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Journal of Asian and African Studies
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.251
Number of Followers: 11  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0021-9096 - ISSN (Online) 1745-2538
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Laughing through the Stomach: Satire, Humour and Advertising in
           Sub-Saharan Africa

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      Authors: Lungile Augustine Tshuma, Mbongeni Jonny Msimanga, Bhekizulu Bethaphi Tshuma
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This paper critically explores the use of satire and humour by fast-foods outlets in South Africa and Zimbabwe to advertise and market their menu through digital media platforms, Facebook and Twitter. Using Nando’s South Africa and Mambo’s Chicken, in Zimbabwe, as case studies, we examine how satire and humour are used as advertising strategies, and as a reflection of these countries’ economic and political environments. Consumers are overwhelmed with information coming from different sources such as Television, radio, newspapers and Internet. The paper’s theoretical approach is gleaned from advertising and satire. We argue that through their encounter with food, consumers tend to understand the reason behind their ‘empty stomach’, and mediate on prevailing socio-political and economic issues.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-09-19T09:55:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221123746
       
  • The Complexity of the “Tribal” Question in India: The Case of the
           Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups

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      Authors: Kasi Eswarappa
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      India is home to a large number of tribal or Adivasi communities. Particularly vulnerable tribal groups (PVTGs) are one among them. The Indian state initiated several development programs in its affirmative action to benefit PVTGs. However, these initiatives have shown some effects on the ground, still a long way to go. After globalization, a lot of studies claim and argue that the state is slowly withdrawing from its agenda and encouraging multinational companies or corporations (MNCs) to take its role. The MNCs have started their operations by extracting resources without helping Adivasi communities. It led to large-scale protests by the tribal people and civil society organizations. The paper critically discusses development initiatives of the post-independent state to ameliorate the conditions of the PVTGs as part of their affirmative action policies. Furthermore, the paper draws inferences from secondary data sources collected from published and unpublished sources, documents, reports, and online sources.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-09-19T06:13:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221123748
       
  • The Crisis of National Identity: Politics and Intersectionality of
           Identity Markers in Pakistan

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      Authors: Shafia Azam, Muhammad Bilal
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Pakistan’s national identity has been a contested subject since the conception of the country in 1947. This article examines Pakistan’s struggle to create a coherent national identity, which has led to major identity crises caused by the conflict between the nation’s markers of identity, including religion, ethnicity, language, culture and historical reminiscences. While employing Benedict Anderson’s concept of nationalism, the article explores the perceptions of Pakistanis asking what should be the principal underpinning for defining Pakistani identity. In-depth interviews were used as the main qualitative method for the data collection. In order to conduct in-depth interviews, 47 residents of Rawalpindi, both males and females belonging to diverse sociocultural, political and educational backgrounds were selected through purposive sampling technique to ensure a variety of perspectives. The findings suggest that religion, ethnicity, language and patriotism emerged as major markers of Pakistani identity while the dissension between these indicators persistently exacerbates identity crises and undermines the values of religious and cultural pluralism.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-09-16T09:46:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221124934
       
  • Rural Livelihood Diversification Among Tribal Communities of North-Eastern
           Region of India: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Debakshi Bora, Amarjyoti Mahanta
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article is furnished with a comprehensive review of nature and extent of rural livelihood diversification with special focus on North-Eastern region of India. This study reveals that the tribal communities of this region adopt livelihood diversification as a strategy of coping with risk due to persistent low agricultural productivity and population pressure. Despite this fact, the extent of diversification is low. Agriculture and land still occupies main source of income. It is evident from this article that this region has great potentialities of diversification towards multiple income sources. But difficult terrain and geographical isolation of this region make these resources yet to be properly utilised. The aim of this review article is to point out some issues related to livelihood diversification of North-Eastern region for further research and also try to attract the eyes of policy makers towards the potentialities of livelihood options available in this region.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T12:40:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221123747
       
  • Understanding Farmer Producer Company (FPC) Ecosystem in Assam: Issues and
           Challenges

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      Authors: Ratna Bhuyan, Bhargab Das, Sampurna Khound
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The agriculture sector, which continues to be pivotal to sustainable growth and development, has been recently mobilising farmers into member-owned producer organisations, or Farmer Producer Companies (FPCs) to enhance production, productivity and profitability of agriculturists, especially the small and marginal farmers in the country. The FPCs, which have been brought in for improved transparency and access to the input and output market with higher negotiating powers leading to sustainability of the small and marginal farmers, are said to provide higher legitimacy and credibility in the immediate business environment. Though Assam too is not behind in forming FPCs, challenges and issues abound. Majority of these FPCs are in the nascent stage of their operations with shareholder membership ranging from more than 500 farmers to over 1500 farmers. It is also seen that from capacity building to taking up business operations, many issues need to be addressed in these FPCs. These FPCs are in need of support in technical handholding and provision of adequate capital and infrastructure facilities including market linkages for sustaining their business operations. The present paper tries exploring and understanding the ecosystem of the FPCs in Assam, which are focussing on small and marginal farmers, and delving into the issues and challenges faced by the FPCs in the state and the possible ways out.JEL Classification: Q13
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T12:35:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221120921
       
  • China–Africa Relations in The Economist, 2019–2021

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      Authors: Franklin Obeng-Odoom
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The ‘Scramble for Africa’ has historically been a concept used to describe the plunder of Africa by colonial powers, their subsequent economic capture of African resources, their political control and their racial domination of Africans. But, in recent times, many writers have pointed to Chinese ‘Scramble for Africa’. Of these depictions, The Economist’s has been both categorical and relentless. But is the set of relationships between China and African countries imperial' Does it amount to a Chinese ‘Scramble for Africa’' If so, what can be done; if not, why not' Neither content nor institutional analyses of 27 stories, sampled from 132 issues of The Economist from 2019 to 2021, show conclusive evidence that the relationship between China and Africa is imperial. Evidence of African indebtedness to China, Chinese opaque resource transactions in Africa, and the controlling effect of China’s Belt and Road Initiative typically emphasised by The Economist is serious. But it does not amount to economic plunder, political control, military destabilisation or racial domination. The Economist’s characterisation of China–Africa relations reflects wider processes of Westernisation. Its features include the use of mainstream economic analysis, (mis)representation of the Global South to maintain Western hegemony and inhibiting Southern struggle to break the Western chokehold on global development. As an elite newspaper, The Economist’s ‘frame analysis’ not only presents news, but also produces views that caricature Global South agendas, especially those that threaten Western liberalism and imperialism.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T07:22:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221125423
       
  • Determinants of Citizen Acceptance of White-Collar Crime in China

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      Authors: Hongming Cheng, Wei Wang, Jia Qu, Longhai Li
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Existing research on public attitudes toward white-collar crime focuses almost exclusively on Western and Latin American societies. Using data from the seventh wave (2018) of the World Values Survey (WVS) for China, this study confirms the importance of several demographic, value, and belief factors in forming citizens’ attitudes toward white-collar crime, yet show some distinguished patterns in the Chinese context, calling for culture-specific and evidence-informed initiatives to gain public support for white-collar crime policies.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T07:20:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221123742
       
  • ‘#GodIsInIt’: The Appropriation of Christianity into Politics by
           

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      Authors: Theophilus Tinashe Nenjerama
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The November 2017 Zimbabwean elections were highly anticipated and contested since they came after the dethronement of the late former president Robert Mugabe. ZANU-PF’s Emmerson Mnangagwa was declared the winner, an announcement the then Movement for Democratic Change-Alliance (MDC-A) challenged through the court. In the same context, the MDC-A leader, Nelson Chamisa used the phrase and hashtag ‘Godisinit’ as part of his challenge to Mnangagwa’s legitimacy and in connecting with his followers and supporters. The study used digital ethnography to examine the use of Christianity by Chamisa and how his followers received it on Twitter. The study argues that the conflation of religion and politics discounts the relevance of fundamental political strategies important in challenging oppressive governments.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T07:19:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221123741
       
  • Group-Based Income Inequality in Hong Kong: An Analysis of Mainland
           Chinese Immigrants

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      Authors: Mathew Y. H. Wong, Kin-man Wan
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Despite a notoriously high level of income inequality, public discussion about the issue in Hong Kong has been largely limited to overall trends. This is partially due to a lack of fine-grained data, especially on socially relevant inequality dimensions. This study introduces the group-based inequality data set, which provides indices on inequality within and between groups based on census surveys from 1991 to 2016. Compared with past immigrants, some recent immigrants are highly educated and/or of high socioeconomic status, which has exacerbated inequality within the immigrant groups. This study further examines whether this change in immigrant profile has contributed to the surge in property prices and finds that immigrants also suffer from increasingly unaffordable housing. Overall, the article highlights a seldom-discussed dimension of inequality with reference to social groups that is expected to be a potent source of socioeconomic tension in the future.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-09-13T06:35:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221123749
       
  • Income Inequality and the Allocation of China’s Foreign Aid

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      Authors: Charles Chong-Han Wu, Yi-Tzu Lin
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Literature on the impacts of Chinese development finance to developing countries has suggested that China’s links to the global economy are contingent on their foreign policy. This study, however, concludes that China’s foreign aid was directed not to countries with poor economic conditions, but toward inefficient and mismanaged economies with higher income inequality. We used a negative binomial model with a mixed effect to estimate the relationship between income inequality and China’s foreign aid between 2000 and 2017. Our findings show that the more pronounced the income inequality in a state, the more likely it will receive aid from Beijing.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-09-13T06:34:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221123743
       
  • Determinants of Climate-Smart Adaptation Strategies: Farm-Level Evidence
           from India

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      Authors: Dibakar Sahoo, Prasanta Moharaj
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The paper attempts to examine the factors that influence climate-smart adaptation (CSA) strategies. The study used binary logit and multivariate probit models to understand the dynamics and factors of agricultural households’ behavioural decisions on CSA strategies. Based on the results of the binary logit model, the study indicated that factors such as access to extension services and training, gender, educational level, land ownership, access to irrigation, access to credit and crop damage level positively and significantly influenced farmers’ decisions to use CSA strategies. Similarly, the results of the multivariate probit model reveal that factors such as educational level, access to extension services and training, and land ownership had significant impacts on the adoption of the majority of CSA strategies. To improve the intensity of CSA strategies, the study recommends expanding training and extension services to farming masses, the expansion of irrigation facilities and weather information at the farm level.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-09-10T06:33:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221123739
       
  • COVID-19, Politico-Economic Crises and the Precarity of Actors in the
           Tourism Industry in Kariba Resort Town, C 2000–2021

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      Authors: Joshua Matanzima, Tamuka Nhiwatiwa
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The tourism industry sustains the economies of many nations across the globe through contributing to the Gross Domestic Products (GDP); creation of employment and infrastructure development. However, its sustainability is vulnerable to various temporal and spatial environmental, socio-economic and political events. In the Zimbabwe case, the politico-economic crises of the 2000s and the COVID-19 pandemic have variedly impacted on the prevalence of tourism with the actors (such as employees, tourists and recreational facility owners) involved in this industry having been seriously impacted. Using the precarity conceptual framework, this article critically analyses the impact of the politico-economic crises induced by the Fast Track Land Reform Programme of the early 2000s and the COVID-19 pandemic on the actors involved in tourism. Information regarding the impact of the political crises and COVID-19 pandemic on tourism in Kariba town is missing in the literature, yet Kariba is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Zimbabwe and Southern Africa. The article discusses the precarity of these tourism actors in the context of the politico-economic crises as well as the COVID-19 pandemic. We define ‘precarity’ as a condition of vulnerability and uncertainty. Our results indicate that for employees, these factors have resulted in uncertainty in the tourism business with some shutting down and others scaling down their operations resulting in redundancy and vulnerability of the workers. For tourists, the successive lockdowns and surge in COVID-19 cases in Zimbabwe resulted in (re)booking and (re)cancellation of bookings; the politico-economic crises resulted in fear among the potential clients and a drop in the number of international tourists. The recreational and accommodation service operators have had the challenge of making food (and other resources) orders for trips that are eventually cancelled due to the surge in the COVID-19 cases. The article draws from data gathered in 2021 through face-to-face interviews with different stakeholders in the tourism industry including employees, hotel and boat owners, Zimbabwe Tourism Authority officials and local politicians in Kariba resort town.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-09-08T06:27:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221123736
       
  • Ruling from the Grave' The Political Instrumentalization of Robert
           Mugabe’s Corpse in Contemporary Zimbabwean Politics

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      Authors: Shepherd Mpofu
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This qualitative research is a critical analysis of news media reports, political debates, and political and family behaviours to interrogate the centrality of death, corpses, funeral and mortuary rituals in African politics by using the death of Zimbabwe’s former President, Robert Mugabe as a case study. At death, it became clear what a polarizing and yet unifying figure Mugabe was. His dead body became a contested political asset. The paper explores how Mugabe’s family resisted President Mnangagwa’s attempts at gaining control of Mugabe’s dead body for political expediency after he disposed of him in a military coup in 2017. The paper concludes that, true to Mugabe’s wife’s assertions that he will rule Zimbabwe from the grave, Mugabe, as a dead man, caused some considerable political tensions between his family and ruling magnifying the coup architects’ legitimacy challenges and his power in Zimbabwean politics.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-09-03T08:45:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221120925
       
  • Book Review: Waiting Town: Life in Transit and Mumbai’s Other
           World-Class Histories

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      Authors: Wafa Hakim Orman
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-08-29T10:07:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221119353
       
  • Community-Based Organizations and Stakeholders’ Engagements: A
           Dialectics of Countering Violent Extremism and Humanitarian Service
           Delivery in North-East Nigeria

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      Authors: Nsemba Edward Lenshie, Buhari Shehu Miapyen, Michael I. Ugwueze, Christian Ezeibe
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      There is still little discussion on how community-based organizations (CBOs) may help counter violent extremism (CVE) in Nigeria. This research explores the implications of CBOs’ use of external networks for CVE and the distribution of humanitarian aid in North-East Nigeria. It finds that because CBOs depend so heavily on outside funding, they are constantly exposed to the demands and whims of donors. We therefore urge the government to prioritize CBOs in CVE programmes and operations to reduce external influence and to limit the spread of violent extremism in the region.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-08-27T09:29:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221120920
       
  • ‘We Are Proactive against the Thieves’: Community Mobilisation against
           COVID-19 Criminality in Ibadan, Nigeria

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      Authors: Oludayo Tade
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      One of the unintended consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) preventive protocols that restricted movements and disrupted livelihoods was the changing nature of criminal behaviour from the streets to residential neighbourhoods. While studies on COVID-19 have focussed on economic losses, disrupted livelihoods and changes in social relations, scant attempt has been made to understand how fear of insecurity during the health pandemic could reinforce the need for community policing. Against this background, this study investigated community mobilisation against insecurity of lives and properties during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in Ibadan, Nigeria. Using participant observation and in-depth interviews with 15 purposively selected residents, the study shows how collective perceived insecurity can engender social and communal bonding in the formation of defensible spaces. Findings showed that mobilisation for community policing was executed because of the insecurity experienced in neighbouring communities. A decentralised mechanism was established to allow zonal community executives take charge of their community security. This involved daily midnight house-to-house mobilisation with whistle, deployment of vigilante to hotspots, burn fires to signal the presence of community guards and decentralisation of residents into different patrol groups to community borders to guard against invasion.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-08-26T09:45:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221120926
       
  • Quality of Life of the Population of Kazakhstan: Assessment of the Main
           Parameters and Identification of Problem Areas

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      Authors: Zaure K. Chulanova
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of the article is to study the main parameters characterizing the quality of life of the population of Kazakhstan in modern economic conditions and develop proposals for its improvement. The methodology of the study is based on a holistic approach, including the use of objective indicators of the quality of life that determine the material conditions and means of human livelihood, and subjective assessments of the population, social groups of their material and social well-being. Measuring and evaluating the level and quality of life of the population of Kazakhstan based on an integrated approach includes the use of the following methods: component analysis, normative and stratification, integral indicators, and subjective assessments of the population. The leading blocks of the life support system are considered, including the assessment of income and consumption in the conditions of maintaining socio-economic income differentiation; the social qualitative parameters of the life support system of the population, the most important indicators of the implementation of priority areas of development of labor potential in the innovative economy, modernization of housing policy are given.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-08-26T09:44:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221120924
       
  • The Political Economy of Zimbabwe’s Food Crisis, 2019–2020

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      Authors: Philani Moyo
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      From 2019 to 2020, Zimbabwe experienced severe food insecurity. This paper explores the causes and drivers of the food crisis, policy, and programming response failures. Informed by primary data gathered through observations and secondary data, it argues that the food insecurity cannot be ascribed to the current agrarian structure alone. Instead, climate shocks, misgovernance of social security, politicization of food assistance, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) impacts and economic implosion deepened food insecurity. To prevent its recurrence, government must reconsider the land tenure system to promote productivity, support climate resilient agriculture, curb economic implosion, depoliticize social security system, and food transfer programmes.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-08-26T09:42:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221120923
       
  • Food Markets and Diets in the Democratic Republic of the Congo—A
           Geographical Overview (2004–2005)

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      Authors: Wim Marivoet
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      To inform policy makers concerned with food security, this paper relies on the 1–2–3 household survey (2004–2005) to provide a geographical overview of Congo’s food markets and dietary status. The results of this descriptive study point to inefficient domestic food markets, with Kinshasa being a case in point: it is deficient, poorly connected to its hinterland and highly dependent on imports. Food markets in the Kasaï provinces and the northeastern region are two minor exceptions, while the most competitive food producers are found in Équateur and North Kivu. Despite differential access, five diet types can be identified, with the most energy rich (cassava/palm oil) being consumed in Maniema, Orientale, Équateur, and rural Bas-Congo. In contrast, households in South Kivu and Kinshasa suffer from large calorie deficiencies, which is due to low purchasing power for the former and relatively higher food prices and more demanding social norms for the latter.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-08-26T09:41:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221120922
       
  • Access and Repayment of Institutional Agricultural Credit by Farmers in
           Tribal Areas of Odisha: Trends, Determinants and Policy Measures

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      Authors: Alok Ranjan Behera, Minaketan Behera
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Agricultural credit is the most significant factor in the Indian agricultural sector. The paper discusses the access of institutional credit to agriculture, and helps understand the challenges faced by the tribal farmers to obtain agricultural credit, and the determinants of institutional agricultural credit at households’ (HHs) level in the backward region of Odi:sha. The study used primary data collected from 475 farm tribal HHs of Kalahandi, Bolangiri and Koraput (KBK) districts in Odisha. The study found that increasing agricultural credit is greater in indirect finance than direct finance; in the same manner, a greater amount of credit is disbursed for the short term than the long term. Collateral issues, less awareness due to less education among farmers, low density of financial institutions in village areas, lack of finance as per demand, diversifying the loans from productive purpose to consumption purpose, and non-repayment of loan due to crop loss are different constraints faced by the farmers in Odisha.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T11:56:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221117075
       
  • Does Political Security Matter' A Study on the Life Satisfaction of
           Indigenous Peoples of the Chittagong Hill Tracts

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      Authors: Anurug Chakma
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Does political security influence the life satisfaction of indigenous peoples of Bangladesh' This study has addressed this research question using a survey dataset (N = 384) that contains a set of variables about the political security and life satisfaction of indigenous peoples of the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT), Bangladesh. This study offers fresh insights into how political insecurity, which has resulted from government repression and systematic violation of human rights, decreases the life satisfaction of indigenous peoples of the CHT. More precisely, indigenous peoples who feel they do not have their right to liberty, freedom of movement, freedom of speech, and the right to participation are more likely to be dissatisfied with their lives than those who report they enjoy these political rights. Overall, the findings of this research suggest that a negative relationship exists between the denial of fundamental freedoms and civil liberties and life satisfaction.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T09:27:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221117076
       
  • Why Separatists’ Communication Messages Succeed (or Fail): The
           Contributing Role of Socio-Economic Status on Adherence to IPOB Directives
           among Residents of South-East Nigeria

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      Authors: Chinyere Isaac Madukwe, Felix Olajide Talabi, Bernice O. Sanusi, Joshua Kayode Okunade, Ogbonne Ijeoma Pauline, Nnamdi C. Ajaebili, Gever Verlumun Celestine
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of this study was to examine the contributing role of socio-economic status on adherence to directives from the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) separatist group. A descriptive survey was used for the study, while 325 participants were sampled using the respondents’ chain referral sampling technique. The study showed that socio-economic factors such as income, education and employment status contribute 35.5% to determine compliance with IPOB directives. The results of the multiple regression analysis achieved a statistical significance, R2 = 0.355, p = 0.001, F(3,310) = 51.524. Finally, we explored the implication of these results on Integrated Separatist Agitation Theory and highlighted the scholarly and practical implications.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T10:04:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221117078
       
  • Political Spectacle and the Decline of Public Education in Botswana

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      Authors: Kekgaoditse Suping
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Botswana has achieved a lot in education development since the country’s independence in 1966. Public education funding and access increased significantly, literacy rates rose, more schools were constructed and student enrolment rates increased at both primary and secondary schools. However, this paper argues that Botswana’s education system has been declining over the past 10 years, but that is concealed by the use of political spectacle. The data collected from secondary sources were used and subjected to content analysis. The findings show high public education expenditure and access in Botswana, but high failure rates; success narratives and pronouncements without commitment to educational effectiveness and efficiency; massive construction of public schools, but poor teaching–learning conditions; and trivialization of meaningful education reforms. This paper concludes by recommending the introduction of learner-friendly methods of assessment, improving teacher–government relations, the inclusion of stakeholders in education decision-making and the implementation of cost–benefit and cost-effectiveness measures in Botswana’s education.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T10:02:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221117077
       
  • Related or Unrelated Variety and Economic Growth of South Asian Countries

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      Authors: Amna Ishaq, Muhammad Ali, Samina Naveed
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Recent literature on knowledge spillovers argues that diversified economic structures are more conducive to knowledge spillovers than specialized structures: a concept that is generally known as Jacobian Externalities. It further argues that diversification can be further decomposed into two forms, that is, related variety (RV) and unrelated variety (UV). RV is the diversification of production in related or similar products, whereas UV is the diversification of production in unrelated or dissimilar products. Most of the existing research on RV and UV is on advanced economies, and research on developing countries, particularly in the South Asian region that mostly produces agricultural and textile products, is scarce. Therefore, this study examines the relationship between RV and UV with economic growth in six South Asian countries using secondary data from 1995 to 2019. Since products at two-digit Standard International Trade Classification are unrelated to each other, UV is calculated at the two-digit level and RV is calculated at the five-digit level because of the similarity among sectors. Using fixed-effects regressions on the standard growth model, our findings suggest that related specialization is beneficial for economic growth in South Asian countries, and UV has a positive relationship with growth only when government effectiveness is high. Our results show that South Asian countries should produce selected products under the broad product classification to benefit from economies of scale instead of diversifying their product portfolio by producing similar products.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T12:14:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221117080
       
  • Participatory Livelihood Vulnerability Assessment of the Forest Dwellers:
           A Study of Fifteen Tribes and Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups in the
           Eastern Indian Region

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      Authors: Hari Charan Behera, Ashish Aman Sinha, Amiya Kumar Sahoo, Ganganath Jha
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to undertake the Participatory Livelihood Vulnerability Assessment (PLVA) of forest dwellers in the Jharkhand and Odisha states of eastern Indian region. The study covers 15 tribes that included 8 Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) and 7 other tribes from eight districts of Jharkhand and Odisha. The authors combined both participatory and survey-based approaches and used the simple indexing method for PLVA. They observed that landless families were among the most vulnerable. The forest dwellers have poor access to education and health. Both minor forest produce and social-welfare measures are important safety nets for the forest dwellers. There is, however, better access to banking, pukka houses, toilets and so on. Furthermore, attention is required to strengthen livelihood opportunities for the forest dwelling communities.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T12:11:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221117074
       
  • Tribes, Covid-19 and the State in India

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      Authors: Jagannath Ambagudia
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Infectious diseases have exposed the tribes (scheduled tribes, Adivasis, indigenous people) to more critical risks than other communities in India. Considering their disparate possession of power, privileges and resources, and the available data, the article situates tribes in the context of coronavirus pandemic in India by using the vulnerability framework. It reflects upon the strengths, weaknesses and uncertainties of tribes and the lack of structural support for them in the emergent crisis of pandemic. It argues that compounded vulnerabilities of tribal communities due to Covid-19 are attributed to their historical location in the socio-economic, cultural and political realms and the lack of access to resources and opportunities in the post-colonial Indian society.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T12:08:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221117073
       
  • Farmers’ Attitudes Towards Conventional and Organic Farming in Indian
           Punjab: A Behavioural Analysis

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      Authors: Paramjit Singh, Jaspreet Kaur
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This study is an attempt to identify the socioeconomic factors that affect farmers’ decision-making process regarding the adoption of organic farming. A total of 100 (50 organic and 50 conventional) farmers were interviewed and their demographic, socioeconomic and ecological behaviour differences were studied. The behavioural analysis identified education, environmental concerns and social benefits as the prominent drivers of organic farming, while lack of government support in marketing, managerial and technical spheres as major constraints to its adoption. The probit model confirms that farmers with a smaller size of holding who are educated, younger and practice diversified cropping are more inclined towards organic farming.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T12:06:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221113582
       
  • Book Review: Urban Inequality: Theory, Evidence, and Method in
           Johannesburg

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      Authors: Christian Hamann
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-07-27T10:44:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221115399
       
  • Federalism and the Governance of Contested Capital Cities: Comparing Addis
           Ababa and Brussels

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      Authors: Milkessa Midega Gemechu
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Federal principles do not encourage the dominance of a single locus of power. This is regarded as one of the federal glues that maintain a healthy equilibrium in a federation. By focusing on Brussels and Addis Ababa—the capitals of Belgium and European Union, and Ethiopia and African Union, respectively—this article examines the governances of contested federal capital cities that transcend national politics. The article uses “contested conditions”—historical and contemporary intranational and supranational rivalries and cooperation—to argue that rather than diffusing powers to promote alternative capitals, federalism appears to have enhanced competition over the existing “primate” capital cities.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-07-27T10:42:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221113585
       
  • Predicaments and Possibilities Experienced by Homeless in Karachi

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      Authors: Noman Ahmed, Suneela Ahmed, Saeeduddin Ahmed
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This paper builds upon the discussions on how a city may become a flexible resource for organizing everyday lives, with the homeless not only grasping various opportunities that come their way but also positively impacting urban modalities. By understanding the reasons behind why people adopt such an option, the findings can help policy makers develop policy in an informed manner. There are also theoretical implications as there is minimal research in this area. The analysis has been done through documenting spaces accessed by the homeless, the characteristics of these places, the livelihood associations and the administrative responses towards them.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T10:35:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221113581
       
  • Consolidating Informal Settlements Through Upgrading' The Temporary
           Implications of In-Situ Electrification from Thembelihle in Johannesburg,
           South Africa

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      Authors: Hsi-Chuan Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Providing electricity remains challenging in informal settlements. The relationship between electrification and the physical environment is critical but under-developed. I examine the temporary implications of electrification on the physical environment of Thembelihle in Johannesburg, South Africa. The results indicate that electrification has improved Thembelihle’s physical environment by improving the street grid and strengthened its social cohesion by increasing resource equity. In-situ upgrading could be used to develop settlements in areas unsuitable for residential development. Still, it must be adopted carefully, considering the opposed visions of the residents and local government and the foreseeable future relocation.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T10:35:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221113586
       
  • Is It Really Feminization of Agriculture' The Issue of Household Food
           Security in Lesotho’s Southern Lowland District

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      Authors: Joseph Tsoeu Washi Mokati, Alice Ncube, Yonas T. Bahta
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The study assessed the roles of women and the ownership of land trends in Lesotho, particularly during the 2015/2016 drought in Lesotho. A mixed-method approach, which combined both qualitative and quantitative research approaches, and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The collected data included demographic information, household assets, gender roles in agricultural activities, and decision-making in the household to explore feminization of agriculture and its impact on household food security in Lesotho, particularly Maneo village in the Mohales’ Hoek district. The results showed that even though the women were the majority of farmers, they were not involved in decision-making, did not own the land, lacked farming implements, used poor and archaic farming methods, and were subjected to institutionalized gender discrimination. This resulted in a food deficit, worsened by the drought in the southern districts, particularly in Maneo village. Despite the fact that land was owned by men, the women worked hard without having any rights to land ownership. This contributed to women’s poverty. The study recommended including gender role assessments and clarity on gendered policies addressing discrimination in Lesotho, especially for women.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T10:35:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221111359
       
  • Engendering Community Support for Conservation: A Case Study of Kekana
           Gardens Community and Dinokeng Game Reserve, South Africa

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      Authors: Dorothy Queiros, Kevin Mearns
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Successful conservation in Africa hinges on the perceptions of communities bordering protected areas. It is therefore vital for protected area stakeholders to know the perceptions of neighbouring communities in order to determine the factors that generate or undermine community support for conservation, so that appropriate management interventions can be implemented. Numerous studies consider benefits, but less relate to perceptions regarding both losses/costs and intangible benefits. This paper demonstrates a methodology with which to determine these factors, focusing on Kekana Gardens community, bordering Dinokeng Game Reserve, in Gauteng Province, South Africa. This qualitative study with 13 residents utilised focus group interviews and adapted nominal grouping technique. Six themes emerged, four of which comprise intangible benefits. This methodology can be applied to any community bordering a conservation area, assisting in crafting solutions that benefit both people and parks.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T10:35:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221111358
       
  • The Moderating Role of Per Capita Income in Energy Consumption-Poverty
           Nexus: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

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      Authors: Tahira Saddique, Ramsha Saleem, Assad Ullah, Maida Amjad
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The moderating role of per capita income pertaining to poverty and energy consumption is a missing link in the literature. To this end, this study aims to explore the energy-poverty nexus in Pakistan, incorporating per capita income as a moderator. Based on the time series nature of the data, we utilize the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) technique for the period 1984–2018. We design two separate models, that is, poverty model-A (the primary effect model) and poverty model-B (the interaction effect model). Our findings validate the significant prevalence of the influence of per capita income, as a moderator, on the relationship between energy consumption and poverty in Pakistan. Interestingly, the nature of moderation was observed to be enhancing both in the short and in the long-run. This study provides important policy implications for mitigating poverty in Pakistan. Our empirical findings educate policy makers and academicians to consider moderating behavior of per capita income for robust energy-poverty policy making in Pakistan.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T10:33:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221106091
       
  • Negotiating the Everyday State in Contemporary Tripura, Northeast India

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      Authors: Biswaranjan Tripura
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, I examine the complex question of evading the state or negotiating the everyday state from the perspective of the lived experiences of the highland people of Tripura, Northeast India. From dominant perspectives, the highland people are perceived as living in isolation or being inclined to want to keep the state at distance. Contrary to such perceptions, anthropologists now posit that people imagine and perceive the state differently, what they refer to as local manifestations of the state. Building on such literature, this paper unravels how highland people of Tripura perceive and negotiate the (everyday) state for their own advantage. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork, it argues that despite knowing that the everyday state is frustrating, the highland people of Tripura nevertheless regard it as their resource and, as active citizens, create strategies in negotiating what best they can extract from it.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-07-16T06:20:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221113580
       
  • Measuring Urbanisation, Growth of Urban Agglomeration, Urban Growth
           Sustainability and Role of Urban Primacy in India

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      Authors: Raju Sarkar, C. M. Lakshmana
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      An attempt is made to critically study the measuring urbanisation, recent urban growth patterns, Urban Growth Sustainability (UGS) and addresses the question of how the primate city impacts urban growth. The methods of Urban-Rural Growth Differential (URGD), Composite Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) and Index of Primacy (PI) have been used to understand recent urban growth, impact of primate cities in India based on Census. The top-heavy nature of India’s metropolitan structure has a negative impact on the country’s balanced regional growth. The study recommends that more infrastructure capacity should be granted for the primate cities due to increases in the city’s population.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-07-15T09:51:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221111360
       
  • Mental Health Facilitators and Barriers during Covid-19 in Nigeria

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      Authors: Aishatu Yusha’u Armiya’u, Murat Yıldırım, Asiya Muhammad, Ahmet Tanhan, J. Scott Young
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      We investigated the most important mental health facilitators and barriers for a Nigerian sample during the COVID-19 pandemic. We collected data from 122 participants (72% females) using Online Photovoice (OPV) method. We used Online Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (OIPA) approach and found nine facilitator themes. The four most reported facilitators were social support (34%); hobbies (26%); creating space for or experiencing enjoyable feelings, bodily sensations, and comfort (25%); and spirituality/religiosity (9%). Nine main barrier themes emerged (e.g. unenjoyable feelings, 53%; COVID-19 restrictions, 30%; inadequate social interaction, 19%; and financial issues, poverty, 18%). We discussed the implication and limitations of the findings.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-07-13T06:40:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221111354
       
  • The Media and the Commemoration of Robert Mugabe’s Death through the
           Camera’s Lens

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      Authors: Lungile Augustine Tshuma, Menelisi Sibanda
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This paper analyses the photographic representation of former Zimbabwean President, Robert Mugabe, with the aim of understanding memories that were produced following his death in September 2019. Mugabe was in power for 37 years before being dethroned through a military coup in November 2017. His rule divided opinion with some viewing him as a liberator and African icon, while some view him a dictator and tyrant for his role in disregarding human rights. This paper seeks to explore the role of photography in memory with particular interest being on commemorating contesting figure like Mugabe. We analysed photographs used by The Herald and NewsDay to commemorate Mugabe’s death. Photographs remain one of the under researched genres in communication, especially in the Global South, yet scholars have argued that contemporary societies have, through the use of photographs, turned their citizens into ‘image junkies’ and created ‘the most irresistible form of mental pollution’. The findings demonstrate that photographs are being used to give a ‘testimony’ about the contested legacy of Mugabe. Mugabe is framed as a liberator, Pan-African. On the contrary, he is seen as a tyrant and ruled by an iron fist.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T07:55:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221106077
       
  • Pattern of Regional Disparities in the Level of Household Deprivation
           among the Scheduled Tribes of Eastern India: A District-level Analysis

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      Authors: Pamela Deb, Rameswar Mukherjee
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This study attempted to show regional disparities in the level of deprivation among the Scheduled Tribe population in eastern Indian states (Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha and West Bengal). This work is based on house listing and housing table of Census of India, 2011 and Socio-Economic Cast Census data. The Wroclaw Taxonomic method was employed for measuring the deprivation index. The results show that, out of 110 districts, 55 districts are in a middle-deprived stage and 13 districts are in a highly deprived stage. Among the states, the level of deprivation is very high in Odisha, followed by West Bengal. The situation is quite better in Jharkhand. The study also shows that the districts with little better condition are either situated in agricultural plain, mining centres, power plants or tourism centres. The study also reveals that the areas with the better conditions are either in agricultural plains, mining centres, power plants or tourism centres. As a result, the research recommends enhancing previously existing tribal development programmes as well as regional general development programmes in order to reduce concerns such as tribal, rural and regional deprivation.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-07-04T06:40:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221106097
       
  • Social Media as Solidarity Vehicle During the 2020 #EndSARS Protests in
           Nigeria

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      Authors: Temple Uwalaka
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This study interrogates how protesters learned about and planned the 2020 #EndSARS protests in Nigeria. Analyses of survey data collected in 2020 during the protests and content analysis of tweets demonstrate that protesters who used Facebook, WhatsApp and Twitter to learn about and plan the 2020 #EndSARS protests in Nigeria and reported to be 30 years and older are more likely to report joining on the first day of the protest. Data showed a relationship between protesters’ perceived ease of use of a social media platform and their use of such platforms during protests. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T07:37:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221108737
       
  • Does Misinformation Thrive With Social Networking Site (SNS) Dependency
           and Perceived Online Social Impact Among Social Media Users in
           Nigeria' Testing a Structural Equation Model

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      Authors: Oberiri Destiny Apuke, Bahiyah Omar, Elif Asude Tunca, Celestine Verlumun Gever
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This study modelled the factors that encourage misinformation diffusion behaviour among social media users, with a focus on Nigerian social media users. To gather our data, we used an online survey to sample 385 social media users using a chain referral approach. Smart partial least squares (PLS) structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to analyse the data. We discovered that social tie strength, virality, social media usage intensity and fun all predicted misinformation circulation. Conversely, trust in social networking site (SNS) and parasocial interaction were not found to be related to misinformation spreading. The study concluded with some theoretical and practical implications.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T07:23:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221108738
       
  • Non-State Actors, Sub-Conventional Warfare, and India-Pakistan Nuclear
           Crisis Stability/Instability

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      Authors: Muhammad Sadiq, Iftikhar Ali
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      In South Asia, India-Pakistan nuclear equation faces an intricate stability/instability paradox under the shadow of pervasive non-state actors. These actors are exploited by the bellicose nuclear rivals and used as proxies to bleed each other. The terrorist incidents may lead to a crisis that could escalate to the nuclear level. The ambitious belligerents—India and Pakistan—are embroiled in a vicious nuclear and conventional arms race. In conjunction, both lack any effective conflict resolution mechanism. Though, past strategic crises were managed beneath the panic of nuclear escalation and intervention by the international community. What if such a crisis develops again if a spectacular terrorist attack occurs, especially in mainland India. Indian decision-makers could castigate Pakistan by contemplating so-called surgical strikes under the impression that Pakistan has launched terrorists against India. This research paper critically analyzes how non-state actors and their use in sub-conventional warfare pose severe repercussions for nuclear deterrence stability in the absence of credible nuclear escalation control measures between India and Pakistan.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T07:06:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221108736
       
  • ‘A Child is Born’ – Gender, Remittances and Patrimony: The Case of
           Chivi District in Zimbabwe

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      Authors: Emelder Muchadzoka Tagutanazvo, Vupenyu Dzingirai
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      While debates about its morality continue among states and conservatives, migration is taking place in Africa. In previous decades, migration was dominated by men. Increasingly, in Zimbabwe, women are taking centre stage in this process. Using the case study of Chivi District in Zimbabwe which is now considered an established ‘donor’ of migrants, we examine how access and control of remittances by migrant men and women determines patrimony. This paper argues that migration and remittances have given birth to new rights and entitlements to daughters who were previously marginalised.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-06-29T09:11:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221106082
       
  • Tribal Migrant Labourers in the Sundarbans: Effects of Migration on
           prevalent Social, Cultural and Political Life

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      Authors: Sanoj Stephan Hembrom, Ankan Das, MD Mojibur Raham
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      A closed reading of the mobility of tribal life in West Bengal can take us to the Sundarbans in the southern fringes of Bengal; where the Santhals can be traced, who migrated from their homelands in the Chota Nagpur, to the tide country (Sundarbans) only a few centuries ago, to clear forested lands and to start cultivating the virgin land. Colonization here plays a very important role, since this migration was a direct result of the colonial barbarity on the tribal populations in the Chota Nagpur Plateau during the 18th century. Migrant labour, though is mostly understood in terms of seasonal migration, in this case, the opposite is noticed. Here, whole tribes migrated, who can also be credited as one of the first settlers in a land which was otherwise the realm of the deadly Royal Bengal Tigers (where no humans lived). In this context, the paper will seek to outline the tribal roots of the Santhals, Mundas and Oraons, who migrated from other parts of the country to the Sundarbans. The similarities in their folk traditions and religion though can be a mere coincidence, believing in which can restrict one from engaging in the fantastic possibility of rich research in the field. This paper will also address the functioning of the tribal labour at that point of time, and how it changed the whole paradigm of migration, especially the notion of mobility. The paper will employ information from several government accounts and journals, which recorded data about the migration of the Santhals to the Sundarbans.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-06-29T09:04:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221101590
       
  • The Cultural Problematic in Narratives of Violence against Women and Girls
           in South Sudan

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      Authors: Tamsin Bradley, Gailda Jima, Anthony Ochan
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Violence against Women and Girls (VAWG) is endemic in South Sudan. Approaches to end VAWG are barely making a dent in prevalence figures. Global evidence tells us that ending VAWG in conflict-ridden contexts is challenging on many levels. Our research points to the need for social and gender norm change approaches to be better contextualised within the political economy and through applying a nuanced critique of the role of culture in normalising many forms of VAWG. In addition, greater involvement of young people is critical as a behavioural tipping point is beginning to emerge in this group. At national level, a lack of political commitment emerges as a key challenge in ending VAWG. Drawing on the findings from 20 qualitative interviews with national civil society organisation (CSO) and non-governmental organisation’s (NGO) stakeholders, the article argues that current approaches to ending VAWG in South Sudan (and arguably elsewhere) must be reframed along a continuum of change. Activities must be supported at all levels from national through to the grassroots and be founded in a complex picture of the values and beliefs that sustain VAWG.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T07:23:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221106076
       
  • Status of Crop Diversification by Land Size Classes: A Case Study from
           State of West Bengal, India

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      Authors: Hasibur Rahaman, Sakil Ansari
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The food basket of the world is diversifying toward high-value crops. A diversified cropping system offers multifaceted opportunities for farmers. The nature of diversification in developing countries is significantly different at both farming and cropping levels; thus, it is felt important to investigate such a study at different land size holding. This study is conducted to examine the spatiotemporal pattern of crop diversification under different land size classes in the state of West Bengal, which assumes as a representative image of India. The study uses secondary data obtained from the Agriculture Census for the years 1995–1996 and 2015–2016. Gibbs-Martin’s diversification technique is employed for the calculation of the diversification index. Overall analyses reveal that the stunting change in diversification is noted in marginal, small, large, and all land classes. The implication of such growth pushes the rural economy in a skewed direction. For de-stunting growth in diversification index, short- and long-term policy push from public and private agencies is the need of the hour.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T06:41:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221106092
       
  • Unfolding the Impact of COVID-19 on Reverse Migrants in Uttar Pradesh

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      Authors: Susobhan Maiti, Disha Sharma, Tanushree Gupta
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Reverse migration was the trending issue in several news articles and channels during the pandemic. The authors attempt to investigate migrants’ sensitivity during COVID-19. Reverse migrants are sensitive to crucial aspects that bother them during their reverse migration such as mental stress, social issues, transportation issues, job loss, and income loss. The Government of India launched several initiatives to help the reverse migrants, but it is not reaching the migrant people adequately. Hence, in this article, authors critically analyzed the Indian Government’s commitment to the post-return situation and sensitivity toward the rural reverse migrants.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T06:39:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221106080
       
  • Alternative Media, Repression and the Crisis State: Towards a Political
           Economy of Alternative Media in Post-Mugabe Zimbabwe

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      Authors: Thulani Tshabangu, Abiodun Salawu
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Zimbabwe has a tainted media history under Mugabe replete with examples of state orchestrated repression, draconian legislation, harassment of journalists and violation of their work premises. The post-November 2017 coup period is a critical reference point to understand the political economy of alternative media under the so-called ‘New Dispensation’ of President Mnangagwa with its promises of prodemocracy reforms. Using political economy as a theoretical approach that analyses media systems in a holistic manner by linking them to politics, economy, legislation and technology, this study assesses the extent to which the ‘New Dispensation’ has implemented political economy reforms that impact alternative media. Drawing from interviews with selected alternative media journalists and proprietors, the findings reveal that alternative media in Zimbabwe remain entrenched in repression and are in a crisis caused by an exacerbation of the same structural factors that existed before. The ‘New Dispensation’ has instead led to the entrenchment of a new dictatorship by the military junta. Undue political interference, a fragile economy and state orchestrated repression continue to constrain the democratic functions of alternative media. By teasing the continuities and discontinuities of alternative media repression during the Mugabe era and under the ‘New Dispensation’, the paper contributes to ongoing debates about the consequence of the 2017 coup and the need for genuine democratic reforms in Zimbabwe post-Mugabe epoch.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T05:59:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221106090
       
  • Gender Discrimination in Education among the Muslims: A Case Study in an
           Indian Village for Identifying the Key Factors

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      Authors: Dipak K. Midya, Md. Mohidul Islam
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Gender discrimination is more frequent among the ethnic minorities in the domain of education. This study among the Muslims in India shows that the Muslims always lag behind the Hindus in literacy rate and there is widening gap between literacy rates of men and women. With particular reference to a bi-ethnic village, it further reveals that discrimination generates from the socio-economic context of a particular community and that the Muslim women are experiencing discrimination in education due to their parents’ poor economic condition, lack of awareness, conservativeness, feeling of social insecurity of their girls, and their early marriage.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T05:55:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221106079
       
  • Women’s Political Participation and Empowerment in Urban Local
           Governance in West Bengal, India

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      Authors: Asha Bauri, Anindya Basu
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Women are long ignored from the organized political arena across the world, but several initiatives have been taken for entrance of women in local-level politics. The main objective of the study is to provide an idea about effective and pseudo-participation of the women representatives and to bring out the factors responsible for kinds of participation. For that, district headquarters of West Bengal have been chosen. Two indices (political empowerment index (PAI) and political awareness index (PEI)) infer that the same category city has different degrees of women’s awareness and participation. The rate of pseudo participation is much higher than the effective participation.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T11:32:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221100979
       
  • The Role of the Indian Political Regime in Higher Education Reforms for
           Innovation Drive: Key Comparisons With China

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      Authors: Romi Jain, Eric Ping Hung Li, Joseph Tse-Hei Lee
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      As primary drivers of global growth, China and India as Asian giants are on the path to reforming their higher education systems to drive innovation. This paper based on both primary and secondary data sources investigates how India’s democratic political leadership has facilitated higher education reform for fostering innovation while underlining key differences in the policy approach of the Chinese leadership. Findings identify the areas of reform for India and also reveal that epistemic boundaries between India and China are beginning to blur so far as right-wing ideological regimentation is concerned, with possible implications for innovation.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T11:30:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221097666
       
  • Intersecting Knowledge With Landscape: Indigenous Agriculture, Sustainable
           Food Production and Response to Climate Change – A Case Study of Chuktia
           Bhunjia Tribe of Odisha, India

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      Authors: Bhubaneswar Sabar, Dipak K. Midya
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This paper documents the traditional agricultural practices of Chuktia Bhunjia tribe of Odisha, India, and attempts to comprehend as to how they negotiate with their ecosystem in order to ensure sustainable agricultural production and livelihood. Data, collected using interview and observation, reveal that agricultural practices of the Chuktia Bhunjia are revolved around local ecology, beliefs, rituals and knowledge. The knowledge-based intercropping, agroforestry, crop rotation, crop diversity, rain-water harvesting and management of soil fertility are important domains involved in their agricultural practices that are found to as a function of long-term observation and experiments, and are reported to have been culturally reproduced through self-engagement and ritualistic practices associated with agriculture. Their agriculture is assumed to have significance in maintaining the soil fertility and moisture, and reducing greenhouse gases and enhancing carbon sequestration whereby to balance the landscape. The agroforestry-based agricultural practices, coupled with belief, ritual and technology, is also found to make their agriculture cost-effective and ensure conservation of ecological system. Climate change–driven agricultural decision-making among them is found to as a tool not only to arrest their crop failure but also to ensure sustainable food production and livelihood. Yet, the expected evacuation of inhabitant including Chuktia Bhunjia due to ‘tiger-project’ is assumed to be a threat to their agricultural knowledge and other cultural domains. Therefore, owing to the livelihood implication of traditional agriculture, any attempt to integrate their agricultural knowledge base with scientific knowledge would ensure sustainability of both ecology and livelihood together.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T02:13:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221099634
       
  • Men in Women Industrial Space: Male Hairdressers of Ibadan, Nigeria

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      Authors: Adefolake Ademuson, Ayinde Omolara Rebecca, Olayinka Akanle
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      A definitive element of labor market is gender-based occupational segregation. Most previous studies on the subject of gender and labor have concentrated on gender mainstreaming and glass ceiling in formal economy with little attention to gender and informal economy. Hence, there has been very little attention to men venturing into female areas of traditional informal economy of Africa. This article, therefore, contributes fresh insights and interesting new knowledge on the emerging gender dynamics in contexts of Africa’s informal economy usually dominated by women. This article investigates men’s involvement in hairdressing, an area commonly considered as women’s jobs, the factors that led men to engage in hairdressing, the unique challenges male hairdressers face as a result of working in a female-dominated field, and their coping mechanisms. Qualitative and quantitative data gathered were analyzed through Content analysis (qualitative data) and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS; quantitative data). Quantitative data were analyzed at univariate and bivariate levels. The results show that a large percentage of the customers prefer Male Hairdressers as they believe male hairdressers are good at the profession. Findings suggest the country’s high unemployment rate is, largely accountable, for men’s venturing into the Hairdressing Industry as an adaptive mechanism in complicated and precarious socioeconomic context and tidal system of social change.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T10:59:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221099633
       
  • Re-examining the Kuznets Curve Hypothesis for South Asian Countries: New
           Evidences

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      Authors: Majid Ali, Muhammad Tariq, Muhammad Azam Khan
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This study re-examines the validity of Kuznets curve hypothesis for six South Asian countries, namely, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, India, and Bangladesh, over the period 1991–2018. The Pooled Mean Group (PMG) technique results in the short and long run reveal an S-shaped curve relationship between income inequality and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita for all countries, that is, negative at the beginning, positive after the first turning point (GDP per capita level, US$473), and negative after the second turning point (GDP per capita level, US$3827) when GDP per capita reaches the maximum level. In contrast, the country-specific results show, that the first and second turning points of GDP per capita are US$468 and US$2298 for India, US$445 and US$1408 for Pakistan, US$450 and US$9045 for Bhutan, and US$925 and US$6836 for Sri Lanka, which support the validity of the S-shaped curve. Moreover, the results also show the existence of N-shaped curve with GDP per capita (i.e. first and second) turning points of US$473 and US$2864 for Bangladesh and US$105 and US$3568 for Nepal. The findings suggest that income inequality gaps in Asian countries seem to be conditional on the levels of GDP per capita. In this regard, expansionary fiscal policy, specifically in the form of government spending, promotion of exports and employment, and price stability can play a vital role in increasing the GDP per capita levels and narrowing the income inequlaity gaps in the selected Asian countries.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T10:54:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221097744
       
  • Livelihood Struggle for Sustainability and Dignity in Context of Caste
           (Case of Musahar Youth in Rural Uttar Pradesh in India)

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      Authors: Dinesh Chand
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Musahar youth have been struggling for basic needs and face indignity at multiple facets in the society due to caste. In contemporary times, historicity of caste, stigmatized identity, indignity, poor social values and low participation status make it difficult to avail any kind of social, educational and employment support. Sustainability is a form of survivability, and lack of dignity diminishes wage work, forcing them to migrate. This paper is based on PhD research data and applied qualitative research methods following in-depth interview, oral history, seasonal calendar and so on. Historical marginality of caste persists and frames aspiration, dignity and sustainability.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T09:49:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221098691
       
  • A (Re)interpretation of the #Endsars Movement in Nigeria: Evidence from
           the Niger Delta Region

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      Authors: Patrick Chukwudike Okpalaeke, Romanus Aboh
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Scholarship that has studied the #EndSARS movement in Nigeria remains scanty. In contributing to debates surrounding the #EndSARS movement, we focus on the Niger Delta region and the effect of the movement on the people. Online interview of 20 participants across the region, reports from Amnesty International, the Human Rights Watch and Facebook posts provided data for the qualitative study. Castells’ ‘network society’ enabled us to explain how youths formed a ‘network of protesters’ to resist a repressive police system. The #EndSARS protest was another opportunity for the Niger Delta youths to express their dissonance with an exclusionary political arrangement.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T09:51:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221097671
       
  • Problems of Research Funding in the Agro-Industrial Complex of Kazakhstan

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      Authors: Ayapbergen Taubayev, Aibota Rakhmetova, Gaukhar Kalkabayeva, Yulia Saifullina, Batyrkhan Zhukenov
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of the research was to find out why the reforms of the long-term state policy for the development of national science did not lead to an increase in the funding of scientific research and an increase in the role of science in the national innovation system, including in the field of agricultural science. The study was conducted using questionnaire-based survey methods and focused expert interviews. The results obtained in the course of the research are of practical interest to the authorized bodies of the state scientific and innovation policy of Kazakhstan, subjects of innovation infrastructure and entrepreneurs in the field of science and innovation. According to the results of the survey, the trend of scientists’ dissatisfaction with the existing system of financing agro-industrial science is clearly traced, as well as their own opinions on specific measures to solve problems existing in this area.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T09:50:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221097664
       
  • From Sainthood to Saintly Kinship: How Claiming Saintly Kinship Is
           Structuring the Social and Patronage Relationships in Rural Punjab,
           Pakistan

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      Authors: Abdul Qadar, Arslan Waheed
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article problematises ‘sainthood’ as a sacred spiritual construct by the understanding and appropriation of the same. We have examined claims of Chishti and Dhuddi biraderies (endogamous kinship groups) as spiritually elevated and socially superior groups based on our recent fieldwork in three villages in the district of Vehari, Punjab. We take a case study of Chishti biraderi’s claims of spiritual ascendency because of their descendance from Shaykh Farid (d. 1265 CE). Chishties’ position as chosen ones is contested by Dhuddi biraderi who claim their descendance from an equally famous Sufi saint Dewan Baba Haji Sher (d. 752 CE). Our research shows how claims of saintly kinship reflect the power struggle in rural Punjab where the appropriation of saintly kinship as well as contestations of similar claims are advanced by zamindar (land owner) patrons to reproduce their position of power and privilege.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T10:32:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221097720
       
  • Beyond Police Brutality: Interrogating the Political, Economic and Social
           Undercurrents of the #EndSARS Protest in Nigeria

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      Authors: Ernest Toochi Aniche, Victor Chidubem Iwuoha
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      On 20 October 2020, the military and police force opened fatal shootings at peaceful unarmed #EndSARS protesters. This article examines the political and socio-economic undercurrents of #EndSARS protest. It argues that the predatory state–society relations where the state is the predator and citizens are the preys nurtured the increasing distrust between the state and its citizens, and ultimately, resulted in the deepening mutual mistrust between the police and people. The article concludes that the #EndSARS protest created opportunity for the Nigerian state to accelerate and accumulate its bourgeoning repressive character instead of reducing it. It recommends symbiotic state–society relations.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T10:30:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221097673
       
  • The Politics of Ethnonational Accommodation Under a Dominant Party Regime:
           Ethiopia’s Three Decades’ Experience

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      Authors: Bizuneh Getachew Yimenu
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Ethiopia is the most prominent example of the late 20th-century adoption of federalism to accommodate diversity and complete state-building. This article explores the implementation of federalism and accommodation of ethnonational diversity in dominant party regimes by using Ethiopia as a case. Drawing on legal documents, literature, news sources and government reports, the article argues that federalism enabled distinctive groups to promote their culture, use their languages and exercise self-rule in their territory. However, ethnonationalities’ constitutionally proclaimed self-determination rights and the practice rarely correspond. Although all ethnonationalities have the same constitutional rights, some are still subjugated, and self-rule remains their dream. The dominant party regime in Ethiopia met demands for self-rule and accommodation with suppression and violence. The constitution grants regions to use their legislative powers to accommodate region-specific demands; nevertheless, regions cannot operate out of the narrow framework of the federal ruling party. Thus, regions became repressive agents of the centre rather than genuine self-rule agents. Insights from Ethiopia have broader implications for states embracing federalism.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T10:28:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221097663
       
  • Iranian’s attitudes toward law-abidingness in administration system
           in Iran

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      Authors: Majid Fouladiyan, Toktam Namayandeh Joorabchi
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      According to international statistics and domestic research, the rate of law-abidingness in Iran is low. The purpose of this article is to measure the degree of law-abidingness in the administrative system. The results show that in general, the mediation effect for three mediation variables in the path model is significant except the relationship between political satisfaction, necessity of organizational rules, and law-abidingness. There is mediation effect between political satisfaction, trust, and law-abidingness, which is positive. There is a positive significant relationship between political satisfaction, success priority of material preference system, and law-abidingness. The relationship between nepotism, trust, and law-abidingness is negative.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T09:43:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221092097
       
  • Violence, Victimhood and Retaliation: The 2008 Elections and the Cyclic
           Nature of Political Violence in Norton, Zimbabwe

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      Authors: Kudakwashe Chitofiri, Lotti Nkomo
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article is an empirical examination of ‘victimhood’ in the context of the widespread, deadly and destructive electoral violence that affected Zimbabwe in 2008. It contends that an examination of the behaviour of victims of state-sponsored political violence enhances our comprehension of ‘victimhood’ as a factor in the perpetuation of political violence. The victims were largely ignored by the justice system, the political leadership and the community, all of whom were under the coercive spell of the ruling Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU PF). The trivialisation of their situation, and the absence of legitimate avenues for redress, forced many victims to seek direct revenge. The article traces how this fomented and reproduced the already violent political atmosphere in Norton town during the 2008 election period. It relies on interviews with opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) victims of violence in Norton to consider how they attempted to make sense of their pain by claiming victimhood and exacting physical revenge against their tormentors.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T08:58:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221092108
       
  • Industrial Relations, Social Dialogue and Pacification of Public Sector
           Unions in Zambia: Rethinking Trade Union Strategies

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      Authors: Clever Madimutsa
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article analyses the incorporation of social dialogue in industrial relations and its role in pacifying public sector unions in Zambia. A sample of 19 managers of public institutions and union leaders in Lusaka participated in the research. The research reveals that social dialogue is used to pacify trade unions as governments implement structural adjustment policies, which bring about poor employment conditions. Although the unions have responded to pacification by diversifying and servicing their membership, they are still weak. This finding is significant because it helps us to understand why unions in Southern Africa are weak in the post-independence era.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T08:56:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221090640
       
  • Peasant Livelihoods in Times of Covid-19: A Classical Agrarian and
           Political Economy Perspective

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      Authors: Clement Chipenda
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The Covid-19 pandemic has had unprecedented global impact, creating multiple crises that have gone beyond the epidemiological, extending to the socio-economic and political. It has exposed structural flaws in global capitalism and intensified inequalities that have traditionally been imbedded in relations of production and social reproduction. In emerging Covid-19 literature, blind spots exist on its impact on peasant households. It is this knowledge gap that this article fills. Focusing on an agrarian context in rural Zimbabwe, the article employs a classical agrarian perspective and the political economy approach as conceptual and heuristic tools to explore the impact which this novel virus has had on rural livelihoods. It shows that the pandemic has impacted agricultural production, social reproduction, labour relations and asset accumulation. While its impact has been largely negative, opportunities were created with peasant agency being critical in dealing with shocks and vulnerabilities.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T12:29:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221090637
       
  • Intra-Urban Distribution of Child Hawking in Southeast Nigeria

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      Authors: Amos Oluwole Taiwo
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article investigated the intra-urban distribution of child hawking in Enugu Municipality, Nigeria. The study first enumerated child hawkers across three residential areas (core, transition and sub-urban) simultaneously on different weekdays and at different locations (activity-nuclei) in Enugu municipality. A questionnaire was then employed to obtain information from 95 incidentally selected child hawkers, comprising 49, 21 and 25, respectively. Information sourced was their socio-economic characteristics and factors influencing their taking to the street to hawk. The data were analysed using percentages, cross tabulation and standard scores. Results showed that 58.9% were males, 53.7% were out-of-school and 47.4% realized ₦501.00–₦1000.00 ($1.4USD–$2.78USD) per day. Factors influencing child hawking, measured through an index tagged ‘Child Hawkers’ Factor Index’ (CHFI) on a 5-point Likert-type scale, showed that poverty was the most prevalent factor in the core, transition and sub-urban areas of the municipality, respectively, with (CHFI = 3.67), (CHFI = 3.64) and (CHFI = 3.37). The study further showed that there was a relationship between child hawking incidence and land use activities. It observed that the core residential area, junction, Motor Park and market land uses were generators of child hawkers. The study suggested effective urban planning and policy measures in addressing the menace of child hawking.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T08:57:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221090639
       
  • Challenges of Nuclear Deterrence Stability in South Asia

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      Authors: Muhammad Sadiq, Iftikhar Ali
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The interplay of several international, regional, and local factors poses daunting challenges for deterrence stability in South Asia. The emerging revolution in the military affairs compounded with prolonged crises vis-à-vis the absence of any conflict resolution mechanism between India and Pakistan; the nuclear deterrence is budding a fragile relationship between the two nuclear-armed pugnacious belligerents of South Asia. The Indian aspirations to accumulate maximum power based on its strategic partnerships with the technologically advanced countries in the world are characterized by the classic Indian strategic thinking to establish its leadership in the region. At the same time, Pakistan’s reliance on China in its quests for acquiring military hardware required for the deterrence equation seemingly remains insatiable within the framework of the stability–instability paradox. Without a holistic analysis of the political and strategic challenges, casus belli of the crises, and nuclear command and control systems dynamics between the two, it would amount to a petitio principii to draw theoretical assumptions. Therefore, this study attempts to comprehensively explain the phenomena by analyzing the challenges of nuclear deterrence stability in South Asia at different levels.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T08:55:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221090636
       
  • Effects of Open Space Characteristics on the Spatial Distribution of
           Street Children: Experience from Ibadan, Nigeria

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      Authors: Amos Oluwole Taiwo, Bashir Olufemi Odufuwa, Abel Omoniyi Afon, Johnson Olarinde Oladesu
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Against the background of seemingly uncontrollable social menace and environmental nuisance of street children, this study examined the effects of open space characteristics on the spatial distribution of street children in Ibadan, Nigeria. With open space types in the city as spatial units of data collection, enumeration of street children was carried out in each space type within 7 weekdays in the morning, afternoon and evening. Observation was also conducted to know the socio-economic and physical characteristics of the urban environment attracting the children. The study, which employed z-scores to compare the intensity of street children incidence across the spatial units, confirmed that the incidence was a function of the uses to which open space types were put as well as the disorderliness of urban physical environment (indiscriminate parking, formal and informal economic activities, and so on). The most important open space types that attracted street children were markets, mosque premises and junctions. Although, incidence of street children was a daily affair in Ibadan, it was highly pronounced in the evening on Saturday, Friday and Monday. The study recommended development of policy measures for regulating the use of open spaces, and giving adequate planning attention to roundabouts, religious centres (mosques in particular) and markets in urban centres. It also recommended public education and enlightenment programme on the negative effects of street children incidence by all stakeholders, and that the aspect of culture of the people that encourages child begging and alms giving should be discouraged in its entirety.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T07:23:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221090634
       
  • Gendered Taboos as an Impediment to African Women’s Leadership: A
           Decolonial View

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      Authors: Magezi Elijah Baloyi, Dlamini Phumzile
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Human beings come from various backgrounds shaped by their norms, culture, belief systems, age, social orientation and their language. In addition to all these human beings, the common denominator is that they are different in terms of their parity and equality. This difference of human beings in the world has their own knowledge and cultural practices towards contribution of knowledge. Transformation of leadership which is imperative during the decolonialisation projects demands among other things more information about African traditional leadership. The realisation and existence of such leadership cannot be imagined without the indigenous knowledge which was and is still rich with ingredients of growing and leading African people to the right direction. Our South African context demands that women must also be uplifted to leadership roles in society and the workplace, but this usually collides with different African beliefs that still put women secondary to men, for instance, the issue of taboos which mainly promote the subjection of women. For the sake of this research, the focus is on those taboos which portray women as inferior to men in the society. Two cultures were selected for this purpose, Xitsonga and IsiZulu.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T06:29:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221086527
       
  • The Travail and Feasibility of Returning Home of Gwoza Women in New
           Kuchingoro Internally Displaced Persons Camp, Nigeria

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      Authors: Seun Bamidele, Innocent Pikirayi
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The lived experiences of women in Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) camps are poorly understood despite the centrality of this issue in discourses on victims’ experiences. This study examines the travail of Gwoza women in New Kuchingoro IDPs camp in Abuja, Nigeria. It attempts to identify the survival strategies adopted by women and the possibility of their returning home, in northeastern Nigeria. The study adopted a qualitative research design utilising both primary and secondary data. Insights for data analyses were drawn from transactional theory of stress and coping strategies. The study reveals that Gwoza women rely largely on humanitarian aid from NGOs, while the federal government has largely failed to fulfil that role. Reliance on subsistence farming and humanitarian aid implies that their coping or survival strategy is only tentative. Gwoza women also regard the issue of security as a source of livelihood crucial to their survival, which they are unlikely to get should they return home where they will be exposed to attacks by the insurgent Boko Haram. Moreover, the Nigerian government has not given them any assurance on the provision of adequate security and means of livelihood upon return. They are thus compelled to remain in camp.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T12:21:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221087415
       
  • Pro-Girl Attitudes and Childhood Stunting in India

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      Authors: Tanima Ahmed
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, I examine the relationship between three distinct attitudes of mothers (pro-boy, egalitarian, and pro-girl) and stunting among boys and girls of age 0–14 years in India using the Indian Human Development Survey (IHDS) 2004–2005. Probit model estimates suggest that mothers’ pro-girl attitudes are associated with less likelihood of observing stunting among girls and boys. Additional analysis by wealth categories shows that stunting among girls reduces when they have mothers with pro-girl attitudes and live in wealthy households. Robustness tests conducted with “severely stunted” as the dependent variable confirm the findings.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T06:24:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221086542
       
  • Food Security among Kandhas of Kandhamal, Odisha, India: A Mixed Method
           Study

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      Authors: Rashmi Rekha Samal, Srijit Mishra
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Given the global commitment to zero hunger and in the backdrop of Asian enigma, this paper looks into nutritional deprivation among Kandhas, a tribal community from Odisha, India. Based on fieldwork during a harvest period, the pervasive household-specific and nutrient-specific deprivation is intriguing. An inverse relationship between the number of nutrient deficiencies and the number of food groups consumed is observed. Food intake among pregnant and lactating mothers at homes is lower than that at Maa Gruha, a care facility. The fieldwork coincides with the initial days of a millets intervention and could serve as a baseline for future comparison.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T06:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221086525
       
  • A Foucauldian Power Analysis of China’s Confucius Institute in Africa:
           

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      Authors: Siyuan Li
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The Confucius Institute (CI) was established in 2004 by China to disseminate its language, culture and other forms of positive knowledge to people of different nationalities. By critiquing existing analytical frameworks of the CI, this article draws on Foucault’s conception of power, which explains the role of language, culture, value and other non-material elements in the operation of power, to examine the case study of the CI in Africa. By investigating the CI’s power structure, its internal power operations and its power effects, this research seeks to ascertain the role of the CI in the institutionalisation of China’s foreign policy towards Africa.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T09:01:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221086546
       
  • Encountering Illness: Local Knowledge, Institutions and the Science of
           Healthcare Practices among the Chuktia Bhunjia Tribe of Odisha, India

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      Authors: Bhubaneswar Sabar, Dipak K. Midya
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This paper documents local knowledge-based healthcare practices of Chuktia Bhunjia tribe of Odisha, India, and attempts to ascertain the socio-cultural rationale explaining its persistence against escalating modern healthcare facilities. Focusing on the coexistence of culture, ecology and healthcare, it describes the associated beliefs, rituals, institutions and practices concerning the healthcare. Data, collected using formal interview, observation and case study, reveal that the healthcare practices of Chuktia Bhunjia revolve around the customary beliefs, ecology and laws governing the access to healthcare services. Despite provision of modern medical facilities in their locality, their submission to culture, backed by purity-pollution, customary laws and absence of resource to afford modern medicine, continues to become determinant forces towards relying on traditional healthcare. With malfunctioning of the conventional healthcare institutions, coupled with communication constraint and lack of capability, ethno-ecological and community-based knowledge healthcare fill the gap between demand and supply of their healthcare services. Nevertheless, owing to the declining pathways of transmission of those knowledge bases due to state intervention, forest policies, migration of younger generation, socio-cultural transformation and disassociation of people with plant resources because of tiger project, healthcare knowledge and institutions are under threat. Therefore, given the implication of knowledge-based healthcare and possible threats to its existence, documentation of such practices would sustainably offer a solution to their healthcare, provided cultural diversity upholding those practices are preserved. Alternatively, owing to threats over cultural reproduction knowledge, any integration of their knowledge base with modern healthcare system can best just their healthcare practices in sustainable way.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T08:59:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221086541
       
  • Evaluation of the Nairobi-Thika Road Improvement Project in the Context of
           Inclusive Development

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      Authors: Owiti A. K’Akumu, Catherine W. Gateri
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This paper converts the six reasons for inclusive development proposed by Gupta into a heuristic device for evaluation of inclusive development in road infrastructure projects in Nairobi. The Gupta Rationale entails six key evaluative elements of, that is, whether the project has achieved: Welfare of the poor and marginalized, Human rights, Economic Sustainability, Human security and livelihood support, Inclusive decision-making and Non production of poverty. This study subjected the Nairobi-Thika Road Improvement Project to this evaluative criterion as case study. The results of the evaluation are that the project mainly focused on enhancing the comfort of the private motorist, no serious violations except on few occasions when structures used by informal SMEs were demolished without offers of viable alternatives, the project led to improved infrastructure with significant economic benefits, densification and crowding occasioned by high land prices has led to overstretched infrastructural services thereby threatening the human security in the neighbourhoods along the corridor, the project was not inclusive in terms of decision-making but was a top-down outfit that did little to incorporate local governments and communities, and that it caused production of poverty by destroying livelihoods of petty traders and employees of SMEs that were operating along the corridor. The paper demonstrates that the Gupta Rationale can clearly assess the extent of inclusive development in a project and help to reach the conclusion as to whether a particular project’s processes and outcomes engender inclusive development. In the case of Nairobi, for instance, the device has helped reach a rational decision that development is not inclusive. Recommendation is made that the Gupta Rationale should be used in the ex-ante and ex-post evaluation of road improvement projects or any other urban development project for that matter. This would help mainstream inclusive urban development.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T06:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221084254
       
  • Assess the Proposition That India Will Become the Next Superpower

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      Authors: Damien Ng
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores the proposition that India will become the world’s next superpower. It discusses the three defining criteria of a superpower – economic strength, military might and soft power – and examines the extent to which India fulfils them in comparison with the current reigning hegemon, the United States, and potential contender China. In doing so, this article examines the favourable conditions for, and possible impediments to, India’s prospects of attaining great-power status. Based on the analysis conducted, this study argues that the South Asian country’s hopes of rising into the league of superpowers will ultimately be dashed if its advantageous conditions are weakened by an inability or unwillingness to address some of its most pressing problems.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-14T06:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221084255
       
  • Negotiating Access and Privilege: Politics of Female Participation and
           Representation in Nigeria

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      Authors: Mercy Ette, Patience Akpan-Obong
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The underrepresentation of women in politics and factors that constrain their participation are core concerns for many scholars. This qualitative research goes beyond that to examine how women politicians negotiate those constraints in Nigeria. It provides a platform for women to articulate their experiences in a society where politics is masculinized and women’s subordination to male authority is considered a virtue. The study outlines how women have strategized pathways through patriarchal structures by deploying their femininity. It makes valuable contributions to the literature by accentuating the resilience of women in contexts where electoral dynamics undermine their participation and make access to the political space a privilege.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-14T06:35:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221084253
       
  • Consumption Response to Government Income Subsidies: Korea’s Case

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      Authors: Jong Woo Kang, Mara Tayag, Dominique Sy
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The Republic of Korea Government implemented a universal consumption subsidy program to combat the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) economic downturn in 2020. Using granular, micro-level transaction data, we find that the subsidy scheme has stimulated household consumption immediately after receipt. Moreover, lower income groups demonstrate higher marginal propensity to consume than middle and higher income groups; this holds true even when creating synthetic control groups that model rational spending behavior. This can have a significant implication on the effectiveness of fiscal impulse. Using income and average historical credit card spending, we also demonstrate credit and liquidity constraints are major factors affecting consumption responses.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-10T11:31:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221077488
       
  • Securitization of the Rohingya Refugees in Bangladesh

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      Authors: Md. Sohel Rana, Ali Riaz
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Several studies have highlighted the Rohingya refugees as a threat to the national security of Bangladesh, but very few studies have analyzed the process of securitization of the Rohingyas in the country. This paper examines the process of securitization by applying securitization theory and makes two key arguments. First, contrary to the studies which presented the securitization of Rohingyas in Bangladesh as a recent phenomenon, we argue that the securitization process began in the 1990s and widely expanded in the 2010s. Second, the securitization of Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh has been done by employing both discursive (speech acts) and non-discursive securitizing practices. A qualitative investigation of official statements, policies, and available scholarly insights helps make sense of these arguments.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-09T12:23:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221082265
       
  • Analysing the Gig Economy in India and Exploring Various Effective
           Regulatory Methods to Improve the Plight of the Workers

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      Authors: Vedant Choudhary, Shambhulinganand S. Shireshi
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Over the past decades, there has been a steady increase in the number of people involved in ‘flexible’ labour, more commonly known as ‘gig’ work. This has stimulated discussions over its various characteristics, including the lifestyle, mental health, fair treatment and overall well-being of gig workers. This article seeks to understand how the plight of gig workers can be reduced by effective regulation. For this, the authors identify seven characteristic features of the gig economy that harm the workers’ well-being. Then, the authors explain mechanisms in which the plight of these workers resulting from these seven factors can be reduced through efficient regulation. For this, the authors incorporate particular suggestions offered by some scholars outside India and modify them to suit the Indian context better. The authors also forward novel methods to regulate the gig economy. This article first defines and describes the gig economy. After that, it discusses various aspects like the quality of life, position of women and workplace dynamics of the gig economy. Then, this article recommends seven ways in which the sufferings of the workers can be reduced, and the gig economy can be better regulated in India.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-08T01:26:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221082581
       
  • The UN’s Reports on Gender Stereotypes in Muslim
           Countries—Differentiation of Economic Development

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      Authors: Chen Kertcher, Ornat Turin
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This paper explores the differences in the content of commentary reports that the United Nations (UN) addressed to Islamic countries in the Stereotypes section. A significant association was found between types of violations and the level of the state’s economic development. For high-income level countries, the commentaries addressed social perceptions violations. For low-level income countries, the commentaries focused on physical practices violations. Hence, the Islamic character of the country was found to be a minor factor in comparison with the state level of development. The UN’s approach to gender stereotypes in low-income countries involves simplification and reduction, as it treats the symptoms rather than the causes.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-08T01:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221081768
       
  • Wavering Sudan as Key to Resolving the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam
           Conflict

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      Authors: Dmitry Otinov
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article analyzes the role of Sudan in the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) dispute settlement process. The role of the Nile and water resources in the domestic policy of Sudan in connection with its foreign policy is researched mindfully. In different historical periods, political elites have formed a water discourse to expand their power and obtain resources, while using the rhetoric of modernization and consolidation of the nation. In order to track the change in discourse of the GERD project in connection with the political regime change in 2019, an analysis of the statements of officials was carried out using materials from the Sudanese media. The analysis revealed a gradual change in position from more pragmatic to more confrontational in relation to Ethiopia. Despite this, Sudan is closest to a pragmatic approach in the negotiation process on the Nile waters and can help to reach a compromise.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-07T11:49:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221084256
       
  • Street Traders and the Law: A Test of Vendors’ Encounters With Bribery
           and Extortion of Task Force Officials in Lagos State, Nigeria

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      Authors: Waziri B. Adisa, Adebowale Ayobade, Ayodele Shittu
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article interrogates street traders’ encounters with the bribery and extortion by task force officials in Lagos State, Nigeria, using a mixed method of social research survey, in-depth interview and observation. The study found that poverty (p = 0.000), gender (p = 0.001), location (p = 0.009), employment status (p = 0.003), family pressure (p = 0.008) and payment of remittance (p = 0.000) are significant predictors of willingness to bribe task force officials (p < 0.001). It also established that traders, who perceived the street trading law of Lagos as a deterrent law, tended to bribe task force officials in order to escape justice.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-07T11:39:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221081764
       
  • Post-secession Sudan and South Sudan: A Comparative Study of Economic
           Performance, Export Diversification, and Institutions

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      Authors: Sabna Mohamed Abbass Ali
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Oil has played a determinant role in the economic development of Sudan and South Sudan before and after their separation. The introduction of oil into the Sudanese economy in 1999 has been associated with many challenges, especially those related to export diversification, and institutional quality. Oil dependency increased with the growth of oil share in total exports. Therefore, the secession of South Sudan in 2011 represents a great shock to both economies. This event creates a situation in which the new country experienced a sudden influx of oil revenues. At the same time, the parent country witnessed a sudden loss of 70% of its proven oil reserves. This makes the case of Sudan unique and provides a very rare opportunity for macroeconomists to address the impacts of this shock on both economies. This paper uses the recent secondary data of both counties to analyze and compare the impact of oil revenues transfer on Sudan and South Sudan’s economies in the post-secession period. The conclusion of this paper shows that oil loss has created incentives for better economic performance in Sudan. Reciprocally, South Sudan experiences a premature oil dependence that led to export concentration, institutional degradation, and macroeconomic instability.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T11:11:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221076106
       
  • Scenario of Higher Education in North-East India with Special Reference to
           Tribals of Tripura

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      Authors: Pralip Kumar Narzary, Solomon Debbarma, Heya Brahma, Sibani Basumatari, Jeemina Baglari
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) 2019–2020 exhibits a mix scenario of higher education in North-East India. Tripura is the only state among North-Eastern states whose GER of ST students is lower than the GER of ST students at the national level and is much lower than other North-Eastern states. In Tripura, the female–male ratio of enrolment in higher education is in favour of male throughout all the levels of education. The scenario of higher education in Tripura suggests that there is a need to take immediate steps to encourage students, especially female students, to enrol in higher education.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T01:08:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221082266
       
  • For Better for Worse Even After Death: Is ‘Widow Politics’ in
           Ghana’s Fourth Republic Becoming a Reliable Pathway for Women'

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      Authors: Baffour Agyemang Prempeh Boakye, Emmanuel Yeboah-Assiamah, Maame Adwoa Gyekye-Jandoh
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The quest to bridge the gender disparity in the politics of Ghana has seen little progress owing to the challenges associated with the passage of the Affirmative Action bill by the actors involved. However, the recent emergence and unconventional adoption of ‘widow succession’ politics in Ghana have sparked some public debates into the viability of the practice in the promotion of women in politics. This paper examined all five identified cases of widow politics in Ghana between 2000 and 2020 (Asutifi South, Shai Osudoku, Ayawaso West Wuogon, Mfantseman and Tempane constituencies) and draws on the widow effect and affirmative action concepts to propose lessons and the possible implication of the practice in Ghana.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T12:43:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221079321
       
  • Farmers’ Perception of Soil Erosion and Degradation and Their Effects on
           Rural Livelihoods in KwaMaye Community, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

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      Authors: Osadolor Ebhuoma, Michael Gebreslasie, Eromose Ebhuoma, Llewellyn Leonard, Njoya Silas Ngetar, Bongumusa Zamisa
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      KwaMaye community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, has, for decades, suffered from severe environmental degradation partly due to soil erosion. Yet, no study has analysed farmers’ perception of environmental challenges confronting them and their effects on local livelihoods. Focus group discussions were conducted with KwaMaye farmers selected through purposive and snowball sampling techniques. KwaMaye farmers argued that soil erosion is triggered by climate fluctuations, overgrazing, termites and moles infestation. Also, the farmers suggested that environmental degradation has worsened in recent years due to increasing livestock population and shrinking grazing fields, among others. Also, farmers revealed that while provincial authorities during apartheid installed large-scale terracing to combat soil erosion, KwaMaye residents have not received any assistance from the provincial government. The aggressive nature of environmental degradation in KwaMaye has caused some farmers to quit food production despite a series of Indigenous interventions employed to combat soil erosion-related land degradation.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T05:18:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221081771
       
  • Does Universities’ Research Output Aligned to National Development Goals
           Impact Economic Productivity' Evidence from Kenya

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      Authors: Madara Ogot, George Mark Onyango
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Few studies on developing countries have investigated the alignment of research output to a country’s development agenda and economic productivity. Using evidence from Kenya, this study sought to empirically determine whether the country’s research output is aligned to its development agenda in the first instance and to establish the output’s relationship to economic productivity. Journal publications were used to measure research output. From the analysis, 86% of the publications fell within one or more of the national development priority areas, though 60% were in only 6 of the 35 areas. Several areas had no publications at all during the period under investigation. Furthermore, excluding the health and education sectors, a strong positive relationship was established between the number of publications in different priority areas and those areas’ contribution to Gross Domestic Product. The Government, therefore, needs to avail research funding to research institutions, which, in turn, need to focus their research effort on all identified national development priority areas if Kenya’s development aspirations are to be achieved and the desired economic growth attained.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T11:11:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221080196
       
  • Praising the Croc, Despising Nero: The Politics of Hero-Worshipping
           Leaders Through Music and Speech in Zimbabwe

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      Authors: Munhuweyi Kenneth Takudzwa
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Music and speech have been utilized to enrich this study phenomenon to unveil the hero-worshipping in Zimbabwean leadership. The research examined that the post-independence Zimbabwe under Mugabe and Mnangagwa administration has found both leaders worshipped and attributed to as heroes, if not demigods. At the same time, how music and speech have been used to despise or smear campaign the opposition leadership. I argued that music and speech are at the center of ZANU-PF, evidenced in 21st century in a bid to win elections through political parties and individual image building.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T11:05:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221080195
       
  • The Nexus Between Females Who Kill and HIV/AIDS: Exploring the
           Contributing Factors to This Complex Phenomenon

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      Authors: Ann-Mari Elizabeth Hesselink
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This qualitative, phenomenological study explored four incarcerated adult females’ experiences that contributed to their human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) status and acts of murder. The participants were purposely selected based on their HIV status and their crime, murder. Data were collected through one-on-one interviews and available secondary reports on the topic. The goal of this research was to answer two questions: (1) What contributed to the female participants’ HIV-positive status' and (2) How did the females’ HIV-positive status shape their crime of murder' A thematic analysis was used to analyse and identify the factors linked to the participants’ HIV status and their crime. The findings suggest irregular testing of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), promiscuous behaviour, partner infidelity and ignorance of partners’ HIV status as contributory factors to the females’ HIV-positive status. Specific childhood-related and adulthood-related factors explain the murder of the participants’ partners/spouses.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T11:03:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221080194
       
  • Problematizing the Dominant Narrative on Women’s Involvement in Igbo
           Masking Traditions

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      Authors: Odoja Asogwa, George Odoh
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines how the lives of three women, Lọlọ Ọyịodo Eze Elugwu, Lọlọ Ọyịma Ezema, and Lọlọ Ọyima Ayọgụ from Nsukka Igbo, southeast Nigeria, challenge widespread assumptions on women’s involvement in Igbo masking traditions. Although the uncommon achievements of these women do not completely dismantle existing beliefs and assumptions that view Igbo masquerade activities as the exclusive preserve of men, the study highlights how their roles as initiates of the Omabe masquerade cult, as well as their capacities to commission, own and animate masks, problematize notions of gender, power and spaces in Igbo masquerade institution. It equally opens up a critical space for interrogating women’s positions and roles in Igbo masquerade institution and establishes grounds for re-appraising its essence and gendering politics.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T10:55:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221079333
       
  • The Italian Left and Ben Bella’s Authoritarianism in Algeria, between
           Unconditional Support and Faint Criticism (1962–1965)

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      Authors: Caterina Roggero
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Based on the intersection of primary and secondary sources, this article seeks to take stock of the position taken by the Italian Left, and in particular by the Italian Communist Party as regards Ben Bella’s authoritarianism (1962–1965). This position is taken into consideration regarding the so-called ‘1962 summer crisis’, the repressive measures against opposition groups and the 19 June 1965 coup d’état. This article argues that Partito Comunista Italiano (PCI) and partially Italian Left maintained an unconditional support for Ben Bella during his presidency. The relationship with Front de Libération Nationale was blindly defended and continued despite everything and everyone.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T10:51:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221079314
       
  • Views From the Margins: Exploring How Vulnerability Contributes to Shaping
           Men’s Identities in Informal Urban South Africa

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      Authors: Patricia Zweig
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Globally, the proliferation of informal settlements continues unabated, challenging us to understand life in these risk-prone urban ‘hotspots’. Although women and children are vulnerable to risks in these marginalised environments, young men are more often considered generators of risk while their own susceptibilities are disregarded. Addressing this oversight, this study, undertaken in informal areas of Cape Town, South Africa, using a range of qualitative methods, investigated the vulnerabilities of young Xhosa men. The findings reveal conflicted masculine identities, shaped by the complex environments young men encounter in navigating life on the margins. Demonstrating the tensions shaping their identities and behaviour, the nature of their vulnerabilities is shown to be constructed over time in response to the changing landscapes young men encounter. It also reveals how they develop individualised defence mechanisms and coping strategies to survive in these environments, contesting the hegemonic forms of masculinity they are more often labelled with.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T10:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221079313
       
  • Conflicting Institutional Mandates, Biofuels, Jatropha in India

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      Authors: Rahul Shukla, Sambit Mallick
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This paper examines the emergence of biofuels and its changing institutional mandates having implications for India’s renewable energy policy. Biofuels have commanded much attention in research and policy circles as a renewable energy source providing energy security, creating sustainable livelihoods, mitigating climate change and fostering international trade. Diverting land for biofuels might compromise food security and health for the poor and vulnerable. The NMB was inaugurated in India in 2003 to produce biodiesel from jatropha, a biofuel crop, on unutilized wastelands, and promoted jatropha as a workable solution to this food-versus-fuel quandary owing to the plant’s supposed ability to grow and produce oil-rich seeds on poor quality soils deemed unsuitable for food production. Jatropha’s ability to thrive on barren lands might have been overstated, thus examining whether industrial and agricultural research institutions follow the global demand-pattern of biofuels and raising the concerns over their necessity, funding resources vis-à-vis differing mandates.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T09:37:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221081767
       
  • Effect of Fake News Awareness as an Intervention Strategy for Motivating
           News Verification Behaviour Among Social Media Users in Nigeria: A
           Quasi-Experimental Research

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      Authors: Oberiri Destiny Apuke, Bahiyah Omar, Elif Asude Tunca
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This study tests the effect of fake news awareness as an intervention strategy for motivating news verification behaviour among social media users in Nigeria. A quasi-experiment was utilized with 470 participants divided into two groups, comprising the control group, n = 235, and the treatment group, n = 235. Fake news awareness was found to be an effective intervention strategy used to intensify the urgency and need to verify news before sharing. Individuals exposed to fake news awareness campaigns reported a more positive attitude towards news verification, better self-efficacy towards verification and were more concerned about their reputation on social media.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T05:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221079320
       
  • Political Settlements and the Management of Cocoa Value Chain in Ghana

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      Authors: Joseph Kofi Teye, Ebenezer Nikoi
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This paper relies on literature review and primary data collected through in-depth interviews with 21 respondents to examine the political economy dynamics of the cocoa value chain in Ghana. The historical analysis, which was based on the political settlements framework, has shown that the policies implemented in the cocoa sector went through four periods. The colonial era was characterised by a fairly corporate governance system and struggle between European traders and farmer cooperatives for monopoly over internal marketing of cocoa. This was followed by the early post-independence era (1957–1980), which was characterised by neopatrimonialism and over-taxation of cocoa farmers. The third phase (1980–2000) witnessed economic reforms and liberalisation. The fourth phase (2000 to present) saw increased public–private partnerships aimed at empowering women and promoting environmentally friendly farming activities. The paper concludes that the policies in the cocoa sector have, historically, created more benefits (rents) to political elite and their crony capitalists. Given that rent-seeking behaviour is a threat to the sustainability of the cocoa sector, the paper urges international development partners and civil society groups to demand greater accountability and transparency from the political elite and state institutions in the cocoa sector.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T04:40:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221079326
       
  • Growth and Development under Alternative Policy Regimes in India: A
           Political Economy Perspective

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      Authors: Madhusudan Ghosh
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This paper reviews the economic policies adopted by the Indian government under different policy regimes, provides a political economy perspective of economic growth in the country during 1950–2020 and examines the inclusiveness of the rapid economic growth in recent decades. The growth performance of the economy improved as the economy moved from inward-looking policy regime to the regimes of pro-business and pro-market policies. India’s political economy was supportive of the changes in policy regime. After growing at a sluggish rate during the first three decades after 1950–1951, the gross domestic product (GDP) growth accelerated significantly after the pro-business reforms in the 1980s, and there was further acceleration after the pro-market reforms since 1991–1992. It has, however, slowed down in recent years. Nevertheless, it has not been inclusive, as the benefits of growth have not reached all sections of the population and all regions of the country equally. On the contrary, disparities in income across regions and inequalities in income, wealth and consumption among individuals have exacerbated, and the problems of unemployment and poverty have been persisting in the economy.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-18T05:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221079324
       
  • Gender (In)Equality in Ghana: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Akan
           Proverbs on Masculinity

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      Authors: Simon Mariwah, Emmanuel Amo Ofori, Yvonne Ami Adjakloe, Addae Boateng Adu-Gyamfi, Esther Asare, Comfort Bonsu
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Gender differences have been recognized in most cultures, but the challenge arises when such differences are misinterpreted as gender inequality, especially to the gross disadvantage of women. One dimension of culture where gender inequality is generally manifested is through language and more specifically the use of proverbs, which are generally believed to host the wisdom of societies. Among some societies, people’s actions or inactions are often reflected in the meanings and interpretations of proverbs. This paper examines how proverbs may perpetuate gender inequality and potentially lead males to pronounced risks among the Akan in Ghana. Using a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), the study revealed that while some proverbs portray masculine superiority, such construction of masculinity, ironically, tends to subject males to pronounced risks in trying to live up to the expectations of society. Implicitly, these proverbs restrict the socio-cultural space for men to express their socially constructed ordeals. We conclude that the traditional representation of men in proverbs needs to be critically re-examined to holistically deal with gender inequality in Ghana.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-18T05:48:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221079323
       
  • Engaging Sub-Saharan African Australian Residents in Health Research:
           Lessons and Suggestions for Future Studies

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      Authors: Isaac Yeboah Addo
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The Sub-Saharan African-born community in Australia is significantly underrepresented in health research, partly, due to challenges associated with collecting their primary data. Based on experience from a mixed-method study comprising 24 in-depth interviews and a survey of 253 participants in the community, this communication paper highlights a number of ‘high-level’ practical issues that might be encountered when collecting primary data from the community and provides suggestions for future studies. Included in this paper is a brief discussion of important lessons from the fieldwork that are critical for achieving successful data collection from the community. The lessons include difficulty of proving external validity for samples drawn from the community, difficulty of developing a reliable sampling frame, challenges in selecting appropriate support organisations, risk of low response to surveys and language barrier. The study concludes that understanding the ethnic diversities in this community and engaging appropriate support organisations are critical to achieving a successful data collection experience.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-18T05:45:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221079316
       
  • India’s Neighbourhood Vaccine Diplomacy During COVID-19 Pandemic:
           Humanitarian and Geopolitical Perspectives

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      Authors: Bawa Singh, Sandeep Singh, Balinder Singh, Vijay Kumar Chattu
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, India has established itself as the world’s ‘pharmacy hub’, and this claim was proven once again when it delivered COVID-19 vaccines to its citizens, neighbouring nations and across the globe. Following the philosophy of humanitarianism through the principle of ‘Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’, India has decided to provide the COVID-19 health assistance to its immediate neighbouring countries. India’s immediate neighbourhood refers to the countries that are geographically adjacent to it. In addition, India’s vaccine diplomacy has exposed geopolitical fault lines in South Asia as China’s vaccine diplomacy aims to outpace India in the region. Against this background, the main objective of this paper is to explain and examine India’s vaccine diplomacy as an instrument of its ‘Neighbourhood First’ policy during the COVID-19 pandemic. It argues that India’s health-focused approach has proved effective and aligned with its national interests. This review demonstrates that India’s health diplomacy has had an impact on medical and humanitarian assistance reciprocation at the regional and international levels. As a result of this strategy, during the second wave of the pandemic, India received medical devices and vaccines from other countries in dealing with COVID-19.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-18T05:43:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221079310
       
  • ‘How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Autocracy’: Kais Saied’s
           “Constitutional Self-Coup” in Tunisia

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      Authors: Francesco Tamburini
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The president of Tunisia, Kais Saied, recurred to Article 80 of the constitution on 25 July 2021 to proclaim the “state of exception,” freezing parliamentary activities, removing the representatives’ immunity, and dissolving the government headed by Prime Minister Hichem Mechichi. The following presidential decree 2021-117 on 22 September granted him legislative powers by decree, dismantling the constitution of 2014, which was the cornerstone of the result of the “Jasmine Revolution” of 2011. This article will analyze the constitutionality of the presidential decrees and shed light on the juridical, socioeconomical, and political circumstances that allowed Saied to perform what can be described as a constitutional coup or a self-coup, which reshaped the future of Tunisia.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-17T10:03:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221079322
       
  • Changing Households Social Dynamics and Agriculture Crisis in Shamva
           District, Zimbabwe

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      Authors: Moffat Chiba, Vusilizwe Thebe
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores household-level social dynamics of change and their causal effects on future agricultural practices and food security. It does this by employing a place-specific qualitative research methodology in two rural settlements in Shamva District, Mashonaland Central Province. It reveals how these changes have impacted negatively on farm households’ command of assets, including draft power, labour and social networks. Households that had a long history of agricultural excellence started to experience declines in their agriculture, while new households encountered new vulnerabilities. The article concludes by cautioning against any policy that ignores the household as a production unit in Zimbabwe’s agriculture.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-09T05:15:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221076161
       
  • Interrogating Unemployment Amid Growth: Tracking Youth Unemployment in
           Neo-Liberal Uganda, 1990–2019

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      Authors: Godfrey Berinde Asiimwe
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The paper interrogates the paradox of persistent youth unemployment amid an upswing of impressive economic growth after Neo-liberal reforms in Uganda. The government of Uganda undertook targeted interventions to ameliorate youth unemployment, which escalated. Why was the growing economy failing to absorb labour' Why were the interventions failing' We argue that the interplay of the skewed neo-liberal and global architecture, decline of traditional labour absorbing sectors, and the debilitating syncretic ‘informal’ sector constrained sustainable youth employment and deflated interventions. The paper opines that Uganda’s neo-liberal capitalism was unique, as it was structured in a way that did not enhance domestic actors and sectors, which would have increased sustainable labour absorption and utilisation. Otherwise, Uganda’s celebratory growth was largely aid-driven and in the controversial and constrained informal sector, limited service ‘enterprises’ and import consumerism, which undermined domestic productivity and employability. Neo-liberalism and the reconstituted state did not align the domestic and global economic structures for meaningful employment. Unemployment spiralled into the socio-political landscape, while youth agency strived for better positioning.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T06:38:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221076113
       
  • Intra-conservative Bloc Contestations on Gender Equality in Turkey –
           Norm Reception in Fragmented Normative Orders

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      Authors: Hüsrev Tabak, Seven Erdogan, Marella Bodur Ün
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This research problematizes the contested nature of the global norm diffusion by focusing on intra-group rivalries and fragmentations shaping local responses (often reactionary and resistant) to global norms. Such an examination is important primarily to account for what leads to shifts in the local reception of norms over time. This study empirically explores local fragmentation, rivalry and change in response nexus in the example of the reception of the global gender equality norms in Turkey by the conservative normative bloc. It reveals that the conservative bloc is not a monolithic normative order and that there are two main competing receptions of the gender equality norm within the group in Turkey. With a firm emphasis on Turkey’s first initiating and later withdrawal from the Istanbul Convention, the study elaborates how the institutionalized conservative response to gender equality has shifted from a compromising acceptance to a rejection over time.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T06:37:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221076109
       
  • Water Contamination, Households’ Risk Perceptions, and Averting
           Behavior: Evidence from the Nullah Lai, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

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      Authors: Yasir Mehmood, Abdul Qadar, Arslan Waheed
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined the households’ risk perceptions of water contamination available in the surroundings of the Lai sewer in Rawalpindi city of Pakistan. Through purposefully structured questionnaire, 134 households were interviewed from three randomly selected areas adjacent to the main sewer bed of the Lai sewer. The data were collected from both the ethnography of three neighborhoods named Mohinpura, Dhok Ratta, and Dhok Naju adjacent to the Lai sewer and questionnaire survey to assess the households’ perceptions of groundwater and supplied water contamination as principal sources of drinking water. Supplementing ethnographic research, the data collected through the questionnaire was analyzed using the ordered probit model. The findings showed that households’ education level, income, health effects, proximity to the Lai sewer, knowledge, and awareness of water contamination, and attitude toward health risks had significant effects on households’ risk perceptions. This study will be an important addition to the existing water pollution–related research and will particularly help to sensitize the households and communities about water contamination and health-related risks. The recommendations of the study will further guide the relevant state institutions based on the perspectives of the research participants and neighboring residents of the Lai sewer of Rawalpindi city.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T06:36:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221076112
       
  • Health Promoter’s Role in School Settings in African Francophone
           Countries

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      Authors: Margareth Santos Zanchetta, Fatema-Masuma Alidina, Anel Hared, Marie Elisabeth Dumitriu, Christian Mésenge, David Zakus, Abinet Gebreegziabher Gebremariam, Marc Keller, Carlos Haag
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study is to describe the context, resources and procedures for planning/implementing health promotion initiatives targeting the children and youth population in African Francophone countries. The method of work used multiple case studies with an online survey (n = 11) and individual interviews (n = 6) (2017–2018). Strategies to mobilize/use community’s available resources and assets were influenced by gender and professional status, as well as the stakeholder’s valorization and degree of community interest and engagement in the proposed health promotion initiatives. Major social impacts relate to the support provided by the community stakeholders with individual and collective assets. Evidence uncovered professional networking, collaboration and exchange that could help regional health promoters.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T06:33:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221076108
       
  • Analysis of Destitution amid Floods: Evidence from Pakistan

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      Authors: Sameen Zafar
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Using household surveys for 2008 and 2011, a multidimensional destitution measure is constructed for Pakistan’s most populated province – Punjab. Using a non-monetary framework for dimensions of health, education and standard of living, the study paints a temporal picture of the extremely impoverished households in districts and towns, while highlighting the impact of the destructive 2010 floods. Results reveal the existence of pervasive destitution, with half of the multidimensionally poor households also identified as destitute. Destitution is higher for rural as compared to urban households, while the geography of destitution highlights its concentration in south-west Punjab, providing insights for targeted interventions.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T06:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221076105
       
  • ‘It is God that Does Everything, Including Winning Football Trophies’:
           Exploring Thanksgiving Ceremonies by Liverpool F.C. Supporters Club in a
           Nigerian Town

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      Authors: Kingsley Ikechukwu Uwaegbute
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article explored a new approach to football fandom by Liverpool F.C. supporters club in Nsukka, Nigeria. Between 2019 and 2020, this group embarked on thanksgiving ceremonies to commemorate the successes of Liverpool F.C. within that period. The study adopted participant observation and oral interviews as methods of data collection. Findings show that the reason for the thanksgiving ceremonies by the group is anchored on a tenacious faith in God, who can do all things, including helping Liverpool F.C. win trophies. This finding brings to scholarly attention the much-neglected role the Christian faith plays in football fandom among young people in Nsukka, Nigeria.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T12:13:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221076104
       
  • Determinants of Participation in India’s Mahatma Gandhi National Rural
           Employment Guarantee Scheme in Three Southern States

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      Authors: Manoj Jatav, Jyoti Nair
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This paper examines socioeconomic, demographic, and geographical factors determining individuals’ participation in India’s biggest flagship social security program, that is, the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS), across three southern states. Logistic regression estimates suggest that MGNREGS has benefited the marginalized rural households belonging to the most backward castes. The adverse effects of climate and the ongoing Covid pandemic would have been more critical without the existence of MGNREGS. We recommend wide-scale implementation of the MGNREGS, particularly for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, women, and those living in an uncertain climate with less access to land and irrigational facilities.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-01T09:46:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221076111
       
  • COVID-19 and Global Distributive Justice: ‘Health Diplomacy’ of India
           and South Africa for the TRIPS waiver

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      Authors: Bawa Singh, Vijay Kumar Chattu, Jaspal Kaur, Rajni Mol, Priya Gauttam, Balinder Singh
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic had left heart-wrenching impacts on all facets of life in general and the availability, accessibility, and affordability of medicines and vaccines in particular. Rather, the world has been divided into two groups regarding access to medicine and vaccines as haves and have-nots. The rich countries had pre-ordered the vaccines of COVID-19 along with the holding of the same. The pandemic situation was further worsened, given the Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in practice and restrictions on sharing technology of vaccines, medicines, and life-saving equipment. In this context, India and South Africa have proposed the joint proposal and garnered support for waiving off TRIPS to ensure equity, accessibility, and affordability of vaccines and the same as public goods. In this review, we emphasize that global justice is one of the important elements of normative international theories, which focus on all the moral obligations from the world’s rich to the world’s poor. The paper also questions and argues that if the rich countries fail to go by the principles of global justice, can the Indian and South African (SA) patent diplomacy play a catalyst role in global justice' The review concludes with an emphasis on global solidarity, and the acceptance of joint India–South Africa’s “patent diplomacy” for TRIPS waiver would result in mass production and fair distribution, making the COVID-19 medicines and technologies available to everyone regardless of their poor–rich status.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-01-19T06:05:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096211069652
       
  • Examining the Interplay between Economic Development and Local Women
           Vulnerability to Flood Impacts in Selected Local Areas in Durban, South
           Africa

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      Authors: Fidelis Udo, Maheshvari Naidu
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article probes the rural economic development approach in selected informal settlements in Durban and how such approach affects the vulnerability of local Black women to flood impacts within the areas. Qualitative data for the study were gathered through semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with 25 local Black women from Inanda, Ntuzuma, KwaMashu and Umlazi. Five key informants from the eThekwini (Durban) metropolitan municipality were also interviewed. Findings from the study showed that although there is improved economic development in the selected settlements, which constitute informal settlements designated for Black South Africans during the apartheid era, such an economic development approach has not significantly improved the livelihoods and adaptive capacity of the local women. The article suggests a multidimensional approach to development that is practical, inclusive and equitable, and addresses local women’s challenges associated with climate adaptation and sustainable livelihoods.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-01-19T06:03:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096211069646
       
  • Urban Development and the Making of Frontiers in/from Addis
           Ababa/Finfinne, Ethiopia

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      Authors: Asebe Regassa Debelo, Teshome Emana Soboka
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Frontier making in Ethiopia has historical roots from the formation of the modern Ethiopian state in the late-19th century through wars of conquest. The conquest, which was inspired by political and economic motivations of the highland Christian kingdom, used the notion of a “civilizing mission”—civilizing the “backward” and “underdeveloped” people, and “underutilized” spaces—through imposition of an imperial state system and Orthodox Christianity. The foundation and horizontal expansion of Addis Ababa or Finfinne by displacing Indigenous inhabitants was part of the state building project under successive regimes. Over the last century and a half, the city has continued its unchecked expansion in a process involving multilayered actors whose interests overlapped in terms of grabbing the land they considered “underutilized.” More specifically, the last three decades evince commoditization of farmlands, grazing areas, and cultural and sacred spaces through land lease, which eventually dissolve existing customary systems, values, and practices. This paper critically analyzes the dynamics of frontier making in or from Addis Ababa or Finfinne, the political economy behind such unchecked frontier expansion and how it activated the power of resistance in 2014. The paper concludes that frontier making in or from Addis Ababa through dispossession of Oromo farmers has been part of the broader political establishment in Ethiopia and should be viewed within the same lens.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-01-16T05:29:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096211069647
       
  • Mapping Perceptions of Violence Across Asian Regions and Countries

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      Authors: Yangjin Park, Jingyeong Song, Kathrine Sullivan, Seunghoon Paik
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Violence is increasing in Asia. However, limited research exists on the prevalence and types of violence across Asian regions and countries; a comprehensive study on a continental-scale in Asia has been understudied. Guided by the World Health Organization’s definition of violence, this study used World Values Survey Wave 7 (n = 35,435) to map the perceptions of the justifiability of three categories of violence (self-inflicted, interpersonal, collective) with five subtypes (suicide, intimate partner violence against wife, child abuse, violence toward other people, political violence) in six regions and 24 countries in Asia. Findings indicate that perceptions of the justifiability of violence are significantly different across regions in Asia. Perceptions of the justifiability of various types of violence differed across Asian countries. Considering the complexity and diversity of violence across Asian regions and countries, this study may be a cornerstone for violence research in Asia.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T09:34:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096211069649
       
  • The Covid-19 Pandemic: Limited Water Access and the Precarity of Women
           Fishers at Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe

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      Authors: Tamuka Nhiwatiwa, Joshua Matanzima
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Man-made reservoirs are constructed to meet certain purposes and Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe, was designed for hydroelectric power generation. However, it has developed other multiple uses, and the growth of fisheries on the lake has had a significant impact on the livelihoods of local communities. The declaration of Covid-19 as a pandemic in Zimbabwe in March 2020 was quickly followed by the imposition of national lockdowns with varying levels of severity up to the present day. This was done to curtail the spread of the disease, meanwhile enhancing the nation’s capacity in terms of acquiring testing kits, constructing more admission and quarantine centres as well as educating the people about ways to keep safe. In response to the calls by the government to monitor the movement of people and compliance of the lockdown rules, the Zimbabwe National Parks and Wildlife Management Authority (ZNPWMA), the governing body of the Lake Kariba fisheries, imposed rules that have significantly impacted the fishing communities at Lake Kariba. Both gillnet fishers and rod and line fishers have been impacted, but our focus here is on women rod and line fishers. Using the precarious livelihoods conceptual frameworks, we show how the changes in water management during the Covid-19 pandemic lockdowns has generated high levels of precariousness on the livelihoods of women at Kariba. We define precariousness as the condition of uncertainties brought to the women fishers by changes in water restrictions. The precarity of women was induced by several factors. For instance, the women fishers reported that restrictions to accessing fish in areas with high catches impacted them. They are also now obliged to pay exorbitant fishing fees in a way to discourage them to fish; they were frequently chased away from the Lake by ZNPWMA officers; they had limited amount of time to fish due to curfews; and failure to comply results in heavy fines imposed on them among other challenges. We show how these challenges interact with the current Zimbabwe socio-economic crisis to worsen the precariousness and vulnerability of women fishers at Lake Kariba. Data presented in this manuscript are based on participant observation and interviews with women fishers at Lake Kariba.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T09:31:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096211069641
       
  • A Classification Framework for Analyzing the War and Peacemaking Potential
           of News Media in Pakistan

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      Authors: Shabir Hussain, Farrukh Shahzad, Shirin Ahmad
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, we present a contextual model for analyzing the escalatory and de-escalatory trends in media reporting of seven conflicts in Pakistan. For this purpose, we combined findings from both survey and content analysis. While the survey helped to examine the journalists’ perceptions about the security threats of conflicts and the factors that influence the reportage, the content analysis was utilized to analyze the escalatory and de-escalatory characteristics in the coverage. The findings show that high security conflicts lead to a patriotic reporting scenario that results in high escalatory coverage. There is a significant decrease in the escalatory coverage as the assumed threat level of a conflict decreases. Similarly, we found that a conflict in which journalists exercised more relative freedom from pressure groups was reported in de-escalatory fashion. These findings can be useful for strategizing for the implementation of peace journalism in Pakistan in particular and elsewhere in general.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-01-10T05:00:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096211069648
       
  • Mango Diplomacy of South Asian Countries

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      Authors: Zahid Shahab Ahmed, Muhammad Jahanzaib
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines the mango diplomacy of South Asia’s mango exporting countries. Diplomatic gifts are a common feature of public diplomacy of diplomatic missions globally. There are many prominent examples of that including China’s panda diplomacy and mango diplomacy of South Asia’s mango exporting countries like Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. Based on the analysis, this study argues that Pakistan is a dominant actor in terms of mango diplomacy and has an extensive strategy, for example, including mango exhibitions, to increase its mango exports and goodwill in target countries.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T09:14:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096211069835
       
  • From ‘Bad Samaritans’ to ‘Bad Victims’: A Political Economy of
           Africa-Nigeria Nexus of Poverty

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      Authors: Tunde Decker
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This paper examines the linkages between moral categorisations on the international economic order and the dysfunctions that negate efforts at combating the Africa-Nigeria poverty conditions in the contemporary period. Drawing from the thesis of Ha-Joon Chang’s ‘Bad Samaritans’, it analyses the contradictions in the often-repeated declarations on ‘fight against poverty’ in Nigeria and the endemic dysfunctions in leadership and institutions that ought to play significant roles in understanding and recalibrating the hegemonic influence of wealthy nations who control the global economy.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T09:12:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096211069653
       
  • Some Critical Notes on Sri Lankan Muslim Religious Identity Formation,
           Conservatism, and Violent Extremism

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      Authors: A.R.M. Imtiyaz, Amjad Mohamed Saleem
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      A new wave of attacks by Sinhala-Buddhist extremist elements against the Muslim community in Sri Lanka started following the brutal end of the ethnic civil war between the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and the Sinhala-Buddhist-dominated Sri Lanka security forces in 2009. Easter Sunday terrorist attacks in 2019 by some Muslims polarized Sri Lanka and contributed to the compromise of the country’s security. Sri Lankan Muslims often claim they are a peaceful community and thus have no serious interests in violent mobilization. But the evidence would basically contradict Muslims’ claim of a peace-loving community. The Easter Sunday terrorist attacks did not take place in any vacuum. This paper will situate some key developments in the violent mobilization of Sri Lanka during the war against the LTTE. The primary goal of such an attempt is to read the growing religious conservative and violent trends among Muslims between 1977 and 2009. In understanding the growing religious conservative trends, an understanding is attempted to situate a later propensity for violence within the community that would manifest itself with the 2019 Easter Sunday attacks. Interviews were conducted with members of the Islamic Dawah organizations and Muslim youth who were formerly associated with violent groups in the Eastern Province to understand the ground reality. The period of 1977–2009 is important as the rise of religious conservatist influences in Sri Lanka mirrors the global transnational influences of Iran and Middle East Petro Dollars, especially Saudi Arabia. The article draws mainly on secondary sources. But to gain a better understanding of the ground reality, we spoke to a few Eastern Muslims between July 2016 and September 2021 at regular intervals.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T09:08:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096211069651
       
  • Organized Crime–Terror Nexus: Interrogating the Linkage Between Banditry
           and Terrorism in Northern Nigeria

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      Authors: Al Chukwuma Okoli, Chikodiri Nwangwu
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This paper examines the phenomenon of crime–terror nexus from the standpoint of the linkage between banditry and Boko Haram insurgency in Northern Nigeria. Using a descriptive analysis predicated on a combination of primary and secondary studies, the paper reveals that both groups have functionally adapted each other’s structures and strategies. While Boko Haram and its splinter groups have occasionally engaged in acts of banditry, there has been mutual co-option by both groups as the exigencies of their operations demand. Nigeria’s drive at mitigating the banditry-terrorism conundrum must proceed with a pragmatic understanding of the gamut and dynamics of their situational nexuses.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T09:06:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096211069650
       
  • Suspecting the Figures: What Church Leaders Think About Government’s
           Commitment to Combating COVID-19 in Nigeria

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      Authors: Uchechukwu M. Agbo, George C. Nche
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Public trust in government can significantly determine the outcome of health policies in any society. Hence, studies have been gauging peoples’ level of trust in their governments’ commitment and capacity to win the fight against COVID-19. However, these studies have omitted religious leaders. This is despite the fact that religious leaders play key roles in the area of health in many societies. The present study, therefore, explored the opinions church leaders have about the credibility of the COVID-19 statistics and other government responses in Nigeria. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 18 church leaders drawn from Anglican, Catholic, and Pentecostal churches in Nigeria. A descriptive narrative approach was employed in the thematic organization and analysis of data. Findings show that only one participant expressed confidence in the credibility of the COVID-19 statistics and other government’s responses. The rest, with the exception of one participant who was uncertain, was distributed between those who believe the statistics and other government efforts are exaggerated and those who believe they are false. The study also found that denominational affiliation mattered with respect to the perceptions about the credibility of the COVID-19 statistics and other government responses. Implications of findings for policy and research are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T09:03:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096211069645
       
  • All About Iraq: Re-Modifying Older Slogans and Chants in Tishreen
           [October] Protests

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      Authors: Balsam Mustafa
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This paper analyses five main slogans and chants performed during the first 3 months of Iraq’s 2019 Tishreen [October] protests. It aims to trace their origin to examine the transformation in the narratives created by each version. Drawing on a social approach to narrative and a social semiotic multimodal approach to communication, I treat slogans and chants as an evolving genre and performance, capable of triggering, constructing, and negotiating a different set of narratives in each adaptation. Such narratives arguably determine their impact. Unlike earlier versions, Tishreen chants and slogans succeeded in conjuring up collective and cross-sectarian narratives that could challenge master political narratives and heighten an Iraqi identity in the first place. It would, therefore, be hard to erase them from memory.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T09:00:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096211069644
       
  • Factors Affecting Citizen Participation in Local Development Planning in
           Murewa District, Zimbabwe

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      Authors: Vellim Nyama, Geofrey Mukwada
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Local governments are the bedrock for sound public administration because of their role in promoting bottom-up socio-economic development. Although Zimbabwe has made strides in ensuring citizens’ participation in local government processes, local authorities and other stakeholders still rely on the top-down approaches, marginalising the needs of the local citizens. The purpose of this paper is to determine the factors that affect the active participation of citizens in local governance in the Murewa District in Zimbabwe. Based on a multistage sampling approach, involving purposive sampling and stratified random sampling, interviews were conducted with 30 local government officials, while a questionnaire survey was administered to 396 citizens in four wards within the district. Complementary data were collected through focus group discussions and field observations. Thematic analysis was employed on data generated from interviews, focus group discussions and field observations, while the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (Version 16) was used to analyse quantitative data from the questionnaire survey. The results show that more than 50% of the residents in the district felt that local government leadership side lined them in development planning. Some citizens reported that officials used development planning meetings to further their political agendas. The study recommends enhancement of citizen participation through citizen empowerment programmes such as educational and political leadership training programmes that transform the marginalised communities into autonomous communities that are capable of determining their own destiny.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T08:57:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096211069643
       
  • Modelling the Factors That Predict the Intention to Take COVID-19 Vaccine
           in Nigeria

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      Authors: Oberiri Destiny Apuke, Elif Asude Tunca
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This study developed a model that predicted factors that prompt the intention to take the COVID-19 vaccine among Nigerians. Data were collected from 385 respondents across Nigeria using snowball sampling technique with online questionnaire as instrument. Results indicated that cues to action, health motivation, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control positively predicted the intention to take COVID-19 vaccine in Nigeria. However, perceived susceptibility, severity, and COVID-19 vaccine benefits did not predict the intention to take the COVID-19 vaccine. Further findings showed that COVID-19 vaccine barrier and attitude was negatively associated with the intention to take the COVID-19 vaccine.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T08:55:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096211069642
       
  • Nigeria’s Democracy Promotion in Africa: Hard, Soft or Smart Power
           Stratagem'

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      Authors: Oluwaseun Tella
      First page: 1277
      Abstract: Journal of Asian and African Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Democracy promotion is undoubtedly one of Nigeria’s most important foreign policy objectives in Africa. Indeed, it has featured in the state’s foreign policy across successive administrations including military and civilian regimes. A fundamental question explored by this article is the dimension of power Nigeria deploys in its foreign policy objective of democracy promotion in Africa. Is it hard or soft, or a combination of the two (smart power)' Using three case studies – Sierra Leone, São Tomé and Príncipe and The Gambia – the article reveals that Nigeria has deployed all three dimensions of power. While this reflects the peculiar circumstances of these particular states in constitutional crisis, Nigeria’s domestic situation, including the type of political system (democratic or authoritarian) and the personality of the president at a given time, as well as trends in the global arena, are also germane. By its very nature, democracy promotion depends on a state’s soft power as the admirable domestic values of the soft power state attract other states to emulate its democratic practices. However, as the case study of Nigeria shows, a state can deploy soft, hard or smart power in its quest to promote democracy depending on the domestic circumstances of both the soft power and recipient states.
      Citation: Journal of Asian and African Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-01T09:44:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00219096221076103
       
 
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