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  Subjects -> GEOGRAPHY (Total: 493 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
40 [degrees] South     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
AAG Review of Books     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
AbeÁfrica : Revista da Associação Brasileira de Estudos Africanos     Open Access  
ACME : An International Journal for Critical Geographies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Universitatis Lodziensis : Folia Geographica Socio-Oeconomica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adam Academy : Journal of Social Sciences / Adam Akademi : Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cartography and GIScience of the ICA     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Africa Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
African Geographical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Afrika Focus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AGORA Magazine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agronomía & Ambiente     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AGU Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
All Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Geographic Information System     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Human Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Amerika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Geografía de la Universidad Complutense     Open Access  
Anatoli     Open Access  
Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis / Studia de Cultura     Open Access  
Annals of GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Annals of the American Association of Geographers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Anuario     Open Access  
Applied Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ar@cne     Open Access  
Arctic     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Arctic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Area Development and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Asian Geographer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Geographical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ateneo Korean Studies Conference Proceedings     Open Access  
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT)     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions (AMTD)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Aurora Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Antarctic Magazine     Free   (Followers: 5)
Australian Geographer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Bandung : Journal of the Global South     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Barn : Forskning om barn og barndom i Norden     Open Access  
Baru : Revista Brasileira de Assuntos Regionais e Urbanos     Open Access  
Belgeo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biblio3W : Revista Bibliográfica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Biogeographia : The Journal of Integrative Biogeography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BioRisk     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletim Campineiro de Geografia     Open Access  
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access  
Boletim Gaúcho de Geografia     Open Access  
Boletim Goiano de Geografia     Open Access  
Boletín de Estudios Geográficos     Open Access  
Boletín de la Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles     Open Access  
Brill Research Perspectives in Map History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège     Open Access  
Bulletin de l’association de géographes français     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Geography. Physical Geography Series     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of the Serbian Geographical Society     Open Access  
Caderno de Geografia     Open Access  
Cahiers Balkaniques     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cahiers Charlevoix : Études franco-ontariennes     Full-text available via subscription  
Cahiers franco-canadiens de l'Ouest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
California Italian Studies Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Soil Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Cardinalis     Open Access  
Carnets de géographes     Open Access  
Cartographic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cartographic Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cartographica : The International Journal for Geographic Information and Geovisualization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Cartography and Geographic Information Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Check List : The Journal of Biodiversity Data     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Climate and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Comparative Cultural Studies : European and Latin American Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Computational Urban Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Confins     Open Access  
Conjuntura Austral : Journal of the Global South     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Coolabah     Open Access  
Creativity Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Critical Romani Studies     Open Access  
Crossings : Journal of Migration & Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Geografía : Revista Colombiana de Geografía     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Geografía de la Universitat de València     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica / Geographical Research Letters     Open Access  
Cuadernos Inter.c.a.mbio sobre Centroamérica y el Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dela     Open Access  
Dialogues in Human Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Didáctica Geográfica     Open Access  
DIE ERDE : Journal of the Geographical Society of Berlin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documenti Geografici     Open Access  
Documents d'Anàlisi Geogràfica     Open Access  
Doğu Coğrafya Dergisi : Eastern Geographical Review     Open Access  
DRd - Desenvolvimento Regional em debate     Open Access  
Earth System Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
East/West : Journal of Ukrainian Studies     Open Access  
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Economic and Regional Studies / Studia Ekonomiczne i Regionalne     Open Access  
Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Économie rurale     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecosystems and People     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Entorno Geográfico     Open Access  
Environment & Ecosystem Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Science : Atmospheres     Open Access  
Environmental Science and Sustainable Development : International Journal Of Environmental Science & Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Environmental Smoke     Open Access  
Ería : Revista Cuatrimestral de Geografía     Open Access  
Espacio y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Espacios : Revista de |Geografía     Open Access  
Espaço & Economia : Revista Brasileira de Geografia Econômica     Open Access  
Espaço Aberto     Open Access  
Espaço e Cultura     Open Access  
Espaço e Tempo Midiáticos     Open Access  
Estudios Geográficos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios Socioterritoriales : Revista de Geografía     Open Access  
Ethnobiology Letters     Open Access  
Ethnoscientia : Brazilian Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnoecology     Open Access  
eTropic : electronic journal of studies in the tropics     Open Access  
Études internationales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Études rurales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Études/Inuit/Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
European Bulletin of Himalayan Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Spatial Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Evolutionary Human Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Fennia : International Journal of Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Finisterra : Revista Portuguesa de Geografia     Open Access  
Fire Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Florida Geographer     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Focus on Geography     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Forum Geografi     Open Access  
Frontera Norte     Open Access  
GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Genre & histoire     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geo : Geography and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Geo UERJ     Open Access  
Geo-Image     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geo-spatial Information Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
GeoArabia     Hybrid Journal  
Géocarrefour     Open Access  
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Geochronometria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoderma Regional : The International Journal for Regional Soil Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geodesy and Cartography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geoforum Perspektiv     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofronter     Open Access  
Geografares     Open Access  
Geografisk Tidsskrift-Danish Journal of Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geografiska Annaler, Series A : Physical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geographia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geographica Helvetica     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Geographical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Geographical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Geographical Journal of Nepal     Open Access  
Geographical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Geographical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Geographicalia     Open Access  
Géographie et cultures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geography and Natural Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Geography and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geography Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
GeoHumanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
GeoInformatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geoinformatics & Geostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Geoinformatics FCE CTU     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Geoingá : Revista do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia     Open Access  
GeoJournal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
GEOMATICA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
GEOmedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geopauta : Revista de Geografia da Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia     Open Access  
Geophysical Research Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 199)
Geoplanning : Journal of Geomatics and Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
GeoScape     Open Access  
Geosciences Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Geosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GEOUSP : Espaço e Tempo     Open Access  
Ghana Journal of Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
GIScience & Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Global Challenges     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
GPS Solutions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Grafo Working Papers     Open Access  
HiN : Alexander von Humboldt im Netz. Internationale Zeitschrift für Humboldt-Studien     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Earth Systems and Environment
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2509-9426 - ISSN (Online) 2509-9434
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Land Surface Temperature Variation in Response to Land-Use and Land-Cover
           Dynamics: A Case of Didessa River Sub-basin in Western Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract Land surface temperature (LST) estimation at the River sub-basin level is crucial for developing land-use planning at basin scale and beyond. The present study aims to analyze the LST variations in response to land-use and land-cover (LULC) dynamics in the case of Didessa River Sub-basin, Western Ethiopia using geospatial techniques. We used Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (1991), Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (2003), Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS, 2020). Moreover, meteorological data (1991–2020) of seven stations, namely, Sire, Nekemte, Arjo, Limu Genet, Atnago, Agaro, and Yayu, were obtained from National Meteorological Agency to validate the LST with air temperature. Our results reveal that the cultivated land in the study area increased by 1180 km2 (22.5%), while grassland and forest cover were declined by 828.7 km2 (15.8%) and 444.1 km2 (8.5%), respectively over the past 29 years. These land-cover dynamics contributes for the increasing trend of LST in the study area. The study also analyzed relationship of LST with normalized differences in vegetation index and air temperature. Maximum-likelihood classification methods were used for LULC classification, while the LST data were retrieved from Landsat image. The results indicate that the LST has been increasing since 1991 in reaction to LULC dynamics. Within the sub-basin, high LST values were recorded on bare land and settlement land use followed by cultivated land cover, while forest and water body experienced the lowest LST. This study will contribute in understanding of impact of LULC dynamics on the local climate and would further provide assistance to the policy makers in regard to land-use planning and climate change mitigation strategies.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Soil Erosion Vulnerability Mapping in Selected Rural Communities of
           uThukela Catchment, South Africa, Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

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      Abstract: Abstract Soil erosion remains one of the main causes of land degradation, affecting many countries across the globe including South Africa. In rural communities with much reliance on agriculture, soil erosion is an important threat to food security. Therefore, mapping erosion-prone areas is an essential step towards adopting appropriate erosion mitigation and soil conservation measures. The objectives of this study were to (i) assess and model soil erosion vulnerability based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach in Hoffenthal and KwaMaye communities within the uThukela Catchment, South Africa; and (ii) identify the relevant sustainable interventions and remedial strategies to combat soil erosion in the study area. The AHP was employed to map soil erosion vulnerability and derive the percentage weights of geo-environmental parameters contributing to soil erosion: rainfall, slope, drainage density, soil type, vegetation cover, and land use/land cover. The AHP model showed that slope, vegetation cover, and rainfall had the most considerable influence on soil erosion with factor weights of 29, 23, and 18%, respectively, in the study area. Further, this study revealed that high-risk soil erosion areas occupy 21% of the total study area, while very high-risk areas are about 14%, and the east and central areas are most vulnerable to soil erosion. Validation of the AHP model (overall accuracy = 85%; kappa coefficient = 0.70) results suggests that the predictive capacity of the model was satisfactory. Therefore, the developed soil erosion vulnerability model can serve as an important planning tool to prioritize areas for soil conservation and erosion management approaches like sustainable agriculture and bioengineering interventions.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Detecting and Assessing the Spatio-Temporal Land Use Land Cover Changes of
           Bahrain Island During 1986–2020 Using Remote Sensing and GIS

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      Abstract: Abstract The Kingdom of Bahrain has experienced accelerated development growth since the 1980s. These rapid land demands increased the pressure on the country area to rebuild urban centers and cities surrounding the coast. The purpose of this research is to detect and investigate changes in land use and land cover (LULC), which is one of the most critical aspects of planning and managing the use of land as a natural resource. The massive growth in land demand, particularly in small-area countries like Bahrain, forces decision-makers to re-plan the main island areas (Bahrain, Muharraq, Sitra, and Nabih Saleh). The study focuses on mapping the LULC changes detection over 1986–2020. It employs an integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS (Geographic Information System) to analyze and evaluate the changes in the LULC area in the main islands using multi-temporal and multispectral Landsat satellite imagery acquired in 1986, 1994, 2000, 2005, 2013, and 2020. In addition, high-resolution satellite images of different dates IKONOS 2000, GeoEye1 2011, 2013, Worldview3 2019, ASTER 2012, 2013, and multiresolution seamless image database-MrSID 1994, 1998 were used to enhance the LULC classification. Furthermore, different ancillary data were utilized to adjust the decision of LULC classes. The images were supervised using Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) algorithms to generate the seven LULC maps. The seven-raster classification maps revealed overall accuracies exceeding 85%, and overall Kappa statistics range between 87 and 95%. The results indicate that the increment in the built-up area was dominant over the last 3 decades.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • A Review of Progress in Constraining Global Black Carbon Climate Effects

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      Abstract: Abstract The global aerosol direct and indirect radiative effect remains the largest source of uncertainty in estimations of the global energy budget in climate models. Black carbon (BC) is the largest contributor to aerosol atmospheric radiative absorption, and its contribution to radiative forcing must be better constrained to reduce uncertainties in the overall aerosol radiative effect. This paper reviews the advancement in the understanding of BC radiative forcing, highlighting improved constraints for major sources of model uncertainty as described by Bond et al. (J Geophys Res Atmos 118:5380–5552, 2013), a fundamental review of the climate effects of BC which served as a primary source of the BC uncertainty analysis in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC AR5). Bond identified five primary sources of forcing uncertainty: altitude and removal rates of BC, BC emissions rates, individualized attribution of radiative forcing to absorbing aerosols species, BC effects on clouds, and accuracy of climate models in representing components of the Earth system, such as clouds and sea ice absent of BC. Improved constraints in each of these areas of forcing uncertainty—particularly BC impacts on clouds and atmospheric water vapor—have achieved a narrower uncertainty range in the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report (AR6). This paper excludes a review of the accuracy of the representation of climate models, rather focusing on the interaction of anthropogenic emissions of BC in the climate system. Future research should both expand upon the progress detailed in this paper and address the impacts of BC in the cryosphere, with particular focus on the contribution of BC to observed rapid warming of the Arctic.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Predicting Microscale Land Use/Land Cover Changes Using Cellular Automata
           Algorithm on the Northwest Coast of Peninsular Malaysia

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      Abstract: Abstract The increasing intervention from high-rise infrastructural development in the urban fabric threatens the land use/land cover (LULC) of the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Predicting future scenarios of LULC on a microscale level can help to curb rapid urbanization in Malaysia and promote sustainability. This study aims to appraise the ability of the Support Vector Machine and Cellular Automata (CA) algorithms to monitor (2005–2020) and predict (2025 and 2035) the  future LULC change in Penang, Malaysia. Landsat images were used to estimate LULC classes, and Pearson chi-square values were calculated to validate the CA model. The results revealed that Penang had experienced a significant increase in built-up areas by 15.56%, resulting from the declination of the forest by 5.57%, agricultural land by 8.41% and waterbody by 1.58% between 2005 and 2020. The predicted LULC result suggests that approximately 4.68% of agricultural land, 2.77% of the forest, and 1.03% of the water bodies will transform into built-up lands by 2035. The study signifies the urgent control of urban growth patterns and assists urban planners and policymakers of Malaysian cities in ensuring sustainable urban development.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Evapotranspiration and Vegetation Cover Classifications Maps Based on
           Cloud Computing at the Arab Countries Scale

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      Abstract: Abstract According to the most recent Köppen–Geiger classification, Arab countries are divided into seven climate classes. Ground data availability is limited in developing countries, and ground meteorological data are scarce and concentrated in a few locations, rather than station maintenance capability being adequate for the responsibilities. The current study uses remote sensing and meteorological data to create regional classification maps of reference evapotranspiration (ETo), potential crop evapotranspiration, and vegetation cover in Arab countries from 2005 to 2020. The Stand-alone Remote Sensing Approach to Estimate Reference Evapotranspiration (SARE) was used to estimate ETo using satellite data from 2005 to 2020. The Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were extracted from MODIS satellite data and used in the SARE model, in addition to elevation (E), Julian day (J), and Latitude (Lat). To validate the SARE model results, the FAO-Penman–Monteith model was applied to 35 ground meteorological stations distributed across Arab countries to cover all climate classes based on the most recent Köppen–Geiger climate classification. Google Earth Engine was used to create the classification. The statistical indices produced acceptable results, with average RMSE values ranging from 6.9 to 17.3 (mm/month), while correlation coefficient (r) and index of agreement (d) values are more significant than 0.9. To be included in the ETc calculation, the crop coefficient (Kc) was calculated using NDVI 250 m spatial resolution. The density of the vegetation cover is used to classify it (low to high). The average vegetation cover was calculated to be greater than 31.5 Mha. The minimum vegetation cover was 14.9 Mha, and the maximum vegetation cover was 49.2 Mha. 15.8 Mha can be cultivated without supplementary irrigation for at least one agricultural season, according to the rainfall classification map.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Spatial Variations of Urban Heat Island Development in Khulna City,
           Bangladesh: Implications for Urban Planning and Development

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      Abstract: Abstract Recent studies have made significant advancements in understanding the localized effects of urban warming in cities in the South Asian context. Taking the case of Khulna city, Bangladesh, in this paper we follow a two-pronged approach. First, we use remote sensing techniques to analyze the changing land use and land cover patterns (LULC) and their relationship with emerging land surface temperature (LST) change, that results in urban heat islands (UHI). Second, we follow up on the emergent results from the remote sensing analysis to draw key links with the existing UHI spatio-temporal variations with existing and future planning pathways. Our findings suggest that rapidly reducing green spaces and increased built-up areas are contributing strongly towards increasing UHI. The overall increase of LST in the city is nearly 2 °C in the past 5 years, which calls for more urgent climate adaptive planning and action. Document analysis of the Khulna city master plan demonstrates that several mitigation strategies were initiated through the Khulna Master Plan 2001, yet key implementation barriers continue to persist. We conclude by arguing for a holistic approach to green space planning in the city (through strategic action and institutional planning approaches), coupled with local scaled adaptation and mitigation strategies, that can help the planning process to deal with the challenges associated with UHI increase in urban areas.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Probabilistic Simulations for Seasonal Typhoon Genesis over the South
           China Sea

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      Abstract: Abstract The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the tropical oceans regularly affected by destructive storms. It is urgent to establish models to simulate storm formations in this area. This paper aims to simulate typhoon genesis, regarding to seasonal variation in the SCS for 1000 years using Monte Carlo simulation. We employed the seventeenth probability distributions to fit historical typhoon data which were extracted from the Best Track Data of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) from 1951 to 2020. The three evaluation criteria, including mean absolute deviation (MAD), mean squared error (MSE) and (1-CC) where CC is the correlation coefficient, were applied to choose the best-fitting probability distribution for simulations of typhoon geneses. The statistical features of historical typhoons were analyzed, comprising the number of typhoons, typhoon genesis locations (latitudes and longitudes) and the seasonal effects on the formation of typhoons. The results showed that the peak typhoon season (PS) lasted from June to September and the remaining months were classified as the low typhoon seasons (LS). Typhoon genesis locations mainly distributed in latitudinal range between 10 and 25° N for PS, whereas they spread in a larger area, mostly southward of 15° N for LS. MAD is the most appropriate indicator for good-of-fit test. Tlocationscale and generalized extreme value (Gev) distributions fit well the observed typhoon genesis longitudes for LS and PS, respectively. The historical typhoon genesis latitudes for LS and PS follow Weilbull and Gev distributions, respectively. The spatial distributions of the simulated typhoon geneses for the two seasons were in good agreement with those of the historical ones.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment Through a Modified DRASTI-LU
           Framework: Case Study of Saiss Basin in Morocco

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      Abstract: Abstract The groundwater vulnerability assessment is an effective tool for protecting groundwater from pollution. The objective of this study is to determine the groundwater vulnerability of the Plio-Quaternary aquifer to pollution in the Saiss basin of Morocco using the DRASTI-LU framework. As validation of groundwater vulnerability map using the Pearson correlation between nitrate (NO3−) concentrations observed at 51 wells and corresponding vulnerability indices calculated showed a poor correlation coefficient (r = 0.35, p < 0.01), the rates and weights of each DRASTI-LU framework parameter were modified using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and single sensitivity analysis. Afterwards the vulnerability indices were calculated using the modified rates [DRASTI-LU(R)], the modified weights [DRASTI-LU(W)], and both modified rates and weights [DRASTI-LU(RW)]. According to the results, the modification of the rates provided significantly improved vulnerability map as compared to DRASTI-LU(W) and DRASTI-LU(RW). Based on DRASTI-LU(R), four vulnerability classes were identified, namely very low, low, medium, and high, with a dominance of the medium vulnerability class. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis applied to the DRASTI-LU(R) revealed that land use was the most effective parameter, while topography and soil media were the least effective parameters in the groundwater vulnerability assessment. The current research can support the environment-related groundwater management and planning in the study region.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Modeling the Impacts of Residential, Commercial, and Industrial Land use
           on Carbon Footprints Using Kernel Density Function in an Urban Setting

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      Abstract: Abstract Rapid urbanization accelerates the rate of carbon emissions (CE), resulting in unfavorable fluctuating in climatic conditions of urban settings. One of the prominent reasons behind these climatic anomalies is the direct result of CO2 emission and heat-trapping gasses from industries and urban built-up areas. This study addresses the ongoing CE issues in Khulna City by analyzing CE from residential, commercial, and industrial land use. Moreover, the study explores diverse sources of CE from intense energy consumption using electricity, gas, fuel, and wood. Consequently, the carbon footprint (CF) has been estimated using specific CE coefficients for each landuse category. Specific concentration of CE for each landuse category is demonstrated on maps using geospatial and kernel density applications. Results suggested Khulna City’s monthly CE have been estimated 55,536,435 kg from residential, 14,612,942 kg from commercial and 2,606,823 kg from industrial land use. From residential landuse, each household has an average CF of 355.51 kg CO2/month. The restaurants and roadside hotels have the highest contribution from commercial landuse, average CF of 1231.64 kg and 4150.82 kg CO2/month, respectively. Meanwhile, the jute and food industries are responsible for 38,016 kg and 14,036 kg CO2/month, respectively. Compared to the sources of CE, industrial and residential landuse have a consumption pattern of 99% and 83% of electricity, respectively, rather than other sources. This study’s results may help policymakers understand CE patterns from each sector to generate future urban growth and planning decisions.
      PubDate: 2022-11-12
       
  • A Review of El Niño Southern Oscillation Linkage to Strong Volcanic
           Eruptions and Post-Volcanic Winter Warming

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      Abstract: Abstract Understanding the influence of volcanism on ENSO and associated climatic impacts is of great scientific and social importance. Although many studies on the volcano–ENSO nexus are available, a thorough review of ENSO sensitivity to explosive eruptions is still missing. Therefore, this study aims to provide an in-depth assessment of the ENSO response to volcanism. Most past studies suggest an emerging consensus in models, with the vast majority showing an El Niño-like SST response during the eruption year and a La Niña-like response a few years later. RCP8.5-based climate model projections also suggest strong El Niño conditions and significant monsoonal rainfall reduction following strong tropical volcanism. However, some studies involving climate reconstructions and model simulations still raise concerns about the ENSO–volcano link and suggest a weak ENSO response to volcanism. This happens because ENSO response to volcanism seems very sensitive to reconstruction methods, ENSO preconditioning, eruption timing, position and amplitude. We noticed that some response mechanisms are still unclear, for instance, how the tropical volcanic forcing with nearly uniform radiative cooling projects onto ENSO when coincidental ENSO events are underway. Moreover, there are very less observational and proxy records for assessing the extratropical volcanism impact on ENSO. Nevertheless, model-based studies suggest that Northern (Southern) Hemispheric extratropical eruptions may lead to an El Niño (La Niña)-like response. We further noticed that the origin of post-eruption winter warming is still elusive; however, recent findings suggest that the large-scale circulation changes concurrently occurring during volcanism are the potential source of high-latitude winter warming. Existing uncertainties in the simulated ENSO response to volcanism could be reduced by considering a synchronized modeling approach with large ensembles.
      PubDate: 2022-11-07
       
  • Expansion of Moraine-Dammed Glacial Lakes and Historical GLOF Events in
           Cordillera Blanca Region of Peruvian Andes

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      Abstract: Abstract The dramatic mass loss of Tropical Andean glaciers under the influence of climate change has caused alterations in regional hydrological regimes, including development and expansion of glacial lakes, especially moraine-dammed lakes, supraglacial lakes and ice-dammed lakes. There is a broad consensus on Moraine-Dammed Glacial Lakes (MDGLs) to be commonly understood as potentially most dangerous lakes that can trigger Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs). The GLOF event in that process is expected to negatively impact the downstream communities, agricultural assets and infrastructure. In this study, we have prepared an updated and detailed inventory of MDGLs in the Cordillera Blanca region of the Peruvian Andes. The multi-temporal satellite data (TM, ETM, OLI and Sentinel-2A) was used to analyze the changes in lake area over a period of 40 years from 1980 to 2020. A total of 38 MDGLs (size > 0.05 km2) covering an area of 10.30 km2, and located in the altitudinal zone ranging from 4155 to 4960 masl were identified and mapped. From 1980 (6.59 km2) to 2020 (10.3 km2), an expansion of 3.7 km2 (35%) at an annual rate of 0.09 km2/year was observed in the lake area. This study also contributes in terms of developing a database of past GLOF events from an extensive literature survey to understand the hazard and disaster profile of the region for the period 1702–2020. A total of 28 GLOF events have been reported in the region which brought devastation to the surrounding communities. We conclude that the region is highly prone to GLOFs as understood from the occurrence of GLOFs in the past as well as from the current scenario of MDGLs.
      PubDate: 2022-10-14
       
  • COVID-19 Restriction Movement Control Order (MCO) Impacted Emissions of
           Peninsular Malaysia Using Sentinel-2a and Sentinel-5p Satellite

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      Abstract: Abstract The unprecedented outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has impacted the whole world in every aspect including health, social life, economic activity, education, and the environment. The pandemic has led to an improvement in air quality all around the world, including in Malaysia. Lockdowns have resulted in industry shutting down and road travel decreasing which can reduce the emission of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) and air pollution. This research assesses the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on emissions using the Air Pollution Index (API), aerosols, and GHG which is Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) in Malaysia. The data used is from Sentinel-5p and Sentinel-2A which monitor the air quality based on Ozone (O3) and NO2 concentration. Using an interpolated API Index Map comparing 2019, before the implementation of a Movement Control Order (MCO), and 2020, after the MCO period we examine the impact on pollution during and after the COVID-19 lockdown. Data used Sentinel-5p, Sentinel-2A, and Air Pollution Index of Malaysia (APIMS) to monitor the air quality that contains NO2 concentration. The result has shown the recovery in air quality during the MCO implementation which indirectly shows anthropogenic activities towards the environmental condition. The study will help to enhance and support the policy and scope for air pollution management strategies as well as raise public awareness of the main causes that contribute to air pollution.
      PubDate: 2022-10-08
       
  • The COVID-19 Pandemic: Quantification of Temporal Variations in Air
           Pollutants Before, During and Post the Lockdown in Jeddah City, Saudi
           Arabia

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      Abstract: Abstract The government of Saudi Arabia imposed a strict lockdown between March and July 2020 to stop the spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which has led to a sharp decline in economic activities. The daily temporal variations of PM10, PM2.5, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were used to investigate the changes in air quality in response to COVID-19 lockdown control measures from January to December 2020 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Meteorological parameters (wind speed, direction, temperature, relative humidity) were also analyzed to understand the changes during the pandemic. As a result, significant reductions in the concentrations of NO2 (– 44.5%), CO (– 41.5%), and PM2.5, PM10 (– 29.5%, each) were measured in the capital city of Jeddah during the quarantine compared to the pre-lockdown average. In contrast, the lockdown caused a significant increase in O3 by 41%. The changes in air quality during the COVID-19 outbreak by comparing the average pollutant concentration before lockdown (January 1–March 21, 2020) and the following 12 weeks during the partial lockdown (March 22–July 28, 2020), reveal a very significant decrease in pollutants, and consequently a significant improvement in air quality. Observed differences are attributable to changes in point source emissions associated with changes in localized activities, possibly related to decreased economic and industrial activity in response to the lockdown. The results of the present study show during the study period indicated a positive response to lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, the results can be used to establish future control measures and strategies to improve air quality.
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
       
  • Evaluation of Desertification in the Middle Moulouya Basin (North-East
           Morocco) Using Sentinel-2 Images and Spectral Index Techniques

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      Abstract: Abstract This article focuses on the quantitative assessment of desertification in the Middle Moulouya basin located in the North-East of Morocco. Indeed, this study aimed to map the degree of desertification at the level of the basin in 2018 using the Sentinel-2 image. To do this, we have adopted a methodology based on several stages. First, we extracted the spectral indices, in particular, the NDVI, the albedo, the TGSI and the MSAVI. Then, different combinations of these indices were the subject of a linear regression analysis (NDVI–albedo, MSAVI–albedo, albedo–TGSI and TGSI–MSAVI) to use the best correlated combinations to construct the feature space. The results obtained showed that the NDVI–albedo and MSAVI–albedo combinations are the best correlated with respective correlation coefficients of r = − 0.73 and r = − 0.76, respectively. As a result, they were used to propose the desertification degree index (DDI) by exploiting the NDVI–albedo and MSAVI–albedo feature spaces. Finally, a desertification map was generated for the entire basin. It has five degrees of desertification (extreme, severe, moderate, low, non-desertification). According to our results, the situation of desertification in the basin is alarming. Indeed, 86.86% of the study area is located in the moderate to extreme desertification class. While only 12.25% and 0.89% fall in the low and no desertification categories, respectively. The MSAVI–albedo model gave a high overall accuracy of 93.75%, so it is perfectly effective for the quantitative analysis and monitoring of desertification at the level of the basin studied.
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-022-00327-9
       
  • Monthly, Seasonal, and Annual Variations of Precipitation and Runoff Over
           West and Central Africa Using Remote Sensing and Climate Reanalysis

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      Abstract: Abstract Precipitation and runoff variability over West and Central Africa is the major challenge of water resource management, which drives a range of socio-economic issues. Storm water runoff poses serious environmental problems and public health issues in these regions. We use descriptive statistics in order to analyze monthly, seasonal, and annual runoff and precipitation using the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and the Fifth generation of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) (ERA5) datasets, respectively for the period 1981–2021. Based on the results, the climate of the western zone is different from that of the equatorial zone, where runoff is persistently high throughout the year. Monthly and seasonal runoff show that June, July and August have higher runoff values. The high values for these three months correspond to the rainy season in these regions. Trends of the runoff and precipitation are detected using Mann–Kendall test. Apart of the coastal zones where trends are positive, trends in runoff are mostly negative throughout the Western and Central African regions. The result will benefit our understanding of the increasing suffrage of the local population from severe floods, landslides and soil erosion over this region.
      PubDate: 2022-09-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-022-00326-w
       
  • Multi-geospatial flood hazard modelling for a large and complex river
           basin with data sparsity: a case study of the Lam River Basin, Vietnam

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      Abstract: Abstract Mapping flood hazard becomes a basic and crucial requirement to cope with and to mitigate flood risks. However, it is a big challenge to accurately construct a flood hazard map in the large and sparsity data basin. Here, we present a new approach to make a flood hazard map in a large and complex river basin with data sparsity based on a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between previous flood records and hydrometeorological and geographical features coupled with holistic knowledge. The results show that the AHP-GIS approach (an integrated GIS-based Analytic Hierarchy Process method) can produce more accurate and reliable flood hazard map in basins with complex geological and hydrometeorological features such as the Lam River Basin (LRB). The LRB was a high vulnerability to flooding with approximately more than 90% of the total area in this river basin was classified into moderate, high, and very high hazard of flooding. More specifically, high, and very high flood hazard area occupied nearly 30% of the total area and affected nearly 45% of households living in the basin. More noticeable, these high flood hazard areas were in small valleys along the rivers and streams running from high mountains in the southwest to the coastal region. Moreover, the study indicated that rainfall and slope were the main factors that influence mapping flood hazard and assessing flood risk in the steep slope areas.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-021-00215-8
       
  • Hydro-climatic and Water Availability Changes and its Relationship with
           NDVI in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa

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      Abstract: Abstract The variations in total water storage anomaly and groundwater balance were examined during 2002–2016. Based on the empirical orthogonal function, it was found that the water resource underwent high variability. The linear trend of hydro-climatic variables, total water storage anomaly, water budget, and its components have been investigated. For the area average, all the variables increased except for the potential evapotranspiration, which had decreased during the period of study. For the spatial distribution of trends in total water storage (TWS) in the northern Sub-Saharan Africa (NSSA), 44.76% underwent significant negative changes, whereas the proportion of areas that underwent significant negative changes was 24.84%. The results indicated that the precipitation and soil moisture were determinant factors for positive changes in TWS, whereas the potential evapotranspiration and temperature contributed to the reduction in TWS, respectively, implying a harmful effect of rising in temperature on water resources over the region. Moreover, a non-significant positive interdependence between the area-averaged TWS and the water budget (WB) was acquired. Positive correlations between normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and TWS (WB) occupied 48.93% (37.86%), but negative correlations occupied 34.59% (28.49%) of the total area. Results of the relationships between TWS and NDVI were higher than that of NDVI and water budget over the period 2002–2015. The TWS and WB (water resources) played essential roles in the positive changes in the ecosystem. These findings are valuable for the management of agriculture, water resources, environment, and ecosystem, profiting from the implementation of policies at regional and local scales.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-021-00260-3
       
  • Projecting Climate Change Effect on Soil Water Fluxes and Urea Fertilizer
           Fate in the Semiarid Pampas of Argentina

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      Abstract: Abstract The economy of the semiarid region of the Argentine Pampas is based mainly on agriculture, so climate change is a fact that may have great influence on this type of activity. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate future climate scenarios and the responses of hydrological variables such as precipitation, actual (ETreal) and potential evapotranspiration (ETc), and recharge rate. Climate change scenarios were based on temperature and precipitation variations predicted by CMIP5. Four representative concentrations pathways (RCP) were considered according to different greenhouse emissions to the atmosphere for the nearby future until the end of the twenty-first century (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5). Furthermore, one more scenario called RCP0.0 was considered, which is related to the actual climate conditions and represents the base line. In the study area, nitrogen (N) fertilization is a widely used practice to increase crop yields. This work assesses the impact of future climate on soil water fluxes and N compounds fate based on numerical simulations carried out with HYDRUS 1D. Actual evapotranspiration is going to increase between 1 and 6% from low to high climate-change scenarios. Although an increase in precipitation is also expected during all months of the year, there are periods when water availability will not be enough to supply the new potential evapotranspiration demand. The worst case is RCP8.5, where the ETreal/ETc ratio is expected to decline by 4%. Annual recharge is expected to decrease by 2.5% in the RCP2.6 scenario, while the rest of the scenarios shown positive trends. N leachate in the form of nitrates showed an increase of 2.8% in the RCP4.5 scenario which was also the one with the highest recharge rate raise. The use of a mathematical model as a predictive tool in soil water fluxes and fertilizers use is essential for planning the sustainable management of agroecology adapted to climate changes.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-021-00289-4
       
  • The Role of Factors Affecting Flood Hazard Zoning Using Analytical
           Hierarchy Process: A Review

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      Abstract: Abstract Flood hazard zoning is an important problem that has received much attention from environmental researchers. This problem requires complex spatial analysis; hence, numerous criteria have to be assessed. Factors contributing to the flood formation includes both natural and socioeconomic ones. However, the central question is what factors are important in creating a flood and how to quantify these factors. To answer this question, one of the popular approaches is the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) developed by Saaty. The usage of the AHP algorithm to calculate the weight of each factor is one of the main steps in the process of creating a flood hazard map. This paper will provide an overview of the factors that affect flood formation and analyze their weight by selecting and evaluating the degree of effect of factors in various research using the AHP algorithm. The results can be used as a reference for studies on flood risk zoning in different basins when selecting the impact criteria.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-021-00235-4
       
 
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