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  Subjects -> ANTHROPOLOGY (Total: 398 journals)
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Primates
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.591
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1610-7365 - ISSN (Online) 0032-8332
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2468 journals]
  • Mantled howler monkey males assess their rivals through formant spacing of
           long-distance calls

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      Abstract: Abstract Formant frequency spacing of long-distance vocalizations is allometrically related to body size and could represent an honest signal of fighting potential. There is, however, only limited evidence that primates use formant spacing to assess the competitive potential of rivals during interactions with extragroup males, a risky context. We hypothesized that if formant spacing of long-distance calls is inversely related to the fighting potential of male mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata), then males should: (1) be more likely and (2) faster to display vocal responses to calling rivals; (3) be more likely and (4) faster to approach calling rivals; and have higher fecal (5) glucocorticoid and (6) testosterone metabolite concentrations in response to rivals calling at intermediate and high formant spacing than to those with low formant spacing. We studied the behavioral responses of 11 adult males to playback experiments of long-distance calls from unknown individuals with low (i.e., emulating large individuals), intermediate, and high (i.e., small individuals) formant spacing (n = 36 experiments). We assayed fecal glucocorticoid and testosterone metabolite concentrations (n = 174). Playbacks always elicited vocal responses, but males responded quicker to intermediate than to low formant spacing playbacks. Low formant spacing calls were less likely to elicit approaches whereas high formant spacing calls resulted in quicker approaches. Males showed stronger hormonal responses to low than to both intermediate and high formant spacing calls. It is possible that males do not escalate conflicts with rivals with low formant spacing calls if these are perceived as large, and against whom winning probabilities should decrease and confrontation costs increase; but are willing to escalate conflicts with rivals of high formant spacing. Formant spacing may therefore be an important signal for rival assessment in this species.
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
       
  • Rushing for “burned” food: Why and how does a group of patas monkeys
           (Erythrocebus patas) reach freshly burned areas'

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      Abstract: Abstract Recently, considerable attention has been paid to animal adaptations to anthropogenic environments, such as foraging in burned areas where plants are promoted to regenerate by anthropogenic burning. However, among primates, reports on the utilization of resources that are available immediately after burning have been limited to a few primate species. In this study, we investigated and compared the activity budgets and food categories of a group of patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in freshly burned areas by comparing them with those in previously burned areas and unburned areas. We also assessed the proportion of time spent in the freshly burned area before and after the fire: GPS collars were fitted to five of the six adults in the group, and their patterns when they traveled toward freshly burned and unburned feeding areas were compared. Patas monkeys spent more time in freshly burned areas after the fire, and they visited such areas mostly for feeding, particularly on roasted seeds of Cissus populnea. Furthermore, patas monkeys traveled faster and in a more synchronized way toward freshly burned areas. This “apparent goal-directed” travel began at least 1 h before arriving. Results indicate that the group recognized freshly burned areas as valuable, and the monkeys were able to travel in a goal-directed manner to them despite their variable locations. We suggest that smoke from freshly burned areas provides a visual cue with which to orient to the burned areas. Our results also support the notion that some primates are flexible enough to adapt to and benefit from anthropogenic environmental changes.
      PubDate: 2024-02-06
       
  • Correction: A case of suspected chimpanzee scavenging in the Issa Valley,
           Tanzania

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      PubDate: 2024-01-23
       
  • May the force be with you: exploring force discrimination in chimpanzees
           using the force-feedback device

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      Abstract: Abstract While force-feedback devices have been developed in areas such as virtual reality, there have been very few comparative cognitive studies in nonhuman animals using these devices. In addition, although cross-modal perception between vision and touch has been actively studied in nonhuman primates for several decades, there have been no studies of their active haptic perception. In this study, we attempted to train force discrimination in chimpanzees using a force-feedback device modified from a trackball. Chimpanzees were given different levels of force feedback (8.0 vs. 0.5 N) when moving the on-screen cursor to the target area by manipulating the trackball and were required to select one of two choice stimuli based on the force cue. The experiment was conducted using a trial-block procedure in which the same force stimulus was presented for a fixed number of trials, and the force stimulus was changed between blocks. The block size was progressively reduced from ten trials. Four chimpanzees were trained, but none reached the learning criterion (80% or more correct responses under the condition that the force stimuli were presented randomly). However, a detailed analysis of the chimpanzees’ performance before and after the trial-block switching revealed that their choice behavior could not be explained by a simple win–stay/lose–shift strategy, suggesting that the switching of the force stimuli affected the chimpanzees’ choice behavior. It was also found that the chimpanzees performed better when switching from small to large force stimuli than when switching from large to small force stimuli. Although none of the chimpanzees in this study acquired force discrimination, future studies using such force-feedback devices will provide new insights for understanding haptic cognition in nonhuman primates from a comparative cognitive perspective.
      PubDate: 2024-01-20
       
  • Fragmented forest affects the southern black-horned capuchin (Sapajus
           nigritus cucullatus) in the Argentinean Atlantic Forest

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      Abstract: Abstract The southern black-horned capuchin, Sapajus nigritus cucullatus, is considered Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List and Vulnerable in Argentina. The species is mainly threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. The aim of this study was to compare range size, group size, and density in S. n. cucullatus groups between areas of continuous and fragmented habitat in the Atlantic Forest in Argentina. The study was carried out in two areas in northern Misiones province, one continuous and one anthropogenic fragment. Fieldwork was carried out for 5 days each month from November 2019 to March 2020 and from November 2020 to March 2021. SARS-CoV-2 restrictions meant we could not survey in the intervening period. Group counts were made on existing trails and subsequent group follows. We georeferenced encounters and follows to estimate home range sizes. We calculated density based on home range modeling using 100% minimum convex polygons (MCP), and compared these using generalized linear models (GLM). Smaller groups and lower density of S. n. cucullatus were found in continuous forest, with group sizes between 12 and 23 individuals, and density of 0.14 ind/ha, whereas in the fragmented forest, group sizes were between 32 and 36, with density of 0.62 ind/ha (n = 107; zero-inflated negative binomial regression [ZINB], p < 0.05). The higher density in forest fragments may be due to reduced dispersal ability. This work highlights data on species plasticity that could contribute to the development of conservation management strategies for S. n. cucullatus and its habitat.
      PubDate: 2024-01-18
       
  • Treatment of hepatitis in ex-biomedical chimpanzees at a Japanese
           sanctuary thanks to support from the general public

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      PubDate: 2024-01-06
       
  • Food preferences and nutrient composition in captive Southern brown howler
           monkeys, Alouatta guariba clamitans

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      Abstract: Abstract Studies of food preferences in captive primates have so far mainly been restricted to frugivorous species. It was therefore the aim of the present study to assess the occurrence of spontaneous food preferences in a mainly folivorous primate, the captive Southern brown howler monkey, and to analyze whether these preferences correlate with nutrient composition. Using a two-alternative choice test, we presented ten male and five female adult Alouatta guariba clamitans with all possible binary combinations of ten types of food that are part of their diet in captivity and recorded their choice behavior. We found the howler monkeys to display the following rank order of preference: banana > mango > watermelon > papaya > beetroot > apple > pear > orange > cucumber > tomato. This preference ranking significantly and positively correlated with the total carbohydrate content and with the sucrose content of the food items. We also found significant positive correlations between the food preference ranking and the content of the minerals copper and magnesium. Male and female howler monkeys did not differ significantly in their food preference rankings. These results suggest this howler monkeys under human care are not opportunistic, but selective feeders with regard to maximizing their net gain of energy as only the content of carbohydrates, but not the contents of total energy, proteins, or lipids significantly correlated with the displayed food preferences. Thus, the food preferences of this primate are similar to those reported in several species of frugivorous primates tested with cultivated fruits and vegetables.
      PubDate: 2024-01-03
       
  • Migration of a harem in search of a new leader following the loss of the
           former adult male leader from a one-male unit of geladas (Theropithecus
           gelada)

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      Abstract: Abstract Geladas (Theropithecus gelada) live in social groups consisting of one-male units (sometimes referred to as “harems”), bands, and all-male units. Takeover by a new male affects the reproductive success and mating strategies of the individuals in a harem. However, to the best of my knowledge, there is no information available on the fate of the females in a one-male unit whose leader dies or disappears and is not replaced by another adult male. In 2017, I observed the migration of a male-less unit into the home range of my study group at Kosheme, in Wollo, Ethiopia. The unit consisted of 14 individuals. I observed the harem leader of my study group desert his unit and join the new unit, which appeared to peacefully accept him as their leader. These observations are in agreement with information from local residents, who told me that if the leader male of a unit dies, the male-less group (the “survivors”) will soon migrate in search of a new adult male leader. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first documented case of the migration of a gelada harem in search of an adult male leader after the loss of the unit’s former leader. This report contributes toward a better understanding of the reproductive behavior of geladas in particular, and of primates in general.
      PubDate: 2024-01-01
       
  • Opportunistic meat-eating by urban folivorous-frugivorous monkeys

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      Abstract: Abstract The consumption of vertebrate tissues and eggs (hereinafter “meat”) is relatively common among some primates that are highly frugivorous or eclectic omnivores, but rare or absent in those that are highly folivorous. The Neotropical howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.) belong in the latter group. Here we report the consumption of meat by free-ranging urban black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) and discuss the potential role of the consumed meat as a source of energy, protein, or micronutrients. We studied three groups of howler monkeys (comprising four to seven individuals), living in city squares (0.6, 1.5, and 1.9 ha) in south Brazil, from July 2022 to May 2023 (65 days; 797 h of observations). All of the study groups were spontaneously supplemented daily by people with variable amounts and types of food provided. Meat was only offered in the two larger squares. The groups’ diets included leaves (42–49% scan sampling feeding records), fruit (3–20%), and flowers (2–5%) from 13 to 20 plant species, and considerable amounts of supplemented food (27–50%). We recorded 33 individual events of ingestion of supplemented cooked meat, three individual events of dove egg predation, and three bird nest inspections without egg consumption. All members of the two groups in the larger squares, except an infant male, ingested meat at least once. Meat accounted for 1% of total scan feeding records of both groups with access to this supplement. We conclude that whereas the opportunistic consumption of meat probably contributed only minor amounts of energy and protein to the study subjects, it may have benefitted them with micronutrients that are scarce in plant foods.
      PubDate: 2024-01-01
       
  • Through cross-disciplinary collaboration

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      PubDate: 2024-01-01
       
  • A case of suspected chimpanzee scavenging in the Issa Valley, Tanzania

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      Abstract: Abstract Like humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are well known for their vertebrate and invertebrate hunting, but they rarely scavenge. In contrast, while hunting and meat consumption became increasingly important during the evolution of the genus Homo, scavenging meat and marrow from carcasses of large mammals was also likely to be an important component of their subsistence strategies. Here, we describe a confrontational scavenging interaction between an adult male chimpanzee from the Issa Valley and a crowned eagle (Stephanoaetus coronatus), which resulted in the chimpanzee capturing and consuming the carcass of a juvenile bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus). We describe the interaction and contextualize this with previous scavenging observations from chimpanzees.
      PubDate: 2024-01-01
       
  • Direct links between resource availability and activity budget better
           reveal ecological patterns of endangered Coimbra-Filho’s titi monkey

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      Abstract: Abstract Many primatological studies do not assess direct indexes of food availability to make inferences about behavioral strategies. We related the diet and behavior of a group of Callicebus coimbrai in northeastern Brazil to fruit availability indexes and compared this pattern between seasons (direct and indirect assessment of food availability) to assess whether direct and indirect approaches detect similar ecological patterns. We monitored the study group for 33 months (5 days/month) via scan sampling. The monthly availability of fruits and new leaves was recorded in phenological transects. Fruit availability varied across years based on fruit prevalence, and timing and duration of the abundant seasons. We did not find evidence of a time-minimizing strategy, since C. coimbrai did not change its activity levels according to food availability. However, the negative relationship between foraging and fruit availability indicates that C. coimbrai can compensate for the lower fruit availability by increasing the search for alternative food sources. Monthly fruit consumption was positively correlated to fruit availability and negatively related to the consumption of other food items. However, the behavioral and feeding profiles did not vary between seasons and were not related to rainfall levels. Primate studies should directly relate behavioral and feeding profiles to fruit availability indices, thus avoiding using seasons as proxies of food availability.
      PubDate: 2024-01-01
       
  • Correction: Path To Acceptance and Refined Practices for Habituating
           Western Lowland Gorillas

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      PubDate: 2023-12-29
       
  • Correction: Primate population dynamics in Ngogo, Kibale National Park,
           Uganda, over nearly five decades

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      PubDate: 2023-12-27
       
  • Stillbirth of a mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) in the wild: perinatal
           behaviors and delivery sequences

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      Abstract: Abstract Birth is a fundamental event in the life of animals, including our own species. More reports of wild non-human primate births and stillbirths are thus needed to better understand the evolutionary pressures shaping parturition behaviors in our lineage. In diurnal non-human primates, births generally occur at night, when individuals are resting. Consequently, they are difficult to observe in the wild and most of the current knowledge regarding perinatal behaviors comes from rare daytime births. Information about stillbirths is even rarer and their proximate causes are generally unknown. Here, we present detailed observations of a daytime birth of a stillborn wild mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx). During this event, which lasted an entire day, we recorded the behaviors of the parturient female ad libitum, using video recordings and photos. The 5-year-old female was primiparous and of low dominance rank. The length of her pregnancy was shorter than usual and the partum phase was extremely long compared to other birth reports in non-human primates. The female disappeared shortly after this event and was assumed to have died. We discuss the possible causes of this stillbirth including the infant’s presentation at birth and maternal inexperience.
      PubDate: 2023-12-22
       
  • The Primates 2023 Social Impact Award

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      PubDate: 2023-12-19
       
  • Cover illustration of Primates vol. 65 (2024)

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      PubDate: 2023-12-19
       
  • News and Perspectives: Words matter in primatology

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      Abstract: Abstract Postings on social media on Twitter (now X), BioAnthropology News (Facebook), and other venues, as well as recent publications in prominent journals, show that primatologists, ecologists, and other researchers are questioning the terms “Old World” and “New World” due to their colonial implications and history. The terms are offensive if they result in erasing Indigenous voices and history, ignoring the fact that Indigenous peoples were in the Americas long before European colonization. Language use is not without context, but alternative terminology is not always obvious and available. In this perspective, we share opinions expressed by an international group of primatologists who considered questions about the use of these terms, whether primatologists should adjust language use, and how to move forward. The diversity of opinions provides insight into how conventional terms used in primatological research and conservation may impact our effectiveness in these domains.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
       
  • Disputes over provisioned resources are no more intense between groups
           than within groups in free-ranging Sapajus libidinosus

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      Abstract: Abstract Socioecological models predict that disputes between primate groups will be more intense than those within groups, given that the systematic loss of contests over a given resource will restrict the access of all of the members of that group to that resource. Higher levels of aggression are also expected for provisioned resources that have a more lucrative cost:benefit ratio. The levels of aggression in and between two free-ranging tufted capuchin monkey (Sapajus libidinosus) groups in the context of daily provisioning with bananas were evaluated. The aim of a complementary analysis was to identify possible predictors of the frequency of disputes at the site of the provisioned resource. The disputes were recorded using all-events sampling, while the social behaviour of the study groups was recorded by instantaneous scan sampling. The data were analysed using t-test, Mann–Whitney’s U, and generalised linear modelling. Between-group disputes were no more intense than within-group events, and did not involve more individuals, or more adult females. The frequency of disputes increased as the number of individuals eating bananas increased. No evidence was found that disputes between groups were any more intense than those within groups. Dominance patterns may have affected these findings, by mediating intergroup disputes. An increase in the number of competitors affected the frequency of disputes at the site of the provisioned resource.
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10329-023-01105-5
       
  • New records of the white-cheeked macaque provide range extension for the
           endangered primate in Gaoligong Mountains

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      Abstract: Abstract White-cheeked macaque Macaca leucogenys is a recently described primate species discovered by camera-trap surveys in the Medog region in 2015. The species was thought to be narrowly distributed in southeastern Tibet. However, knowledge on the distribution and conservation of the species is quite limited. Based on a systematic camera-trapping survey, we report the occurrence of the species in the Gaoligong Mountains, over 350 km southeast of the nearest known population. We recorded 3025 photographs of white-cheeked macaques representing 481 independent records from 59 camera-trap stations with total trapping efforts of 18,437 camera days. Notably, part of the newly discovered locations of the white-cheeked macaque are outside of nature reserves without any formal protection and management. Our survey also confirms the occurrence of ten primate species in the Gaoligong Mountains, accounting for 35.7% of China's primates, including the Skywalker hoolock gibbon Hoolock tianxing and the Myanmar snub-nosed monkey Rhinopithecus strykeri etc. These findings reveal a new distribution record for the white-cheeked macaque and further highlight the conservation values of Gaoligong Mountains for globally threatened primate species. We also provide a preliminary report on the daily activity patterns of this endangered species, which enriches the bio-ecological data of the poorly studied species. We believe the report has significant implications for understanding the ecology of the species and improving conservation planning.
      PubDate: 2023-11-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10329-023-01096-3
       
 
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