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  Subjects -> GEOGRAPHY (Total: 493 journals)
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Arctic
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0004-0843
Published by U of Calgary Homepage  [18 journals]
  • Empowering Churchill: Exploring Energy Security in Northern Manitoba

    • Authors: Michael Kvern, Patricia Fitzpatrick, LeeAnn Fishback
      Pages: 149 - 160
      Abstract: To those living in Churchill, Manitoba, having power means much more than being able to turn on the lights. Using Churchill as a case study, we examine how local context can improve the suitability of energy security definitions for communities in northern Canada. Churchill is an isolated northern municipality with no road access but is connected to the electrical grid. Energy consumption data were collected from utility providers and organized into a community energy profile. Semi-structured interviews (n = 23) and a community workshop (n = 12) identified challenges, opportunities, and a vision for Churchill’s energy system. High per capita energy consumption, especially of transportation (jet fuel) and heat (electricity and propane) sources dominate Churchill’s energy profile. The reliance on air travel and need for heating are realities that define energy systems in the North. Participants expressed desire for increased use of renewables and improved energy efficiency. Churchill is reliant on external sources of power and there is a need for agency and local decision making. Jurisdictional realities and the community’s desire for consideration of local context mean energy security definitions should take a regional approach. Recognizing these findings, we propose a new definition of energy security that fits the circumstances and desires of Churchill and the North.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Networks for Science-Informed Innovation in the Arctic: Insights on the
           Structure and Evolution of a Canadian Research Network

    • Authors: Ashlee-Ann E. Pigford, Gordon M. Hickey, Laurens Klerkx
      Pages: 161 - 179
      Abstract: In remote peripheral regions like the Arctic, research networks have been identified as an important mechanism for nurturing science-informed innovation. Given that relatively little is known about the network structures that support Arctic innovation processes, we employ social network analysis techniques to examine the structural organization and evolution of ArcticNet, a large Canadian Arctic scientific research network over a 13-year period (2004 – 17). ArcticNet funded 152 multidisciplinary research teams, connecting multiple types of science-based innovation actors, not including students (301 organizations and 1659 individuals). The research network grew without reaching saturation (increasing size, decreasing density), suggesting that ArcticNet was successful in recruiting new actors over the 13-year period. ArcticNet was centralized around non-local, public-sector actors (mainly Canadian academics). The emergence of collaborations across several boundaries (sectoral, geographic, thematic) suggests that non-local Canadian academic actors played an important boundary-spanning role, particularly in the early stages of the network. Participation by local northern actors doubled from Phase 1 to Phase 4, and with time, local northern actors had an increasing propensity for carrying out boundary-spanning roles and addressing structural holes. This study presents new insights into the networked nature of Arctic scientific research with potential implications for future research and innovation policy.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Yellowknives Dene and Gwich’in Stellar Wayfinding in Large-Scale
           Subarctic Landscapes

    • Authors: Chris M. Cannon, Paul Herbert, Fred Sangris
      Pages: 180 - 197
      Abstract: Indigenous systems of stellar wayfinding are rarely described or robustly attested outside of maritime contexts, with few examples reported among peoples of the high Arctic and some desert regions. However, like other large-scale environments that exhibit a low legibility of landmarks, the barrenlands of the Northwest Territories and the Yukon Flats of Alaska generally lack views of prominent or distinguishing topography for using classic route-based navigation. When travelling off trails and waterways in these respective inland subarctic environments, the Yellowknives Dene and the Alaskan Gwich’in utilize drastically different stellar wayfinding approaches from one another while essentially sharing the same view of the sky. However, in both systems the use of celestial schemata is suspended in favor of route-based navigation when the traveller intersects a familiar geographical feature or trail near their target destination, suggesting strong preference for orienting by landmarks when available. A comparison of both wayfinding systems suggests that large-scale environments that lack a readily discernible ground pattern may be more conducive to the development and implementation of a celestial wayfinding schema when combined with other influential factors such as culture, individual experience, and travel behavior. These are likely the first stellar wayfinding systems described in detail for any inland subarctic culture.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • On the Intermittent Formation of an Ice Bridge (Nunniq) across Roes
           

    • Authors: David G. Babb, Sergei Kirillov, Zou Zou A. Kuzyk, Troy Netser, Jasmine Liesch, C. Michelle Kamula, Tom Zagon, David G. Barber, Jens K. Ehn
      Pages: 198 - 224
      Abstract: Ice bridges are unique features that form when sea ice consolidates and remains immobilized within channels. They form in many locations throughout the Arctic and are typically noted for the polynyas that form on their lee side. However, ice bridges also provide a temporary platform that may be used by both humans and wildlife to cross otherwise impassable channels. For generations, Inuit in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, have used an ice bridge to cross Roes Welcome Sound and expand their hunting territory, though they report that the bridge only forms approximately every four years. Of interest both to Inuit and the scientific community is why the bridge forms so intermittently, by what mechanisms, and whether the frequency will change with ongoing warming and sea ice loss. Using satellite imagery, we determined that the bridge formed during 14 of the past 50 years (1971 – 2020). Generally, the bridge forms between January and March during a cold period that coincides with neap tide and after surface winds have rotated from the prevailing northerly (along-channel) winds to west-northwesterly (across-channel) winds. This rotation compresses the existing ice pack against Southampton Island, where it remains stationary because of the calm along-channel winds and low tidal range and coalesces under cold air temperatures. Breakup occurs between mid-June and early July after the onset of melt. Overall, the bridge forms when a specific set of conditions occur simultaneously; however, a warming climate, specifically a reduction in very cold days and a shorter ice season may affect the frequency of bridge formation, thereby limiting Inuit travel.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Food Storage in Permafrost and Seasonally Frozen Ground in Chukotka and
           Alaska Communities

    • Authors: Kenji Yoshikawa, Alexey A. Maslakov, Gleb Kraev, Hiroko Ikuta, Vladimir E. Romanovsky, J. Craig George, Anna E. Klene, Kelsey E. Nyland
      Pages: 225 - 241
      Abstract: Food cellars, otherwise referred to as ice or meat cellars, (lednik in Russian, k’aetyran in Chukchi, siġļuaq in Iñupiaq, and siqlugaq in Yupik) are a natural form of refrigeration in permafrost or seasonally frozen ground used to preserve, age, and ferment foods harvested for subsistence, including marine mammals, birds, fish, and plants. Indigenous peoples throughout the Arctic have constructed cellars in frozen ground for millennia. This paper focuses on cellars in Russian and American coastal and island communities of the Bering Strait, the region otherwise known as Beringia. This area has a unique, culturally rich, and politically dynamic history. Many traditions associated with cellars are threatened in Chukchi communities in Russia because of the impacts of climate change, relocation, dietary changes, and industrial development. However, even with warmer temperatures, cellars still provide a means to age and ferment food stuffs following traditional methods. In cooperation with local stakeholders, we measured internal temperatures of 18 cellars in 13 communities throughout the Bering Strait region and northern Alaska. Though cellars are widely used in permafrost regions, their structure, usage, and maintenance methods differ and exhibit influences of local climates, traditions, and economic activities. Monitoring internal temperatures and recording structural descriptions of cellars is important in the face of climate change to better understand the variety and resilience of living adaptations in different cold regions.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Population Characteristics, Morphometry, and Growth of Harvested Gray
           Wolves and Coyotes in Alaska

    • Authors: Carl D. Mitchell, Roy Chaney, Ken Aho, R. Terry Bowyer
      Pages: 242 - 256
      Abstract: Few concurrent studies exist of sympatric gray wolf (Canis lupus) and coyote (C. latrans) harvest at far northern latitudes. Moreover, no studies explicitly examine effects of concurrent harvest on phenotypes of wolves and coyotes. We documented changes in sex and age characteristics and morphology of gray wolves and coyotes harvested by hunters near Ptarmigan Lake, east-central Alaska, USA, between 1998 and 2001. We hypothesized that the harvest would result in larger, heavier canids, reduce densities, and increase young to adult ratios in both wolves and coyotes. We generated von Bertalanffy growth curves indicating that wolves and coyotes of both sexes increased in length or weight until 2 or 3 years old. No significant changes in either mean length or weight or length to weight ratios occurred during the 3-year study, except that coyote mean length was longer over the last winter of study. Catch-per-unit effort (CPUE) for wolves ranged from 0.061 to 0.112 killed/day and for coyotes from 0.552 to 0.11 killed/day over the study. CPUE indicated that coyotes but not wolves declined in abundance. Changes in male to female and young to adult ratios did not differ significantly for either canid. We posit that coyote populations were disproportionately affected by the conflation of the severe Arctic environment and sustained harvest. Our findings will be beneficial for managing sympatric canid populations and for understanding demographic responses to density-dependent processes in wolves and coyotes, especially at far northern latitudes.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Local Experts’ Observations, Interpretations, and Responses to
           Human-Polar Bear Interactions in Churchill, Manitoba

    • Authors: Aimee L. Schmidt, Philip Loring, Douglas A. Clark
      Pages: 257 - 271
      Abstract: Since interactions and conflicts between polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and people are reportedly increasing across the Arctic, there is a pressing need to better understand how such conflicts can be prevented or their outcomes ameliorated. A great deal of knowledge about what strategies work for both preventing and mitigating human-polar bear conflicts lies with local experts, yet this knowledge has often remained relatively inaccessible to contemporary wildlife managers. This study had three main aims: to document and synthesize local knowledge of polar bear behaviour in Churchill, Manitoba, to characterize perceptions and interpretations of polar bears, and to examine the linkage between local experts’ knowledge, perceptions, and actions. We identified a suite of bear behaviours that local experts consistently observe and interpret as cues to the bears’ intent. These behaviours are not unique to this locale. Nevertheless, differences in perspectives on the predictability of polar bear behaviour and in interpretations of the nature of bears significantly influence study participants’ strategies for responding to bears. Our findings demonstrate that human-related factors are more complex than current models of human-bear interactions account for, so there is a need to develop richer models for understanding what motivates and influences human behaviours and responses towards bears.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Newly Documented Behaviour of Free-Ranging Arctic Wolf Pups

    • Authors: L. David Mech
      Pages: 272 - 276
      Abstract: Whereas much is known about the behavior and development of captive young wolf (Canis lupus) pups, less detail has been published about some aspects of free-ranging wolf pup behavior. This article synthesizes 42 observations of free-ranging Arctic wolf pups from ages 13 through 52 days made during 10 summers from 1987 through 2006 on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada. Besides listing key behaviors such as howling and caching, I record unique observations of ages of pup urination without adult stimulation (22, 33, 42, 52 days), knowledge of which is important to studies of wolf domestication, and of a 48-day-old pup that traveled 39 km during a 12 h and 19 min round trip between the den and a prey carcass, including a 26.5 km trek in 5 h. These observations should lead to a deeper and more complete understanding of this critical period of pup growth and development.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Arctic Crashes: People and Animals in the Changing North, edited by Igor
           Krupnik and Aron L. Crowell

    • Authors: David S. Hik
      Pages: 277 - 278
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Mount Logan & the Icefields: Yukon Flying Adventures, by Andrew
           Williams

    • Authors: Garry K.C. Clarke
      Pages: 278 - 279
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Books Received

    • Authors: Patricia Wells
      Pages: 280 - 280
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Papers to Appear

    • Authors: Patricia Wells
      Pages: 280 - 280
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • John Joseph Kelley (1933-2022)

    • Authors: David W. Norton, Jerry Brown, Vera Alexander, Patrick I. Coyne, J. Craig George, Thomas F. Albert, Richard Savik Glenn, Gerald A. McBeath, Michael A. Castellini
      Pages: 281 - 284
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Six months in the Lhù’ààn Mân’ (Kluane Lake) watershed:
           Autobiographical reflection on the benefits of an extended data collection
           campaign

    • Authors: Kristina Miller
      Pages: 285 - 289
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • AINA News

    • Authors: Patricia Wells
      Pages: 290 - 290
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2022)
       
 
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