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Zoosystematics and Evolution - Mitteilungen Aus Dem Museum Fur Naturkunde Zu Berlin
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1435-1935 - ISSN (Online) 1860-0743
Published by Pensoft Homepage  [58 journals]
  • Rock island melody remastered: two new species in the Afroedura bogerti
           Loveridge, 1944 group from Angola and Namibia

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(2): 435-453
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.86299
      Authors : Werner Conradie, Andreas Schmitz, Javier Lobón-Rovira, François S. Becker, Pedro Vaz Pinto, Morgan L. Hauptfleisch : Newly collected material from northern Namibia’s Otjihipa Mountains and west-central Angola allowed us to revisit the Afroedura bogerti Loveridge, 1944 group. The employment of additional gene markers, including nuclear markers, allowed us to identify two new species in the group and infer species boundaries and potential speciation events in Afroedura from southwestern Africa. The new Namibian material is recovered as a sister species to A. donveae, from which it differs mostly by the colour of the iris (copper versus black) and dorsal colouration. Material from the first elevational gradient of the escarpment in Benguela Province, Angola was found to be more closely related to A. bogerti than A. wulfhaackei. The differences between these two species are more subtle, although the new species exhibits higher mid-body scale rows (79.5 versus 74.8), different dorsal colouration and supranasal scales always in contact (versus 57% in contact). HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Nov 2022 18:15:36 +020
       
  • A new cryptic species of land snail from the Northern Territory,
           Australia (Stylommatophora, Camaenidae, Parglogenia)

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(2): 427-433
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.93851
      Authors : Frank Köhler, Michael Shea : Parglogenia cobourgensis sp. nov., a new species of camaenid land snail is described from Cobourg Peninsula, Top End of the Northern Territory in Australia. This new species has a shell that is identical to the type species of the genus, Parglogenia pelodes, which also occurs in the Top End. However, both species clearly differ in their reproductive anatomy and are also well-differentiated in terms of mitochondrial phylogenetics. A single specimen of a Parglogenia species from Croker Island, West Arnhem Land, is hypothesized to represent a third species based on details of its reproductive anatomy. However, only a single historical specimen was available for study. We therefore refrain from formally naming this species because of the incomplete information at hand. Helix subgranosa Le Guillou, 1842, a nominal species previously placed in Parglogenia, is synonymized with Xanthomelon durvillii (Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841). HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Oct 2022 10:09:29 +020
       
  • A new species of crayfish of the genus Cherax from Indonesian New Guinea
           (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae)

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(2): 411-425
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.94753
      Authors : Christian Lukhaup, Rury Eprilurahman : A new species of the genus Cherax is described and illustrated. Cherax wagenknechtae sp. nov., endemic to the Beraur and Klasabun River drainages in the western part of the Kepala Burung (Vogelkop) peninsula, West Papua, Indonesia, is described, figured and compared with its closest relatives, Cherax pulcher Lukhaup, 2015. The new species may be easily distinguished from Cherax pulcher by the shape of the chelae, rostrum and body, and coloration. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Oct 2022 10:16:59 +030
       
  • A new species of New Guinea Worm-Eating Snake (Serpentes, Elapidae,
           Toxicocalamus Boulenger, 1896) from Western Highlands Province, Papua New
           Guinea

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(2): 399-409
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.90520
      Authors : Jackson R. Roberts, Bulisa Iova, Christopher C. Austin : We describe a new species of New Guinea Worm-Eating Snake (Elapidae: Toxicocalamus) from a specimen in the reptile collection of the Papua New Guinea National Museum and Art Gallery. Toxicocalamus longhagen sp. nov. can be easily distinguished from other species of this genus by the presence of paired subcaudals, a preocular scale unfused from the prefrontal scale, a prefrontal distinct from the internasal scale that contacts the supralabials, a single large posterior temporal and two postocular scales. The new taxon is currently known only from one specimen, which was collected from Mt. Hagen Town in Western Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea in 1967. The new species was originally identified as T. loriae, but the unique head scalation and postfrontal bone morphology revealed through micro-computed tomography scanning easily distinguish the new species from T. loriae sensu stricto. This is the first species of this genus described from Western Highlands Province. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 5 Oct 2022 09:20:28 +0300
       
  • Multigene phylogeny of the Indo–West Pacific genus Enosteoides
           (Crustacea, Decapoda, Porcellanidae) with description of a new species
           from Australia

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(2): 387-397
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.90540
      Authors : Alexandra Hiller, Bernd Werding : The porcellanid genus Enosteoides Johnson, 1970, currently containing six species, was raised in the 1970s to contain aberrant Indo–West Pacific forms of the diverse and cosmopolitan genus Porcellana Lamarck, 1801. Here, we describe the most aberrant form as Enosteoides spinosus sp. nov., from the northeast and northwest coasts of Australia and present results on phylogenetic reconstructions of the genus, based on an 1,870 bp alignment of concatenated DNA sequences of three mitochondrial and one nuclear gene. The new species is peculiarly spiny and has a higher morphological affinity to the type species of the genus, E. ornatus (Stimpson, 1858), than to the other congeneric species. Our molecular results indicate that Enosteoides is not monophyletic. The new species and E. ornatus are encompassed in a clade, which does not share immediate common ancestry with the clade containing the other species of Enosteoides. This clade is more closely related to species of Porcellana and Pisidia. Relatively large interspecific genetic distances between and within the two clades, as compared to distances estimated in American pairs of species on each side of the Panama Isthmus, suggest ancient divergence, probably followed by extinction events or low speciation rate. Relatively large intraspecific distances between Australian populations of the new species of Enosteoides from geographically distant locations suggest some level of phylogeographic structure. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 4 Oct 2022 17:53:13 +0300
       
  • An unexpected occurrence: discovery of the genus Cybaeopsis Strand, 1907
           in Europe with the description of a new species from Italy (Arachnida,
           Araneae, Amaurobiidae)

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(2): 377-385
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.90858
      Authors : Francesco Ballarin, Paolo Pantini : We report on the unexpected finding of a new species of the genus Cybaeopsis Strand, 1907, C. lodovicii sp. nov. from the Northern Apennine Mountains in Italy. This is the first documented record of a Cybaeopsis species in Europe. Other currently known species of this genus have been previously recorded in North America, the Russian Far-East and Japan. The new species is illustrated and described based on both sexes. Another species from Portugal, Cybaeopsis theoblicki (Bosmans, 2021) comb. nov., recently described in the genus Callobius Chamberlin, 1947, is hereby transferred to Cybaeopsis on the basis of morphological characters. An updated key to the European genera of Amaurobiidae is provided. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Sep 2022 18:29:50 +030
       
  • Phylogenetic position of the relict South American genus Idiopyrgus
           Pilsbry, 1911 (Gastropoda, Truncatelloidea), with the description of two
           new cave species

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(2): 365-375
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.90797
      Authors : Rodrigo B. Salvador, Fernanda S. Silva, Maria E. Bichuette : Idiopyrgus is a relict genus of freshwater snails from Brazil traditionally classified in the family Pomatiopsidae. Herein, we use molecular data from newly acquired specimens to test that classification through Bayesian inference phylogenetic analysis. We conclude that Idiopyrgus belongs in the Gondwanan family Tomichiidae, together with the African genus Tomichia and the Australian genus Coxiella. Furthermore, we reassess currently synonymized genus- and species-level names in Idiopyrgus. The genera Hydracme and Aquidauania are considered synonymous with Idiopyrgus. The species I. brasiliensis and I. pilsbryi are restored as accepted species; I. walkeri is considered a taxon inquirendum. Two new species from caves in Bahia state are described herein: Idiopyrgus adamanteus sp. nov. and Idiopyrgus minor sp. nov. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Sep 2022 10:58:27 +030
       
  • A new rock gecko in the Cnemaspis siamensis group (Reptilia, Gekkonidae)
           from Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(2): 345-363
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.89591
      Authors : Attapol Rujirawan, Siriporn Yodthong, Natee Ampai, Korkhwan Termprayoon, Akrachai Aksornneam, Bryan L. Stuart, Anchalee Aowphol : We describe a new species of the gekkonid genus Cnemaspis from Erawan National Park in Kanchanaburi Province of western Thailand. Molecular phylogenetic analyses, based on the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene and flanking tRNAs, revealed that Cnemaspis auriventralis sp. nov. is nested within the C. siamensis group and is closely related to C. huaseesom, but has uncorrected pairwise genetic divergences of 12.12–27.92% from all other species in the C. siamensis group. The new species is also distinguished from other species in the C. siamensis group by having the combination of snout-vent length 36.7–38.6 mm in males (N = 3), 32.9–36.9 mm in females (N = 2); eight to ten supralabials; seven to nine infralabials; ventral scales smooth; six or seven precloacal pores in males; 16–17 paravertebral tubercles linearly arranged; tubercles on the lower flanks present; lateral caudal furrows present; no caudal tubercles in the lateral furrows; ventrolateral caudal tubercles present anteriorly; caudal tubercles not encircling tail; subcaudals smooth bearing a single median row of enlarged smooth scales; two postcloacal tubercles on each side; no shield-like subtibial scales; subtibial scales smooth; no enlarged submetatarsal scales; 23–27 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; sexually dimorphic for dorsal and ventral colour pattern; prescapular marking absent; gular marking absent; and yellow colouration in life of all ventral surfaces of head, body and tail in adult males. The new species is currently known only from upland karst habitat at its type locality. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Sep 2022 10:57:09 +030
       
  • Redefinition of Heptapterus (Heptapteridae) and description of Heptapterus
           carmelitanorum, a new species from the upper Paraná River basin in Brazil
           

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(2): 327-343
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.89413
      Authors : Gabriel de Carvalho Deprá, Gastón Aguilera, Dario R. Faustino-Fuster, Axel M. Katz, Valter M. Azevedo-Santos : A new diagnosis and a new classification of Heptapterus are provided and a new species, H. carmelitanorum, is described. Heptapterus is diagnosed by the following character combination: adipose fin confluent with the caudal fin; non-bifurcate caudal fin; anal-fin insertion posterior to vertical through adipose-fin insertion; 10–23 anal-fin rays; anal fin not confluent with caudal fin; and extremely elongate body, with a head length of 16.1–24.9%SL. Species included in Heptapterus are H. borodini, H. carmelitanorum, H. carnatus, H. exilis, H. hollandi, H. mandimbusu, H. mbya, H. mustelinus, H. ornaticeps, and H. qenqo. Some of the character states diagnosing H. carmelitanorum among its congeners are the anal-fin insertion less than one eye diameter posterior to a vertical through the adipose-fin insertion (vs. more than one eye diameter in all congeners); the isognathous mouth (vs. slightly to moderately retrognathous, except H. borodini); and the keel formed by ventral procurrent caudal-fin rays shallow, far from reaching anal-fin base (vs. keel formed by ventral procurrent caudal-fin rays deep, continuing almost to the anal-fin base, except in H. borodini and H. hollandi). HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 8 Sep 2022 10:46:06 +0300
       
  • A new genus of Pseudospirobolellidae (Diplopoda, Spirobolida) from
           

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(2): 313-326
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.90032
      Authors : Piyatida Pimvichai, Henrik Enghoff, Somsak Panha, Thierry Backeljau : A new genus of the millipede family Pseudospirobolellidae, Siliquobolellus gen. nov., is described from limestone mountains in Thailand, based on three new species, viz. Siliquobolellus amicusdraconis gen. et sp. nov. from Uthaithani Province, Siliquobolellus constrictus gen. et sp. nov. from Prachuap Khiri Khan Province and Siliquobolellus prasankokae gen. et sp. nov. (type species) from Lampang Province. The descriptions are based on gonopod morphology and mitochondrial DNA data (COI barcodes). The COI barcodes grouped the three new species in a well-supported Siliquobolellus gen. nov. clade. The mean interspecific COI sequence divergence among the three new species was 12% (range: 8–15%). The mean intergeneric COI sequence divergence between Siliquobolellus gen. nov., Coxobolellus Pimvichai, Enghoff, Panha & Backeljau, 2020, and Pseudospirobolellus Carl, 1912 was 19% (range: 14–23%). Three conspicuous gonopodal synapomorphies differentiate Siliquobolellus gen. nov. from other pseudospirobollellid genera: (1) the telopodital part of the posterior gonopod forms a deep concavity, (2) the telopodite of the anterior gonopod is directed distad and does not reach the tip of the coxal part of the anterior gonopod, and (3) the tip of the anterior gonopod coxa is narrowed, curving mesad. As such, the monophyly of the new genus is well supported by both morphological and mitochondrial DNA data. A distribution map and an identification key to the species are provided. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Aug 2022 11:09:44 +030
       
  • Pycnogonida (Arthropoda) from Museu de Ciências Naturais, Rio
           Grande do Sul, Brazil

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(2): 305-312
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.83671
      Authors : Rudá Amorim Lucena, Martin Lindsey Christoffersen : Five species were identified in the studied collection: Colossendeis megalonyx Hoek, 1881, first record for Uruguay, Ascorhynchus corderoi du Bois-Reymond Marcus, 1952 and Pallenopsis candidoi Mello-Leitão, 1949, with extended ranges, Pallenopsis patagonica (Hoek, 1881), a species complex recently analysed with molecular data and Ammothea tetrapoda, recorded previously for Uruguayan waters. Our study clarifies records based on morphology, provides new data on distributions and species ranges and correlates species with ecological conditions. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Jul 2022 13:23:54 +030
       
  • Two new species of the genus Floresorchestia (Crustacea, Amphipoda,
           Talitridae) from Amphawa Estuary, Samut Songkhram Province, Thailand

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(2): 285-303
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.83749
      Authors : Anotai Suklom, Tosaphol Saetung Keetapithchayakul, Azman Abdul Rahim, Koraon Wongkamhaeng : Two new species of Floresorchestia (Crustacea: Amphipoda) are described from Amphawa Estuary, Samut Songkhram Province, Thailand. Floresorchestia amphawaensis sp. nov. is a riparian-hoppers living near agricultural and urban areas, being distinguished by the following character states: left mandible lacinia mobilis 4-dentate; gnathopod 2 palm reaching about 34%; telson as broad as long, with four robust setae per lobe. Floresorchestia pongrati sp. nov. are described as riparian-hoppers living in the moist area near Mae Klong canal banks with a unique left mandible lacinia mobilis 5-dentate; gnathopod 2 palm reaching 30% and telson with seven robust setae per lobe. The status and the problem of diagnostic character states of the genus Floresorchestia are discussed. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Jul 2022 17:37:31 +030
       
  • On the edge of the Shivaliks: An insight into the origin and taxonomic
           position of Pakistani toads from the Duttaphrynus melanostictus complex
           (Amphibia, Bufonidae)

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(2): 275-284
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.79213
      Authors : Daniel Jablonski, Rafaqat Masroor, Sylvia Hofmann : The common Asian toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799) complex has a wide distribution ranging from western foothills of the Himalaya to the easternmost range of the Wallacea, with the evidence of human-mediated introductions to some other areas. In the entire distribution range, the complex is formed by several evolutionary clades, distributed mostly in South-East Asia with unresolved taxonomy. In the northwestern edge of its distribution (Pakistan), the name D. melanostictus hazarensis (Khan, 2001) has been assigned to local populations but its biological basis remained, so far, understudied and unvalidated. Therefore, we re-evaluated the available genetic data (mitochondrial and nuclear) to show the relationships between Pakistani populations (including the type locality of D. m. hazarensis) and others from across the range. Our results showed that Pakistani populations are associated with one, deeply diverged, well-supported and widely distributed clade (so-called Duttaphrynus sp. 1 according to 16S, or clade B based on tRNAGly-ND3), that has already been detected in previous studies. This clade is further distributed in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia and is characterized by a low level of genetic variability. This further suggests that both natural, as well as potential human-mediated dispersal, might have played an important role in setting up the current phylogeographic and distribution pattern of this clade. The clade is deeply divergent from other clades of the complex and represents a taxonomically unresolved entity. We here argue that the clade Duttaphrynus sp. 1/B represents a distinct species for which the name Duttaphrynus bengalensis (Daudin, 1802) comb. nov. is applicable, while the description of D. m. hazarensis does not satisfy the rules of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jul 2022 16:17:13 +030
       
  • Mitochondrial characteristics of Pseudohynobius flavomaculatus a protected
           salamander in China, and biogeographical implications for the family
           Hynobiidae (Amphibia, Caudata)

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(2): 263-274
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.66578
      Authors : Yu Zhang, Meng Wang, Ruli Cheng, Yang Luo, Yingwen Li, Zhihao Liu, Qiliang Chen, Yanjun Shen : Pseudohynobius flavomaculatus a provincially-protected salamander species, inhabits mountainous areas of Chongqing and surrounding provinces in China. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome of P. flavomaculatus was sequenced and analyzed. The mitogenome is 16,401 bp in length and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a control region. We performed a novel phylogenetic analysis, which demonstrated a sister relationship between P. flavomaculatus and P. jinfo. The 95% confidence interval around our new divergence date estimate suggest that Hynobiidae originated at 101.62–119.84 (mean=110.87) Ma. Species within Hynobiidae diverged successively in the Cenozoic era, and hynobiid speciation coincides primarily with geologic events. Our biogeographical inference demonstrates that nearly all early hynobiids divergences correspond to geological estimates of orogeny, which may have contributed to the notably high dN/dS ratio in this clade. We conclude that orogeny is likely a primary, dynamic factor, which may have repeatedly initiated the process of speciation in the family Hynobiidae. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jul 2022 16:16:36 +030
       
  • Rediscovery after 25 years – first photographic documentation and DNA
           barcoding of the deep-sea pycnogonid species Ascorhynchus hippos Turpaeva,
           1994 (Chelicerata, Pycnogonida, Ascorhynchidae) from the Kuril-Kamchatka
           Trench

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(2): 257-262
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.84864
      Authors : Lisa Wolf, Roland R. Melzer, Tobias Lehmann : The female specimen of Ascorhynchus hippos Turpaeva, 1994 was collected in 2015 during the Russian-German deep-sea expedition SokhoBio (Sea of Okhotsk Biodiversity Studies) at the abyssal western slope of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench at a depth of 4469 m using a camera-epibenthic sledge. It is the first record of this species since the discovery of one female holotype and one male paratype in 1990. Ascorhynchus hippos is easily distinguishable from its congeners by the two prominent tubercles above the chelifore insertions, the absence of the eye tubercle and eyes, and the tubercles on the mid-dorsal trunk segments and the lateral processes. Here we present the first photographic documentation of all three known specimens of A. hippos and the COI barcode of the new specimen is also provided. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 6 Jul 2022 16:38:50 +0300
       
  • A new brackish tanaidacean, Sinelobus kisui sp. nov. (Crustacea,
           Peracarida, Tanaidacea), from Japan, with a key to Sinelobus species and
           barcode information from two loci

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(2): 245-256
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.84818
      Authors : Kyoko Hirano, Keiichi Kakui : We describe the new brackish tanaidid species Sinelobus kisui sp. nov. from Hagi, Yamaguchi, Japan. Sinelobus kisui is similar to S. barretti and S. vanhaareni in having antennal article 2 with one outer distal seta, the dorsodistal crotchet on pereopods 2 and 3 carpi shorter than half propodus length, and pereopodal carpi 2–6 with five distal crotchets, but differs from them in having (1) the inner of two ventro-subdistal circumplumose setae on the maxillipedal endite longer than the outer; (2) the maxillipedal endite with one mid-inner spiniform seta; (3) the pereopod-1 propodus with one middle setulate seta; and (4) the pleopod-1 protopod lacking inner plumose setae. Our study confirmed that character states of the chelipeds in strongly dimorphic males are useful in Sinelobus taxonomy. We determined partial sequences for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI; cox1) and 18S rRNA (18S) genes in S. kisui for future DNA barcoding and phylogenetic analyses. Morphological and/or molecular data reveal that S. kisui also occurs in Kagawa and Osaka, Japan. A key to species in Sinelobus is provided. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jun 2022 14:18:21 +030
       
  • Addition to the known diversity of Chinese freshwater planarians:
           integrative description of a new species of Dugesia Girard, 1850
           (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Dugesiidae)

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(2): 233-243
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.83184
      Authors : Yi Liu, Xiao-Yu Song, Zhong-Yin Sun, Wei-Xuan Li, Ronald Sluys, Shuang-Fei Li, An-Tai Wang : The present paper describes a new species of freshwater flatworm of the genus Dugesia from Guizhou province, China, based on an integrative approach, combining morphological, histological and molecular information. This new species, Dugesia gemmulata Sun & Wang, sp. nov., is characterized by the ventral part of the most posterior section of the bursal canal being provided with a voluminous, ellipsoidal muscular swelling; sac- or egg-shaped seminal vesicle situated near the ventral body surface in anterior portion of the penis bulb; postero-dorsal wall of seminal vesicle communicating with a narrow duct that first runs almost vertically but then shows a postero-dorsally directed loop before connecting with a small diaphragm; an ejaculatory duct opening terminally or subterminally; an asymmetrical penis papilla, with its dorsal lip being provided with a bump; oviducts opening asymmetrically into female copulatory apparatus, with the left oviduct opening into the common atrium and the right oviduct opening into the vaginal section of the bursal canal. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the new species belongs to a clade comprising species from the Australasian and Oriental regions, while it shares a sister-group relationship with D. umbonata Song & Wang, 2020, a species characterized by a muscular swelling on the dorsal side of its bursal canal. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jun 2022 14:17:31 +030
       
  • Rediscovery, redescription and identity of Pristimantis nebulosus
           (Henle, 1992), and description of a new terrestrial-breeding frog from
           montane rainforests of central Peru (Anura, Strabomantidae)

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(2): 213-232
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.84963
      Authors : Jörn Köhler, Ernesto Castillo-Urbina, César Aguilar-Puntriano, Miguel Vences, Frank Glaw : The taxonomic status of the strabomantid frog species Pristimantis nebulosus (Henle, 1992), originating from the southern Cordillera Azul in central Peru, is investigated based on examination of the holotype and its comparison with freshly collected topotypic material. Following current standards, we provide a redescription of the holotype. It is in a rather poor state and exhibits certain damages and preservation artifacts, conditions that have hampered an allocation of this nominal taxon to any known living population of Pristimantis in the past. Our detailed specimen-to-specimen comparison provided morphological evidence for the conspecifity of the holotype and freshly collected topotypes. Molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on the mitochondrial 16S gene fragment places P. nebulosus in the P. conspicillatus species group, being closely related to P. bipunctatus and an undescribed candidate species from the Cordillera de Carpish. From both, P. nebulosus differs by considerable divergence in the 16S gene (p-distance 4.1–6.2%). Based on the specimens available, we provide an updated diagnosis for P. nebulosus, compare it to other species in the P. conspicillatus group and describe its advertisement call. In addition, we describe and name the closely related candidate species from the Cordillera de Carpish. It is sister to P. bipunctatus and P. nebulosus, but differs from both mainly by its tuberculate dorsal skin (versus shagreen) and divergence in the 16S gene (3.3–4.1%). We briefly discuss cryptic species diversity in the P. conspicillatus and P. danae species groups and provide justification for the description of a singleton species. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jun 2022 18:43:53 +030
       
  • Paracapoeta, a new genus of the Cyprinidae from Mesopotamia, Cilicia and
           Levant (Teleostei, Cypriniformes)

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(2): 201-212
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.81463
      Authors : Davut Turan, Cüneyt Kaya, İsmail Aksu, Yusuf Bektaş : The molecular and morphological studies carried out within the scope of this study revealed that the scrapers, known as the Mesopotamian group, belong to a different genus. The Paracapoeta gen. nov., from the Mesopotomia and Levant, is distinguished from Capoeta and Luciobarbus species by the presence of a strong ligament between the base of the last simple and the first branched rays of the dorsal-fin (vs. no or a very weak ligament). The Paracapoeta further differs from Capoeta by the last simple dorsal-fin ray strongly ossified in adult specimens (more than 75%, vs. less than 75%). The Paracapoeta further differs from Luciobarbus by the lower lip with horny layer (vs. fleshy lips). The molecular phylogeny based on the combined dataset (COI + Cytb, 1312 bp.) showed that the genus Paracapoeta was recovered from the other groups in the subfamily Barbinae with high bootstrap and posterior probability values (BP: 94%, PP: 0.96). Also, Paracapoeta and Capoeta are well differentiated by an average genetic distance of 8.02±0.78%. The morphological and molecular findings have largely overlapped each other. Besides, Capoeta turani is treated as a synonym of Capoeta erhani. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jun 2022 17:02:35 +030
       
  • Taxonomy of the genus Cyrtogrammomma Pocock, 1895 (Araneae,
           Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) with a description of a new species from
           Brazil

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(2): 181-199
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.85212
      Authors : Hector Manuel Osorio Gonzalez-Filho, Rafael Fonseca-Ferreira, Antonio Domingos Brescovit, José Paulo Leite Guadanucci : The genus Cyrtogrammomma Pocock, 1895 was proposed based on specimen samples from Monte Roraima, Guyana, and allocated in the family Barychelidae. However, the most recent cladistic analysis transferred Cyrtogrammomma to Theraphosidae. Herein, we amended the diagnosis and description of C. monticola, providing a redescription of the male, and new illustrations, including the description of a new cuticular structure consisting of thick and stiff setae on dorsal metatarsi I and II of females. Moreover, we diagnose, describe and illustrate a new species of Cyrtogrammomma from northeastern Brazil: C. frevo sp. nov. In addition, we provide an identification key, new distribution records of the genus in the states of Alagoas, Bahia, Pará, and Pernambuco, in Brazil, and the first record for the genus in caves. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Jun 2022 12:49:59 +030
       
  • A new Leptobrachella species (Anura, Megophryidae) from South China,
           with comments on the taxonomic status of L. chishuiensis and L. purpurus

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(1): 165-180
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.73162
      Authors : Jian Wang, Shuo Qi, Ke-Yuan Dai, Zhi-Tong Lyu, Zhao-Chi Zeng, Hong-Hui Chen, Yuan-Qiu Li, Yong-You Zhao, Yun-Ze Wang, Ying-Yong Wang : A new species of Leaf Litter Toad, Leptobrachella shimentaina sp. nov., is described from the Shimentai and Luokeng nature reserves of northern Guangdong Province, southern China. The new taxon can be distinguished from all recognized congeners by a combination of discrete morphological character state differences relating to its small body size (SVL 26.4–28.9 mm in six adult males, 30.1 and 30.7 mm in two adult females); a number of apparently fixed color pattern character differences (including eye coloration and color pattern features from dorsal, ventral, and dorsolateral surfaces of its head, body, limbs, and ventrum); the morphological and discrete characteristics of the external phenotype (the skin texture of dorsum and ventrum, the presence of supra-axillary and ventrolateral glands, the wide dermal fringes and rudimentary webbing on toes, and the uninterrupted longitudinal ridges under toes). Two samples of this new species previously were proposed as representing a new, unnamed species. We now substantiate this claim by providing diagnostic comparisons of discrete character differences. In addition, we also discuss taxonomic uncertainty surrounding the identity of two congeners, L. chishuiensis and L. purpurus, which we interpret as indicative of taxonomic inflation in the species-rich subfamily Megophryidae. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2022 08:45:37 +0300
       
  • Phylogenetic relationships of a new catfish of the genus Trichomycterus
           (Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae) from the Brazilian Cerrado, and the role
           of Cenozoic events in the diversification of mountain catfishes

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(1): 151-164
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.83109
      Authors : Wilson J. E. M. Costa, José Leonardo O. Mattos, Wagner M. S. Sampaio, Patrícia Giongo, Frederico B. de Almeida, Axel M. Katz : The Brazilian Cerrado highlands shelter the headwaters of the three largest South American hydrographic basins, where a great species diversity is concentrated, but some biological groups are still insufficiently known. The focal taxa of this study are trichomycterid catfishes of the subgenus Cryptocambeva, genus Trichomycterus, endemic to mountain areas of south-eastern Brazil. The primary objective of this study is to test through a molecular phylogeny if a new species collected in streams of the upper Rio Paraná basin draining the Serra da Canastra is sister to T. macrotrichopterus, endemic to the upper Rio São Francisco at another facet of the Serra da Canastra, as suggested by morphological data. The analysis corroborated sister group relationships between these two species, besides supporting four main clades in Cryptocambeva, each of them endemic to distinct mountain regions. A time-calibrated analysis supported the divergence timing between the new species and T. macrotrichopterus at the Pliocene, which is chronologically compatible with the final period of intense fluvial configuration re-arrangement, when São Francisco headwater streams were captured by the Paraná basin. The new species herein described is similar to T. macrotrichopterus and distinguished from all other species of Cryptocambeva by having a long pectoral-fin filament. These two species are distinguished from each other by characteristics of the latero-sensory system, colour pattern and bone morphology. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 23 May 2022 12:07:58 +030
       
  • Clarifying the type locality of Liotyphlops wilderi (Garman, 1883)
           (Serpentes, Anomalepididae), with comments on other reptiles from São
           Cyriaco, Minas Gerais

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(1): 129-136
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.80418
      Authors : Henrique C. Costa : The snake species Typhlops wilderi (today Liotyphlops wilderi) was described in 1883 based on specimens from São Cyriaco, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The name of this type locality has been cited in different ways in the literature, making its geographic location confusing. Solving this question is an important issue for future taxonomy and systematic studies. After searching for information on the collector of the type series of L. wilderi (John Casper Branner) using the Google Scholar database, I found that São Cyriaco was a gold mining company located in the current municipality of Alvorada de Minas. Besides elucidating the type locality of L. wilderi, I searched for reptile specimens collected by Branner, deposited in collections registered at the VertNet Portal and SpeciesLink, and personally examined the extant material from Minas Gerais. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 5 May 2022 16:45:20 +0300
       
  • A new genus of Australian orb-weaving spider with extreme sexual size
           dimorphism (Araneae, Araneidae)

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(1): 137-149
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.82649
      Authors : Volker W. Framenau, Pedro de S. Castanheira : The new Australian orb-weaving spider genus Mangrovia in the family Araneidae Clerck, 1757 is described. It is characterised by extreme sexual size-dimorphism (eSSD) with females (total length 8–10 mm) ca. 3 to 5 times larger than males (2.5–3 mm). Whilst Mangrovia shares with the informal Australian ‘backobourkiine’ clade a single seta on the male pedipalp patella, the genus is probably more closely related to the ‘zealaraneines’ or associated genera. In addition to eSSD and the single patellar spine, the genus is characterised by a distinct subterminal embolus branch in males. The new genus includes two species: the type species Mangrovia albida (L. Koch, 1871) comb. nov. (= Epeira fastidiosa Keyserling, 1887, new syn.) from Queensland and Mangrovia occidentalis sp. nov. from Western Australia. Both species are apparently coastal and occur in mangroves, but also in riparian woodland. Spiders were found resting in rolled-up leaves adjacent to their orb-web. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 5 May 2022 13:36:28 +0300
       
  • Taxonomy and natural history of Cavernocypris hokkaiensis sp. nov., the
           first ostracod reported from alpine streams in Japan

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(1): 117-127
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.80442
      Authors : Mizuho Munakata, Hayato Tanaka, Keiichi Kakui : We describe the cypridoidean ostracod Cavernocypris hokkaiensis sp. nov. from riverbed sediments in an alpine stream at an elevation of ca. 1850 m in the Taisetsu Mountains, Hokkaido, Japan. This species differs from congeners in having (1) the outer surface of the carapace smooth, with sparse, tiny setae, but without shallow pits; (2) the carapace elongate rather than triangular in lateral view; (3) the antennula consisting of seven podomeres; (4) first palpal podomere of maxillula with five dorsodistal and one ventro-subdistal setae; (5) the fifth limb lacking setae b and d; and (6) the fifth limb lacking a vibratory plate. We provided the key to the Cavernocypris species. We determined partial sequences for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI; cox1) and 18S rRNA (18S) genes in C. hokkaiensis. Our sample contained only females, and we obtained a partial 16S rRNA sequence for the endosymbiotic bacterium Cardinium from C. hokkaiensis, indicating the possibility that this ostracod species reproduces parthenogenetically. Our field survey and observations of captive individuals suggested that C. hokkaiensis may be endemic to the Taisetsu Mountains, with a low population density, narrow distributional range, and slow maturation to sexual maturity. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 5 Apr 2022 14:27:25 +0300
       
  • A new neotenous genus and species, Deltanthura palpus gen. et sp. nov.
           (Isopoda, Anthuroidea, Paranthuridae) from Japan, with a revised key to
           the genera in Paranthuridae

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(1): 109-115
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.81772
      Authors : Shoki Shiraki, Michitaka Shimomura, Keiichi Kakui : We describe a new paranthurid isopod genus and species, Deltanthura palpus gen. et sp. nov., collected from a depth of 805–852 m off the southern coast of Mie prefecture, Japan. Deltanthura is similar to Pseudanthura Richardson, 1911 in having a triangular pleotelson, acute mandible with a 3-articulate palp, a maxillipedal endite, and a tapering uropodal exopod, but differs in having eyes and neotenous characters (reduced pereonite 7 and pereopods 7 lacking). Deltanthura and four paranthurid genera (Califanthura Schultz, 1977, Colanthura Richardson, 1902, Cruranthura Thomson, 1946, and Cruregens Chilton, 1882) share neotenous characters, but in Deltanthura the mandible is acute, with a 3-articulate palp and maxillipedal endites are present. Califanthura minuta Kensley & Heard, 1991 may belong in Deltanthura as they share the triangular pleotelson and tapering uropodal exopod, but we refrain from transferring it to Deltanthura as its description lacks the other diagnostic characters of Deltanthura. We provide a revised key to all genera in Paranthuridae Menzies & Glynn, 1968. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 08:30:11 +030
       
  • Gobiobotia lii, a new species of gudgeon (Teleostei, Gobionidae) from
           the middle Chang-Jiang Basin, central China, with notes on the validity of
           G. nicholsi Bănărescu & Nalbant, 1966

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(1): 93-107
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.80547
      Authors : Xiao Chen, Man Wang, Liang Cao, E Zhang : Gobiobotia lii is described from the Qi-Shui, a stream tributary on the northern bank of the middle Chang-Jiang mainstem in Hubei Province and Lake Dongting in Hunan Province, central China. The new species is distinguished from all other congeneric species by possessing a combination of the following characters: a naked region of the abdomen adjacent to the ventral mid-line extending to the vent and the vertebral count (4+31–32). The validity of G. lii is confirmed by its monophyletic nature recovered in a phylogenetic analysis, based on the cyt b gene and its significant sequence divergence with sampled congeneric species. Critical notes were given on the species recognition of historically documented eight-barbel gudgeons co-existing in Lake Dongting. Gobiobotia nicholsi Bănărescu & Nalbant, 1966 should be a valid species distinct from G. filifer (Garman, 1912) and both G. pappenheimi Kreyenberg, 1911 and G. boulengeri (=Xenophysogobio boulengeri (Tchang, 1929)) have an erroneous record from the Lake. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Mar 2022 09:27:56 +030
       
  • A new genus name for pygmy lorises, Xanthonycticebus gen. nov. (Mammalia,
           primates)

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(1): 87-92
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.81942
      Authors : K. Anne-Isola Nekaris, Vincent Nijman : Lorisiformes are nocturnal primates from Africa and Asia with four genera, with two (Arctocebus and Loris), three (Perodicticus) and nine (Nycticebus) recognised species. Their cryptic lifestyle and lack of study have resulted in an underappreciation of the variation at the species and genus level. There are marked differences between the pygmy slow loris Nycticebus pygmaeus and the other Nycticebus species and, in the past, several authors have suggested that these may warrant recognition at the generic level. We here combine morphological, behavioural, karyotypical and genetic data to show that these contrasts are, indeed, significantly large and consistent. We propose Xanthonycticebus gen. nov. as a new genus name for the pygmy slow lorises and suggest a common name of pygmy lorises. Based on analysis of complete mitochondrial DNA sequences, we calculate the divergence of pygmy from slow lorises at 9.9–10.0%. The median date, calculated for the divergence between Xanthonycticebus and Nycticebus, is 10.5 Mya (range 4.9–21.0 Mya). Xanthonycticebus differs from Nycticebus by showing sympatry with other slow loris species, by habitually giving birth to twins, by showing seasonal body mass and whole body coat colour changes (absent in other species living at similar latitudes) and a multi-male, multi-female social system. Pygmy lorises are easily recognisable by the absence of hair on their ears and more protruding premaxilla. Xanthonycticebus is threatened by habitat loss and illegal trade despite legal protection across their range and all slow lorises are listed on appendix 1 of CITES. The suggested nomenclatural changes should not affect their legal status. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Mar 2022 17:19:04 +020
       
  • A new species of Phalotris (Serpentes, Colubridae, Elapomorphini) from
           Paraguay

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(1): 77-85
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.61064
      Authors : Paul Smith, Jean-Paul Brouard, Pier Cacciali : A new species of Phalotris from the nasutus group, Phalotris shawnella sp. nov., is described. It can be distinguished from the other members of the group by having the following combination of characters: 1) fifth supralabial in contact with parietal, 2) vertebral stripe present, 3) yellowish nuchal collar (2 or 3 dorsal scales long), 4) dull reddish color of head, 5) broad, solidly or near solidly dark, lateral bands, 6) red-orange ventral scales lightly and irregularly spotted with black mainly on the posterior half of the body and 7) a bilobed, extremely asymmetrical hemipenis, with enlarged, curved, lateral spines. The species is only known from a recent specimen collected in the Cerrado zone of northeastern Paraguay at Rancho Laguna Blanca, San Pedro department, and two photographic records of live specimens from this and an additional locality. Limited ecological data based on observations of a captive individual, and a wild record, are provided, and a conservation assessment is performed for this extremely limited range Paraguayan endemic snake. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 7 Mar 2022 17:06:58 +0200
       
  • Pliocene-Pleistocene dispersal bring along low inter species diversity
           between Vimba species based on multilocus analysis

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(1): 65-75
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.76937
      Authors : Gökhan Kalaycı : This study investigates phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships of Vimba species using mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) (1023 bp) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcoding region (652 bp) genes. Ninety-one samples from 36 populations for the cyt b gene and 67 samples from 20 populations for the COI were analyzed. We identified 29 haplotypes and calculated overall haplotype diversity as Hd: 0.907 ± 0.015 for cyt b. We also identified 13 COI haplotypes and calculated overall haplotype diversity as 0.826 ± 0.026 for this marker. The phylogenetic analysis of Vimba species reveals the presence of four clades, based on concatenated cyt b and COI sequences. The first and second clade consist of Vimba vimba Western lineage, and Vimba vimba Caspian lineage, while the third and fourth clade consist of Vimba mirabilis and Vimba melanops. Based on haplotype network analyses and phylogeographic inferences, the Vimba genus is monophyletic, and its species dispersed in the Pleistocene era. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Feb 2022 10:04:28 +020
       
  • New records and a new cave-dwelling species of Agoristenidae
           (Arachnida, Opiliones) from Colombia

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(1): 55-63
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.78202
      Authors : Andrés F. García, Alex González Vargas, Miguel Gutiérrez Estrada : Three species of Avima are recorded for the first time from Colombia (La Guajira department): A. venezuelica Soares & Avram, 1981, A. troglobia (Pinto-da-Rocha, 1996), and A. wayuunaiki Sp. nov. Complementary and new descriptions of the species are offered and scanning electron microscopy photographs of the male genitalia of A. troglobia are given. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Feb 2022 14:08:36 +020
       
  • A historical specimen of the Fishing Cat, Prionailurus viverrinus
           (Bennett, 1833) (Carnivora, Felidae) from Singapore in the zoological
           collection of the Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(1): 43-53
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.76940
      Authors : Wan F. A. Jusoh, Marcus A. H. Chua, Piet A. J. Bakker, Pepijn Kamminga, Danièle Weiler, Kees Rookmaaker, Martyn E. Y. Low : The Fishing Cat is not a species known to inhabit Singapore. However, a historical specimen stated to have come from Singapore in 1819 and attributed to Pierre-Médard Diard (RMNH.MAM.59688) is now housed at Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, the Netherlands. Two hundred years after it was obtained, the mounted skin and skull of this specimen, including specimen labels, were photographed and digitally catalogued. Four sets of annotations from labels and a document detailing records and a receipt of specimens sent by Diard to Leiden are presented to ascertain the specimen’s identity, followed by a historical account of Diard based on a reconstruction of the timeline of key events of Singapore’s natural history. Subsequently, the specimen is examined to confirm its taxonomic identity using comparative morphometrics with other museum specimens, and data associated with the specimen are analysed to determine the origins of this specimen. We conclude that the current evidence does not allow confirmation of the specimen’s status as having been collected in Singapore or being obtained from the pet trade. If the specimen was an imported specimen, it would point towards a trade in rare and large animals in Singapore and the region from as early as 1819. Presently, the specimen remains one of the few extant zoological specimens obtained in Singapore in 1819 and the only one currently known outside of England. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Jan 2022 10:32:25 +020
       
  • A new slippery frog (Amphibia, Conrauidae, Conraua Nieden, 1908) from the
           Fouta Djallon Highlands, west-central Guinea

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(1): 23-42
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.76692
      Authors : Karla Neira-Salamea, Joseph Doumbia, Annika Hillers, Laura Sandberger-Loua, N’Goran G. Kouamé, Christian Brede, Marvin Schäfer, David C. Blackburn, Michael F. Barej, Mark-Oliver Rödel : We describe a new species of the genus Conraua from the Fouta Djallon Highlands in Guinea. The species is recognised as distinct from nominotypical C. alleni, based on morphological evidence and is supported by a recent species delimitation analysis, based on DNA sequence data. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the unique combination of the following characters: medium body size, robust limbs, only one instead of two palmar tubercles, the first finger webbed to below the first subarticular tubercle, presence of a lateral line system, indistinct tympanum, two subarticular tubercles on fingers III and IV, venter in adults white with dark brown spots or dark brown with grey or whitish spots. The new species differs from all congeners by more than 6% in the DNA sequence of mitochondrial ribosomal 16S. We discuss isolation in Pliocene and Pleistocene forest refugia as a potential driver of speciation in the C. alleni complex. We also emphasise the importance of conserving the remaining forest fragments in the Fouta Djallon Region for the preservation of both its unique biodiversity and its valuable water sources for local people. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Jan 2022 16:43:44 +020
       
  • A new catfish of the genus Trichomycterus from the Rio Paraíba do Sul
           Basin, south-eastern Brazil, a supposedly migrating species (Siluriformes,
           Trichomycteridae)

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(1): 13-21
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.72392
      Authors : Wilson J. E. M. Costa, Axel M. Katz : A new species of the catfish genus Trichomycterus is described from the Rio Paraíba do Sul, south-eastern Brazil. This species exhibits some morphological character states that are unique amongst congeners, including a robust opercle and a long interopercle with numerous odontodes (50–60 opercular and 90–100 interopercular), a black bar on the basal portion of the caudal fin and a dark brown flank with a well delimited dorsal yellow stripe. It also exhibits some morphological traits that are uncommon amongst congeners, such as the presence of nine pectoral-fin rays. The presence of a shallow hyomandibular outgrowth and a ventrally expanded pre-opercular ventral flap suggests that this species is closely related to T. melanopygius, T. pradensis and T. tete. The new species also differs from T. melanopygius, T. pradensis and T. tete by having an emarginate caudal fin and a single median supra-orbital pore S6. Anecdotal evidence suggests that T. largoperculatus and T. pradensis have migratory habits, a condition not previously reported for eastern South American trichomycterines. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 14 Jan 2022 11:05:05 +020
       
  • Grismadox gen. nov., a new Neotropical genus of ant-resembling spiders
           (Araneae, Corinnidae, Castianeirinae), including the description of two
           new species from Bolivia and Paraguay

    • Abstract: Zoosystematics and Evolution 98(1): 1-11
      DOI : 10.3897/zse.98.76677
      Authors : Brogan L. Pett, Gonzalo D. Rubio, Robert Perger : A new genus and two new species of ant-resembling castianeirine spiders are described from the Neotropics. Grismadox gen. nov. comprises four species: Grismadox baueri sp. nov., and Grismadox mazaxoides (Perger & Duperré, 2021) comb. nov. from Bolivia, and Grismadox karugua sp. nov. (type species) and Grismadox mboitui (Pett, 2021) comb. nov. from Paraguay. All species are diagnosed and the new species are described and illustrated. Available ecological data suggests that all four species are primarily epigeal and inhabit Grassland and savannah type habitats. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 7 Jan 2022 13:25:55 +0200
       
 
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