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Geosphere
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1553-040X - ISSN (Online) 1553-040X
Published by Geological Society of America Homepage  [4 journals]
  • Boudinage and the rheology of syntectonic migmatites in the high-strain
           Taili deformation zone, NE China

    • Abstract: AbstractThis paper presents a detailed field characterization of boudinage in a high-strain zone several kilometers wide in Northern China to establish relationships between boudin types and rheological contrasts between different parts of migmatites during the migmatization process. This zone contains nearly all types of boudins: foliation boudins, blocktorn boudins, pinch- and- swell structures, tapering boudins, object boudins, and modified boudins. These boudinage structures record the different stages of melt-involved and solid-state deformation.The boudinage of migmatites is significantly controlled by the evolving rheological contrasts between the leucosome and melanosome. During the melting stage, the deformation and boudinage of rocks are controlled by the melt fraction. Migmatite strength progressively decreases with increasing melt fraction. The occurrence of melt-filled foliation boudins and melanosome block boudins suggests that the residuum and melanosome are more competent than the leucosome. During solid-state deformation after crystallization, the existence of recrystallized solid-state leucosomes and the intrusion of pegmatites cause the migmatite strength to increase. The relationship is reversed: the leucosome is much more competent than the melanosome. The type and geometry of boudins and pinch- and- swell structures are correlated to the fraction of leucosome in the migmatites. The mechanical strength and strain localization of migmatites after crystallization depend on the presence and volume fraction of the different mineral phases, as well as the mineral grain size. The type and geometry of boudins suggest that the effective viscosity of migmatite can be ranked, from high to low, as: quartz veins; coarse-grained, thick pegmatite; coarse-grained, diatexite migmatite; medium-grained leucosome; and fine-grained melanosome.While experiencing partial melting and migmatization, a rheologically homogeneous protolith is turned into two dominant lithologic domains: a competent diatexite migmatite domain and an incompetent melanosome migmatite domain. Spatially, with the increasing leucosome fraction in migmatites, the migmatite rheology of rock changes from homogeneous to heterogeneous and anisotropic, and then back to homogeneous. The strain distribution likewise changes from uniform to partitioned, and then back to uniform. This evolutionary process of strength and rheological properties of rocks during migmatization may promote strain localization at mid-crustal conditions.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Tectonics, geochronology, and petrology of the Walker Top Granite,
           Appalachian Inner Piedmont, North Carolina (USA): Implications for Acadian
           and Neoacadian orogenesis

    • Abstract: AbstractThe Walker Top Granite (here formally named) is a peraluminous megacrystic granite that occurs in the Cat Square terrane, Inner Piedmont, part of the southern Appalachian Acadian-Neoacadian deformational and metamorphic core. The granite occurs as disconnected concordant to semi-concordant plutons in migmatitic, sillimanite zone rocks of the Brindle Creek thrust sheet. Locally garnet-bearing, the Walker Top Granite contains blocky alkali feldspar megacrysts 1–10 cm long in a groundmass of muscovite-biotite-quartz-plagioclase-alkali feldspar and accessory to trace zircon, titanite, epidote, sillimanite (xenocrysts), and apatite. It varies from granite to granodiorite and contains several xenoliths of biotite gneiss, amphibolite, quartzite, and in one location encloses charnockite (here formally named Vale Charnockite). New sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe U-Pb zircon magmatic crystallization ages obtained from the plutons of the Walker Top Granite are: 407 ± 1 Ma in the Brushy Mountains; 366 ± 2 Ma in the South Mountains; and 358 ± 5 Ma in the Vale–Cat Square area. An age of 366 ± 3 Ma was obtained from the Vale Charnockite at its type locality. Major-, trace-element, and isotopic chemistry indicates that Walker Top is a high-K, peraluminous granite, plotting as volcanic arc or syn-collisional on tectonic discrimination diagrams and suggests that it represents deep-seated anatectic magma with S- to I-type affinity. The alkali calcic, ferroan Vale Charnockite likely formed by deep crustal melting, and similar geochemical and trace-element compositions suggest a similar tectonic origin as Walker Top Granite. The discontinuous nature of the Walker Top Granite plutons precludes it intruded as a volcanic arc. Instead, the peraluminous nature, common xenoliths of surrounding country rock, and geochemical and isotopic signatures suggest it formed by partial melting of Cat Square and Tugaloo terrane rocks. Following emplacement and crystallization, Walker Top plutons were deformed into elliptical to linear shapes—SW-directed sheath folds—enveloped by partially melted, pelitic and quart-zofeldspathic rocks. Collectively, Walker Top and other plutons helped weaken the crust and facilitate lateral crustal flow in a SW-directed, tectonically driven orogenic channel during the Acadian-Neoacadian event. A comparison with the northern Appalachians recognizes a similar temporal magmatic and deformational history during the Acadian and Neoacadian orogenies, although while the Walker Top Granite intruded the lower plate during eastward subduction beneath the peri-Gondwanan Carolina superterrane, the northern Appalachian plutons intruded the upper plate during subduction of the Avalon superterrane westward beneath Laurentia. We hypothesize that a transform fault, located near the southern end of the New York promontory, accommodated oppositely directed lateral plate motion and different subduction polarity between the Carolina and Avalon superterranes during the Acadian and Neoacadian orogenies.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Magmatic record of changing Cordilleran plate-boundary
           conditions—Insights from Lu-Hf isotopes in the Mojave Desert

    • Abstract: AbstractBelts of Cordilleran arc plutons in the eastern part of the Mojave crustal province, inboard from the southwestern North American plate boundary, record major magmatic pulses at ca. 180–160 and 75 Ma and smaller pulses at ca. 100 and 20 Ma. This cyclic magmatism likely reflects evolving plate-margin processes. Zircon Lu-Hf isotopic characteristics and inherited zircons for different-age plutons may relate magma sources to evolving tectonics. Sources similar in age to the bulk of the exposed Mojave crust (1.6–1.8 Ga) dominated the magmas. Rare zircons having εHf(t) values as low as −52 indicate that Cretaceous melt sources also included more ancient crustal components, such as Archean-derived detritus in supracrustal gneisses of the Vishnu basin. Some rocks signal contributions from mantle lithosphere (in the Miocene) or asthenosphere (middle Cretaceous).Temporal shifts in isotopic pattern in this sample of the Cordillera relate to cyclic pulses of magmatic flux. Hf-isotopic pull-downs suggestive of dominantly crustal sources characterize the Jurassic and Late Cretaceous flare-ups. The Late Cretaceous flare-up, occurring near the onset of flat-slab subduction, produced abundant Proterozoic xenocrystic zircon and Hf isotopes implicating derivation largely from heterogeneous deep Mojave crust. Isotopic pull-ups characterize the lower-flux middle Cretaceous and Miocene magmatic episodes. The middle Cretaceous pulse ca. 105–95 Ma produced Mojave crust signals but also the isotopically most juvenile magmatic zircons, ranging upward to barely positive εHf values and suspected to signal an asthenosphere contribution. This may point toward transtension or slab retreat causing 105–95 Ma backarc extension in the Mojave hinterland of the Cordillera. That possibility of backarc extension raises questions about the tectonic environment of the contemporaneous main Sierra Nevada high-flux arc closer to the continental margin.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Stratigraphy of the Eocene–Oligocene Titus Canyon Formation, Death
           Valley, California (USA), and Eocene extensional tectonism in the Basin
           and Range

    • Abstract: AbstractGeologic mapping, measured sections, and geochronologic data elucidate the tectonostratigraphic development of the Titus Canyon extensional basin in Death Valley, California (USA), and provide new constraints on the age of the Titus Canyon Formation, one of the earliest synextensional deposits in the central Basin and Range. Detrital zircon maximum depositional ages (MDAs) and compiled 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate that the Titus Canyon Formation spans 40(')–30 Ma, consistent with an inferred Duchesnean age for a unique assemblage of mammalian fossils in the lower part of the formation. The Titus Canyon Forma tion preserves a shift in depositional environment from fluvial to lacustrine at ca. 35 Ma, which along with a change in detrital zircon provenance may reflect both the onset of local extensional tectonism and climatic changes at the Eocene–Oligocene boundary. Our data establish the Titus Canyon basin as the southernmost basin in a system of late Eocene extensional basins that formed along the axis of the Sevier orogenic belt. The distribution of lacustrine deposits in these Eocene basins defines the extent of a low-relief orogenic plateau (Nevadaplano) that occupied eastern Nevada at least through Eocene time. As such, the age and character of Titus Canyon Formation implies that the Nevadaplano may have extended into the central Basin and Range, ~200 km farther south than previously recognized. Development of the Titus Canyon extensional basin precedes local Farallon slab removal by ~20 m.y., implying that other mechanisms, such as plate boundary stress changes due to decreased convergence rates in Eocene time, are a more likely trigger for early extension in the central Basin and Range.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Revised age and regional correlations of Cenozoic strata on Bat Mountain,
           Death Valley region, California, USA, from zircon U-Pb geochronology of
           sandstones and ash-fall tuffs

    • Abstract: AbstractBasin analysis and tectonic reconstructions of the Cenozoic history of the Death Valley region, California, USA, are hindered by a lack of volcanic (tuff) age control in many stratigraphic successions exposed in the Grapevine and Funeral Mountains of California, USA. Although maximum depositional ages (MDAs) interpreted from detrital zircon U-Pb data may be a promising alternative to volcanic ages, arguments remain regarding the calculation of MDAs including, but not limited to, the number of “young” grains to consider (i.e., the spectrum of dates used to calculate the MDA); which grains, if any, should be ignored; which approaches yield results that are statistically rigorous; and ultimately, which approaches result in ages that are geologically reasonable. We compare commonly used metrics of detrital zircon MDA for five sandstone samples from the Cenozoic strata exposed on Bat Mountain in the southern Funeral Mountains of California—i.e., the youngest single grain (YSG), the weighted mean of the youngest grain cluster of two or more grains at 1σ uncertainty (YC1σ(2+)) and of three or more grains at 2σ uncertainty (YC2σ(3+)), the youngest graphical peak (YPP), and the maximum likelihood age (MLA). Every sandstone sample yielded abundant Cenozoic zircon U-Pb dates that formed unimodal, near-normal age distributions that were clearly distinguishable from the next-oldest grains in each sample and showed an apparent up-section decrease in peak age. Benchmarked against published K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages and five new zircon U-Pb ages of ash-fall tuffs, our analysis parallels prior studies and demonstrates that many MDA metrics—YSG, YC1σ(2+), YC2σ(3+), and YPP—drift toward unreasonably young or old values. In contrast, the maximum likelihood estimation approach and the resulting MLA metric consistently produce geologically appropriate estimates of MDA without arbitrary omission of any young (or old) zircon dates. Using the MLAs of sandstones and zircon U-Pb ages of interbedded ash-fall tuffs, we develop a new age model for the Oligocene–Miocene Amargosa Valley Formation (deposited ca. 28.5–18.5 Ma) and the Miocene Bat Mountain Formation (deposited ca. 15.5–13.5 Ma) and revise correlations to Cenozoic strata across the eastern Death Valley region.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Evidence for regionally continuous Early Cretaceous sinistral shear zones
           along the western flank of the Coast Mountains, coastal British Columbia,
           Canada

    • Abstract: AbstractThe plate-boundary conditions of the Mesozoic North American Cordillera remain poorly constrained, but most studies support large (>800 km) southward motion of the Insular and Intermontane superterranes during Jurassic–Cretaceous time. An implicit feature in these models of large coastwise displacements is the presence of one or more continentalscale sinistral strike-slip faults that could have dismembered and displaced terrane fragments southward along the western margin of North America prior to the onset of mid-Cretaceous shortening and dextral strike-slip faulting. In this study, we documented a system of sinistral intra-arc shear zones within the Insular superterrane that may have accommodated large southward motion. Employment of a new large-n igneous zircon U-Pb method more than doubled the precision of measurements obtained by laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (from ~1% to 0.5%) and allowed us to demonstrate the close temporal-spatial relationship between magmatism and deformation by dating comagmatic crosscutting phases. Crystallization ages of pre-, syn-, and postkinematic intrusions show that the intra-arc shear zones record an Early Cretaceous phase of sinistral oblique convergence that terminated between 107 and 101 Ma. Shear zone cessation coincided with: (1) collapse of the Gravina basin, (2) development of a single voluminous arc that stitched the Insular and Intermontane superterranes together, and (3) initiation of eastwest contractional deformation throughout the Coast Mountains. We interpret these concurrent tectono-magmatic events to mark a shift in plate kinematics from a sinistral-oblique system involving separate terranes and intervening ocean basins to a strongly convergent two-plate margin involving a single oceanic plate and the newly assembled western margin of North America.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Mantellic degassing of helium in an extensional active tectonic setting at
           the front of a magmatic arc (central Mexico)

    • Abstract: AbstractThe physicochemical and isotopic characteristics of groundwater and dissolved gas of central Mexico provide valuable information about the geologic and tectonic context of the area. Low–high-enthalpy manifestations (up to 98 °C in springs and more than 100 °C in geothermal wells) are distributed within the San Juan del Río, Querétaro, and Celaya hydrologic basins, located at the boundary between the current Mexican magmatic arc and an extensional continental area with intraplate volcanism called Mesa Central Province. Groundwaters in the study area represent a mixture between the cold water end-member with a Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3-composition and a hydrothermal end-member enriched in Na+, K+, SO42−, and Cl-. Cold and hot groundwaters δ2H and δ18O plot along the same evaporation lines and do not exhibit a magmatic input. Dissolved and free gas do not show a typical volcanic composition signature. He and Ne isotope composition provide evidence of an important contribution of non-atmospheric noble gases. Although helium composition mainly has a crustal origin (21–83%), the mantellic contribution (1–39%) is higher than expected for an area lacking recent volcanism. A volatilerich magma aging at depth was discarded as the source of this mantellic helium signature but points out a recent mantellic contribution. Thus, we propose that mantellic helium comes from the sublithospheric mantle into the shallow crust through the highly permeable tectonic boundaries between the geologic provinces, namely the N−S Taxco−San Miguel de Allende and Chapala-Tula fault systems. Mantellic helium flow rates through these fault systems were estimated to have values ranging from 0.1 m/yr to 2.9 m/yr. This He flux range implies that aside from subduction, mantle volatile degassing enhanced by crustal fault systems is the main degassing process in the region studied.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Pondosa fault zone: A distributed dextral-normal-oblique fault system
           in northeastern California, USA

    • Abstract: AbstractThe tectonic domains of Basin and Range extension, Cascadia subduction zone contraction, and Walker Lane dextral transtension converge in the Mushroom Rock region of northeastern California, USA. We combined analysis of high-resolution topographic data, bedrock mapping, 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, low-temperature thermochronology, and existing geologic and fault mapping to characterize an extensive dextral-normal-oblique fault system called the Pondosa fault zone. This fault zone extends north-northwest from the Pit River east of Soldier Mountain, California, into moderately high-relief volcanic topography as far north as the Bartle (California) townsite with normal and dextral offset apparent in geomorphology and fault exposures. New and existing 40Ar/39Ar and radiocarbon dating of offset lava flows provides ages of 12.4 ka to 9.6 Ma for late Cenozoic stratigraphic units. Scarp morphology and geomorphic expression indicate that the fault system was active in the late Pleistocene. The Pondosa fault zone may represent a dextral-oblique accommodation zone between north-south–oriented Basin and Range extensional fault systems and/or part of the Sierra Nevada–Oregon Coast block microplate boundary.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Tectonic setting of metamorphism and exhumation of eclogite-facies rocks
           in the South Beishan orogen, northwestern China

    • Abstract: AbstractHigh-pressure metamorphic rocks occur as distinct belts along subduction zones and collisional orogens or as isolated blocks within orogens or mélanges and represent continental materials that were subducted to deep depths and subsequently exhumed to the shallow crust. Understanding the burial and exhumation processes and the sizes and shapes of the high-pressure blocks is important for providing insight into global geodynamics and plate tectonic processes. The South Beishan orogen of northwestern China is notable for the exposure of early Paleozoic high-pressure (HP), eclogite-facies metamorphic rocks, yet the tectonism associated with the HP metamorphism and mechanism of exhumation are poorly understood despite being key to understanding the tectonic evolution of the larger Central Asian Orogenic System. To address this issue, we examined the geometries, kinematics, and overprinting relationships of structures and determined the temperatures and timings of deformation and metamorphism of the HP rocks of the South Beishan orogen. Geochronological results show that the South Beishan orogen contains ca. 1.55–1.35 Ga basement metamorphic rocks and ca. 970–866 Ma granitoids generated during a regional tectono-magmatic event. Ca. 500–450 Ma crustal thickening and HP metamorphism may have been related to regional contraction in the South Beishan orogen. Ca. 900–800 Ma protoliths experienced eclogite-facies metamorphism (~1.2–2.1 GPa and ~700–800 °C) in thickened lower crust. These HP rocks were subsequently exhumed after ca. 450 Ma to mid-crustal depths in the footwall of a regional detachment fault during southeast-northwest–oriented crustal extension, possibly as the result of rollback of a subducted oceanic slab. Prior to ca. 438 Ma, north-south–oriented contraction resulted in isoclinal folding of the detachment fault and HP rocks. Following this contractional phase in the middle Mesozoic, the South Beishan orogen experienced thrusting interpreted to be the response to the closure of the Tethyan and Paleo-Asian Ocean domains. This contractional phase was followed by late Mesozoic extension and subsequent surface erosion that controlled exhumation of the HP rocks.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • A major Miocene deepwater mud canopy system: The North Sabah–Pagasa
           Wedge, northwestern Borneo

    • Abstract: AbstractThree-dimensional seismic reflection data, well data, and analogues from areas with extensive shale tectonics indicate that the enigmatic deepwater “shale nappe or thrust sheet” region of northern offshore Sabah, Malaysia, now referred to as the North Sabah–Pagasa Wedge (NSPW), is actually a region of major mobile shale activity characterized by mini-basins and mud pipes, chambers, and volcanoes. A short burst of extensive mud volcano activity produced a submarine mud canopy complex composed of ~50 mud volcano centers (each probably composed of multiple mud volcanoes) that cover individual areas of between 4 and 80 km2. The total area of dense mud canopy development is ~1900 km2. During the middle Miocene, the post-collisional NSPW was composed predominantly of overpressured shales that were loaded by as much as 4 km thickness of clastics in a series of mini-basins. Following mini-basin development, there was a very important phase of mud volcanism, which built extensive mud canopies (coalesced mud flows) and vent complexes. The mud canopies affected deposition of the overlying and interfingering deposits, including late middle to early late Miocene deepwater turbidite sandstones, which are reservoirs in some fields (e.g., Rotan field). The presence of the extensive mud volcanoes indicates very large volumes of gas had to be generated within the NSPW to drive the mud volcanism. The Sabah example is only the second mud canopy system to be described in the literature and is the largest and most complex.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Oceanic intraplate faulting as a pathway for deep hydration of the
           lithosphere: Perspectives from the Caribbean

    • Abstract: AbstractThe recycling of water into the Earth’s mantle via hydrated oceanic lithosphere is believed to have an important role in subduction zone seismicity at intermediate depths. Hydration of oceanic lithosphere has been shown to drive double planes of intermediate-depth, Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity at subduction zones. However, observations from trenches show that pervasive normal faulting causes hydration ~25 km into the lithosphere and can explain neither locations where separations of 25–40 km between Wadati-Benioff zone planes are observed nor the spatial variability of the lower plane in these locations, which suggests that an additional mechanism of hydration exists. We suggest that intraplate deformation of >50-m.y.-old lithosphere, an uncommon and localized process, drives deeper hydration. To test this, we relocated the 25 November 2018 6.0 MW Providencia, Colombia, earthquake mainshock and 575 associated fore- and aftershocks within the interior of the Caribbean oceanic plate and compared these with receiver functions (RF) that sampled the fault at its intersection with the Mohorovičić discontinuity. We examined possible effects of velocity model, initial locations of the earthquakes, and seismicphase arrival uncertainty to identify robust features for comparison with the RF results. We found that the lithosphere ruptured from its surface to a depth of ~40 km along a vertical fault and an intersecting, reactivated normal fault. We also found RF evidence for hydration of the mantle affected by this fault. Deeply penetrating deformation of lithosphere like that we observe in the Providencia region provides fluid pathways necessary to hydrate oceanic lithosphere to depths consistent with the lower plane of Wadati-Benioff zones.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Strain partitioning in the Moine Nappe, northernmost Scotland

    • Abstract: AbstractExtreme strain in the form of flattening or constriction during noncoaxial shear in ductile shear zones provides a record of ductile thrust system dynamics and the overall tectonic evolution. Within the Moine Nappe in northern Scotland, between the Ben Hope and Moine thrusts, the Strathan Conglomerate displays apparent strain partitioning with extreme flattening (e.g., laterally extensive sheets of deformed pebbles with aspect ratios of 134:113:1 and 88–92% estimated thinning) adjacent to the overlying Ben Hope Thrust and extreme constriction (e.g., rods with aspect ratios of 21:4:1 and estimated extension of 1000%) lower in the nappe package. We demonstrate that partitioning of strain is between its intensity and how deformation is manifested. Field, microstructural, and crystallographic orientation data from this study indicate that both areas were deformed by WNW-directed noncoaxial shear and coaxial flattening under amphibolite-facies conditions. Adjacent to the Ben Hope thrust, flattening was pervasive during nonco-axial shear, whereas beneath and within the Moine Nappe package, polyphase folding dominated. There, early, large-scale folds (F2) rotated into the transport direction. Subsequent transport-parallel (F3) folds and tubular sheath folds formed on the F2 limbs and were dismembered to form rods. No evidence of constriction is observed; instead, pervasive noncoaxial shear was accompanied by minor flattening under decreasing temperature conditions. Thus, these S-tectonites in the Moine Nappe are the result of concentrated flattening of pebbles into sheets during WNW-directed shear, whereas the L-tectonites result from heterogeneously distributed shear and folding, coupled with minor flattening, which produced rods without constriction.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Illuminating geology in areas of limited exposure using texture shading of
           lidar digital terrain models

    • Abstract: AbstractRegions of sparse exposure challenge geologic mappers because of limited information available on the underlying structure and continuity of the map units. We introduce here a little-known technique for post-processing bare earth digital terrain models (DTMs) that can dramatically improve knowledge of the underlying structure in covered areas. Texture shading enhances changes in slope and does not suffer from limitations introduced by artificial illumination required in hillshade or shaded relief images. When this technique is applied to lidar DTMs, layers of rock units with variable resistance to erosion can be clearly imaged, even in areas with limited outcrop. This technique enables one to collect comprehensive orientation data in areas of deformed sedimentary strata, assess the continuity of metamorphic and igneous rock units, and depict basement fracture sets. We demonstrate the use of texture shading in the Valley and Ridge of northern Pennsylvania, metamorphic rocks in the Berkshire Hills of western Massachusetts and Green Mountains of Vermont, and glacial deposits in the Finger Lakes region of upstate New York (northeastern United States).
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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