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  Subjects -> ANTHROPOLOGY (Total: 398 journals)
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Anthropologischer Anzeiger
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.378
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0003-5548 - ISSN (Online) 2363-7099
Published by Schweizerbart Science Publishers Homepage  [23 journals]
  • Methods for sex estimation of prepubertal individuals (< 12 years old):
           bibliographic review and future directions

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      Abstract: Methods for sex estimation of prepubertal individuals (< 12 years old): bibliographic review and future directionsMonge Calleja, Álvaro M.; Luna, Leandro H.; Aranda, Claudia M.; Santos, Ana Luisa
      Anthropologischer Anzeiger, (2022), p. - AbstractSex estimation is essential in both bioarchaeological and forensic research. Based on bibliographical research, this study aims to systematize and compare the existing methods and glance at the future on this research topic. The survey in Web of Science and Google Scholar revealed 37 papers describing the generation of original procedures, and 25 validation studies. The results show that the pelvis, namely the ilium, is the most analyzed anatomical region, followed by the deciduous teeth, the cranium, the mandible, and the long bones. The morphometric approaches are addressed in greater proportion, both as original methods (n = 19) or validations (n = 24). Only one of the 19 approaches that require expensive equipment (conventional radiology, computer tomography, geometric morphometrics and 3D modelling) was tested. Most of them were generated during the 21st century; however, 24 have not been tested yet. Comparing all the methods tested, the percentages of correctly estimated cases are always lower in validation studies. It is suggested that the most promising ones be tested in documented samples by a group of researchers. Thus, the interobserver error would be evaluated and may also lead to new methodological proposals and refinements.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Massive periostosis in a child from Neolithic Gebel es-Silsileh, Egypt

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      Abstract: Massive periostosis in a child from Neolithic Gebel es-Silsileh, EgyptGresky, Julia; Schultz, Michael
      Anthropologischer Anzeiger, (2022), p. - AbstractIn 2015 a surprising find of human bone fragments from a child was made in a collection of the Egyptian Museum and Papyrus Collection, Berlin. These bone fragments from Southern Egypt date to 3400–3300 BC and represent the distal parts of both femora and the proximal parts of both tibiae (bones around the knee joint). The bones have a specific appearance, probably indicating a systemic disease. Due to the incomplete state of the skeletal remains, the distribution of the lesions throughout the entire skeleton could not be observed, thus preventing a better diagnosis of the underlying pathological process. The poor collagen preservation of the bone precluded aDNA testing for pathogens. The bone fragments were instead subjected to radiographic and microscopic analysis which revealed a recurrent periosteal process accompanied by a distinct osteoclastic component. A possible diagnosis might be an underlying unknown pathological process, leading to the development of a secondary Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy (HOA).
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Radix entomolaris: A morphological variable of human dentition with
           anthropological relevance. A study on a Chilean population

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      Abstract: Radix entomolaris: A morphological variable of human dentition with anthropological relevance. A study on a Chilean populationRodríguez-Niklitschek, Cynthia; Fernández, Rocío; Marinao, Daniela; López-Lázaro, Sandra; Chuhuaicura, Priscila; Vargas, Andrés; Oporto, Gonzalo H.
      Anthropologischer Anzeiger, (2022), p. - AbstractThe existence of a third root in the mandibular first molars may have implications for certain dental treatments; however, its greatest relevance could be in anthropological and forensic sciences, because its prevalence varies significantly according to ethnic groups. The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of radix entomolaris (RE) in a sample of Chilean people. A random sample of 1330 digital periapical radiographs of endodontically treated mandibular first molars (551 males and 779 females, aged between 18 and 87 years) were evaluated. The prevalence of RE, its distribution by sex and root canal lengths were determined. Evidence demonstrated that the formation of RE is associated with ancestry and its frequency is variable according to populations studied, being more frequent in Asians and Native Americans. The prevalence of RE in the studied people was 3.16%, similar to frequencies reported in European individuals (3.4%–4.2%). The 61.90% of RE were located at the right side of the mandible and 38.10% at the left side. The average working length of RE was 19.52 mm. No statistically significant differences in frequencies were observed by sex (p = 0.19). The prevalence of RE varies among continental population groups. However, due to human migration, the frequency of this physical trait could be modified in specific geographic regions. The observed prevalence of RE in the study group was similar to the prevalence ranges observed for European ancestry populations and it was considerably lower than the data reported for non-Europeans. The absence of sexual dimorphism is consistent with results of previous studies performed worldwide.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A possible case of “kissing” osteochondroma and multiple enchondromas
           in a medieval skeleton from the church of Sant’ Agostino in Caravate
           (Northern Italy)

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      Abstract: A possible case of “kissing” osteochondroma and multiple enchondromas in a medieval skeleton from the church of Sant’ Agostino in Caravate (Northern Italy)Larentis, Omar; Tonina, Enrica; Iorio, Silvia; Tesi, Chiara; Fusco, Roberta; Licata, Marta
      Anthropologischer Anzeiger, (2022), p. - AbstractThis work presents the neoplastic bone changes found in the lower limb of a medieval skeleton from the church of Sant’ Agostino in Caravate (Northern Italy). After briefly assessing the individual’s overall pathological picture, a differential diagnosis for the neoplastic changes is now proposed. These changes were analysed macroscopically and radiographically and subsequently evaluated considering the paleopathological and clinical literature available. The differential diagnosis allowed us to recognize a tibiofibular osteochondroma and some enchondromas in the medullary cavity of the tibia. The results presented here highlight the importance of radiological analyses in the recognition and study of bone neoplasms in the paleopathological field, further contributing to our knowledge of the presence of neoplasms in Medieval Northern Italy.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Dental paleopathologies in western Anatolian skeletons from the Late
           Eastern Roman Period (Attepe and Dereköy settlements)

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      Abstract: Dental paleopathologies in western Anatolian skeletons from the Late Eastern Roman Period (Attepe and Dereköy settlements)Erkman, Ahmet Cem; İlbey, Selcen; Gökkurt, Sevgi Tuğçe; Özdemir, Serpil
      Anthropologischer Anzeiger, (2022), p. - AbstractThe skeletons investigated herein were dated to the Late Eastern Roman Period, at the time of the golden age under the reign of the Macedonian dynasty ruled between 867 and 1056. In the Kütahya region, which acted as a border and frequently changed between the Eastern Roman and Seljuk states, the oral and dental health of the Attepe and Dereköy populations in this period was differed proportionally. A dam was constructed in Kütahya Province near Kureyşler Village for irrigation purposes. The Attepe settlement (AD 986–1050) and Dereköy necropolis (AD 966–1032) are located within the boundaries of the dam lake. To save the cultural assets in these areas, excavation studies were conducted by the Kütahya Museum in the region in 2014. This study investigated 447 permanent teeth from 34 adult individuals in the Attepe population, and 270 permanent teeth from 17 adult individuals in the Dereköy population dated to the Late Eastern Roman period. When the distribution of dental diseases in the Attepe population was examined, it was determined that 13.77% had caries, 0.81% had periapical lesions, 68.18% had periodontal disease, 13.07% had calculus, 17.98% had hypoplasia, and 22.33% had antemortem tooth loss (AMTL). In the Dereköy population, 12.88% had caries, 2.01% had periapical lesions, 80% had periodontal disease, 3.83% had calculus, 23.28% had hypoplasia, and 5.37% had AMTL. In both populations, the degree of tooth wear was determined as grade 3 and 4. The dental data showed that agricultural-dominated nutrition consumption was effective in the Attepe and Dereköy populations. In both populations, there were significant differences between the amount of caries and calculus (p = 0.00 < 0.05) as well as tooth wear and calculus (p = 0.00 < 0.05). When all these findings were assessed in an integrated fashion, it was possible to understand the features of a village population being involved in agriculture and dominant stock farming in a region in western Anatolia during the 10th–11th centuries, which coped, for the most part, with epidemics and infectious diseases, wars, and perhaps periodic famines.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Manifestation of infantile scurvy in a skeleton from the high medieval
           village of Trutmanice (South Moravia, Czech Republic)

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      Abstract: Manifestation of infantile scurvy in a skeleton from the high medieval village of Trutmanice (South Moravia, Czech Republic)Račanská, Michaela; Vargová, Lenka; Dzetkuličová, Veronika; Vymazalová, Kateřina
      Anthropologischer Anzeiger, (2022), p. - AbstractThe study describes the pathological findings recorded on the human remains of a 3 to 4-year-old child found in the burial site of Trutmanice (Czech Republic), dated to the 13th–15th century. The human remains were examined using standard macroscopic osteological and paleopathological methods, supplemented by radiographic examination. Although the preservation of the bones limited the analysis, multiple pathological changes were observed mainly on the skull: cribra orbitalia, small pores and fine deposits of newly formed bone tissue, hypertrophic diploë, grooves indicating rich branching of meningeal arteries on the intracranial surface of the cranial vault. A very fine periostotic deposition of newly formed bone tissue was also observed at the distal end of the diaphysis of the right tibia and both distal ends of the femora. The radiographs of the femora showed white lines of Frankel, scurvy lines, and Wimberger’s rings. The observed pathological changes were possibly consistent with scurvy based on differential diagnosis. Reports about cases of juvenile scurvy from rural areas within the context of landlocked countries of Central Europe are rare. While scurvy is now more frequently reported in the paleopathological literature, evidence for scurvy within one of the most natural agricultural areas in the Czech lands remains rare. We recommend using radiographic examination to complement the diagnosis of scurvy in future paleopathological and epidemiological studies of past populations.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Limitations and potential of analyses of cremation remains –
           Anthropological analysis of bone remains from a Lusatian culture cremation
           cemetery in Paszowice (Lower Silesia, Poland)

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      Abstract: Limitations and potential of analyses of cremation remains – Anthropological analysis of bone remains from a Lusatian culture cremation cemetery in Paszowice (Lower Silesia, Poland)Mackiewicz, Klementyna; Szczurowski, Jacek
      Anthropologischer Anzeiger, (2022), p. - AbstractThe main aim of the study was to identify which components of the skeleton are best identifiable after cremation, because only few publications pay attention to the best-preserved bone structures in cremation burials. However, such knowledge offers potential for further analysis and methodology development. One of the most frequently and best-identifiable parts of the skeleton were fragments of vertebrae and long bones epiphyses. Similarly, well preserved are structures made of compact bone tissue, for instance, temporal bone pyramids considered as the hardest components of the mammalian skeleton. Analysed cremated human bones remains came from a Lusatian culture settlement burial site situated in Paszowice (Lower Silesia, Poland). The research has been carried out on material consisting of remains of at least 673 individuals found in 649 burial pits. Among them, 279 burials belonged to adults and 102 to children. It was possible to identify sex in the case of 25% of adult individuals – 40 males and 33 females. In the remaining cases, the attempts to determine the sex and age-at-death have failed. During the analysis some degenerative changes were noted. The analysed material also included 23 multiple burials, usually double and one triple. The study was also aimed at illustrating the elements of the funeral rite. The material excavated from 27 burials suggested that the remains had been retrieved from the pyre with particular care – in some of those urns, the arrangement of remains was modelled on the anatomical system of the human skeleton. The grade of combustion of most bones remains in the necropolis in Paszowice ranged from high to very high. In few cases in the grave were found burned animal remains.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Ancestry of victims of 1755 Lisbon earthquake based on tooth morphology

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      Abstract: Ancestry of victims of 1755 Lisbon earthquake based on tooth morphologyPalmela Pereira, Cristiana; Bento, Beatriz A. F.; Barroso Flamino, Carolina; Santos, Rui; Telles Antunes, Miguel; Scott, Richard G.
      Anthropologischer Anzeiger, (2022), p. - AbstractThe present investigation comprises the characterization of skeletal remains recovered from the 2004 archaeological excavations carried out in the Cloister’s Southwest Wing of the Academy of Sciences of Lisbon, attributed to the 1755 earthquake. Among the remains, many teeth were found. Our goal is to use dental morphological characteristics to assess the geographic ancestry of the combined sample using the methods of biodistance and web-based application of the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System 2. The crown and root traits of the ASUDAS were scored in a sample of 1068 disarticulated teeth, 65 skulls, 138 adult and 42 sub-adult jaws. Eight characteristics of 34 specimens (7 skulls and 27 jaws) were analyzed using rASUDAS2. Results demonstrate that 73.5% of this sample can be assigned to Western Eurasian ancestry, with the remaining 26.5% divided between Sub-Saharan Africa, non-Arctic and Arctic America, and East Asia. Euclidean and Bray-Curtis distance measures were used to put this Portuguese sample in a world context. From both distance matrixes, cluster analyses were used to generate dendrograms. Based on Bray-Curtis values, Portugal is closest to Western Europe, followed by India and Eastern Europe. For the tree based on Euclidean distances, India is the first to join Portugal, followed by Eastern and Western Europe. Therefore, on both an individual and group level, the Portuguese sample is most closely tied to Western Eurasia. However, there may be other ancestries in the sample, such as Sub-Saharan Africa, due to non-European migrants in Portugal along with the African slave trade to Brazil that reached its peak in 18th century Lisbon.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Secular changes of foot dimensions among children and adolescents
           (3–18 years of age)

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      Abstract: Secular changes of foot dimensions among children and adolescents (3–18 years of age)Kryst, Łukasz; Żegleń, Magdalena; Woronkowicz, Agnieszka; Kowal, Małgorzata
      Anthropologischer Anzeiger, (2022), p. - AbstractThe purpose of this study was to assess the changes in the foot dimensions in children and adolescents (3–18 years of age) from Krakow (Poland), between the years 2010 and 2020. The examined group of children and adolescents (3–18-year olds) took part in two cross-sectional surveys carried out in 2010 and 2020. The cohort examined in 2010 consisted of 1,989 females and 1,893 males and the 2020 series included 1,702 females and 1,584 males. Body height (B-v), length of the lower limbs (B-sy) foot length (pte-ap) and breadth (mtt-mtf) were measured. The last two measurements were the basis for calculating the foot index and estimated area of the foot. Generally, children examined in 2020 had relatively wider feet in proportion to their length compared to their peers from the 2010 cohort. This change was mirrored by secular trends regarding the estimated area of the foot. Additionally, a secular decrease of the length of the foot was compensated by the increasing width of this segment of the body, which among girls occurred especially after 10 years of age. The present study provides new information regarding secular changes in foot proportions among Polish children and adolescents. Results obtained in this stud are additionally significant, as there is no similar research concerning the population of Poland.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • New insight into mid-Byzantine burial practices: bioarchaeological
           implications from the North Cemetery infant remains of the Lower City
           Church of Amorium (Afyonkarahisar, Turkey) (10th–11th centuries AD)

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      Abstract: New insight into mid-Byzantine burial practices: bioarchaeological implications from the North Cemetery infant remains of the Lower City Church of Amorium (Afyonkarahisar, Turkey) (10th–11th centuries AD)Arzu Demirel, F.
      Anthropologischer Anzeiger, (2022), p. - AbstractAmorium is a Byzantine city located in the province of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. Excavations in the 2007, 2008 and 2009 seasons yielded many tombs containing non-adults, mostly infant burials, located to the north of the Lower City Church while the south of the Church was reserved for family and adult tombs. Among the excavated trenches A20 is the largest area and located immediately to the east of the baptistery, other trenches in the Lower City Church (A17, A19, A22, A35, A36, and A38) are located further away from the baptistery and consist of smaller rooms. Skeletal remains of 280 individuals from these trenches dating to 10th to 11th centuries AD were analysed in order to find out if there are any indications for differences in their social status, preferential choices for the burial places, or age-related distribution of the burials of the non-adults in the North Cemetery. This study, together with the baptism traditions and social hierarchy of the Mid-Byzantine era, tentatively suggests that the A20 area might have been reserved for children of families of higher rank in society as it was the closest area to the baptistery (presumably some of the infants had not lived long enough to be baptised), whereas infants and some older children of lower rank in the society were buried in outlying areas. Hence, this study attempts to offer a new insight into burial practices in mid-Byzantine Amorium.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
 
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