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  Subjects -> GEOGRAPHY (Total: 493 journals)
Showing 401 - 277 of 277 Journals sorted by number of followers
Arctic     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
The Geographic Base     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Oxford Open Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Remote Sensing in Earth Systems Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Visión Antataura     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Evolutionary Human Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of the Bulgarian Geographical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
PFG : Journal of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Geoinformation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geographia     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Population and Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
People and Nature     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecosystems and People     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Research : Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Wellbeing, Space & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Public Space     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cartography and GIScience of the ICA     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Progress in Disaster Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Cartography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
GeoHumanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geography and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biogeographia : The Journal of Integrative Biogeography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Earth System Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nomadic Civilization : Historical Research / Кочевая цивилизация: исторические исследования     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Geographical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Geographical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AAG Review of Books     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Plants, People, Planet     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Football(s) : Histoire, Culture, Économie, Société     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Studies in African Languages and Cultures     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jambura Geo Education Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brill Research Perspectives in Map History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
AGU Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue de géographie historique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
KN : Journal of Cartography and Geographic Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Regional Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Urban Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Resilience : International Policies, Practices and Discourses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Offa's Dyke Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Papers in Applied Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Area Development and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía & Ambiente     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
UNM Geographic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Załącznik Kulturoznawczy / Cultural Studies Appendix     Open Access  
Environmental Science : Atmospheres     Open Access  
Boletín de Estudios Geográficos     Open Access  
Proyección : Estudios Geográficos y de Ordenamiento Territorial     Open Access  
Parks Stewardship Forum     Open Access  
Scandinavistica Vilnensis     Open Access  
East/West : Journal of Ukrainian Studies     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for Kortlægning og Arealforvaltning     Open Access  
Les Cahiers d’Afrique de l’Est     Open Access  
Mappemonde : Revue trimestrielle sur l'image géographique et les formes du territoire     Open Access  
IBEROAMERICANA. América Latina - España - Portugal     Open Access  
Scripta Nova : Revista Electrónica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Coolabah     Open Access  
Biblio3W : Revista Bibliográfica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Ar@cne     Open Access  
Journal of Cape Verdean Studies     Open Access  
Punto Sur : Revista de Geografía     Open Access  
RIEM : Revista Internacional de Estudios Migratorios     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Meio Ambiente     Open Access  
Sasdaya : Gadjah Mada Journal of Humanities     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica : Tempo - Técnica - Território / Eletronic Magazine : Time - Technique - Territory     Open Access  
Periódico Eletrônico Geobaobás     Open Access  
PatryTer     Open Access  
Espaço Aberto     Open Access  
AbeÁfrica : Revista da Associação Brasileira de Estudos Africanos     Open Access  
Mosoliya Studies     Open Access  
New Approaches in Sport Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Geoheritage and Parks     Open Access  
Watershed Ecology and the Environment     Open Access  
Sémata : Ciencias Sociais e Humanidades     Full-text available via subscription  
Geoingá : Revista do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia     Open Access  
Revista Uruguaya de Antropología y Etnografía     Open Access  
Rocznik Toruński     Open Access  
Southern African Journal of Environmental Education     Open Access  
Proceedings of the ICA     Open Access  
Mediterranean Geoscience Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Geospatial Applications in Natural Resources     Open Access  
Revista Geoaraguaia     Open Access  
TRIM. Tordesillas : Revista de investigación multidisciplinar     Open Access  

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Evolutionary Human Sciences
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2513-843X
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [352 journals]
  • Editorial – Déjà vu all over again

    • Authors: Mace; Ruth
      First page: 1
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2021.51
  • The emergence of ‘Transeurasian’ language families in Northeast Asia
           as viewed from archaeological evidence

    • Authors: Miyamoto; Kazuo
      First page: 3
      Abstract: From a linguistic standpoint, Proto-Japonic and Proto-Koreanic are assumed to have split off the Transeurasian languages in southern Manchuria. The linguistic idea that Proto-Japonic came earlier than Proto-Koreanic in the chronological scheme means that the Proto-Japonic language first entered the Korean Peninsula, and from there spread to the Japanese archipelago at the beginning of the Yayoi period, around the ninth century BC, while the arrival of Proto-Koreanic in southern Korea is associated with the spread of the rolled rim vessel culture around the fifth century BC. The genealogical sequence of the Pianpu, Mumun and Yayoi cultures, which shared the same pottery production techniques, indicates the spread of Proto-Japonic. On the other hand, migrants moved from Liaodong to the Korean Peninsula and established the rolled rim vessel culture. This population movement was probably due to social and political reasons as the Yan state enlarged its territory eastward. The Proto-Koreanic of the rolled rim vessel culture later spread to the Korean Peninsula and gradually drove out Proto-Japonic, becoming the predecessor of the Koreanic. In this paper, I examine the spread of Proto-Japonic and Proto-Koreanic in Northeast Asia based on archaeological evidence, focusing especially on the genealogy of pottery styles and pottery production techniques.
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2021.49
  • Demography, trade and state power: a tripartite model of medieval
           farming/language dispersals in the Ryukyu Islands

    • Authors: Jarosz; Aleksandra, Robbeets, Martine, Fernandes, Ricardo, Takamiya, Hiroto, Shinzato, Akito, Nakamura, Naoko, Shinoto, Maria, Hudson, Mark
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Hunter–gatherer occupations of small islands are rare in world prehistory and it is widely accepted that island settlement is facilitated by agriculture. The Ryukyu Islands contradict that understanding on two counts: not only did they have a long history of hunter–gatherer settlement, but they also have a very late date for the onset of agriculture, which only reached the archipelago between the eighth and thirteenth centuries AD. Here, we combine archaeology and linguistics to propose a tripartite model for the spread of agriculture and Ryukyuan languages to the Ryukyu Islands. Employing demographic growth, trade/piracy and the political influence of neighbouring states, this model provides a synthetic yet flexible understanding of farming/language dispersals in the Ryukyus within the complex historical background of medieval East Asia.
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.1
  • Young children spontaneously invent three different types of associative
           tool use behaviour

    • Authors: Reindl; E., Tennie, C., Apperly, I. A., Lugosi, Z., Beck, S. R.
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Associative Tool Use (ATU) describes the use of two or more tools in combination, with the literature further differentiating between Tool set use, Tool composite use, Sequential tool use and Secondary tool use. Research investigating the cognitive processes underlying ATU has shown that some primate and bird species spontaneously invent Tool set and Sequential tool use. Yet studies with humans are sparse. Whether children are also able to spontaneously invent ATU behaviours and at what age this ability emerges is poorly understood. We addressed this gap in the literature with two experiments involving preschoolers (E1, N = 66, 3 years 6 months to 4 years 9 months; E2, N = 119, 3 years 0 months to 6 years 10 months) who were administered novel tasks measuring Tool set, Metatool and Sequential tool use. Participants needed to solve the tasks individually, without the opportunity for social learning (except for enhancement effects). Children from 3 years of age spontaneously invented all of the types of investigated ATU behaviours. Success rates were low, suggesting that individual invention of ATU in novel tasks is still challenging for preschoolers. We discuss how future studies can use and expand our tasks to deepen our understanding of tool use and problem-solving in humans and non-human animals.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.4
  • Sensitivity of musculoskeletal models to variation in muscle architecture

    • Authors: Kramer; Patricia Ann, Feuerriegel, Elen M., Lautzenheiser, Steven G., Sylvester, Adam D.
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Musculoskeletal models, like all theoretical models of physical processes, depend on the assumptions needed to construct the model. For musculoskeletal models, these assumptions include, among other things, the kinematic data, the kinetic data and the muscle parameters. The former (dynamic) data can be acquired relatively easily from living subjects, but the latter are usually based on limited information, frequently determined from cadaver studies performed on elderly individuals. Previously, we determined the sensitivity of forces to dynamic differences among 10 humans walking on a straight path. Here, we assess the sensitivity of the muscle and joint reaction forces developed in human walking to variable muscle parameters obtained from 10 living adults, whose data were recently reported, and compared the results with the values from a standard model that depends on cadaveric data. We found that, while the force patterns across the stance cycle were similar among muscle parameter models, differences of as much as 15% in the force magnitude were produced. Whether or not the variation between the standard model and other muscle parameters is important depends on why the forces are required.
      PubDate: 2022-02-15
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.6
  • Life-history tradeoffs in a historical population (1896–1939) undergoing
           rapid fertility decline: Costs of reproduction'

    • Authors: Jaeggi; Adrian V., Martin, Jordan S., Floris, Joël, Bender, Nicole, Haeusler, Martin, Sear, Rebecca, Staub, Kaspar
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Evolutionary demographers often invoke tradeoffs between reproduction and survival to explain reductions in fertility during demographic transitions. The evidence for such tradeoffs in humans has been mixed, partly because tradeoffs may be masked by individual differences in quality or access to resources. Unmasking tradeoffs despite such phenotypic correlations requires sophisticated statistical analyses that account for endogeneity among variables and individual differences in access to resources. Here we tested for costs of reproduction using N = 13,663 birth records from the maternity hospital in Basel, Switzerland, 1896–1939, a period characterised by rapid fertility declines. We predicted that higher parity is associated with worse maternal and offspring condition at the time of birth, adjusting for age and a variety of covariates. We used Bayesian multivariate, multilevel models to simultaneously analyse multiple related outcomes while accounting for endogeneity, appropriately modelling non-linear effects, dealing with hierarchical data structures, and effectively imputing missing data. Despite all these efforts, we found virtually no evidence for costs of reproduction. Instead, women with better access to resources had fewer children. Barring limitations of the data, these results are consistent with demographic transitions reflecting women's investment in their own embodied capital and/or the adoption of maladaptive low-fertility norms by elites.
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.2
  • Early nomads of the Eastern Steppe and their tentative connections in the
           West – CORRIGENDUM

    • Authors: Savelyev; Alexander, Jeong, Choongwon
      First page: 8
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.8
  • Deep ancestry of collapsing networks of nomadic hunter–gatherers in

    • Authors: Lansing; J. Stephen, Jacobs, Guy S., Downey, Sean S., Norquest, Peter K., Cox, Murray P., Kuhn, Steven L., Miller, John H., Malik, Safarina G., Sudoyo, Herawati, Kusuma, Pradiptajati
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Theories of early cooperation in human society often draw from a small sample of ethnographic studies of surviving populations of hunter–gatherers, most of which are now sedentary. Borneo hunter–gatherers (Punan, Penan) have seldom figured in comparative research because of a decades-old controversy about whether they are the descendants of farmers who adopted a hunting and gathering way of life. In 2018 we began an ethnographic study of a group of still-nomadic hunter–gatherers who call themselves Punan Batu (Cave Punan). Our genetic analysis clearly indicates that they are very unlikely to be the descendants of neighbouring agriculturalists. They also preserve a song language that is unrelated to other languages of Borneo. Dispersed travelling groups of Punan Batu with fluid membership use message sticks to stay in contact, co-operate and share resources as they journey between rock shelters and forest camps. Message sticks were once widespread among nomadic Punan in Borneo, but have largely disappeared in sedentary Punan villages. Thus the small community of Punan Batu offers a rare glimpse of a hunting and gathering way of life that was once widespread in the forests of Borneo, where prosocial behaviour extended beyond the face-to-face community, facilitating successful collective adaptation to the diverse resources of Borneo's forests.
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.3
  • The origin of smiling, laughing, and crying: The defensive mimic theory

    • Authors: Graziano; Michael S. A.
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Why do we leak lubricant from the eyes to solicit comfort from others? Why do we bare our teeth and crinkle our faces to express non-aggression? The defensive mimic theory proposes that a broad range of human emotional expressions evolved originally as exaggerated, temporally extended mimics of the fast, defensive reflexes that normally protect the body surface. Defensive reflexes are so important to survival that they cannot be safely suppressed; yet they also broadcast information about an animal's internal state, information that can potentially be exploited by other animals. Once others can observe and exploit an animal's defensive reflexes, it may be advantageous to the animal to run interference by creating mimic defensive actions, thereby manipulating the behaviour of others. Through this interaction over millions of years, many human emotional expressions may have evolved. Here, human social signals including smiling, laughing and crying, are compared component-by-component with the known, well-studied features of primate defensive reflexes. It is suggested that the defensive mimic theory can adequately account for the physical form of not all, but a large range of, human emotional expression.
      PubDate: 2022-03-03
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.5
  • Four levers of reciprocity across human societies: concepts, analysis and

    • Authors: Lehmann; Laurent, Powers, Simon T., van Schaik, Carel P.
      First page: 11
      Abstract: This paper surveys five human societal types – mobile foragers, horticulturalists, pre-state agriculturalists, state-based agriculturalists and liberal democracies – from the perspective of three core social problems faced by interacting individuals: coordination problems, social dilemmas and contest problems. We characterise the occurrence of these problems in the different societal types and enquire into the main force keeping societies together given the prevalence of these. To address this, we consider the social problems in light of the theory of repeated games, and delineate the role of intertemporal incentives in sustaining cooperative behaviour through the reciprocity principle. We analyse the population, economic and political structural features of the five societal types, and show that intertemporal incentives have been adapted to the changes in scope and scale of the core social problems as societies have grown in size. In all societies, reciprocity mechanisms appear to solve the social problems by enabling lifetime direct benefits to individuals for cooperation. Our analysis leads us to predict that as societies increase in complexity, they need more of the following four features to enable the scalability and adaptability of the reciprocity principle: nested grouping, decentralised enforcement and local information, centralised enforcement and coercive power, and formal rules.
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.7
  • Bipedal locomotion in zoo apes: Revisiting the hylobatian model for
           bipedal origins

    • Authors: Rosen; Kyle H., Jones, Caroline E., DeSilva, Jeremy M.
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Bipedal locomotion is a hallmark of being human. Yet the body form from which bipedalism evolved remains unclear. Specifically, the positional behaviour (i.e. orthograde vs. pronograde) and the length of the lumbar spine (i.e. long and mobile vs. short and stiff) of the last common ancestor (LCA) of the African great apes and humans require further investigation. While fossil evidence would be the most conclusive, the paucity of hominid fossils from 5–10 million years ago makes this field of research challenging. In their absence, extant primate anatomy and behaviour may offer some insight into the ancestral body form from which bipedalism could most easily evolve. Here, we quantify the frequency of bipedalism in a large sample (N = 496) of zoo-housed hominoids and cercopithecines. Our results show that while each studied species of ape and monkey can move bipedally, hylobatids are significantly more bipedal and engage in bipedal locomotion more frequently and for greater distances than any other primate sampled. These data support hypotheses of an orthograde, long-backed and arboreal LCA, which is consistent with hominoid fossils from the middle-to-late Miocene. If true, knuckle-walking evolved in parallel in Pan and Gorilla, and the human body form, particularly the long lower back and orthograde posture, is conserved.
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.9
  • What is the extent of a frequency-dependent social learning strategy

    • Authors: Bellamy; Aysha, McKay, Ryan, Vogt, Sonja, Efferson, Charles
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Models of frequency-dependent social learning posit that individuals respond to the commonality of behaviours without additional variables modifying this. Such strategies bring important trade-offs, e.g. conformity is beneficial when observing people facing the same task but harmful when observing those facing a different task. Instead of rigidly responding to frequencies, however, social learners might modulate their response given additional information. To see, we ran an incentivised experiment where participants played either a game against nature or a coordination game. There were three types of information: (a) choice frequencies in a group of demonstrators; (b) an indication of whether these demonstrators learned in a similar or different environment; and (c) an indication about the reliability of this similarity information. Similarity information was either reliably correct, uninformative or reliably incorrect, where reliably correct and reliably incorrect treatments provided participants with equivalent earning opportunities. Participants adjusted their decision-making to all three types of information. Adjustments, however, were asymmetric, with participants doing especially well when conforming to demonstrators who were reliably similar to them. The overall response, however, was more fluid and complex than this one case. This flexibility should attenuate the trade-offs commonly assumed to shape the evolution of frequency-dependent social learning strategies.
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.11
  • Cultural variation in running techniques among non-industrial societies

    • Authors: Wallace; Ian J., Kraft, Thomas S., Venkataraman, Vivek V., Davis, Helen E., Holowka, Nicholas B., Harris, Alexandra R., Lieberman, Daniel E., Gurven, Michael
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Research among non-industrial societies suggests that body kinematics adopted during running vary between groups according to the cultural importance of running. Among groups in which running is common and an important part of cultural identity, runners tend to adopt what exercise scientists and coaches consider to be good technique for avoiding injury and maximising performance. In contrast, among groups in which running is not particularly culturally important, people tend to adopt suboptimal technique. This paper begins by describing key elements of good running technique, including landing with a forefoot or midfoot strike pattern and leg oriented roughly vertically. Next, we review evidence from non-industrial societies that cultural attitudes about running associate with variation in running techniques. Then, we present new data from Tsimane forager–horticulturalists in Bolivia. Our findings suggest that running is neither a common activity among the Tsimane nor is it considered an important part of cultural identity. We also demonstrate that when Tsimane do run, they tend to use suboptimal technique, specifically landing with a rearfoot strike pattern and leg protracted ahead of the knee (called overstriding). Finally, we discuss processes by which culture might influence variation in running techniques among non-industrial societies, including self-optimisation and social learning.
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.12
  • Paternal investment, stepfather presence and early child development and
           growth among Serbian Roma

    • Authors: Čvorović; Jelena
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Research on paternal investment and child growth and development is limited outside of high-income countries. Using nationally representative data from low-resource Serbian Roma communities, this study examined father investment (direct care), its predictors and the associations between paternal investment, stepfather presence and child physical growth and early development. The sample included 1222 children aged 35–59 months, out of which 235 were living with biological fathers. Child outcomes included height-for-age Z-scores, stunting and early child developmental score. Roma paternal investment was relatively low. There was a positive association of father investment and children's height, and no association with developmental score. The presence of father vs. stepfather did not exert any influence on children. Instead, maternal and child characteristics explained both the overall development and height for Roma children. Thus, older children, born to literate, lower parity mothers of higher status and greater investment had better developmental and growth outcomes; girls were the preferred sex, owing to expected fitness benefits. Reverse causality emerged as the most likely pathway through which the cross-sectional association of father direct care with child growth may manifest, such that Roma fathers tend to bias their investment towards taller, more endowed children, because of greater fitness pay-off.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.14
  • Robert C. Dunnell's Systematics in prehistory at 50

    • Authors: Riede; Felix, Araujo, Astolfo, Marwick, Ben
      First page: 16
      Abstract: The year 2021 marked the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of Robert C. Dunnell's (Free Press, 1971) diminutive yet dense Systematics in prehistory. At the height of the debate between Culture History and New Archaeology, Dunnell's work sought to address a more fundamental issue that was and still is relevant to all branches of prehistoric archaeology, and especially to the study of the Palaeolithic: systematics. Dunnell himself was notorious and controversial, but the importance of his work remains underappreciated. Like other precocious works of that tumultuous time, Systematics in prehistory today remains absent from most course reading lists and gathers dust on library shelves. In this contribution we argue for a greater appreciation of its as yet unfulfilled conceptual and analytical promise. In particular, we briefly chart its somewhat delayed impact via evolutionary archaeology, including how it has also influenced non-Anglophone traditions, especially in South America. The obstinate persistence of classification issues in palaeoanthropology and palaeoarchaeology, we argue, warrants a second look at Dunnell's Systematics.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.18
  • Food storage facilitates professional religious specialization in
           hunter–gatherer societies

    • Authors: Watts; Joseph, Hamerslag, Elise M., Sprules, Cassie, Shaver, John H., Dunbar, Robin I. M.
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Professional religious specialists centralised religious authority in early human societies and represented some of the earliest instances of formalised social leadership. These individuals played a central role in the emergence of organised religion and transitions to more stratified human societies. Evolutionary theories highlight a range of environmental, economic and social factors that are potentially causally related to the emergence of professional religious specialists in human history. There remains little consensus over the relative importance of these factors and whether professional religious specialists were the outcome or driver of increased socio-cultural complexity. We built a global dataset of hunter–gatherer societies and developed a novel method of exploratory phylogenetic path analysis. This enabled us to systematically identify the factors associated with the emergence of professional religious specialists and infer the directionality of causal dependencies. We find that environmental predictability, environmental richness, pathogen load, social leadership and food storage systems are all correlated with professional religious specialists. However, only food storage is directly related to the emergence of professional religious specialists. Our findings are most consistent with the claim that the early stages of organised religion were the outcome rather than driver of increased socio-economic complexity.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.17
  • Extracting hierarchical features of cultural variation using network-based

    • Authors: Liu; Xiran, Rosenberg, Noah A., Greenbaum, Gili
      First page: 18
      Abstract: High-dimensional datasets on cultural characters contribute to uncovering insights about factors that influence cultural evolution. Because cultural variation in part reflects descent processes with a hierarchical structure – including the descent of populations and vertical transmission of cultural traits – methods designed for hierarchically structured data have potential to find applications in the analysis of cultural variation. We adapt a network-based hierarchical clustering method for use in analysing cultural variation. Given a set of entities, the method constructs a similarity network, hierarchically depicting community structure among them. We illustrate the approach using four datasets: pronunciation variation in the US mid-Atlantic region, folklore variation in worldwide cultures, phonemic variation across worldwide languages and temporal variation in first names in the US. In these examples, the method provides insights into processes that affect cultural variation, uncovering geographic and other influences on observed patterns and cultural characters that make important contributions to them.
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.15
  • Forest terrains influence walking kinematics among indigenous Tsimane of
           the Bolivian Amazon

    • Authors: Holowka; Nicholas B., Kraft, Thomas S., Wallace, Ian J., Gurven, Michael, Venkataraman, Vivek V.
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Laboratory-based studies indicate that a major evolutionary advantage of bipedalism is enabling humans to walk with relatively low energy expenditure. However, such studies typically record subjects walking on even surfaces or treadmills that do not represent the irregular terrains our species encounters in natural environments. To date, few studies have quantified walking kinematics on natural terrains. Here we used high-speed video to record marker-based kinematics of 21 individuals from a Tsimane forager–horticulturalist community in the Bolivian Amazon walking on three different terrains: a dirt field, a forest trail and an unbroken forest transect. Compared with the field, in the unbroken forest participants contacted the ground with more protracted legs and flatter foot postures, had more inclined trunks, more flexed hips and knees, and raised their feet higher during leg swing. In contrast, kinematics were generally similar between trail and field walking. These results provide preliminary support for the idea that irregular natural surfaces like those in forests cause humans to alter their walking kinematics, such that travel in these environments could be more energetically expensive than would be assumed from laboratory-based data. These findings have important implications for the evolutionary energetics of human foraging in environments with challenging terrains.
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.13
  • Credibility Enhancing Displays, religious scandal and the decline of Irish
           Catholic orthodoxy

    • Authors: Turpin; Hugh D., Willard, Aiyana K.
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Credibility Enhancing Displays have been shown to be an important component in the transmission of empirically unverifiable cultural content such as religious beliefs. Decreased Credibility Enhancing Displays are a major predictor of religious decline. However, because declines in belief are often paired with the decreasing importance of religious institutions, existing research has not yet shown the effect of Credibility Enhancing Displays as separate from this institutional decline. Here, we assess the role of past Credibility Enhancing Display exposure among the baptised Catholic population of Ireland in predicting who retains a Catholic identity and religious beliefs among those who reject the Catholic Church. We find that leaving Catholicism outright (i.e. ‘ex-Catholicism’) is predicted by low Credibility Enhancing Display exposure, but rejecting the Church while retaining a Catholic identity (i.e. ‘liminal Catholicism’) and theistic belief is not. High perceived prevalence of clerical paedophiles (i.e. religious hypocrisy) predicts both groups similarly. Higher exposure to Credibility Enhancing Displays predicts higher orthodox Catholic beliefs and Catholic morality among Catholics, but with inconsistent and even negative effects among the other groups. High perceived prevalence of clerical paedophiles predicts the rejection of orthodox Catholic beliefs, but not the rejection of theism or a Catholic identity.
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.21
  • Can impulsivity evolve in response to childhood environmental

    • Authors: Kometani; Atsushi, Ohtsubo, Yohsuke
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Previous studies have suggested that human impulsivity is an adaptive response to childhood environmental harshness: individuals from families of low socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be more impulsive. However, no studies have tested the evolvability of this reaction norm. This study examined whether (a) impulsivity is associated with higher fitness among individuals from low SES families, while (b) it is associated with lower fitness among individuals from high SES families. We assessed three indices of impulsivity (temporal discounting, risk taking and fast/slow life history strategy), childhood SES and five proxy indices of fitness (number of children, lifelong singlehood, annual household income, subjective SES and life satisfaction) of 692 middle-aged participants (40–45 years old). None of the results supported the evolvability of the impulsivity reaction norm, although low childhood SES was associated with lower fitness on every proxy measure. Impulsivity (operationalised as the fast life history strategy) was associated with lower fitness regardless of childhood SES.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.22
  • Representations of facial expressions since Darwin

    • Authors: Perrett; David
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Darwin's book on expressions of emotion was one of the first publications to include photographs (Darwin, The expression of the emotions in Man and animals, 1872). The inclusion of expression photographs meant that readers could form their own opinions and could, like Darwin, survey others for their interpretations. As such, the images provided an evidence base and an ‘open source’. Since Darwin, increases in the representativeness and realism of emotional expressions have come from the use of composite images, colour, multiple views and dynamic displays. Research on understanding emotional expressions has been aided by the use of computer graphics to interpolate parametrically between different expressions and to extrapolate exaggerations. This review tracks the developments in how emotions are illustrated and studied and considers where to go next.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.10
  • Indo-European loanwords and exchange in Bronze Age Central and East Asia

    • Authors: Bjørn; Rasmus G.
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Loanword analysis is a unique contribution of historical linguistics to our understanding of prehistoric cultural interfaces. As language reflects the lives of its speakers, the substantiation of loanwords draws on the composite evidence from linguistic as well as auxiliary data from archaeology and genetics through triangulation. The Bronze Age of Central Asia is in principle linguistically mute, but a host of recent independent observations that tie languages, cultures and genetics together in various ways invites a comprehensive reassessment of six highly diagnostic loanwords (‘seven’, ‘name/fame’, ‘sister-in-law’, ‘honey’, ‘metal’ and ‘horse’) that are associated with the Bronze Age. Moreover, they are shared between Indo-European, Uralic, Turkic and sometimes Old Chinese. The successful identification of the interfaces for these loanwords can help settle longstanding debates on languages, migrations and the items themselves. Each item is analysed using the comparative method with reference to the archaeological record to assess the plausibility of a transfer. I argue that the six items can be dated to have entered Central and East Asian languages from immigrant Indo-European languages spoken in the Afanasievo and Andronovo cultures, including a novel source for the ‘horse’ in Old Chinese.
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.16
  • Early adversity, adult lifestyle, and posttraumatic stress disorder in a
           military sample

    • Authors: Clint; Edward K., Fessler, Daniel M. T.
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Early adversity is considered a major risk factor for adult posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Simultaneously, however, early adversity is also known to contribute to psychological resilience, and, indeed, some high-adversity groups do not display elevated PTSD risk. We explored correlates of PTSD in the Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers military dataset to evaluate contrasting accounts of the relationship between early adversity and PTSD. The standard deficit model depicts ontogeny as inherently vulnerable to insult, such that early adversity yields a less robust adult phenotype. A complementary life history theory account holds that adverse early experiences cue a fast life history orientation that reduces investment in maintenance, yielding an adult phenotype less able to recover from trauma. An opposing life history theory account holds that early adversity cues expectations of an adverse adult environment, adaptively reducing reactivity to adverse events. We use principal component analysis to extract a latent variable representing several childhood experiences and multiple lifestyle factors that plausibly proxy life history orientation. After correcting for covariates, we find a strong positive influence of such proxies on PTSD risk, suggesting that early adversity may indeed increase risk for PTSD, and thus that either the standard deficit model, the reduced maintenance account or a combination are correct.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.19
  • Archery's signature: an electromyographic analysis of the upper limb

    • Authors: Dorshorst; Tabitha, Weir, Gillian, Hamill, Joseph, Holt, Brigitte
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Non-technical summary:Bow and arrow technology plays a significant role in the recent evolutionary history of modern humans, but limitations of preservation make it challenging to identify archaeological evidence of early archery. Since bone structure can change in response to muscle force, archers of the past can potentially be identified through analysis of upper arm bones. However, there is limited research on how archery impacts upper limb musculature. This study offers initial insights into how archery impacts humeral musculature and highlights the need for additional research focused on archery's direct impact on humeral morphology.Technical summary:Humeral morphology has been used to support behaviour reconstructions of archery in past populations. However, the lack of experimental research concerning the impacts that archery has on the upper limb weakens skeletal morphological approaches. The goal of this study was to determine how archery impacts the activation of upper limb musculature. More specifically, this study tested: (a) whether the relative muscle activations are similar between arms; and (b) what muscles were activated on the dominant (draw) arm compared with the non-dominant (bow) arm. Data on upper arm muscle activation were collected bilaterally for nine archers using surface electromyography (EMG). Results show similar levels of muscle activation bilaterally with different muscles being activated in each arm. There were significantly higher integrated EMG and peak muscle activations of the biceps brachii muscles in the draw arm compared with the bow arm. In contrast, the lateral deltoid and the triceps brachii muscles had significantly higher integrated EMG and peak muscle activations on the bow arm compared with the draw arm. This work offers initial insights into how archery impacts humeral musculature and highlights the need for additional research focused on archery's direct impact on humeral morphology.
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.20
  • Specialised minds: extending adaptive explanations of personality to the
           evolution of psychopathology

    • Authors: Hunt; Adam D., Jaeggi, Adrian V.
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Traditional evolutionary theory invoked natural and sexual selection to explain species- and sex-typical traits. However, some heritable inter-individual variability in behaviour and psychology – personality – is probably adaptive. Here we extend this insight to common psychopathological traits. Reviewing key findings from three background areas of importance – theoretical models, non-human personality and evolved human social dynamics – we propose that a combination of social niche specialisation, negative frequency-dependency, balancing selection and adaptive developmental plasticity should explain adaptation for individual differences in psychology – ‘specialised minds’ – explaining some variance in personality and psychopathology trait dimensions, which share various characteristics. We suggest that anthropological research of behavioural differences should be extended past broad demographic factors (age and sex) to include individual specialisations. As a first step towards grounding psychopathology in ancestral social structure, we propose a minimum plausible prevalence, given likely ancestral group sizes, for negatively frequency-dependent phenotypes to be maintained as specialised tails of adaptive distributions – below the calculated prevalence, specialisation is highly unlikely. For instance, chronic highly debilitating forms of autism or schizophrenia are too rare for such explanations, whereas attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and broad autism phenotypes are common enough to have existed in most hunter-gatherer bands, making adaptive explanations more plausible.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.23
  • Revisiting Darwin's comparisons between human and non-human primate facial

    • Authors: Kavanagh; Eithne, Kimock, Clare, Whitehouse, Jamie, Micheletta, Jerome, Waller, Bridget M.
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Darwin and other pioneering scholars made comparisons between human facial signals and those of non-human primates, suggesting that they share evolutionary history. We now have tools available (the Facial Action Coding System) to make these comparisons anatomically based and standardised, as well as analytical methods to facilitate comparative studies. Here we review the evidence establishing a shared anatomical basis between the facial behaviour of human and non-human primate species, concluding which signals are probably related, and which are not. We then review the evidence for shared function and discuss the implications for understanding human communication. Where differences between humans and other species exist, we explore possible explanations and future directions for enquiry.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.26
  • Psychosocial and energetic factors on human female pubertal timing: a
           systematized review

    • Authors: Glass; Delaney J., Geerkens, Joy T., Martin, Melanie A.
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Childhood psychosocial stressors have been proposed to favour fast life history strategies promoting earlier puberty in females. However, studies demonstrating this association often do not elucidate causal mechanisms, nor account for greater childhood energetic availability – also known to promote rapid growth and earlier puberty. To assess the extent to which such confounding has been considered, we conducted a systematized review to identify studies examining measures of both prepubertal growth (e.g. weight, height) and psychosocial stressors (e.g. adversity, father absence) in relation to female pubertal timing. A total of 1069 non-duplicated studies were identified across five databases. Twenty studies met selection criteria for critical review following independent screening of titles, abstracts and manuscripts. Within these studies, measures indicative of rapid childhood growth were more consistently associated with earlier pubertal timing than were measures of psychosocial stress. We discuss future research directions to investigate the impact of psychosocial stress on pubertal timing more robustly, including methodological and mechanistic considerations, and contextualization of findings by socioecological environments.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.24
  • Variability and the form–function framework in evolutionary
           biomechanics and human locomotion

    • Authors: Murray; Alison A.
      First page: 29
      Abstract: The form–function conceptual framework, which assumes a strong relationship between the structure of a particular trait and its function, has been crucial for understanding morphological variation and locomotion among extant and fossil species across many disciplines. In biological anthropology, it is the lens through which many important questions and hypotheses have been tackled with respect to relationships between morphology and locomotor kinematics, energetics and performance. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that the morphologies of fossil hominins, apes and humans can confer considerable locomotor diversity and flexibility, and can do so with a range of kinematics depending on soft tissue plasticity and environmental and cultural factors. This complexity is not built into traditional biomechanical or mathematical models of relationships between structure and kinematics or energetics, limiting our interpretation of what bone structure is telling us about behaviour in the past. The nine papers presented in this Special Collection together address some of the challenges that variation in the relationship between form and function pose in evolutionary biomechanics, to better characterise the complexity linking structure and function and to provide tools through which we may begin to incorporate some of this complexity into our functional interpretations.
      PubDate: 2022-07-07
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.28
  • Marriage, bridewealth and power: critical reflections on women's autonomy
           across settings in Africa

    • Authors: Akurugu; Constance Awinpoka, Dery, Isaac, Domanban, Paul Bata
      First page: 30
      Abstract: This article examines ongoing discourses on the importance of the marriage payment and its role in constraining women's autonomy across societies in Africa. First, we review how bridewealth has been conceptualised across multiple disciplines, including the work of evolutionary human scientists. We then summarise our research grounded in residential ethnographic fieldwork data collected over a period of a year in a rural settlement in north-western Ghana. Feminist accounts on women's lived experiences throughout bridewealth practising societies point to their subordination. In some contexts, including northern Ghana, bridewealth is perceived as engendering women's oppression. To liberate women from patriarchal norms, some gender advocates call for undoing of the institution of the marriage payment. Nonetheless, the women who bear the brunt of gendered oppression and the men who derive patriarchal dividends from it are averse to this undoing discourse as the bridewealth normatively secures legitimacy for women. Undoing bridewealth may mean further rendering precarious women's status in the marital family. We conclude that rather than undoing the revered institution of bridewealth, there is need to build on culturally appropriate notions of communitarianism as encapsulated by the Ubuntu philosophy and indigenous systems such as the traditional courts for negotiating the rights of women.
      PubDate: 2022-07-06
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.27
  • Claude Lévi-Strauss as a humanist forerunner of cultural
           macroevolution studies

    • Authors: Sánchez-Villagra; Marcelo R.
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Cross-cultural studies of humans using methods developed in evolutionary biology and comparative linguistics are flourishing. ‘Cultural macroevolution’ has great potential to address fundamental questions of cultural transformation and human history. However, this field is poorly integrated with core cultural anthropology, although both aim in part at addressing similar issues. Claude Lévi-Strauss established a comparative approach searching for universals and documentation of diversity to bring understanding to cultural phenomena. Recognizing the nomothetic nature of Lévi-Strauss’ work, his abstraction and modelling, provides an example within anthropology of the search for universals and the study of big data, akin to cultural macroevolution studies. The latter could benefit, beyond the sophisticated analyses of big data mined from ethnographic work, from the integration with the intellectual legacy and practice of core anthropology and thus propitiate the synergistic interaction of disciplines. Attempts at rapprochement of disciplines from the natural sciences that lack pluralism and present a narrow view are deemed examples of ‘Wilson's effect’.
      PubDate: 2022-07-12
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.30
  • Does social influence affect COVID-19 vaccination intention among the

    • Authors: Salali; Gul Deniz, Uysal, Mete Sefa, Bozyel, Gizem, Akpinar, Ege, Aksu, Ayca
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Conformist social influence is a double-edged sword when it comes to vaccine promotion. On the one hand, social influence may increase vaccine uptake by reassuring the hesitant about the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine; on the other hand, people may forgo the cost of vaccination when the majority is already vaccinated – giving rise to a public goods dilemma. Here, we examine whether available information on the percentage of double-vaccinated people affects COVID-19 vaccination intention among unvaccinated people in Turkey. In an online experiment, we divided participants (n = 1013) into low, intermediate and high social influence conditions, reflecting the government's vaccine promotion messages. We found that social influence did not predict COVID-19 vaccination intention, but psychological reactance and collectivism did. People with higher reactance (intolerance of others telling one what to do and being sceptical of consensus views) had lower vaccination intention, whilst people with higher collectivism (how much a person considers group benefits over individual success) had higher vaccination intention. Our findings suggest that advertising the percentage of double-vaccinated people is not sufficient to trigger a cascade of others getting themselves vaccinated. Diverse promotion strategies reflecting the heterogeneity of individual attitudes could be more effective.
      PubDate: 2022-07-11
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.29
  • Age- and sex-based differences in the moral intuitions of American early

    • Authors: Bretl; Brandon L., Goering, Marlon
      First page: 33
      Abstract: This study sought to explore the validity of a latent-factor model of moral intuition development during early adolescence. The 3-Factor Character Foundations Survey (CFS-3) was used to assess the moral intuitions of early adolescents (n = 850, mean = 12.4 years old, SD = 0.96) under a moral foundations theory framework. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the psychometric validity of the three latent factor constructs (autonomy, loyalty and empathy), and partial metric invariance was established to allow for the comparison of latent factor means between four age- and sex-based groups coinciding with averages for pubertal onset. Results support prior findings of greater latent factor means for females in all three factors when compared with males in the 11–12-year-old age group. Additionally, 13–14-year-old females exhibited lower latent factor means in autonomy and loyalty factors when compared with 11–12-year-old females. This resulted in 13–14-year-old females remaining higher in empathy and autonomy but showing no difference in loyalty when compared with 13–14-year-old males. The results are interpreted through the lens of attachment theory, socio-cultural influence and certain limitations of the survey instrument itself. Suggestions for future studies are proposed.
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.34
  • Rates of ecological knowledge learning in Pemba, Tanzania: Implications
           for childhood evolution

    • Authors: Pretelli; Ilaria, Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique, McElreath, Richard
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Humans live in diverse, complex niches where survival and reproduction are conditional on the acquisition of knowledge. Humans also have long childhoods, spending more than a decade before they become net producers. Whether the time needed to learn has been a selective force in the evolution of long human childhood is unclear, because there is little comparative data on the growth of ecological knowledge throughout childhood. We measured ecological knowledge at different ages in Pemba, Zanzibar (Tanzania), interviewing 93 children and teenagers between 4 and 26 years. We developed Bayesian latent-trait models to estimate individual knowledge and its association with age, activities, household family structure and education. In the studied population, children learn during the whole pre-reproductive period, but at varying rates, with the fastest increases in young children. Sex differences appear during middle childhood and are mediated by participation in different activities. In addition to providing a detailed empirical investigation of the relationship between knowledge acquisition and childhood, this study develops and documents computational improvements to the modelling of knowledge development.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.31
  • Culture and group-functional punishment behaviour

    • Authors: Espín; Antonio M., Brañas-Garza, Pablo, Gamella, Juan F., Herrmann, Benedikt, Martín, Jesús
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Humans often ‘altruistically’ punish non-cooperators in one-shot interactions among genetically unrelated individuals. This poses an evolutionary puzzle because altruistic punishment enforces cooperation norms that benefit the whole group but is costly for the punisher. One key explanation is that punishment follows a social-benefits logic: it is eminently normative and group-functional (drawing on cultural group selection theories). In contrast, mismatch-based deterrence theory argues that punishment serves the individual-level function of deterring mistreatment of oneself and one's allies, hinging upon the evolved human coalitional psychology. We conducted multilateral-cooperation experiments with a sample of Spanish Romani people (Gitanos or Calé) and the non-Gitano majority. The Gitanos represent a unique case study because they rely heavily on close kin-based networks and display a strong ethnic identity. We find that Gitano non-cooperators were not punished by co-ethnics in only-Gitano (ethnically) homogeneous groups but were harshly punished by other Gitanos and by non-Gitanos in ethnically mixed groups. Our findings suggest the existence of culture-specific motives for punishment: Gitanos, especially males, appear to use punishment to protect their ethnic identity, whereas non-Gitanos use punishment to protect a norm of universal cooperation. Only theories that consider normative, group-functional forces underlying punishment behaviour can explain our data.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.32
  • Women carry for less: body size, pelvis width, loading position and

    • Authors: Wall-Scheffler; Cara M.
      First page: 36
      Abstract: The energetic cost of walking varies with mass and speed; however, the metabolic cost of carrying loads has not consistently increased proportionally to the mass carried. The cost of carrying mass, and the speed at which human walkers carry this mass, has been shown to vary with load position and load description (e.g. child vs. groceries). Additionally, the preponderance of women carriers around the world, and the tendency for certain kinds of population-level sexual dimorphism has led to the hypothesis that women might be more effective carriers than men. Here, I investigate the energetic cost and speed changes of women (N = 9) and men (N = 6) walking through the woods carrying their own babies (mean baby mass = 10.6 kg) in three different positions – on their front, side and back using the same Ergo fabric baby sling. People carrying their babies on their backs are able to maintain their unloaded walking speed (1.4 m/s) and show the lowest increase in metabolic cost per distance (J/m, 17.4%). Women carry the babies for a lower energetic cost than men at all conditions (p < 0.01). Further energetic and kinematic evidence elucidates the preponderance of back-carrying cross-culturally, and illustrates the importance of relatively wider bi-trochanteric breadths for reducing the energetic costs of carrying.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.35
  • Is it good to be bad' An evolutionary analysis of the adaptive
           potential of psychopathic traits

    • Authors: Ene; Ioana, Wong, Keri Ka-Yee, Salali, Gul Deniz
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Although psychopathy is widely conceptualised as a mental disorder, some researchers question the maladaptive nature of psychopathy, and argue that it might be advantageous from an evolutionary point of view. According to this view, psychopathy can be seen as an evolutionary adaptative strategy that relies on deception and manipulation to gain short-term reproductive benefits. Psychopathy is also identified as a fast life strategy in response to early life stress and an adaptation to harsh environments. This paper investigates the evidence that psychopathic traits are adaptive, while also addressing the limitations of current evolutionary models of psychopathy based on frequency-dependent selection and life history theory. We review recent studies on the fitness correlates of psychopathy and find that psychopathic traits present potential adaptive trade-offs between fertility and mortality, and offspring quantity and quality. On a proximate level, individual differences in stress reactivity and environmental risk factors in early development predispose to psychopathy through gene–environment interactions. We propose that environmental, developmental, social and cultural factors can mediate the relationship between psychopathic traits and fitness and therefore should be considered to make accurate predictions on the adaptive potential of psychopathy. We end by outlining gaps in the literature and making recommendations for future evolutionary research on psychopathy.
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.36
  • Marriage, bridewealth and power: critical reflections on women's autonomy
           across settings in Africa – CORRIGENDUM

    • Authors: Akurugu; Constance Awinpoka, Dery, Isaac, Domanban, Paul Bata
      First page: 38
      PubDate: 2022-09-02
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.37
  • The complex life course of mobility: Quantitative description of 300,000
           residential moves in 1850–1950 Netherlands

    • Authors: Fedorova; Natalia, McElreath, Richard, Beheim, Bret A.
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Mobility is a major mechanism of human adaptation, both in the deep past and in the present. Decades of research in the human evolutionary sciences have elucidated how much, how and when individuals and groups move in response to their ecology. Prior research has focused on small-scale subsistence societies, often in marginal environments and yielding small samples. Yet adaptive movement is commonplace across human societies, providing an opportunity to study human mobility more broadly. We provide a detailed, life-course structured demonstration, describing the residential mobility system of a historical population living between 1850 and 1950 in the industrialising Netherlands. We focus on how moves are patterned over the lifespan, attending to individual variation and stratifying our analyses by gender. We conclude that this population was not stationary: the median total moves in a lifetime were 10, with a wide range of variation and an uneven distribution over the life course. Mobility peaks in early adulthood (age 20–30) in this population, and this peak is consistent in all the studied cohorts, and both genders. Mobile populations in sedentary settlements provide a productive avenue for research on adaptive mobility and its relationship to human life history, and historical databases are useful for addressing evolutionarily motivated questions.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.33
  • Managing the stresses of group-living in the transition to village life

    • Authors: Dunbar; R. I. M.
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Group living is stressful for all mammals, and these stresses limit the size of their social groups. Humans live in very large groups by mammal standards, so how have they solved this problem? I use homicide rates as an index of within-community stress for humans living in small-scale ethnographic societies, and show that the frequency of homicide increases linearly with living-group size in hunter–gatherers. This is not, however, the case for cultivators living in permanent settlements, where there appears to be a ‘glass ceiling’ below which homicide rates oscillate. This glass ceiling correlates with the adoption of social institutions that allow tensions to be managed. The results suggest (a) that the transition to a settled lifestyle in the Neolithic may have been more challenging than is usually assumed and (b) that the increases in settlement size that followed the first villages necessitated the introduction of a series of social institutions designed to manage within-community discord.
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.39
  • Gut mutualists can persist in host populations despite low fidelity of
           vertical transmission

    • Authors: Xiong; Xiyan, Loo, Sara L., Tanaka, Mark M.
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Humans harbour diverse microbial communities, and this interaction has fitness consequences for hosts and symbionts. Understanding the mechanisms that preserve host–symbiont association is an important step in studying co-evolution between humans and their mutualist microbial partners. This association is promoted by vertical transmission, which is known to be imperfect. It is unclear whether host–microbial associations can generally be maintained despite ‘leaky’ vertical transmission. Cultural practices of the host are expected to be important in bacterial transmission as they influence the host's interaction with other individuals and with the environment. There is a need to understand whether and how cultural practices affect host–microbial associations. Here, we develop a mathematical model to identify the conditions under which the mutualist can persist in a population where vertical transmission is imperfect. We show with this model that several factors compensate for imperfect vertical transmission, namely, a selective advantage to the host conferred by the mutualist, horizontal transmission of the mutualist through an environmental reservoir and transmission of a cultural practice that promotes microbial transmission. By making the host–microbe association more likely to persist in the face of leaky vertical transmission, these factors strengthen the association which in turn enables host–mutualist co-evolution.
      PubDate: 2022-09-02
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.38
  • Shared cultural ancestry predicts the global diffusion of democracy

    • Authors: Kyritsis; Thanos, Matthews, Luke J., Welch, David, Atkinson, Quentin D.
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Understanding global variation in democratic outcomes is critical to efforts to promote and sustain democracy today. Here, we use data on the democratic status of 221 modern and historical nations stretching back up to 200 years to show that, particularly over the last 50 years, nations with shared linguistic and, more recently, religious ancestry have more similar democratic outcomes. We also find evidence that for most of the last 50 years the democratic trajectory of a nation can be predicted by the democratic status of its linguistic and, less clearly, religious relatives, years and even decades earlier. These results are broadly consistent across three democracy indicators (Polity 5, Vanhanen's Index of Democracy, and Freedom in the World) and are not explained by geographical proximity or current shared language or religion. Our findings suggest that deep cultural ancestry remains an important force shaping the fortunes of modern nations, at least in part because democratic norms, institutions, and the factors that support them are more likely to diffuse between close cultural relatives.
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.40
  • Evolution and dysfunction of human cognitive and social traits: A
           transcriptional regulation perspective

    • Authors: Zug; Roman, Uller, Tobias
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Evolutionary changes in brain and craniofacial development have endowed humans with unique cognitive and social skills, but also predisposed us to debilitating disorders in which these traits are disrupted. What are the developmental genetic underpinnings that connect the adaptive evolution of our cognition and sociality with the persistence of mental disorders with severe negative fitness effects? We argue that loss of function of genes involved in transcriptional regulation represents a crucial link between the evolution and dysfunction of human cognitive and social traits. The argument is based on the haploinsufficiency of many transcriptional regulator genes, which makes them particularly sensitive to loss-of-function mutations. We discuss how human brain and craniofacial traits evolved through partial loss of function (i.e. reduced expression) of these genes, a perspective compatible with the idea of human self-domestication. Moreover, we explain why selection against loss-of-function variants supports the view that mutation-selection-drift, rather than balancing selection, underlies the persistence of psychiatric disorders. Finally, we discuss testable predictions.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.42
  • Emotional expression in human odour

    • Authors: Roberts; S. Craig, Třebická Fialová, Jitka, Sorokowska, Agnieszka, Langford, Ben, Sorokowski, Piotr, Třebický, Vít, Havlíček, Jan
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Recent work has demonstrated that human body odour alters with changing emotional state and that emotionally laden odours can affect the physiology and behaviour of people exposed to them. Here we review these discoveries, which we believe add to a growing recognition that the human sense of smell and its potential role in social interactions have been underappreciated. However, we also critically evaluate the current evidence, with a particular focus on methodology and the interpretation of emotional odour studies. We argue that while the evidence convincingly indicates that humans retain a capacity for olfactory communication of emotion, the extent to which this occurs in ordinary social interaction remains an open question. Future studies should place fewer restrictions on participant selection and lifestyle and adopt more realistic experimental designs. We also need to devote more consideration to underlying mechanisms and to recognise the constraints that these may place on effective communication. Finally, we outline some promising approaches to address these issues, and raise some broader theoretical questions that such approaches may help us to answer.
      PubDate: 2022-10-10
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.44
  • The evolution of shame and its display

    • Authors: Landers; Mitchell, Sznycer, Daniel
      First page: 45
      Abstract: The shame system appears to be natural selection's solution to the adaptive problem of information-triggered reputational damage. Over evolutionary time, this problem would have led to a coordinated set of adaptations – the shame system – designed to minimise the spread of negative information about the self and the likelihood and costs of being socially devalued by others. This information threat theory of shame can account for much of what we know about shame and generate precise predictions. Here, we analyse the behavioural configuration that people adopt stereotypically when ashamed – slumped posture, downward head tilt, gaze avoidance, inhibition of speech – in light of shame's hypothesised function. This behavioural configuration may have differentially favoured its own replication by (a) hampering the transfer of information (e.g. diminishing audiences’ tendency to attend to or encode identifying information – shame camouflage) and/or (b) evoking less severe devaluative responses from audiences (shame display). The shame display hypothesis has received considerable attention and empirical support, whereas the shame camouflage hypothesis has to our knowledge not been advanced or tested. We elaborate on this hypothesis and suggest directions for future research on the shame pose.
      PubDate: 2022-10-06
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.43
  • Self-interested learning is more important than fair-minded conditional
           cooperation in public-goods games

    • Authors: Burton-Chellew; Maxwell N., Guérin, Claire
      First page: 46
      Abstract: Why does human cooperation often unravel in economic experiments despite a promising start? Previous studies have interpreted the decline as the reaction of disappointed altruists retaliating in response to non-altruists (Conditional Cooperators hypothesis). This interpretation has been considered evidence of a uniquely human form of cooperation, motivated by an altruistic concern for equality (‘fairness’) and requiring special evolutionary explanations. However, experiments have typically shown individuals not only information about the decisions of their groupmates (social information) but also information about their own payoffs. Showing both confounds explanations based on conditional cooperation with explanations based on confused individuals learning how to better play the game (Confused Learners hypothesis). Here we experimentally decouple these two forms of information, and thus these two hypotheses, in a repeated public-goods game. Analysing 616 Swiss university participants, we find that payoff information leads to a greater decline, supporting the Confused Learners hypothesis. In contrast, social information has a small or negligible effect, contradicting the Conditional Cooperators hypothesis. We also find widespread evidence of both confusion and selfish motives, suggesting that human cooperation is maybe not so unique after all.
      PubDate: 2022-10-17
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.45
  • No increased inbreeding avoidance during the ovulatory phase of the
           menstrual cycle

    • Authors: Holzleitner; Iris J., Driebe, Julie C., Arslan, Ruben C., Hahn, Amanda C., Lee, Anthony J., O'Shea, Kieran J., Gerlach, Tanja M., Penke, Lars, Jones, Benedict C., DeBruine, Lisa M.
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Mate preferences and mating-related behaviours are hypothesised to change over the menstrual cycle to increase reproductive fitness. Recent large-scale studies suggest that previously reported hormone-linked behavioural changes are not robust. The proposal that women's preference for associating with male kin is down-regulated during the ovulatory (high-fertility) phase of the menstrual cycle to reduce inbreeding has not been tested in large samples. Consequently, we investigated the relationship between longitudinal changes in women's steroid hormone levels and their perceptions of faces experimentally manipulated to possess kinship cues (Study 1). Women viewed faces displaying kinship cues as more attractive and trustworthy, but this effect was not related to hormonal proxies of conception risk. Study 2 employed a daily diary approach and found no evidence that women spent less time with kin generally or with male kin specifically during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. Thus, neither study found evidence that inbreeding avoidance is up-regulated during the ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.41
  • Methodological issues when using face prototypes: A case study on the
           Faceaurus dataset

    • Authors: Bovet; Jeanne, Tognetti, Arnaud, Pollet, Thomas V.
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Prototype faces, created by averaging faces from several individuals sharing a common characteristic (for example a certain personality trait), can be used for highly informative experimental designs in face research. Although the facial prototype method is both ingenious and useful, we argue that its implementation is associated with three major issues: lack of external validity and non-independence of the units of information, both aggravated by a lack of transparency regarding the methods used and their limitations. Here, we describe these limitations and illustrate our claims with a systematic review of studies creating facial stimuli using the prototypes dataset ‘Faceaurus’. We then propose some solutions that can eliminate or reduce these problems. We provide recommendations for future research employing this method on how to produce more generalisable and replicable results.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.25
  • Why marry early' Parental influence, agency and gendered conflict in
           Tanzanian marriages

    • Authors: Baraka; Jitihada, Lawson, David W, Schaffnit, Susan B, Wamoyi, Joyce, Urassa, Mark
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Global health interventions increasingly target the abolishment of ‘child marriage’ (marriage under 18 years, hereafter referred to as ‘early marriage’). Guided by human behavioural ecology theory, and drawing on focus groups and in-depth interviews in an urbanising Tanzanian community where female early marriage is normative, we examine the common assumption that it is driven by the interests and coercive actions of parents and/or men. We find limited support for parent–offspring conflict. Parents often encouraged early marriages, but were motivated by the promise of social and economic security for daughters, rather than bridewealth transfers alone. Moreover, forced marriage appears rare, and adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) were active agents in the transition to marriage, sometimes marrying against parental wishes. Support for gendered conflict was stronger. AGYW were described as being lured into unstable relationships by men misrepresenting their long-term intentions. Community members voiced concerns over these marriages. Overall, early marriage appears rooted in limited options, encouraging strategic, but risky choices on the marriage market. Our results highlight plurality and context dependency in drivers of early marriage, even within a single community. We conclude that engaging with the importance of context is fundamental in forging culturally sensitive policies and programs on early marriage.
      PubDate: 2022-10-21
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.46
  • Communal breeding by women is associated with lower investment from

    • Authors: He; Qiao-Qiao, Rui, Jun-Wen, Zhang, Li, Tao, Yi, Wu, Jia-Jia, Mace, Ruth, Ji, Ting
      First page: 50
      Abstract: According to Hamilton's rule, matrilineal-biased investment restrains men in matrilineal societies from maximising their inclusive fitness (the ‘matrilineal puzzle'). A recent hypothesis argues that when women breed communally and share household resources, a man should help his sisters' household, rather than his wife's household, as investment to the later but not the former would be diluted by other unrelated members (Wu et al., 2013). According to this hypothesis, a man is less likely to help on his wife's farm when there are more women reproducing in the wife's household, because on average he would be less related to his wife's household. We used a farm-work observational dataset, that we collected in the matrilineal Mosuo in southwest China, to test this hypothesis. As predicted, high levels of communal breeding by women in his wife's households do predict less effort spent by men on their wife's farm, and communal breeding in men's natal households do not affect whether men help on their natal farms. Thus, communal breeding by women dilutes the inclusive fitness benefits men receive from investment to their wife and children, and may drive the evolution of matrilineal-biased investment by men. These results can help solve the ‘matrilineal puzzle'.
      PubDate: 2022-10-20
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.47
  • Authority matters: propaganda and the coevolution of behaviour and

    • Authors: Gavrilets; Sergey, Richerson, Peter J.
      First page: 51
      Abstract: Human decision-making is controlled by various factors including material cost–benefit considerations, values and beliefs, social influences, cognitive factors and errors. Among social influences, those by external authorities (e.g. educational, cultural, religious, political, administrative, etc.) are particularly important owing to their potential reach and power. To better understand the effects of ‘soft’ power of authorities we develop a unifying theoretical framework integrating material, cognitive and social forces controlling the joint dynamics of individual actions and beliefs. We apply our approach to three different phenomena: evolution of food sharing in small-scale societies, participation in political protests and effects of priming social identity in behavioural experiments. For each of these applications, we show that our approach leads to different (or simpler) explanations of human behaviour than alternatives. We highlight the type of measurements which can be helpful in developing practical applications of our approach. We identify and explicitly characterise the degree of mismatch between individual actions and attitudes. We assert that the effects of external authorities, of changing beliefs and of differences between people must be studied empirically, included in mathematical models, and accounted for when developing different policies aiming to modify or sustain human behaviour.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.48
  • Integrating economic and evolutionary approaches to polygynous marriage

    • Authors: Anderson; Siwan, Bidner, Chris
      First page: 52
      Abstract: We outline the potential for integrating economic and evolutionary approaches to marriage and the family. Our broad argument is that the approaches share a concern for competition. Evolutionary scholars are concerned with the fitness consequences of competition and economists are centrally concerned with the nature of competition: how the allocation of scarce resources is mediated by potentially complex forms of social interaction and conflicts of interest. We illustrate our argument by focusing on conceptual and empirical approaches to a topic of interest to economists and evolutionary scholars: polygynous marriage. In comparing conceptual approaches, we distinguish between those that emphasise the physical environment and those that emphasise the social environment. We discuss some advantages of analysing marriage through the lens of competitive markets, and outline some of the ways that economists analyse the emergence of rules governing the family. In discussing empirical approaches to polygynous marriage, we describe how a concern for informing contemporary policy leads economists to focus on the consequences of polygyny, and in particular we describe some of the ways in which economists attempt to distinguish causal effects from selection effects.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.49
  • Darwin's illegitimate children: How body language experts undermine
           Darwin's legacy

    • Authors: Denault; Vincent, Zloteanu, Mircea
      First page: 53
      Abstract: The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals has received and continues to receive much attention from emotion researchers and behavioural scientists. However, the common misconception that Darwin advocated for the universality of emotional reactions has led to a host of unfounded and discredited claims promoted by ‘body language experts’ on both traditional and social media. These ‘experts’ receive unparalleled public attention. Thus, rather than being presented with empirically supported findings on non-verbal behaviour, the public is exposed to ‘body language analysis’ of celebrities, politicians and defendants in criminal trials. In this perspective piece, we address the misinformation surrounding non-verbal behaviour. We also discuss the nature and scope of statements from body language experts, unpacking the claims of the most viewed YouTube video by a body language expert, comparing these claims with actual research findings, and giving specific attention to the implications for the justice system. We explain how body language experts use (and misuse) Darwin's legacy and conclude with a call for researchers to unite their voices and work towards stopping the spread of misinformation about non-verbal behaviour.
      PubDate: 2022-11-11
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.50
  • Partner choice does not predict prosociality across countries

    • Authors: Claessens; Scott, Kyritsis, Thanos
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Why does human prosociality vary around the world? Evolutionary models and laboratory experiments suggest that possibilities for partner choice (i.e. the ability to leave unprofitable relationships and strike up new ones) should promote cooperation across human societies. Leveraging the Global Preferences Survey (n = 27,125; 27 countries) and the World Values Survey (n = 54,728; 32 countries), we test this theory by estimating the associations between relational mobility, a socioecological measure of partner choice, and a wide variety of prosocial attitudes and behaviours, including impersonal altruism, reciprocity, trust, collective action and moral judgements of antisocial behaviour. Contrary to our pre-registered predictions, we found little evidence that partner choice is related to prosociality across countries. After controlling for shared causes of relational mobility and prosociality – environmental harshness, subsistence style and geographic and linguistic proximity – we found that only altruism and trust in people from another religion are positively related to relational mobility. We did not find positive relationships between relational mobility and reciprocity, generalised trust, collective action or moral judgements. These findings challenge evolutionary theories of human cooperation which emphasise partner choice as a key explanatory mechanism, and highlight the need to generalise models and experiments to global samples.
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.51
  • Communal breeding by women is associated with lower investment from
           husbands – ERRATUM

    • Authors: He; Qiao-Qiao, Rui, Jun-Wen, Zhang, Li, Tao, Yi, Wu, Jia-Jia, Mace, Ruth, Ji, Ting
      First page: 55
      PubDate: 2022-12-13
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.56
  • Signatures of geography, climate and foliage on given names of baby girls

    • Authors: Huey; Raymond B., Miles, Donald B.
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Parents often weigh social, familial and cultural considerations when choosing their baby's name, but the name they choose could potentially be influenced by their physical or biotic environments. Here we examine whether the popularity of month and season names of girls covary geographically with environmental variables. In the continental USA, April, May and June (Autumn, Summer) are the most common month (season) names: April predominates in southern states (early springs), whereas June predominates in northern states (later springs). Whether April's popularity has increased with recent climate warming is ambiguous. Autumn is most popular in northern states, where autumn foliage is notably colourful, and in eastern states having high coverage of deciduous foliage. On a continental scale, Autumn was most popular in English-speaking countries with intense colouration of autumn foliage. These analyses are descriptive but indicate that climate and vegetation sometimes influence parental choice of their baby's name.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.53
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