth were analysed according to the American Board of Forensic Odontology and the WHO methods. The majority of the victims were men (95%) between the age of 18 and 62. Results: The results showed the dental health situation of a population of soldiers of World War II, in particular the high rate of caries (35%), periodontal disease (61%), and dental wear (65%) according to the high stress level of the soldiers during the armed conflict and the subsequent deportation. Conclusions: This is the first study reported in literature that analyses the effects of war and deportation on soldiers’ pathological conditions of the oral cavity. This analysis also confirmed the usefulness of teeth for anthropological and forensic research thanks to their high resistance and preservation even after post-mortem modifications and different environmental factors.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A proposal for the adjustment of bone mineral density for body dimensions
           in children

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      Abstract: A proposal for the adjustment of bone mineral density for body dimensions in childrenAnnar, Dorina; Feher, Piroska; Zsakai, Annamaria; Muzsnai, Agota
      Anthropologischer Anzeiger, (2022), p. 245 - 252AbstractObjectives: The precise age estimation is of high importance in bone mineral density (BMD) assessment in children, since the bone structure of a studied child is evaluated by using the age and gender dependent references. In addition, the biological age – the bone age in this case – estimation could help this bone structural evaluation process, since the developmental status of the skeletal system can significantly alter from the theoretical developmental status determined by chronological age in healthy, but early or late maturing children. The aims of the study were (1) to check whether volumetric BMD (vBMD) Z-scores estimated by considering chronological age and biological age differ significantly in children aged between 7–18 years, and (2) in the case of significant inaccuracy of Z-score estimation based on chronological age to construct new vBMD standards adjusted for body developmental status. Subjects and methods: Body structural and densitometry data of 476 healthy children aged between 7 and 18 years were used in the analysis. pQCT measurements were performed at the distal radius using Stratec XCT-2000 equipment (Stratec Inc, Germany). The centile curves of vBMD parameters were estimated by using lmsChartMaker Pro 2.3 software. Ulnar length age was used as biological age in the analysis. Results: The total and ‘cortical + subcortical’ vBMD changed by age in the studied age interval in both genders, while the trabecular vBMD showed significant change by age only in females. Our results confirmed that when the biological age of a child significantly differs from her/his chronological age, vBMD evaluation should be done by considering her/his biological age. Due to the increase in individual variability of rate and timing of pubertal developmental processes, the sensitivity of vBMD evaluation by considering body developmental status was the lowest in the age between 12 and 16 years in the boys and between 10 and 12 years in the girls. Therefore the suggested vBMD adjustments for biological ages are highly recommended to use at least in children with ages outside these age intervals. Conclusion: If the estimation of any biological age cannot be carried out, vBMD references adjusted for height or other body dimensions should be used in the bone health status estimation in children.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
 
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