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Mediterranean Geoscience Reviews
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2661-863X - ISSN (Online) 2661-8648
Published by Springer (Kluwer Academic Publishers); Brill Academic Publishers  [1 journal]
  • The Katırınemeği and Asar fan delta complexes in the Manavgat Basin
           (southern Türkiye): facies architecture of small shoal-water deltas
           recording forced and normal regressions

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      Abstract: Abstract The study focuses on the late Serravallian–early Tortonian Katırınemeği fan delta complex in the west-central Manavgat Basin, SW Türkiye. It also includes data from the overlying late Tortonian–early Messinian Asar fan delta complex and outcrop sections lateral to these gravelly fan deltas. The two complexes were deposited above each other within the basin-fill succession. They were probably sourced by the same mountain canyon, whose fluvial system was temporarily deactivated by Tortonian major transgression. Each complex is a composite regressive-transgressive wedge comprising a forward-stepping set of forced-regressive basic wedges. They are coarsening-upward successions of each delta deposit indicating episodes of shallowing accompanied by shoreline progradation, overlain by an aggradational to a backstepping set of normal-regressive ones. Two additional forced-regressive basic wedges were deposited at the top of the Asar complex, with the last episode culminating in the dramatic fall of the regional sea level during mid-Messinian time. The forced-regressive basic wedges consist of shoreface facies covered by mouth-bar deposits and overlain by alluvium composed of multilateral, deeply incised, single-storey palaeochannels. The normal-regressive basic wedges consist of shoreface and foreshore/beach deposits overlain directly by alluvium. Marine processes entirely dominated the fan delta front during normal regressions. In the Katırınemeği case, only one forced regression (probably the strongest) and one later normal regression (probably the longest) were recorded by the coeval lateral shoreline. During the Serravallian sea-level highstand, the shoreline was perched on the high-relief basin margin. Hence, the trajectory of its subsequent shifts was steep, resulting in relatively little facies change in the offshore-transition zone. In the Asar case, all the regressive wedges are laterally correlative with a similar record of the contemporary non-deltaic shoreline. The shoreline’s higher sensitivity to sea-level changes was due to its separation from the high-relief basin margin by a wide strandplain accreted by waves and also alongshore sediment drift during the Tortonian highstand, which together resulted in a much greater horizontal component of the shoreline-shift trajectory. The difference in the facies architecture of basic fan delta wedges may help to distinguish between forced and normal regressions in the stratigraphic record. Recognising a set of forced-regressive basic wedges overlain by a set of normal-regressive ones may help identify the turning point of a lower-order regressive-transgressive sequence, which is not always identifiable in coeval non-deltaic succession. The correspondence or lack between the basic fan delta wedges and the coeval lateral nearshore record may reflect basin-margin configuration.
      PubDate: 2024-07-08
       
  • The coeval development of conglomeratic, shoal–water and Gilbert-type
           deltas in the post-orogenic extensional Çardak Basin, SW Türkiye:
           implications for accommodation and sediment supply

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      Abstract: Abstract This study focuses on the sedimentary facies and depositional architecture of the coarse-grained shoal–water delta complex and Gilbert-type delta deposits of the Çardak Basin in southwest Türkiye. The coexistence of these deltaic deposits, which developed on the opposite margins of the basin, provides an excellent opportunity to reconstruct the palaeogeographic evolution of the Çardak Basin during the Oligocene. As the sedimentary facies and palaeogeographical changes are generally controlled by the relationship between accommodation and sediment supply, the roles of syndepositional tectonics, basin dynamics, and hinterland morphology in developing different delta types are assessed. The orogen collapse of the Lycian Nappes led to the opening of the Çardak molasse basin in the Lutetian, and the shallow marine sedimentation developed in the basin from the Lutetian into the Late Chattian. A Gilbert-type delta up to 150 m thick was deposited on the western margin, and a shoal–water delta complex consisting of individual delta packages 5–20 m thick was deposited on the eastern margin. The shoal–water delta complex formed a sequence up to 300 m thick and 10 km wide within the basin. The Oligocene gravelly deltaic sediments deposited on the Eocene shoreface deposits indicate an abrupt deepening of the basin margins and an abundant supply of clastic sediments. The abrupt changes in sedimentary facies were caused by normal faults that increased the basin’s accommodation space and uplifted the surrounding hinterland, resulting in an abundant sediment supply. From the thickness of the shoal water and Gilbert-type delta deposits, we infer that the subsidence rate of the basin varied between the western and eastern margins. While the western margin subsided rapidly, the east margin was subjected to a slower but more sustained subsidence rate. The coarse-grained deltaic sediments, the multistorey fluvial distributary channel fills and the stacking of the individual deltas upon one another and with lateral offset indicate that the active channels of the stream-dominated alluvial fan fed the shoal–water delta complex.
      PubDate: 2024-07-03
       
  • Fluvial to estuarine facies architecture of the Late Serravallian–Early
           Tortonian incised valley fill in the Adana Basin, Türkiye: depositional
           evolution in response to sea-level change

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      Abstract: Abstract This study describes the sedimentary facies associations of the incised valley fill deposits, which allowed the reconstruction of the Late Serravallian–Early Tortonian palaeogeographic evolution of the Adana Basin, one of the largest peri-Mediterranean basins in southern Türkiye. The incised valley fill disconformably overlies the offshore mudstones and comprises fluvial and tide-dominated estuarine facies associations from base to top. The fluvial deposits comprise intercalated channel fill and overbank deposits. The laterally accreted point bars of the meandering river channel deposits consist of conglomerates and sandstones, while the overbank deposits form sheet-like beds of sandstones, siltstones and mudstones. These are overlain by fine- to coarse-grained marine sandstones rich in oyster fossils at the boundary. The sandstones show planar and trough cross-stratification, sigmoidal beds and herringbone cross-stratifications bounded by reactivation surfaces. These bi-directional sand bars, up to 150 cm in height, indicate tidal-bar deposits of the estuarine facies association. The biostratigraphic dating of the incised valley fill deposits suggests an age of approximately 11.78–11.19 million years, indicating the MMi8-MMi9 zone, based on planktonic foraminifera from underlying and overlying marine sediments. The deposits developed in response to the Late Serravallian relative sea-level fall that partially exposed the Adana Basin, indicating a regional forced regression and unconformity. The sediment supply led to the deposition of the thick fluvial deposits at the base of the incised valley due to the low relative sea-level rise rate. Progressive sea-level rise drowned the incised valley, transforming it into a marine embayment where tidal bars were deposited in a tide-dominated estuarine environment. This study shows that even in a microtidal setting like the Neogene Mediterranean, a tide-dominated estuarine environment can develop in response to the confinement and consequent amplification of the tidal currents in a funnel-shaped, narrow and shallow incised valley.
      PubDate: 2024-06-28
       
  • The Göktaş fan delta complex in Manavgat Basin, South Türkiye: a model
           for stratigraphic development of coarse-clastic littoral wedges and
           spatial-facies prediction

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      Abstract: Abstract The Göktaş fan delta complex is a regressive-transgressive wedge deposited in the late Serravallian to late Tortonian as a wave-dominated, dip-slope coastal system associated with the antithetic hangingwall faultline of the Manavgat Basin (South Türkiye), whose footwall was submerged. The gravelly fan delta was sourced from a pre-existing valley in the basin’s mountainous northern hinterland. The composite wedge, more than 230 m thick, consists of a series of regressive-transgressive basic wedges stacked upon one another and extending up to 18 km from the basin margin. A forward-stepping set of forced-regressive wedges is overlain by an aggradational to a backstepping set of normal-regressive wedges, split by a forced-regressive one in the middle. The fan delta complex has a timespan of ca. 4 Ma. It is considered to have formed in the transitional, fall-rise turnaround phase of two successive 3rd-order eustatic cycles, punctuated by rapid tectonic subsidence and fan delta drowning (4th-order maximum-flooding surfaces separating the basic wedges). Tectonics was probably responsible also for sporadic, brief events of 5th-order marine flooding, whereas minor shoreline shifts of 6th-order were likely due to climatic fluctuations and autocyclic lateral switching of fluvial activity. Based on the fan delta complexes in the Manavgat Basin and adjoining Köprü Basin, a model is suggested for the depositional architecture and facies anatomy of wave-dominated, shoal-water fan deltaic successions, with emphasis on the sedimentation processes and response to relative sea-level changes. In the hierarchical organisation of the fan delta complex, the normal-regressive basic wedges consist of highstand (HST) and transgressive systems tract (TST). In contrast, the forced-regressive wedges comprise highstand (HST), falling-stage (FSST), lowstand (LST), and transgressive systems tract (TST). The systems tracts differ in geometry and spatial partitioning of facies. The HST has a moderately thick, short-radius alluvium comprising moderately deep palaeochannels and extending basinwards over progradational mouth-bar facies, underlain and passing into a narrow belt of wave-worked shoreface facies grading into tempestitic offshore-transition deposits. The FSST has a thin and poorly preserved alluvium, including basal deposits of overdeepened bypass channels and incised valleys, that passes basinwards into progradational delta-front deposits developed as either mouth-bar facies underlain by shoreface deposits (possibly with offshoot turbiditic channels and lobes in offshore-transition zone) or a large foreset of avalanching strandplain deposits overlying offshore-transition facies. The LST has a moderately thin, basinward-thickening alluvium with mainly shallow palaeochannels, which overlies mouth-bar facies and passes basinwards into an aggradational delta-front succession of alternating beach and shoreface facies, the latter far extended as a passage to offshore-transition deposits. The TST has the thickest alluvium, comprising shallow to moderately deep palaeochannels and thinning basinwards rapidly, truncated by a landward-rising transgressive ravinement; the ravinement surface is overlain by a blanket of alternating upper/lower shoreface facies, passing landwards into beach facies and seawards into offshore-transition deposits. The model may serve to predict facies distribution in fan deltaic littoral wedges and assess reservoir quality in petroleum exploration.
      PubDate: 2024-06-17
       
  • Simulation of large plausible tsunami scenarios associated with the 2019
           Durres (Albania) earthquake source and adjacent seismogenic zones

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      Abstract: Abstract We present an analysis of the hazards of potential earthquake-generated tsunamis along the Albanian–Adriatic coast. The study adopts a case study approach to model plausible tsunamigenic events associated with the 2019 Mw 6.4 Durres (Albania) earthquake source zone. The approach combines current findings on regional tectonics and scenario-based calculations of potential tsunami impacts. The study’s goal is to analyse the propagation of tsunami waves generated by identified seismogenic sources (namely ALCS002 [Lushnje] and ALCS018 [Shijak]) and determine the tsunami risk assessment for Durres City on the Albanian–Adriatic coast. The sources can generate earthquakes with maximum moment magnitudes of Mw 7.5 and Mw 6.8, which are likely to trigger tsunamis that could cause significant impacts in the region. The modelling is performed deterministically with the NAMI DANCE numerical code, including scenarios associated with the largest plausible earthquake. The model integrates bathymetry and topography datasets of large and medium resolutions. Each tsunami scenario simulation is based on the solution of the non-linear shallow water equations used to generate maximum positive wave amplitudes (water elevation), travel time, and tsunami inundation maps. In Durres City, modelling indicates that medium-sized waves could reach up to 2.5 m inland, posing a significant danger to the city’s low-lying areas. The most substantial tsunami waves are expected to impact the area within the first 10 to 20 min. Combining inundation maps and information on exposed assets allows for identifying areas where damages can be expected. In terms of human impact, a preliminary analysis shows that the study area is prone to tsunami threat, with more than 138,000 inhabitants living in vulnerable urban areas of Durres City by 2036. The model’s capacity to capture details related to the presence of buildings is limited due to constraints posed by the resolution of bathymetry and topography datasets available during this study. If refined with high-resolution bathymetry and topography datasets, our results can be considered a backbone for exposure and resilience assessment features to be integrated into preparedness or new urban development plans.
      PubDate: 2024-06-17
       
  • Exploration opportunities in East Mediterranean through Egypt’s
           digital platform: a review

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      Abstract: Abstract Egypt has accumulated a significant volume of oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) data dating back to the late 1880s. This extensive collection of data sets is an invaluable national resource. Yet, the difficulty lies in efficiently handling and leveraging this data to encourage investment in the oil and gas industry and facilitate companies' access to it without requiring physical interaction with the data. This article assesses Egypt’s approach to digitalizing its E&P data by establishing the National Data Repository (NDR) and Egypt Upstream Gateway (EUG) portal. The primary objective is to bolster oil and gas industry investment by consolidating the extensive data repository into a single platform. The methodology involves analyzing the NDR and EUG portal implementation to achieve the objectives above. This includes examining the strategic role of the NDR in promoting license rounds and attracting international investment. The analysis encompasses reviewing the subsurface and bid round data, including a comprehensive post-stack merge of legacy seismic surveys in the Eastern Mediterranean basin. The results indicate that establishing the NDR and EUG portal has significantly improved the management and accessibility of Egypt’s E&P data. The NDR is a strategic tool in promoting license rounds and attracting international investment. At the same time, the EUG portal facilitates swift access to subsurface and bid round data, expediting the decision-making process for companies. The availability of rich subsurface datasets, including merged legacy seismic surveys, further enhances the platform's utility in promoting investment and maximizing hydrocarbon recovery in Egypt’s exploration blocks.
      PubDate: 2024-06-12
       
  • The frontal facies and sedimentation processes of a shoal-water fan delta
           in the Köprü Basin of southern Türkiye

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper focuses on the delta front deposits of well-exposed, progradational Serravallian fan delta complexes in the Köprü Basin, southern Türkiye. These shoal-water fan deltas were lobate, moderate to large (6–20 km in radius), built by fluvial processes and characterised by a high sediment supply, high nearshore wave energy and minimal tidal influence. The alluvial facies include channel-floor gravel lags, transverse/oblique and longitudinal gravel bars, local sandy cappings of inactive bars and abandoned channels, and minor gravelly deposits of hyperconcentrated sheetfloods. The alluvium in the middle to lower fan reaches bears little evidence of marine influence, except for isolated transgressive sheets of wave-worked sediment and occasional deep palaeochannels attributed to trunk river incision during forced regression episodes. The record of a short-term interplay of fluvial and marine processes is limited to the palaeoshoreline facies assemblages, including well-developed gravelly beaches and wave-modified mouth bars. The shoreface facies belt of wave-worked sandstones fringes both deltaic and interdeltaic shorelines but is generally wider and richer in gravel in the former case. The shoreface facies assemblage bears evidence of strong episodic seaward currents, often highly oblique to the shoreline, attributed to storm-generated rip currents and the compensation currents of storm and tsunami events. The well-sorted, shell-bearing shoreface sand was spread by storms into a wide offshore-transition zone and deposited as tempestites intercalated with hemipelagic mud. The seafloor had a significant inclination, and the tempestites were deposited by unidirectional compensation currents combined with waves and boosted by the gravity effect of high sediment concentration. Sporadic emplacement of thick gravelly mass flows in the offshore-transition zone is attributed to seismic tsunami events. The seaward record of fluvial floods includes progradational mouth-bar wedges formed by frictional stream effluent; nearshore mounds of beach-derived gravel, emplaced as cohesionless debris flows by the outbreaks of wave-dammed streams; and solitary turbiditic palaeochannels formed by a hyperpycnal effluent during forced regressions. The submarine channels were formed in only one fan deltas, with high discharges and somewhat steeper seafloor gradients, suggesting a morphodynamic threshold for channelised underflow. In the other fan deltas, mouth bars prograded by default in response to a sea-level fall, incised by streams and curtailed by marine processes. The study concurs with the prevailing opinion that the fronts of shoal-water fan deltas are tempestite- rather than turbidite-prone and points further to a heavy reworking of shoreface by storms, to the impact of sea-level fall on the pattern of delta front sedimentation, and to the occurrence of tsunami events in tectonically active basins.
      PubDate: 2024-06-07
       
  • Sedimentary and biostratigraphic records of Miocene sea-level changes in
           the Mut Basin (Southern Türkiye)

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      Abstract: Abstract The Mut Basin in Southern Türkiye formed as a post-orogenic intramontane collapse depression and a thick carbonate succession consisting mainly of platform carbonates and reefal limestones deposited in the basin during the Late Burdigalian–Late Tortonian. These shallow marine carbonates provide a high-resolution sedimentary record of several relative sea-level changes. Through sedimentological and biostratigraphical analyses, we have identified four major relative sea-level changes in the stratigraphic succession during the Late Burdigalian, Late Serravallian, Early Tortonian and the Late Tortonian. The first marine transgression, during the Late Burdigalian, flooded the basin and led to carbonate sedimentation, which continued without significant interruption until the Late Serravallian, causing the greatest amount of extension and deepening of the Mut Basin. However, the relative fall in sea level during the Late Serravallian interrupted marine sedimentation at the basin margin, causing subaerial exposure and fluvial erosion of carbonate sediments. As a result, the sediments eroded during this period were initially deposited in the shoreface and foreshore zones as sharp-based, forced regressive depositional units. The continued fall in base level was manifested by incised fluvial palaeovalleys; these formed on the reefal limestones of the Mut Formation, representing forced regression and unconformity. The latest sea-level lowering and early base-level rise resulted in the deposition of fluvial successions at the base of the incised valleys during the Early Tortonian. The rising sea level inundated the incised valleys and turned them into embayments. Gilbert-type delta, shoal-water delta, shoreface, foreshore, lagoonal sediments and platform carbonates were deposited within the incised valleys. These sediments reflect the interplay of marine flooding and sediment supply within the incised valley. The transgression associated with the Early Tortonian eustatic rise in sea level and the basin subsidence resulted in the deposition of a second generation of reefal limestones along the basin margin, namely the Tırtar Formation, which is directly superimposed on the limestones of the Mut Formation. The Late Tortonian forced regression was associated with the tectonic uplift of the Mut Basin and resulted in subaerial exposure and fluvial erosion along the basin margin. The sediments eroded from the Tırtar Formation formed Gilbert-type delta deposits on the lowstand shoreline.
      PubDate: 2024-06-04
       
  • The hidden glacial landscape of the Monti della Laga (central Apennines,
           Italy)

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      Abstract: Abstract The geological and geomorphological record of the Last Glaciation in the Apennines is extensively documented, except for the Monti della Laga sector, where limited indicators of glacier extension have been reported. This study presents field evidence of glacial deposits and landforms from two specific sites within the Monti della Laga Range: Monte Pelone and Tordino Valley head. Although limited, this evidence suggests glaciation within a structural and lithological setting that facilitated rapid slope evolution. The post-glaciation paraglacial processes in the area erased most glacial traces, but our geomorphological and stratigraphical investigations identified specific landforms of glacial origin. Notably, at Monte Pelone, a semi-circular depositional landform exhibiting a significant presence of coarse clasts and distinctive rotational features has been identified as a moraine. Additionally, a smaller moraine ridge with evidence of diamicton deposition was observed in the Tordino Valley head. These observations align with an Equilibrium Line Altitude estimated at 1750 m a.s.l. in the central Apennines in the Last Glacial Maximum and, considering the favourable topographic conditions of the area, significantly contribute to the understanding of glaciations within the central Apennines.
      PubDate: 2024-05-24
       
  • Evaluation of the performance of CMIP6 models in simulating precipitation
           over Morocco

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      Abstract: Abstract Morocco is encountering record daily maximum temperatures, severe rainfall deficits, intense thunderstorms, droughts, and powerful wind gusts, causing significant harm to people and property. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the course of these occurrences and to determine to what extent the global climate models (GCMs) used to project climate can replicate rainfall before they can be used in downscaling or impact assessment studies. GCMs are essential tools for climate studies, but selecting the best-performing ones remains challenging. This study aims to assess the extent to which certain climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project’s 6th phase (CMIP6) reproduce the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation across Morocco between 1981 and 2014. Total monthly precipitation from the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS) were used as observational references. We used six robust statistical metrics on monthly and annual scales, including relative bias, correlation coefficient, root means square error, relative error, Taylor diagram, and Kling–Gupta efficiency. The outcomes demonstrated that the ability of GCMs to simulate precipitation varied over space and time. The spatio-temporal properties of precipitation were well reproduced by all GCMs, with correlation values ranging from 0.78 to 0.87. The research also revealed that only a few models accurately captured the spatial patterns of the detected trends. According to the KGE metric, the GCM INM_CM5_0 is ranked first among the models with the highest KGE value (0.45), followed by GCM FGOALS_f3_L with a value of around 0.41. The study results can be applied to climate projections using CMIP6 under different IPCC scenarios.
      PubDate: 2024-05-20
       
  • The hydrological response of melting ephemeral snowpacks compared to
           winter rainfall events in a mid-mountainous Pyrenean catchment

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      Abstract: Abstract The hydrological role of ephemeral snowpacks and their differences in stormflow and sediment transport characteristics compared to events triggered by winter rainfall conditions have received limited attention. This study aims to analyze the hydrological and sediment transport responses to rain-on-snow (ROS), melt, mixed, and rainfall events in the Araguás Catchment, situated in a mid-mountain site of the Central Spanish Pyrenees, with a climate strongly influenced by Mediterranean conditions. This catchment represents the transition from a winter ephemeral snow environment to a fully rainfall-dominated site. Results indicate that snowmelt has a modest yet measurable impact on the annual water balance, averaging 10% and rising to 30% during winter (December to February). ROS and melt events consistently exhibited higher mean and maximum discharge and elevated stormflow coefficients compared to mixed and rainfall events. The lowest water infiltration into the soil was observed during melt events, attributed to the potential for frequent freezing soils, specific poor edaphic conditions, and the rapid snowmelt in the area. Consequently, melting events displayed the shortest flood hydrographs among the four analyzed events. The study also underscores precipitation’s almost negligible erodibility capacity in the solid phase and emphasizes the protective role of snow cover in preventing soil erosion. It is important to note that the presented results are significantly influenced by the physiographic, lithological, and edaphic characteristics of the Araguás Catchment. This highlights the importance of conducting more detailed analyses of ephemeral snowpacks in experimental sites under a broader range of environmental conditions for a comprehensive understanding.
      PubDate: 2024-05-20
       
  • Alpine periglacial zones in Anatolia: spatial distribution and main
           characteristics

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      Abstract: Abstract Although alpine periglacial studies in Anatolia date back to the 1950s, the distribution of periglacial areas and their general characteristics are poorly known. At present, geographic information systems and remote sensing technologies facilitate the identification of permafrost and periglacial features. In this study, alpine periglacial zones of Anatolia were identified and classified using data on mean annual temperature, Köppen-Geiger climate type, number of snow-covered months, land cover, and terrain classification data, employing Multi-Criteria Decision Making. The periglacial regions in Anatolia are classified into three zones, namely weak, moderate, and severe, based on the coefficient value. Our results indicate that periglacial areas cover 92,362 km2, corresponding to 11% area of Türkiye. Most periglacial regions are in the weak periglacial zone, while only 2% are in the moderate and severe periglacial zones. Periglacial areas are commonly observed between 1750 and 3500 m, and their severity increases with elevation. The mean elevations of weak, moderate, and severe periglacial zones are 2200 m, 2600 m, and 3000 m, respectively. The severe periglacial zones correspond to the summits of high mountains where Quaternary glaciations occurred. The average temperatures of the periglacial zones decrease with the severity of the zones. The annual average temperature of 5.6 °C in the weak periglacial zones decreases to 2.4 °C in the moderate periglacial zones and 0.6 °C in the severe periglacial zones. Total annual precipitation and the number of months with snow cover increase from weak to severe periglacial zones. Weak periglacial zones are snow-covered for an average of 3.3 months per year, while moderate and severe periglacial zones are snow-covered for an average of 5 months and 6.4 months per year, respectively. This study suggests that global datasets can be used to effectively identify alpine periglacial zones in Anatolia, taking into account the characteristics of known periglacial areas.
      PubDate: 2024-04-23
       
  • Updating the scientific content of the modern geography of viticulture for
           human, physical and regional applied studies

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      Abstract: Abstract Geography is a complex discipline dealing with multiple topics since its diverse focus employs deciphering human and natural environments. However, geographers’ role in viticulture for decades still needs to be fixed for other experts in related disciplines. Scarce literature can be found trying to resolve this geographical subdiscipline and remark on the relevant topics that geographers of viticulture can face considering, among others, the regional geographical analysis integrating physical and human interfaces. Therefore, in this commentary, we tried to update the background of this geographical subdiscipline by establishing the main topics, recommended types of research for geographers that work on these topics and setting some challenges and tools to be solved and used, respectively, in the coming future, but also remarking the key role that the geographical approach plays in viticulture, for decades ago to the coming future.
      PubDate: 2024-04-21
       
  • Exploring the spatio-temporal variability of four satellite-based
           precipitation products (SPPs) in northern Morocco: a comparative study of
           complex climatic and topographic conditions

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      Abstract: Abstract This study thoroughly assesses four well-developed SPPs (GPM, TRMM, CHIRPS, and PERISIANN-CDR) within four basins in northern Morocco, in the Tangier–Tetouan–Al Hoceima region. Their performance is assessed by directly comparing the SPPs against data collected from 49 rain gauge stations distributed across 4 basins with different climates (humid, semi-humid, and semi-arid) and topographical conditions within the region. The evaluation is conducted at three time scales (daily, monthly, and annually) and three spatial scales (point-to-pixel, basin, and regional) from January 2000 to December 2022. Various statistical measures assess their performance, including continuous (RSR, PBIAS, R2, and RMSE) and categorical (POD, FAR, FBI, and ACC) metrics. Results indicate a poor performance at a daily time scale at all three spatial scales (RSR > 0.95, R2 < 0.39, and PBIAS > ± 50%). However, GPM and TRMM outperformed the other SPPs on monthly and annual scales. The four SPPs estimate precipitation better in humid and semi-humid regions than in semi-arid regions. TRMM and GPM perform better in humid regions, while CHIRPS outperforms the other SPPs in semi-humid regions. Meanwhile, in semi-arid regions, TRMM and CHIRPS outperform other SPPs. The SPPs tend to overestimate precipitation, except in humid climates where CHIRPS and TRMM underestimate precipitation. Lower altitudes (< 500 m) give better results for SPPs, while higher (> 500 m) altitudes pose challenges for accurate precipitation estimation. In addition, these results lay the foundations for future algorithm development within the SPPs mission, underlining the ongoing need for research and improvement in this field.
      PubDate: 2024-04-10
       
  • The geologic configuration of the Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt: an overview

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      Abstract: Abstract The Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt (ZFTB) is an outstanding orogen running from eastern Turkey to the Makran area. It is formed as a consequence of the convergence between the Arabian and the Eurasian plates that occurred in the Neogene. This still active and long-lasting process generated a topographic configuration dominated by a series of parallel folding structures which, at places, isolate internal basins. The topographic configuration has, in turn, profoundly influenced the river network evolution, which follows a trellis pattern with the main valleys developed in the synclines and rivers that occasionally cut into anticlines. The peculiar climate, characterised by arid and semi-arid conditions, makes most of the rivers ephemeral, alimented only by short rainfall events. For this reason, the sediments are transported over short distances and deposited in huge alluvial fans. Although the Zagros is one of the most studied belts in the world, its tectonic evolution is far from being fully understood. Debated, for example, are the beginning of collision, the primary deformation mechanism, the evolution of the drainage system, the formation process of the alluvial fans, and the interrelations between landscape, tectonics, and climate. This paper, focusing on the geodynamic, geological, stratigraphic, and topographic configuration of the Zagros belt, is intended to be a compendium of the most up-to-date knowledge on the Zagros and aims to provide the cognitive basis for future research that can find answers to outstanding questions.
      PubDate: 2024-04-10
       
  • Evaluation of TRMM 3B43 V7 precipitation data in varied Moroccan climatic
           and topographic zones

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      Abstract: Hydrologists in developing countries face a major challenge due to the lack of ground data. This study evaluates the performance of the monthly Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) algorithm 3B43 V7 using 172 ground rainfall measurement stations (GRMS) over Morocco (1998–2018). The performance of the TRMM 3B43 V7 was assessed using four well-known metrics (KGE, R2, PBIAS, and RSR). The evaluation was undertaken based on (1) a point-to-pixel scale, (2) sub-regions of Morocco, (3) climatic zones, and (4) different ranges of altitudes. Results indicate that the TRMM 3B43 V7 provides satisfactory attribution in most regions of Morocco, with an average R2 higher than 0.54, except in the south areas, which have the lowest R2 between 0.29 and 0.41. The best R2 of 0.95 was observed in the Tangier-Tetouan-Al Hoceima region. The other performance criteria (KGE: 0.93, RSR: 0.21, PBIAS: − 5.5) indicate that TRMM 3B43 V7 is consistent with in situ data but slightly underestimated. At the point-to-pixel scale, KGE and R2 show that 61% and 52% of stations present satisfactory to good results, respectively. The PBIAS shows a large overestimation over most parts of Morocco, particularly the southern part. TRMM 3B43V7 performs better in the Mediterranean climate than in other climatic zones. TRMM 3B43 V7 harmonises GRMS slightly in low elevation zones, while average PBIAS show a global overestimation, increasing in high and low elevations. The results of this study confirm that TRMM 3B43 V7 provides a vital baseline tool to assist Moroccan Hydraulic Basin agencies. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2024-04-06
       
  • Scenario-based tsunami hazard assessment for Northeastern Adriatic coasts

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      Abstract: Abstract Significant tsunamis in the Northern Adriatic are rare, and only a few historical events have been reported in the literature, with sources mostly located along central and southern parts of the Adriatic coasts. Recently, a tsunami alert system has been established for the whole Mediterranean area; however, a detailed description of the potential impact of tsunami waves on coastal areas is still missing for several sites. This study aims to model the hazard associated with possible tsunamis generated by offshore earthquakes, with the purpose of contributing to tsunami risk assessment for selected urban areas along the Northeastern Adriatic coasts. Tsunami modelling is performed by the NAMI DANCE software, which allows accounting for seismic source properties, variable bathymetry, and nonlinear effects in wave propagation. Hazard scenarios at the shoreline are developed for the coastal areas of Northeastern Italy and at selected cities (namely, Trieste, Monfalcone, Lignano and Grado). An extensive set of potential tsunamigenic sources of tectonic origin located in three distance ranges (namely at Adriatic-wide, regional and local scales) are considered for the modelling. Sources are defined according to available literature, which includes catalogues of historical tsunamis and existing active faults databases. Accordingly, a set of tsunami-related parameters and maps are obtained (e.g. maximum run-up, arrival times, synthetic mareograms) that are relevant to planning mitigation actions at the selected sites.
      PubDate: 2024-03-14
       
  • The ancient slipways and shipsheds of the Aegean: Accurate indicators of
           relative sea level change'

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      Abstract: Abstract Ancient slipways are spread throughout the Aegean coastline, constitute an important part of Greek naval history and maritime tradition, and provide valuable evidence of the relative sea level (rsl) change from the period of their construction and use since their function required them to be situated at the water’s edge. Geoarchaeological surveys of rsl changes in several coastal sites either revealed unknown slipways or offered some fresh insights into the functional features of sites previously published. The slipways here presented, albeit covering a wide chronological range from the Classical period to Modern times, follow similar construction and functional principles. The contemporary measured depths of the seaward end of the rock-cut sloping floors are interpolated into the curves of the rsl rise for the Aegean and allow us to conclude that slipways are good sea level indicators and suggest their functional height with an uncertainty not exceeding the tidal range.
      PubDate: 2023-12-13
       
  • Comment on “Analysis of the effectiveness of alert messages issued by
           tsunami service providers: a case study from May 2nd, 2020 South Crete
           earthquake and tsunami alert for Egypt” by Hassan et al. Mediterranean
           Geoscience Reviews, https://doi.org/10.1007/s42990-022–00094-9

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      Abstract: Abstract This comment is intended to provide clarifications on the tsunami warning operational procedures followed by the Hellenic National Tsunami Warning Centre (NOA-HLNTWC), one of the Tsunami Service Providers of the North-Eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean and connected seas Tsunami Warning System (NEAMTWS), after the May 2nd, 2020 South Crete earthquake, which are critically analyzed by Hassan et al. (Mediterr Geosci Rev, 2022, https://doi.org/10.1007/s42990-022-00094-9). More specifically, clarifications are provided on (1) the estimated magnitude used in the Initial tsunami message, and (2) the operational procedures followed in issuing the Ongoing tsunami message by NOA-HLNTWC for the particular tsunami event. Finally, general comments are provided on the critical analysis of Hassan et al. (Mediterr Geosci Rev, 2022, https://doi.org/10.1007/s42990-022-00094-9) and on the unique operational challenges posed by the tsunami event on May 2nd, 2020.
      PubDate: 2023-12-11
       
  • Organic matter distribution in modern wetland sediments of Moknine Sebkha,
           Tunisia

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      Abstract: Abstract Most wetland organic matter studies aim to measure pollution’s effects in these environments. Our study uses organic matter and its different components (hydrocarbons and humic fractions) to understand the organic matter distribution model and the factors involved in this distribution model. For this purpose, the origin, nature and early diagenesis of organic matter are determined by various techniques and parameters (CO, Rork–Eval pyrolysis, humic substances and hydrocarbons). All results show that, organic matter is distributed into two distinct areas in the Moknine Sebkha (Tunisia), emerging and submerged. In the emerging area, organic carbon (OC < 1%), free hydrocarbons (S1 < 0.26 mgHC/g OC), potential hydrocarbons (S2: < 0.62 mg/g OC), humic substances (C(THS) < 35%) and total lipids (EOM < 750 ppm) are scare. High values of OC (> 1%), S1(> 1.37 mgHC/gOC), S2(> 3.60 mgHC/gOC), C(THS) > 30%), and total lipids (EOM > 1897 ppm) in submerged areas result from water accumulation and primary production induced by photosynthetic bacteria and cyanobacteria during the wet season. The flow of organic matter (OM) was increased by mixing biota and allochthonous matter and protected from oxidation and degradation by water masses. The progradation of organic facies was influenced by drainage from the east as well as topography. Due to the distribution and evolution of OM during early diagenesis, the Moknine wetlands have moved into the submerged zone.
      PubDate: 2023-10-10
       
 
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