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  Subjects -> ANTHROPOLOGY (Total: 398 journals)
Showing 1 - 90 of 90 Journals sorted alphabetically
(con)textos: revista d'antropologia i investigació social     Open Access  
AbeÁfrica : Revista da Associação Brasileira de Estudos Africanos     Open Access  
Abstracts in Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
ACENO - Revista de Antropologia do Centro-Oeste     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Baltico-Slavica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Ethnographica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
African American Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
African and Asian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Anthropologist     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
African Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 364)
Alteridades     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
American Journal of Human Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anadolu Araştırmaları / Anatolian Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Antropología     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Arqueología y Etnología     Open Access  
Análise Social     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Andes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis / Studia de Cultura     Open Access  
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 169)
AnthropoChildren     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anthropoetics : the journal of generative anthropolgy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anthropologia integra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anthropologica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anthropologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anthropological Forum: A journal of social anthropology and comparative sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Anthropological Journal of European Cultures     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anthropological Linguistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anthropological Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Anthropological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
AntHropológicas Visual     Open Access  
Anthropologie & Développement     Open Access  
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anthropologie et Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anthropologischer Anzeiger     Full-text available via subscription  
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Anthropology & Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Anthropology & Aging     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology in Action : Journal for Applied Anthropology in Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Anthropology Now     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Anthropology of the Middle East     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology Southern Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Anthropozoologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Antipoda : Revista de Antropología y Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Antiquaries Journal, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Antropologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antropología Experimental     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antropología Social y Cultural en Uruguay     Open Access  
Antropológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ANUAC : La rivista dell' Associazione Nazionale Universitaria Antropologi Culturali     Open Access  
Anuário Antropológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archivio Antropologico Mediterraneo     Open Access  
Arctic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Arctic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ateliers d'anthropologie     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Australian Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Australian Historical Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Avá. Revista de Antropologia     Open Access  
Behavioural Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMC Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BOGA : Basque Studies Consortium Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletim Gaúcho de Geografia     Open Access  
Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletin de Antropologia Universidad de Antioquia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Borderlands Journal : Culture, Politics, Law and Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin de l’APAD     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos CERU     Open Access  
Cadernos de Arte e Antropologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Campo     Open Access  
Cadernos de Estudos Africanos     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cadernos do LEPAARQ     Open Access  
Cahiers de l'Urmis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cahiers d’études africaines     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cambridge Journal of Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Chinese Sociology & Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chungara (Arica) - Revista de Antropologia Chilena     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciência & Trópico     Open Access  
City & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Civilisations     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Collaborative Anthropologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Collegium Antropologicum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Communication, technologies et développement     Open Access  
Comparative Cultural Studies : European and Latin American Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Conflict and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Contemporary Journal of African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Critical Romani Studies     Open Access  
Critique of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Cuadernos de Antropología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Antropología     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Antropologia Social     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos del Instituto Nacional de Antropología y Pensamiento Latinoamericano - Series Especiales     Open Access  
Cuadernos Inter.c.a.mbio sobre Centroamérica y el Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuicuilco     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuicuilco. Revista de Ciencias Antropológicas     Open Access  
Cultural Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 172)
Cultural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Culture & Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Current Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 167)
Desacatos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desacatos : Revista de Antropología Social     Open Access  
Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology     Open Access  
Dialectical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Discourse Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Disparidades : Revista de Antropología     Open Access  
Dotawo : A Journal of Nubian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Durkheimian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
E&G Quaternary Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
E-Journal of Cultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East Asian Pragmatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
East Central Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
East-West Cultural Passage     Open Access  
Ecocycles     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Episteme : Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman     Open Access  
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ethnobiology Letters     Open Access  
Ethnographic Encounters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ethnographic Praxis in Industry Conference     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ethnography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89)
Ethnohistory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Ethnologia Actualis     Open Access  
Ethnology : An International Journal of Cultural and Social Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Ethnomusicology Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
Ethnoscientia : Brazilian Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnoecology     Open Access  
Ethos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EtnoAntropologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Etnográfica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evolutionary Anthropology Issues News and Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Evolutionary Human Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Feminist Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Field Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Focaal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Folia Praehistorica Posnaniensia     Open Access  
Food and Foodways: Explorations in the History and Culture of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
French Politics, Culture & Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
General Anthropology Bulletin of The General Anthropology Division     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Genre & histoire     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geografiska Annaler, Series B : Human Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Geographica Helvetica     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
GEOUSP : Espaço e Tempo     Open Access  
Gesture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
GIS : Gesto, Imagem e Som – Revista de Antropologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Change, Peace & Security: formerly Pacifica Review: Peace, Security & Global Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 273)
Gradhiva     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Grafo Working Papers     Open Access  
Group Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Historical Biology: An International Journal of Paleobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Histories of Anthropology Annual     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
History and Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
HOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Human Organization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
human_ontogenetics     Hybrid Journal  
IBEROAMERICANA. América Latina - España - Portugal     Open Access  
Il Capitale Culturale. Studies on the Value of Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ilha Revista de Antropologia     Open Access  
Images re-vues : histoire, anthropologie et théorie de l'art     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Journal of Partnership Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Anthropology and Ethnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Listening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Modern Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Osteoarchaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Tourism Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Intersecciones en Antropologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Transcultural Psychiatry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.644
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1363-4615 - ISSN (Online) 1461-7471
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Distinct trajectories of psychological distress among resettled refugees:
           Community acceptance predicts resilience while low ingroup social support
           predicts clinical distress

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      Authors: Alexander W. O’Donnell, Stefania Paolini, Jaimee Stuart
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      Refugees can experience elevated levels of psychological distress upon resettlement, although disparate outcomes over time are expected. The current study modeled trajectories of changes in distress over a 5-year period among resettled refugees and sought to explicate post-settlement factors that influence distress over time. A large-scale sample of refugees resettled in Australia (2,399) was tracked over a 5-year period, completing measures of psychological distress at each wave and initial risk and protective factors immediately after resettlement. A latent class growth analysis conducted on distress found four unique classes characterized by (1) resilient levels of distress, (2) consistent clinical distress, (3) recovering levels of distress, and (4) deteriorating distress. Lower perceived discrimination and greater positive context of reception predicted membership to the resilient group and differentiated the recovering and deteriorating groups. Further, lower ingroup social support predicted membership to the clinically distressed group relative to all others. We conclude by echoing calls to strengthen community support for refugees and promote ingroup ties, particularly among those who are the most vulnerable.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T04:16:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615221098309
       
  • Corrigendum to Communication about distress and well-being: Epistemic and
           ethical considerations

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T08:18:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615221101303
       
  • Impact of COVID-19 and lockdown on mental health and future orientation
           among young adult asylum seekers in Italy: A mixed-methods study

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      Authors: Chiara Ceccon, Ughetta Moscardino
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 outbreak caused a worldwide health emergency which disproportionately affected migrants and ethnic minorities. Yet, little is known about the psychosocial effects of the pandemic among refugees and asylum seekers. This study used a convergent parallel mixed-method design to explore knowledge and opinions concerning COVID-19 and the impact of lockdown on perceived mental health and future orientation among 42 young adult asylum seekers residing in northeastern Italy. Participants took part in individual interviews comprising both qualitative and quantitative questions. Qualitative reports were analyzed using thematic content analysis, whereas descriptive statistics and paired sample t-tests were computed on quantitative data. Results indicated that most participants were correctly informed about the nature, origin, and spread of COVID-19, expressed moderate or high satisfaction concerning the clarity of communication about safety measures, and followed them most of the time. Worries about family in the home country, loneliness, fear for own and loved ones’ health, and concerns about delays in the asylum application were the most frequently mentioned stressful events. Psychological and physical distress significantly increased, and positive future orientation significantly decreased during the lockdown. However, participants also emphasized the usefulness of instrumental support from social workers and exhibited a resilient attitude characterized by the acceptance of uncertainty, sense of connectedness, and positive outlook. Overall, findings suggest that the current emergency may exacerbate psychological vulnerabilities of asylum seekers due to continued existential uncertainty. Thus, individual and contextual assets should be strengthened to promote psychosocial adjustment and coping resources in the context of the pandemic.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T07:06:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615221098306
       
  • Loneliness in Kenyan adolescents: Socio-cultural factors and network
           association with depression and anxiety symptoms

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      Authors: Micaela Rodriguez, Tom L. Osborn, Jenny Y. Gan, John R. Weisz, Benjamin W. Bellet
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      Loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes and is particularly common among adolescents. Yet, little is known about the dynamics of adolescent loneliness in non-Western, low-income nations. Accordingly, we estimated the severity of loneliness in a sample of Kenyan adolescents and used mixed-effects regression modelling to determine the socio-cultural factors associated with loneliness. We also used network analysis to examine the associations between loneliness, depression, and anxiety at the symptom level. We analyzed data from a large sample (N = 2,192) of school-attending Kenyan adolescents aged 12–19 (58.3% female, 41.7% male). Standardized measures of loneliness (ULS-8), depression (PHQ-8), and anxiety (GAD-7) were used. Our mixed-effects model revealed that female and lower-income adolescents felt lonelier. The perception of feeling alone emerged as the aspect of loneliness most strongly linked to depression and anxiety symptoms. Our findings establish an estimate of loneliness levels in Kenyan adolescents, and identify possible socio-cultural factors associated with loneliness. We found that perceptions of isolation more strongly linked loneliness to psychopathology than did objective measures of isolation or preferences for social contact. Finally, we identify specific aspects of loneliness that could prove to be treatment targets for youth psychopathology; however, further research is needed. Limitations, future directions, and clinical implications are discussed.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T07:52:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615221099143
       
  • The association of mindfulness and depression stigma among African
           American women participants in a mindfulness-based intervention: A pilot
           study

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      Authors: Sunghyun Hong, Maureen D. Satyshur, Inger Burnett-Zeigler
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      Depression stigma is a potential barrier to engagement in and efficacy of depression treatment. This pilot study examined the association of mindfulness with depression stigma among participants in an eight-week mindfulness-based intervention for depressive symptoms. Thirty-one African American women with depressive symptoms were recruited from an urban Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) to participate in a mindfulness intervention (M-Body). Mindfulness, depressive symptoms, and depression stigma were assessed at baseline, eight weeks, and 16 weeks. Focus groups were conducted to examine participants’ subjective experiences with the mindfulness intervention. Mindfulness significantly increased from baseline to eight weeks. There was a non-significant decrease in depression from baseline to eight weeks and a significant decrease in depression from baseline to 16 weeks. Depression stigma significantly increased from baseline to eight weeks and significantly decreased from eight to 16 weeks; however, depression stigma did not return to the baseline. An exploratory qualitative analysis of focus group data revealed themes related to direct and indirect factors that may perpetuate and maintain depression stigma. This is one of the first studies to explicitly explore the relationship between mindfulness, depression symptoms, and depression stigma among African American women.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T05:51:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615221076709
       
  • Prevalence of spiritual and religious experiences in the general
           population: A Brazilian nationwide study

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      Authors: Maria Cristina Monteiro de Barros, Frederico Camelo Leão, Homero Vallada Filho, Giancarlo Lucchetti, Alexander Moreira-Almeida, Mario Fernando Prieto Peres
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      Spiritual and religious experiences (SREs) are common subjective phenomena related to the awareness of transcendence, which transforms one's perception of life, death and suffering. Despite the high prevalence of SREs worldwide, not enough studies have been conducted beyond Europe and North America. To fill this gap, this study investigates the prevalence of SREs in Brazil and their association with socio-demographic variables. This online cross-sectional study includes participants from all regions of Brazil. Sixteen SREs were investigated, being categorized into 4 groups: mystical, mediumistic, psi-related and past life/near-death experiences. Prevalence was calculated as percentages and multinomial logistic regression models were used. A total of 1,053 Brazilians were included; 92% reported one SRE in their lifetime and 47.5% experienced at least one SRE frequently. Participants reported having had at least one mystical experience (35%), one psi-related experience (27.7%), and one mediumistic experience (11%). Half the sample had “felt the presence of a dead person” and 70% experienced precognitive dreams at least once. In a multivariate analysis, SREs were associated with the female gender but showed no associations with income, education, employment status and ethnicity. Mystical experiences were associated with age 55 and older. In summary, SREs are very prevalent across different strata of the population, and deserve more attention from researchers and clinicians in order to clarify their nature and implications for mental health care and research in Brazil.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-04-06T07:06:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615221088701
       
  • The Cultural Formulation Interview—Generating distance or alliance'
           A qualitative study of practice changes in Danish mental healthcare

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      Authors: Laura Glahder Lindberg, Jessica Carlsson, Maria Kristiansen, Signe Skammeritz, Katrine Schepelern Johansen
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents provider experiences with the Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) in Danish mental healthcare for migrant patients. Semi-structured interviews with 17 providers and 20 recorded CFI sessions were analyzed with a constructivist grounded theory approach. Based on our empirical material, we endorse the CFI’s ability to facilitate working alliance and a profound and contextually situated understanding of the patient. Further, the CFI supported less-experienced providers in investigating cultural issues. Conversely, we found that CFI questions about cultural identity and background evoked notions of distance and ‘othering’ in the encounter. Nine providers had felt discomfort and professional insecurity when the CFI compelled them to introduce explanatory frameworks of culture in the mental health assessment. Eleven providers had experienced that the abstract nature of the questions inhibited patient responses or led to short and stereotypical descriptions, which had limited analytical value. We describe the contradictory CFI experiences of alliance versus distance at three levels: 1) at the CFI instrument level; 2) at the organizational level; and 3) at the contextual and structural level. We demonstrate benefits and pitfalls of using the CFI with migrants in Denmark, which is an example of a European healthcare context where cultural consultation is not an integrated concept in health education programs and where the notion of culture is contentious due to negative political rhetoric on multiculturalism.We suggest that the CFI should be introduced with thorough training; focus on fidelity; and supervision in the clinical application and understanding of the concept of culture.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T05:36:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615211065617
       
  • Towards psychedelic apprenticeship: Developing a gentle touch for the
           mediation and validation of psychedelic-induced insights and revelations

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      Authors: Christopher Timmermann, Rosalind Watts, David Dupuis
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      A striking feature of psychedelics is their ability to increase attribution of truth and meaningfulness to specific contents and ideas experienced, which may persist long after psychedelic effects have subsided. We propose that processes underlying conferral of meaning and truth in psychedelic experiences may act as a double-edged sword: while these may drive important therapeutic benefits, they also raise important considerations regarding the validation and mediation of knowledge gained during these experiences. Specifically, the ability of psychedelics to induce noetic feelings of revelation may enhance the significance and attribution of reality to specific beliefs, worldviews, and apparent memories which might exacerbate the risk of iatrogenic complications that other psychotherapeutic approaches have historically faced, such as false memory syndrome. These considerations are timely, as the use of psychedelics is becoming increasingly mainstream, in an environment marked by the emergence of strong commercial interest for psychedelic therapy. We elaborate on these ethical challenges via three examples illustrating issues of validation and mediation in therapeutic, neo-shamanic and research contexts involving psychedelic use. Finally, we propose a pragmatic framework to attend to these challenges based on an ethical approach which considers the embeddedness of psychedelic experiences within larger historical and cultural contexts, their intersubjective character and the use of practices which we conceptualise here as forms of psychedelic apprenticeship. This notion of apprenticeship goes beyond current approaches of preparation and integration by stressing the central importance of validation practices based on empathic resonance by an experienced therapist or guide.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-03-22T07:10:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615221082796
       
  • Communication about distress and well-being: Epistemic and ethical
           considerations

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      Authors: Ross G. White, Richard Fay, Anna Chiumento, Catalina Giurgi-Oncu, Alison Phipps
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      Communication about well-being and distress involves multiple stakeholders, including experts by experience (EBE), researchers, clinical practitioners, interpreters, and translators. Communication can involve a variety of discourses and languages and each of the stakeholders may employ diverging epistemologies to understand and explain experiences. These epistemologies may link to different sources of authority and be articulated using particular linguistic resources. Epistemic injustice can occur when stakeholders, intentionally or unintentionally, fail to recognise the validity of other stakeholders’ ways of conceptualising and verbalising their experience of well-being and distress. Language lies at the heart of the risk of epistemic injustice involved in the process of expressing well-being and distress as seen in: 1) the interface between divergent discourses on well-being and distress (e.g., biomedical vs. spiritual); and 2) communications involving multiple linguistic resources, which can be subdivided into multi-language communications involving a) translation of assessment measures, and b) interpreted interactions. Some of the challenges of multi-language communication can be addressed by translators or interpreters who strive for conceptual equivalence. We argue, however, that all stakeholders have an important role as “epistemic brokers” in the languaging of possible epistemological differences. Effective epistemic brokering requires that all stakeholders are reflexively and critically aware of the risks of epistemic injustice inherent in multi-language communication. The article concludes with a set of prompts to help raise stakeholder awareness and reflexivity when engaging in communication about well-being and distress.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-03-18T08:31:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615221082795
       
  • Historical trauma and oppression: Associations with internalizing outcomes
           among American Indian adults with type 2 diabetes

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      Authors: Stefanie L. Gillson, Dane Hautala, Kelley J. Sittner, Melissa Walls
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      American Indian (AI) people experience disproportionate exposure to stressors and health inequities, including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and mental health problems. There is increasing interest in how historical trauma and ongoing experiences of discrimination and marginalization (i.e., historical oppression) interact to influence AI health. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between historically traumatic experiences (i.e., boarding schools, relocation programs, and foster care), current reports of historical cultural loss, microaggressions, and their relationship to internalizing symptoms among AI adults living with T2D. This community-based participatory research study with five AI tribal communities includes data from 192 AI adults with T2D recruited from tribal clinics. Results from structural equation modeling revealed that personal experiences in foster care and ancestral experiences in boarding schools and/or relocation were associated with increased reports of historical loss, and indirectly associated with internalizing symptoms through racial microaggressions and historical losses. The findings highlight the importance of considering multiple dimensions of historical trauma and oppression in empirical and practice-based assessments of mental health problems.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-02-28T01:03:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615221079146
       
  • The contagion of mental illness: Insights from a Sufi shrine

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      Authors: Bhrigupati Singh, Pratap Sharan
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, an anthropologist and a psychiatrist examine a Sufi shrine-based concept of affliction known as asrat (an “effect” in Hindi-Urdu, “difficulty” in Arabic) and related practices of healing in urban north India. Rather than being located in an individual body, asrat afflictions are shared, most often within a household or kinship group. Through surveys, clinical assessments, and ethnographic work, we track three different ways in which afflictions move between bodies, and the mechanisms at work in asrat healing processes. Rather than a “collectivist” concept of the psyche, we suggest that a key role of shrine-based therapeutic processes is to manage a “suspicion system,” related to experiences of psychic and economic injuries and conflict between intimates and kin. Through a multi-sited research design that moves across a leading Sufi shrine, an urban poor neighborhood in Delhi, and one of India's leading psychiatric facilities, we argue that within asrat-related processes, psychic vulnerabilities are addressed by “re-combining” relations through forms of inter-subjective attunement within a smaller segment of the kin group, potentially making symptoms and the burden of care and conflict more livable. We suggest that shrine-based concepts and practices may be cross-culturally significant, even for secular understandings of the inter-subjective dimensions of mental illness.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T04:51:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615221078131
       
  • Transgenerational trauma in Rwandan genocidal rape survivors and their
           children: A culturally enhanced bioecological approach

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      Authors: Sarilee Kahn, Myriam Denov
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      Multiple theories, including attachment, family systems, and epigenetics, among many others, have been invoked to explain the mechanisms through which trauma is transmitted from one generation to the next. To move toward integration of extant theories and, thus, acknowledgement of multiple pathways for transmission of trauma, the authors explore the potential of applying a culturally enhanced bioecological theory to transgenerational trauma (TGT). Data from in-depth qualitative interviews in Rwanda more than two decades after the genocide, with 44 mothers of children born of genocidal rape, and in-depth interviews and focus groups with a total of 60 youth born of genocidal rape, were analyzed according to the processes of culturally enhanced bioecological theory. The findings from a hybrid inductive and deductive thematic analysis suggest that a culturally enhanced bioecological theory of human development allows for an integrated, multi-dimensional analysis of individual, family, cultural, and societal factors of transmission of TGT. Some facets of the data, however, are not accounted for in the theory, specifically, how some mothers were able to create and sustain a positive bond with their children born of genocidal rape, despite societal and family pressure to abandon or abort them. Nonetheless, the findings demonstrate how a culturally enhanced bioecological theory can be an important overarching framework for developing policies and practices to help interrupt or mitigate TGT, strengthen resilience, and facilitate healing for children born of genocidal rape, their mothers, and their families.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T04:39:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615221080231
       
  • An interview-based evaluation of an Indigenous traditional spirituality
           program at an urban American Indian health clinic

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      Authors: Tony V Pham, Andrew Pomerville, Rachel L. Burrage, Joseph P. Gone
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      American Indians suffer from disproportionately high rates of mental health problems. Professional therapies may not meet the specific mental health needs of American Indians, owing to cultural mismatch and long histories of political disempowerment. Instead, Indigenous traditional spiritual practices are often promoted as alternative sources of health and help in these communities. In response to a community needs assessment, we developed a 12-week traditional spirituality curriculum in partnership with the urban American Indian health clinic in Detroit. Centered on the sweat lodge ceremony, the program was pilot tested with 10 community members. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine participants following the program. Based on our analyses, all participants endorsed responses within two overarching themes: impact on personal well-being, and suggestions for improvement reflecting their desire for an ongoing program. Participant responses about the program’s impact comprised four themes: (1) improved psychological and spiritual well-being, (2) community benefit, (3) increase in cultural knowledge, and (4) a desire for further learning and sharing. Participant responses about their desire for an ongoing program also comprised four themes: (1) drop-in classes may be more practical as regular attendance was difficult for some, (2) future classes should include more areas of knowledge, (3) the program could be expanded to include more knowledge-holders and perspectives, and (4) the program should include a progression of classes to accommodate more diversity. Overall, participants reported benefit from participation in Indigenous spiritual practices; however, the program can be improved by further adapting the curriculum to the sometimes-challenging lives of its participants.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T04:38:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615221076706
       
  • Stigma, lost opportunities, and growth: Understanding experiences of
           caregivers of persons with mental illness in Tamil Nadu, India

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      Authors: Mirjam A. Dijkxhoorn, Archana Padmakar, Joske F. G. Bunders, Barbara J. Regeer
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to address gaps in understanding of the lived experiences of caregivers of persons with mental illness in low-income countries. It was conducted among caregivers of persons with mental illness making use of a free non-governmental clinic in and around Chennai, India. The study adopted a qualitative methodology, with semi-structured interviews and life history exercises (n = 29) and six focus group discussions with caregivers (n = 21) and mental health professionals and community-based workers (n = 39). The experiences of caregivers were analyzed in the framework of “The Banyan model of caregiving,” which identifies six phases. Major themes in caregivers’ experience were: embarrassment and losing honor; fear; awareness; stigma and social exclusion; and reduced social interaction and loneliness. Posttraumatic growth considered as the result of caregiver experiences was found to consist mainly of personal growth and focusing on positive life experiences. Lost opportunities particular to the context of Tamil Nadu were described as the inability to get married, obtaining less education than desired, and loss of employment. Siblings faced lower levels of burden, while elderly mothers experienced especially high levels of burden and lack of happiness in life. Caregiver gains were identified as greater compassion for other people with disabilities, resulting in a desire to help others, as well as increased personal strength and confidence. Understanding the nuances of the caregiving experiences over time can provide a framework to devise more fine-tuned support structures that aim to prevent reductions in social interaction and lost opportunities, and improve a sense of meaning, in order to assist caregivers to continue providing care for their relatives with mental illness in a context with scarce mental health resources.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-02-16T04:22:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615211059692
       
  • Conceptual and methodological challenges in idioms of distress research:
           Common questions and a step-by-step guide

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      Authors: Lesley Jo Weaver, Karl Krupp, Purnima Madhivanan
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      Research premised on the construct of idioms of distress has proliferated in the last 40 years. The aim of this work is to foreground the experiential and socially adaptive functions of cultural expressions of distress around the world. Researchers who work in this field often begin from very different starting points in terms of their prior knowledge of the research context, their interest in theoretical or applied implications of their work, and the target areas of distress that they study. While this multiplicity of approaches ensures that the literature captures diverse manifestations of suffering, it also creates confusion for those who are new to the field and who may not know where to begin. This article seeks to resolve some of that confusion by identifying common conceptual challenges across the idioms of distress literature, and then providing a detailed step-by-step methodological example of an idioms of distress study in India that could be adapted for similar work in other contexts.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-02-15T05:52:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615211042235
       
  • Mujeres abnegadas: The influence of gender expectations on the psychiatric
           encounter in Mexico

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      Authors: Alyssa Marie Ramírez Stege
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      Theories on the cause of mental and emotional distress contribute to illness course and treatment. The theorizing of women's experience “as problem” has been widely critiqued by feminist psychologists yet continues in clinical practice. This qualitative study reports on data collected in a psychiatric outpatient clinic in south/central Mexico on the culturally embedded causal theories of mental illness among Mexican patients, a family member or caregiver, and their psychiatrists. The author reports on the influence of gender expectations and the view of “women as problem” in Mexico. Specifically, stakeholders considered that the idea of “mujeres abnegadas” (self-sacrificing women) was the cause of illness in female patients diagnosed with depressive or anxiety-related disorders. In the face of gendered violence and abuse, Mexican women were expected to be silent and submissive, to suppress their thoughts and feelings, and to endure (“aguantar”) their experiences to conform to gender-based expectations, and psychiatrists expressed little hope of alleviating women's suffering. The author discusses her findings in the context of broader sociocultural factors and globalizing forces in psychological theory and practice and provides future directions to help de-pathologize patients’ distress, broaden awareness of the contextual forces that influence distress, and galvanize appropriate resources and support.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-02-15T04:46:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615221079134
       
  • Strategic universality in the making of global guidelines for mental
           health

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      Authors: China Mills
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      Based on interviews with members of the Guideline Development Group (GDG) of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) Guidelines for Mental, Neurological and Substance Use Disorders, this article adds empirical depth to understanding the contingent and strategic nature of universality in relation to mental health. Differently from debating whether or not mental health is global, the article outlines the people, ideas, and processes involved in making it global. Thematic analysis of interviews carried out with nine (out of 21) members of the original mhGAP GDG identified six intersecting strategies that enable the construction of universality in global mental health (GMH): 1) processes and practices of assembling expertise; 2) decisions on what counts as evidence; 3) framing cultural relativism as nihilistic; 4) the delaying of complexity to prioritize action; 5) the narration of tensions as technical rather than epistemological; and 6) the ascription of messiness to local contexts rather than to processes of standardization. Interviews showed that differently from the public-facing consensus often presented in GMH, GDG members hold contrasting and contingent understandings of the nature of universality in relation to mental health diagnoses and interventions. Thus, the universality of mental health achieved through the mhGAP Guidelines is partial and temporary, requiring continuous (re)iteration. The article uses empirical data to show nuance, complexity, and multi-dimensionality where binary thinking sometimes dominates, and to make links across arguments ‘for’ and ‘against’ global mental health.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-01-19T11:52:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615211068605
       
  • “It's easy to dismiss it as simply a spiritual problem.” Experiences
           of mental distress within evangelical Christian communities: A qualitative
           survey

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      Authors: Christopher E. M. Lloyd, Jonathan Hutchinson
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      Evidence suggests that faith communities can support psychological wellbeing but can also potentially diminish wellbeing through stigma, imposed spiritualization, and marginalization. In particular, for evangelical Christianity, whose theological praxis typically accentuates literalist spiritual onto-etiologies, including the belief that mental distress can be treated solely through spiritual intervention (prayer, fasting, and deliverance), there may be negative implications for Christians with mental distress. The current qualitative survey examined the responses of 293 self-identified evangelical Christians, concerning their experiences of mental distress in relation to their church community. An inductive thematic analysis revealed five themes: 1) Tensions between Faith and Suffering; 2) Cautions about a Reductive Spiritualization; 3) Feeling Othered and Disconnected; 4) Faith as Alleviating Distress; and 5) Inviting an Integrationist Position. Findings reveal stigma and the totalizing spiritualization of mental distress can be experienced as both dismissive and invalidating and can problematize secular help-seeking. This lends support to previous research which has suggested that evangelical Christian communities tend to link mental distress to spiritual deficiencies, which can hold potentially negative consequences for their wellbeing. Nevertheless, a degree of complexity and nuance emerged whereby spiritual explanations and interventions were also experienced as sometimes helpful in alleviating suffering. Overall, findings suggest evangelical communities are increasingly adopting integrationist understandings of mental distress, whereby spiritual narratives are assimilated alongside the biopsychosocial. We argue that church communities and psychotherapeutic practitioners should support movement from a position of dichotomizing psychological suffering (e.g., spiritual vs. biopsychosocial) towards a spiritually syntonic frame, which contextualizes distress in terms of the whole person. Considerations for psychotherapeutic practice and further research are made.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T02:51:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615211065869
       
  • A comparative study of mental health diagnoses, symptoms, treatment, and
           medication use among Orthodox Jews

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      Authors: Steven Pirutinsky, David H. Rosmarin
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      Historical clinical reports and media narratives suggest that Orthodox Jews are reticent to seek treatment for mental illness, present only with serious concerns, and hesitate to comply with treatment in general and psychopharmacology in particular. On the other hand, recent developments, and some limited research, suggest that Orthodox Jews may be likely to seek and comply with treatment. The current study compared the diagnostic, symptomatic, and treatment characteristics of 191 Orthodox Jews and 154 control patients all presenting to a large private mental health clinic with offices throughout greater New York. Results indicated that the groups were largely demographically similar, and that their diagnoses did not significantly differ. Orthodox Jews initially presented with lower levels of symptoms, terminated with similar symptom levels, attended a similar number of sessions, and were equally likely to use psychopharmacological interventions of similar types, compared to controls. This was equally true of ultra-Orthodox and modern Orthodox Jews. Clinicians providing mental health services to Orthodox Jews should be aware of these findings, which contrast with existing clinical and popular stereotypes. Further, excessive efforts to protect Orthodox Jewish patients against stigma may be unnecessary and counterproductive.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-01-12T12:32:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615211068607
       
  • Identity and memory as resilience: Applications of liberation psychology
           in a rural Maya Achi community

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      Authors: Heidi Mitton
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      This study sought to understand interpretations of interconnections between historical trauma, contemporary violence, and resilience in a Maya Achi community currently engaged in promoting peace and social change through popular education. In particular, the ways in which participants drew upon identity and memory in articulating characteristics of community distress and resilience are discussed. The research is informed by liberation psychology and critical perspectives of mental health, particularly considering the challenges inherent in the promotion of collective memory of trauma and resistance in contexts of violence and humanitarian settings. Participant reflections on historical and contemporary violence highlight elements of collective distress, connecting identity and memory with acts of both oppression and resistance. Education and development are signaled as possible sites of resilience but also experienced as sites of power upholding the status quo. Diverse experiences and applications of identity and memory provide insight into the ways in which community organizations working in contexts of political violence might navigate polarizing and paradoxical discourses in order to subvert, co-opt, or adapt to hegemonic cultural, political, and economic power relations in the process of transformation for collective resilience.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-01-12T12:32:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615211067357
       
  • Metaphor and the politics and poetics of youth distress in an
           evidence-based psychotherapy

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      Authors: Rebecca Seligman
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores the relationship between metaphors and emotion in the context of adolescent distress and psychotherapeutic treatment. Drawing on data from an ethnographic study of Mexican American adolescents receiving outpatient treatment for a variety of emotional and behavioral problems, the article examines what I call “prescribed” metaphors deployed in mainstream, manualized child and adolescent Cognitive Behavioral Therapies commonly used in mainstream clinical contexts. I explore the models of emotion communicated to youth by one such metaphor, youth responses to this metaphor, and the potential implications for young people as they take up the underlying models and affective practices embedded in the metaphor. Specifically, I examine how youth respond to messages about emotion metacognition and emotion regulation embedded in a metaphor that equates feelings with temperatures that can be monitored and objectively measured. I find that youth are at once convinced that abstract knowledge about internal states is inherently valuable because it is linked to desired forms of personhood, but also concerned about the limits of technical metaphors to capture aspects of lived experience and the flattening and homogenization of affect that might accompany the practices such metaphors help to enact. I analyze alternative interpretations of prescribed metaphors as well as the spontaneous metaphors used by youth to talk about their emotions and experiences of distress, in an effort to think through the politics and poetics of emotion metaphors in the context of an evidence-based psychotherapy for young people.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T11:15:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615211066692
       
  • Refugee posttraumatic growth: A grounded theory study

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      Authors: Sara Hirad, Marianne McInnes Miller, Sesen Negash, Jessica E. Lambert
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      In response to the unprecedented refugee crisis around the world, a growing body of research has focused on psychological distress among individuals and families forced to flee their homelands. Less attention has been directed toward understanding resilience, adaptation, and growth among this population. This grounded theory study explored the posttraumatic growth experiences of Middle Eastern and Afghan refugees resettled in the United States. The principal researcher conducted 23 interviews with seven couples and 16 individuals aged 25 to 67 years, from Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, and Syria. This study aimed to explore how refugees understand, process, overcome, and grow from the trauma and adversity they have experienced. Findings were used to delineate a model of the process through which refugees experience posttraumatic growth. The overarching theme of moving forward had five specific growth themes: increased awareness of context; tolerating uncertainty; spiritual/religious attunement; consideration of others; and integrating into society. Findings shed light on the complex process of growth and adaptation in the aftermath of war and forced migration. The model can serve as a tool for clinicians to facilitate more empowering posttraumatic narratives with refugee clients rooted in growth experiences.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T02:32:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615211062966
       
  • Overcoming epistemic injustices in the biomedical study of ayahuasca:
           Towards ethical and sustainable regulation

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      Authors: Eduardo Ekman Schenberg, Konstantin Gerber
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      After decades of biomedical research on ayahuasca's molecular compounds and their physiological effects, recent clinical trials show evidence of therapeutic potential for depression. However, indigenous peoples have been using ayahuasca therapeutically for a very long time, and thus we question the epistemic authority attributed to scientific studies, proposing that epistemic injustices were committed with practical, cultural, social, and legal consequences. We question epistemic authority based on the double-blind design, the molecularization discourse, and contextual issues about safety. We propose a new approach to foster epistemically fair research, outlining how to enforce indigenous rights, considering the Brazilian, Peruvian, and Colombian cases. Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain, control, protect, and develop their biocultural heritage, traditional knowledge, and cultural expressions, including traditional medicine practices. New regulations about ayahuasca must respect the free, prior, and informed consent of indigenous peoples according to the International Labor Organization Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention no. 169. The declaration of the ayahuasca complex as a national cultural heritage may prevent patenting from third parties, fostering the development of traditional medicine. When involving isolated compounds derived from traditional knowledge, benefit-sharing agreements are mandatory according to the United Nations’ Convention on Biological Diversity. Considering the extremely high demand to treat millions of depressed patients, the medicalization of ayahuasca without adequate regulation respectful of indigenous rights can be detrimental to indigenous peoples and their management of local environments, potentially harming the sustainability of the plants and of the Amazon itself, which is approaching its dieback tipping point.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T09:02:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615211062962
       
  • The impact of perceived relationship to ancestors on the association
           between self-transcendence and psychopathology: A cross-cultural
           examination

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      Authors: Simon Hanseung Choi, Clayton Hoi-Yun McClintock, Elsa Lau, Lisa Miller
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      Self-transcendence has been associated with lower levels of psychopathology. Most studies of self-transcendence have focused on samples of Western participants, and used scales addressing such concepts as self-awareness and feelings of oneness with the larger universe. However, a common Eastern notion of transcendence—perception of ongoing relationships with ancestors—has not been studied. We conducted a cross-cultural investigation of the association between self-transcendence, perceived degree of relationship to ancestors and depression and anxiety in the United States (N = 1499), China (N =  3,150), and India (N = 863). Degrees of perceived relationship to ancestors differed across countries, with the highest rates in India and China, and lowest rates in the United States. Self-transcendence was negatively associated with risks for depression and anxiety in the United States. In India, self-transcendence was also negatively associated with risks for depression and anxiety, and a strong perceived relationship with ancestors had further protective benefit. In China, those with a high level of perceived relationship to ancestors and a high level of self-transcendence exhibited lower levels of psychopathology. Results suggest that measures of relationship to ancestors might be included in future cross-cultural studies of transcendence.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-01-05T06:55:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615211049072
       
  • Health professionals’ experiences of and attitudes towards mental
           healthcare for migrants and refugees in Europe: A qualitative systematic
           review

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      Authors: E. Peñuela-O’Brien, M. W. Wan, D. Edge, K. Berry
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      Migrants living in Europe constitute over half of the world's international migrants and are at higher risk of poor mental health than non-migrants, yet also face more barriers in accessing and engaging with services. Furthermore, the quality of care received is shaped by the experiences and attitudes of health professionals. The aim of this review was to identify professionals’ attitudes towards migrants receiving mental healthcare and their perceptions of barriers and facilitators to service provision. Four electronic databases were searched, and 23 studies met the inclusion criteria. Using thematic synthesis, we identified three themes: 1) the management of multifaceted and complex challenges associated with the migrant status; 2) professionals’ emotional responses to working with migrants; and 3) delivering care in the context of cultural difference. Professionals employed multiple strategies to overcome challenges in providing care yet attitudes towards this patient group were polarized. Professionals described mental health issues as being inseparable from material and social disadvantage, highlighting a need for effective collaboration between health services and voluntary organizations, and partnerships with migrant communities. Specialist supervision, reflective practice, increased training for professionals, and the adoption of a person-centered approach are also needed to overcome the current challenges in meeting migrants’ needs. The challenges experienced by health professionals in attempting to meet migrant needs reflect frustrations in being part of a system with insufficient resources and without universal access to care that effectively stigmatizes the migrant status.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-01-05T06:55:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615211067360
       
  • Psychosocial concerns in a context of prolonged political oppression: Gaza
           mental health providers’ perceptions

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      Authors: Marwan Diab, Guido Veronese, Yasser Abu Jamei, Rawia Hamam, Sally Saleh, Hasan Zeyada, Ashraf Kagee
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      In this qualitative exploratory study, we investigated the perspectives of mental health providers in Gaza, Palestine, regarding the primary concerns of their clients who are exposed to low-intensity warfare and structural violence. We conducted qualitative interviews with 30 psychologists, social workers, psychiatric nurses, and psychiatrists providing services to communities in Gaza. Participants were asked to discuss their clients’ most commonly occurring mental health problems, diagnoses, and psychosocial conditions. Thematic analysis identified one superordinate theme (Impact of the Blockade on Mental Health and Quality of Life) and four second-order themes (Concerns about Social Problems, General Concerns about Quality of Life, Concerns about the Mental Health of the Community, and Concerns Related to Children's Mental Health). Participants indicated that the social and political dimensions of mental health and the economic, educational, and health-related consequences of the ongoing blockade of Gaza were the main determinants of psychological burden among their clients. Findings demonstrated the importance of adopting an approach to mental health that includes understanding psychological indicators in a broader framework informed by human rights and social justice. Implications for research and clinical work are discussed, including the role of investments in social capital that may provide individuals with access to resources such as social support, which may in turn promote overall mental health.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-01-05T06:55:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615211062968
       
  • Perspectives of university health care students on mental health stigma in
           Nigeria: Qualitative analysis

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      Authors: Aderonke Bamgbose Pederson, J. Konadu Fokuo, Graham Thornicroft, Olamojiba Bamgbose, Oluseun Peter Ogunnubi, Kafayah Ogunsola, Yewande O. Oshodi
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      Mental illness is a significant public health burden in low- and middle-income countries. A wide treatment gap in mental health care exists within the Nigerian health care system and this gap is worsened by the presence of stigma associated with mental illness, which leads to delay in treatment or acts as a barrier to any care. In this study, our aim was to understand the factors that underlie mental illness stigma in order to inform the design of effective stigma-reducing interventions among health care students in Nigeria. We conducted four focus groups among university health care students in March 2019 in Nigeria. The students included nursing, pharmacy, and medical trainees from a university teaching hospital. We used an inductive-driven thematic analysis to identify codes and themes related to mental health stigma and conceptualization of mental health within the study group. Among the 40 participants, we identified how specific interpretations of religious and spiritual beliefs may be associated with stigmatizing behaviors such as social distancing and discrimination. Conceptualization of mental illness as a communicable disease and the attribution of mental illness to a moral failing contributed to stigma mechanisms. Overall, eight themes associated with mental health stigma and mental health-related concepts were found: spirituality, discrimination and devaluation, conceptualization of mental health, attribution theories, methods to reduce stigma, shortage of resources, violence and dangerousness, and maltreatment. We found that the co-existence of spiritual beliefs and biomedical and psychological models of mental health is a key factor to consider in the design of effective stigma-reducing interventions among university health students in Nigeria.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-01-05T06:54:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615211055007
       
  • Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) for screening for depression
           

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      Authors: Victoria N. Mutiso, Christine W. Musyimi, Albert Tele, Rita Alietsi, Pauline Andeso, David M. Ndetei
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      Postnatal depression is one of the most common mental disorders among postnatal mothers and may have severe consequences for mothers and their children. Locally validated screening tools that can be self- or lay interviewer-administered are required to identify at-risk women, especially in settings with no mental health specialists. This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of a culturally adapted version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in a local dialect (Kamba) in a Kenyan setting. Trained research assistants administered the local-language version of self-report scales (EPDS) to a sample of 544 Kamba-speaking women. The same scale was re-administered to the same research participants two weeks later by the same research assistants. The test scores were compared with an external ‘gold standard’ according to the DSM-IV criteria Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for adults (MINI-Plus). The EPDS had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.867 with 95% C.I of 0.836 to 0.894, with a cut-off point of ≥11, sensitivity of 81.0% (95% C.I 70.6–89.0) and specificity of 82.6% (95% CI 78.8–85.9). The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 44.1% and 96.2%, respectively. The internal reliability was 0.852 and the test-retest reliability was 0.496. The EPDS showed good utility in detecting depressive disorder in Kamba-speaking postnatal women. It does not have to be administered by mental health workers (who are few in low- and middle-income countries); rather, this can be done by a trained lay interviewer.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-01-05T06:21:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615211043764
       
  • Orphans in post-conflict Liberia: Seeking care in fractured communities

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      Authors: Elizabeth J. Levey, Benjamin L. Harris, Lance D. Laird, Isaac Kekulah, Christina P. C. Borba, David C. Henderson, Anne E. Becker
      First page: 235
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      Orphans in post-conflict settings have unique needs that have not been well-characterized. In post-conflict Liberia, maternal orphans are more likely to be without care than paternal orphans. This study examined the experiences of maternal orphans in Liberia, as they attempted to care for themselves and seek care from others, and the barriers they faced. In-depth interviews were conducted with 75 post-conflict Liberian orphans. We performed a secondary narrative analysis of interview transcripts from all maternal or double orphans (n = 17). We identified similar elements across narratives: traumatic loss, disconnection from family and community, and the desire for a savior. Female high-risk orphans were more likely to have formal substitute caregiving arrangements in which they were living with someone who was a relative or had been selected by a relative. Male orphans more commonly lacked arranged substitute care, but this allowed them to form relationships with substitute caregivers of their choosing. Sex also played a role in the provision of caregiving; substitute care was provided by women. Findings highlighted the syndemic relationship between poverty, violence, transactional sex, trauma, and substance use that traps high-risk Liberian orphans. Interventions are needed to improve access to mental health care, sober communities, housing, and education support. The need to integrate these services into indigenous institutions and address barriers related to stigma is explored.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-01-13T08:56:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615211066696
       
  • Traditional healers’ explanatory models of intellectual disability
           in Cape Town

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      Authors: Siyabulela Mkabile, Leslie Swartz
      First page: 263
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      While intellectual disability is experienced worldwide, with much greater rates in contexts of poverty, relatively few studies on intellectual disability have been conducted in low- and middle-income countries. High levels of intellectual disability in South Africa exist alongside high levels of poverty, malnutrition and poor or inaccessible healthcare services. The lack of access to services partly explains why many turn to traditional healers. Within this context there is very limited research on the role that traditional healers play in relation to intellectual disability in South Africa. The current study investigated traditional healers’ understanding and beliefs about intellectual disabilities and the treatment modalities that they use. An exploratory qualitative research design was used to examine the views and perspectives of traditional healers on intellectual disability. Fifteen traditional healers participated in the study. Key findings show that the naming of and the terminology used to describe and identify intellectual disability are very much similar to what has been observed in African cultures in general where intellectual disability is identified as an abnormality. Some traditional healers located the presentation of intellectual disability within the biomedical sphere while others gave supernatural explanations for how intellectual disability presents in children and for its causes. All traditional healers expressed a willingness to work with the Western formal healthcare system. Findings on traditional healers’ views on future collaborations with the formal health system provide opportunities for these two forms of healthcare services to be synergised for the strengthening and improvement of services provided to children with intellectual disability and their families.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-02-28T01:03:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615211055967
       
  • Starving to death and the anorexic frame of mind

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      Authors: Jennifer Radden
      First page: 302
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      Because some forms of self-starvation such as hunger striking are exempt from attributions of pathology, and due to incomplete understanding of its etiology, anorexia nervosa (AN) is and must presently be defined by psychological criteria as well as behavioral and bodily measures. Although opaque, typical motivational frames of mind in AN lack the apparent cognitive and volitional dysfunction usually indicating disorder. In contrast to other conditions that exhibit more evident dysfunction, this distinguishes AN from the perspective of medical epistemology: the opacity of AN motivation jeopardizing the epistemic warrant for assigning it to the category of a mental disorder (and so influencing decisions over diagnosis and recovery). This seems to invite non-medical approaches to its prevention and care.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T09:03:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615211066697
       
  • Climate change and Indigenous mental health in the Circumpolar North: A
           systematic review to inform clinical practice

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      Authors: Laurence Lebel, Vincent Paquin, Tiff-Annie Kenny, Christopher Fletcher, Lucie Nadeau, Eduardo Chachamovich, Mélanie Lemire
      First page: 312
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      Climate change is disproportionally impacting the Circumpolar North, with particular impacts among Indigenous populations. Environmental changes are felt in many aspects of daily life of Northern communities, including both physical and mental health. Thus, health institutions from around the Arctic must meet emerging needs, while the phenomenon remains marginal to their southern counterparts. In this systematic review, we aimed to review current scientific knowledge on the mental health impacts of climate change in Indigenous Peoples across the Circumpolar North. Seven databases were searched. Original peer-reviewed research articles were included if they addressed links between climate change and mental health in Arctic or Subarctic Indigenous Populations. After extraction, data were synthesized using thematic analysis. Of the 26 articles that met inclusion criteria, 16 focused on Canadian Inuit communities and 21 were exclusively qualitative. Being on the land was identified as a central determinant of wellbeing. Immediate impacts of climate change on mental health were felt through restricted mobility and disrupted livelihoods. Effects on mental health were further felt through changes in culture and identity, food insecurity, interpersonal stress and conflicts, and housing problems. Various ways in how communities and individuals are coping with these effects were reported. Understanding climate-related pathways of mental health risks in the Arctic is crucial to better identify vulnerable groups and to foster resilience. Clinicians can play a role in recognizing and providing support for patients affected by these disruptions. Policies sensitive to the climate–mental health relationship must be advocated for.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T11:44:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615211066698
       
  • Perceived Discrimination, Experiential Avoidance, and Mental Health among
           Hispanic Adults in Primary Care

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      Authors: Michael J. Zvolensky, Andrew H. Rogers, Nubia A. Mayorga, Justin M. Shepherd, Jafar Bakhshaie, Monica Garza, Andres G. Viana, Melissa Ochoa-Perez, Chad Lemaire, Ana Ruiz, Natalia Peraza
      First page: 337
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      The Hispanic population is the largest minority group in the United States and frequently experiences racial discrimination and mental health difficulties. Prior work suggests that perceived racial discrimination is a significant risk factor for poorer mental health among Hispanic in the United States. However, little work has investigated how perceived racial discrimination relates to anxiety and depression among Hispanic adults. Thus, the current study evaluated the explanatory role of experiential avoidance in the relation between perceived racial discrimination and anxiety/depressive symptoms and disorders among Hispanic adults in primary care. Participants included 202 Spanish-speaking adults (Mage = 38.99, SD = 12.43, 86.1% female) attending a community-based Federally Qualified Health Center. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that perceived racial discrimination had a significant indirect effect on depression, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms as well as the number of mood and anxiety disorders through experiential avoidance. These findings suggest future work should continue to explore experiential avoidance in the association between perceived racial discrimination and other psychiatric and medical problems among the Hispanic population.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-01-12T12:31:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615211038159
       
  • “They tell us little and we end up being confused”: Parent–child
           communication on familial experiences of genocide and its aftermath in
           Rwanda

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      Authors: Chantal Marie Ingabire, Grace Kagoyire, Nicolas Habarugira, Theoneste Rutayisire, Annemiek Richters
      First page: 349
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      In the current study we explore how Rwandan youth negotiate, within the family setting, a myriad of social and interpersonal dilemmas around silence and disclosure of genocide-related experiences of their parents. The study draws primarily on individual interviews and focus group discussions with 20 children of genocide survivor and perpetrator parents in the western and eastern provinces of Rwanda. Using the conceptual framework of social navigation which theorizes agency in a fluid, often unpredictable, and constantly moving social environment, we focus specifically on the difficult and often contradictory complex of factors that drive the communication strategies and tactics of the children as they seek information to understand the past of their parents. This includes the children’s urge to get to know the specific stories of their family but fearing the emotional disruption it may cause in the parent–child relationship; the push–pull dynamics of the parents wanting to disclose some experiences but admonishing silence on others; and the often ambiguous divergences between the public and private discourses. Our findings show that the steadiest navigational point guiding communication choices, made by both parents and their offspring, was a desire to contribute to a peaceful social environment, and to reduce the risk of future violence. We present emerging evidence suggesting that community-based sociotherapy, a program that includes healing the social space and not only intrapsychic wounds, may contribute to a steadier navigation of the tricky communication issues, enhancing psychosocial wellbeing.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T04:39:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615221078483
       
  • Elevated trauma exposure and mental health burden among men who have sex
           with men in Vietnam

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      Authors: Kathy Trang, Tanja Jovanovic, Devon E. Hinton, Patrick Sullivan, Carol M. Worthman, Le Xuan Lam, Nguyen Kim Chi, Nguyen Cong Thanh, Tran Viet Ha, Vivian Go, Irving Hoffman, Le Minh Giang
      First page: 362
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study was to characterize trauma exposure and mental health burden among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Hanoi, Vietnam. Participants comprise 100 HIV-positive and 98 high-risk, HIV-negative MSM, ranging from 18 to 29 years of age. Data were collected using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Traumatic Events Inventory, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, and PTSD Symptom Scale. A subset of participants (n  =  12) were also interviewed to evaluate community perception of the prevalence, causation, and available treatment options for mental health issues within the MSM community in Vietnam. In our sample, 23.2% reported having experienced moderate-to-severe childhood physical abuse; 18.7% physical neglect; 13.6% emotional abuse; 11.1% emotional neglect; and 26.8% sexual abuse. Such trauma exposure continued into adulthood and manifested most commonly in the form of interpersonal violence. Approximately 37.4% of the sample met the criteria for probable PTSD; 26.8% for moderate-to-severe depression; and 20.2% for moderate-to-severe anxiety. Neither exposure nor mental health burden differed by serostatus. Linear regression revealed that childhood emotional abuse was the only sub-type of trauma significantly associated with depression, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms. The majority of interviewees believed that mental health burden was higher among MSM relative to the general population and attributed this to their vulnerability to interpersonal violence and lack of available coping resources. However, few believed that these mental health issues warranted clinical attention, and only one participant was able to identify a mental health service provider. Our findings suggest that trauma exposure and mental health burden are prevalent among MSM, irrespective of serostatus, and much higher than what has been previously reported among the general population in Vietnam.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-01-24T02:58:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615211058348
       
  • The psychological impact of sexual torture: A gender-critical study of the
           perspective of UK-based clinicians and survivors

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      Authors: Roghieh Dehghan, Caroline Osella
      First page: 380
      Abstract: Transcultural Psychiatry, Ahead of Print.
      Despite the high prevalence of sexual torture and its close link with gender, little work has been published on refugee torture survivors from Muslim-majority countries. The aim of this project was to introduce a gender-critical framework, that draws on post-modern and post-colonial feminism, to the study of sexual torture in terms of its operationalization and psychological impact in Iranian, Afghan, and Kurdish refugees in the United Kingdom (UK). This exploratory qualitative research was conducted in collaboration with two voluntary organizations in the UK. Mental healthcare providers (HCPs) were invited to participate through convenience sampling from amongst their staff as well as from community mental health services. Torture survivors were recruited through snowball sampling. The study consists of two parts: 1) semi-structured face-to-face interviews with a total of eight experts (doctors and therapists) and three torture survivors; followed by 2) a focus group with four experts to discuss the emerging results from the interviews and together reflect on the politics of gender and sexuality in the context of torture (‘assisted sense-making’). A thematic gender-critical analysis was performed for the qualitative data. Our findings from interviews with (only Kurdish) torture survivors and HCPs suggest that gender mediates the impact of sexual torture at the intersection of gender, cultural norms, forms of social inequality, and body politics. The conclusions of the study will have implications for health services by deepening our understanding of variables that intersect in an entangled and unpredictable network.
      Citation: Transcultural Psychiatry
      PubDate: 2022-04-06T07:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13634615221089491
       
 
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