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  Subjects -> GEOGRAPHY (Total: 493 journals)
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The Geographic Base
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2705-4616 - ISSN (Online) 2705-4624
Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [154 journals]
  • Historical Land Use and Land Cover Change of Eastern Nepal: A Case of
           Dharan Sub-Metropolitan City

    • Authors: Raju Rai, Rajendra Prakash Tandan, Laxmi Basnet, Binod Baniya
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Land use and land cover change (LUCC) has become an essential for monitoring and managing the natural resources, urban planning as well as sustainable development of any place. This study analyzes the historical LUCC during 1986-2020 of Dharan sub-metropolitan city (DSC) of Sunsari district, eastern Nepal. To analyze historical LUCC, LRMP (1986), ICIMOD (1990, 2000, 2010) and Google Earth Image (December, 2020) were used in the study. The results reveal the expansion of built-up areas by 500%, whereas agricultural land and forest cover decreased by 4% and6%, respectively, during the past 34 years. Mainly the growing built-up area encroached on the agricultural land, forest and river banks. The built-up area is expanded to the south-eastern, north-eastern and western direction from the core area. The built-up area is still likely to increase with high pace in the future, where need to give more attention to future possible urban hazards, urban pollutions and haphazard urbanization while making urban planning and policies.
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.3126/tgb.v8i01.43458
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 01 (2021)
       
  • Land Suitability Analysis for Potential Agriculture Land Use in Sambhunath
           Municipality, Saptari, Nepal

    • Authors: Bikash Kumar Karna, Shobha Shrestha, Hriday Lal Koirala
      Pages: 13 - 30
      Abstract: Rapid and unplanned urbanization and haphazard infrastructure development causes pressure on the finite land resource and there is urgent need to preserve the arable land for food security. Land suitability analysis is a technique in which the land quality assessment is performed through interpretation of land properties for allocation of lands for particular use. The present paper attempts to conduct a land suitability analysis to determine the potential sites for agriculture land use in Sambhunath municipality of Saptari district. The criteria/ factors for the land suitability analysis were identified through literatures and modified in the local context through expert opinions and focus group discussions. The evaluation of agriculture land is accomplished using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) and Geographic Information System (GIS). Agriculture suitability index was developed and optimized qualitatively through the strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat (SWOT) analysis. Finally, potential agriculture suitability index map is prepared. The analysis shows almost 3139 ha (29%) lands as 14 highly suitable and 3001 ha (28%) of moderately suitable agriculture land within the municipality. Almost all the suitable agriculture land is located at low land with flat terrain to gentle slope having high natural fertility and mainly in land capability classes I and II. The unsuitable and poorly suitable agriculture land is occupied in the undulating areas and hilly terrain of the Siwalik hill. The study found the GIS tool integrated with MCE-AHP useful in land suitability evaluation process and anticipated that it could act as the planning tool to allocate lands in land use planning for sustainable agricultural practices.
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.3126/tgb.v8i01.43464
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 01 (2021)
       
  • Assessment of Solar Photovoltaic Potential of Building Rooftops Using
           Photogrammetry and GIS

    • Authors: Ashmeera Dahal, Bimala Chhetri, Kshitij Raj Sharma, Mira Neupane
      Pages: 31 - 46
      Abstract: As conventional non-renewable energy is becoming increasingly scarce, the development of renewable energies, such as solar energy, has become a major priority in today's world. In this study, it has developed an approach to simulate solar radiation on rooftops of Paschimanchal Campus and estimate the solar photovoltaic (PV) potential using Photogrammetry and GIS techniques. The object-based method was used to extract and classify buildings using very high-resolution data: orthophoto, the UAV-derived Digital Surface Model, and Digital Terrain Model raster layers. For more accurate estimation of solar panel installations, the evaluation of solar radiation is essential and the amount of solar radiation that was converted into solar PV potential depends upon the technical characteristics of the panel (technology used: monocrystalline or polycrystalline). Subsequently, the evaluated cost of solar panel installation was compared to the cost of grid-based electricity of the study area. The result obtained shows that 18 rooftops of the buildings are the most suitable place for solar panel installation and their usable area is 4303.67m². 32 For polycrystalline and monocrystalline technologies, the annual PV power generation in the study area is 868 MWh/ yr and 1274 MWh/yr respectively. It was found that 1428.42m² of the suitable area was enough to fulfill the yearly demand of Paschimanchal Campus. For polycrystalline technologies, around 876 panels costing NRS.1,57,68,000 are required. The cost analysis of 10 years concludes solar energy will be cheaper than grid-based electricity by NRS.1,04,10,785.
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.3126/tgb.v8i01.43467
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 01 (2021)
       
  • Analysis of Urban Infrastructures and Facilities in Pakhribas
           Municipality, Dhankuta, Nepal

    • Authors: Kishor Bhandari, Basanta Paudel
      Pages: 47 - 62
      Abstract: The study presents condition of spread of urban infrastructures to over the Pakhribas municipality, Dhankuta, Nepal. Both the primary and secondary data were used for the study. Secondary data was collected from municipal profile of Pakhribas municipality and the primary data i.e., field observation, household questionnaire survey and focus group discussion were carried out for identify existing condition of the physical infrastructure, the access of the local people to the infrastructure, and the expectation of the dwellers with the municipality. Statistical analysis was preformed through arithmetic mean, population density and infrastructure development index. The result shows ward number four has the highest population density, and the people have more access to urban facilities including heath facilities and schools. The rest wards of the municipality have similar condition with its neighboring rural municipalities in terms of infrastructures and facilities. Among the total households most of them (90.45%) use pipe water for drinking. Most households (95.02%) use hydroelectricity. Most of the area of municipality 48 have easy access for the transportation with different status of road i. e. feeder road, district road and Highway. There have eight recreation centers within the municipality, which prompted domestic tourism in the region. The information screened through this study provided the overall infrastructure and facilities status of the municipality.
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.3126/tgb.v8i01.43470
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 01 (2021)
       
  • Farmer’s Awareness on Pesticide Waste Management and Role of Pesticides
           in Water Contamination in Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan

    • Authors: Hammad Ul Hussan, Muhammad Nabeel Amjad, Faisal Mumtaz, Barjeece Bashir, Adeel Ahmad
      Pages: 63 - 72
      Abstract: This study emphasizes the awareness and training of farmers on sustainable agricultural practices for restrictive use of pesticides to reduce water pollution caused by pesticides in rural areas. For this assessment, 150 feasible farmers were selected randomly using a convenient sampling technique. Data was collected through interviews (n=30) and questionnaires (n=120). Data was scrutinized in SPSS software. To examine freshwater contamination with pesticides, freshwater samples were collected from open water bodies (5 wells) in the area of tehsil Hasilpur (29.6902° N, 72.5796° E) and Qaimpur of Bahawalpur, Punjab, and analyzed for eight pesticides which are frequently used. ECD: Electron Capture Detector was used to detect the organochlorine pesticides, herbicides, and various halogenated hydrocarbons. NPD: Nitrogen Phosphorus Detector was used to detect nitrogen- or phosphorus[1]containing compounds. Approximately 80% of farmers revealed that they never got any training or informative 64 sessions for pest management other than using chemical pesticides. The remaining 20% were trained by some private non-toxic pesticide manufacturing firms operating in Pakistan. Although non-significant cooperation from the government bodies of the state, the correlation among respondents’ profiles and the extent of training they have received in total was positive. Results for pesticide contamination were astonishing as 6 out of 8 pesticides were detected in water samples with alarming concentrations of Carbofuran (23.1µg/l) and Monocrotophos (8.3µg/l) which can be fatal for animals and humans in prolonged usage. The use of pesticides in a preventive and sustainable way gives more protection against pests and minimizes pollution such as water pollution or air pollution, etc., caused by the chemicals (pesticides). Hence such sustainable practices must be adopted for better production and conservation of the environment.
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.3126/tgb.v8i01.43472
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 01 (2021)
       
  • Soil Fertility Management Practice in Sainamaina Municipality, Rupandehi
           Nepal

    • Authors: Ishwor Aryal, Umesh Kumar Mandal, Bishal Gnyawali
      Pages: 73 - 84
      Abstract: This paper aims to show the soil fertility management practice in Sainamaina Municipality, Rupandehi Nepal. Soil fertility management is human practice to increase crop productivity while maintaining or improving soil's physical chemical and biological properties. For research work, ward 5,6,7,8 and 9 of Sainamaina municipality Rupandehi district of Nepal was selected as the study area. This study was conducted based on both primary and secondary data. To make soil more fertile, urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP) and potas are applied as chemical fertilizer and animal dung and green manure (Sesbana bispinosa and vigna radiata) are used as organic fertilizer in the study area. To save potato from blight, farmers use to apply pesticides getting from local aggravates and pesticides are used to control Gabaro Stem Borer) in paddy and maize in spring and autumn. To remove weeds by human resource the Parimo System (equal labor sharing by farmers to each other) was rooted in past but through time Parimo System is decreasing because of peoples of study area are engaged to other occupation as well. Out of the 74 total agriculture area (2361.7ha) only 9% were irrigated. Around 80% area of the total irrigated land irrigated by public tub well. There are six tube wells situated in study area. Farmers of the study area used both domestic and improved seeds and they often practiced bartering system for local domestic seeds for their cultivation. Local domestic seed is gradually going to be replaced by hybrid seeds. The different productivity of different crops was detected from the farmer as an indicator of soil fertility management practice.
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.3126/tgb.v8i01.43475
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 01 (2021)
       
  • Water Resources and Adaptation Strategies to Water Scarcity at Sukajor
           Village in Ramechhap Municipality

    • Authors: Pabitra Karki, Sunita Lama, Prem Sagar Chapagain
      Pages: 85 - 94
      Abstract: Climate change has stressed water resources. Water availability and its management is critical for rural livelihood including farmers. Decreasing water supplies have been causing negative impact to rural people's livelihoods in mid-hills of Nepal, particularly for crop production during the dry months of the year. People are coping with different adaptation strategies that varies with time, situation, and available technology. In this context, the main objective of this research is to study water resource and adaptation strategies of local people of Sukajor-7, Ramechhap Municipality. Primary and secondary data were collected using GPS survey, household survey, KII, FGD, and field observation. The study result shows water supply has not met the demand, only 74.5 percent of total daily drinking water demand has met. Though traditional water management practice exists, water demand has not fulfilled yet. However, water management system was traditional as they kept water sources open and was not able to store the water so that they had to travel to the water sources located at longer distance. The supply of water is insufficient even though 86 the people had made intake in the sources and operated lift system in Chhatiwane, Agaute and Chimkhi. People harvest rain water as alternative sources of water.
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.3126/tgb.v8i01.43478
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 01 (2021)
       
  • Effect of Nitrogen Levels on Use Efficiencies and Yield of Wheat at
           Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal

    • Authors: Prabin Ghimire, Ashok Acharya, Chakra Devkota, Janma Jaya Gairhe
      Pages: 95 - 108
      Abstract: Improper nitrogen management and declining soil fertility are major constraints of wheat production in Nepal. Limited information is available on optimum nitrogen levels and use efficiencies. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted on November 2018 at the Inner Terai to determine the effect of nitrogen on yield and improve the nitrogen use efficiency of wheat. Levels of five nitrogen, 0 kg ha-1 (Control), 60 kg ha-1,80 kg ha-1, 100 kg ha-1 and 120 kg ha-1, were laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replicates. Observations on growth parameters such as plant height (cm), tiller m-2 and yield attributing characteristics such as thousand grain weight (g), spike length (cm), and grain spike-1, were found to be highest at a nitrogen level of 120 kg ha-1. Nitrogen at 120 kg ha-1 increases the grain yield, straw yield and harvest index. The grain nitrogen concentration at 120 kg ha-1 was statistically similar to that at 100 kg ha-1 and 80 kg ha-1 while nitrogen uptake was highest (114. 833 kg ha-1) at 120 kg ha-1 and lowest in control. Agronomic use efficiency is highest at 100 kg ha-1 and lowest at 60 kg ha-1. The apparent fertilizer N 96 recovery percentage was high (49.62%) at 120 kg ha-1, which is statistically similar to 100 kg ha-1 (46.97%) and lowest (31.76%) at 60 kg ha-1. However, observing agro physiological efficiency and the nitrogen harvest index did not show any significant difference among treatments. The application of nitrogen at 120 kg ha-1 was required to produce the preferable yield and the nitrogen use efficiency traits.
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.3126/tgb.v8i01.43477
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 01 (2021)
       
  • Labor Migration Trend in Nepal

    • Authors: Bishnu Prasad Pangali Sharma, Chandra Kanta Baral, Liladhar Sapkota
      Pages: 109 - 122
      Abstract: Migration is one of the major factors affecting population distribution of Nepal. Job opportunity, education facility, medical facility and topographic situation are the key causes of migration. Human movement from mountain to hill; hill to Tarai; and rural to urban area migration are the major trend observed in Nepal. Migration has direct impact on various sectors including financial, social, demographic, and biological. All kind of services including educational, medical, transformational, and safety services should make equally accessible over the various parts of the country. This research helps to understand the trend of internal and international labor migration in Nepal. The study has used secondary data from Department of Foreign Employment (DoFE), Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Ministry of Finance (MoF). Remittance is playing a crucial role in the Nepalese economy. The highest foreign labor migration was found in the year 2013/14. The trend was continuously increased until 2013/14 and it has stated decreasing thereafter. International labor migration has mostly taken place to Malaysia, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, 110 UAE and other Southeast Asian countries and it is growing over the time that has shifted the agricultural based economy towards remittance-based economy.
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.3126/tgb.v8i01.43488
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 01 (2021)
       
 
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