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Sport i Turystyka : Środkowoeuropejskie Czasopismo Naukowe
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2545-3211 - ISSN (Online) 2657-4322
Published by Jan Długosz University in Częstochowa Homepage  [2 journals]
  • The Panhellenic Games (1859–1889) in the 19th century Polish press

    • Authors: Arkadiusz Włodarczyk, Kamil Potrzuski
      Pages: 11 - 35
      Abstract: In 1859, the first Modern Panhellenic Games were held in Athens. The Games, initiated by the wealthy entrepreneur Evangelos Zappas, although originally planned as a regular event, were held only three more times – in 1870, 1875 and 1888/1889. These were also pioneering times in the development of Polish sport. The Polish press was interested in the competitions in distant Greece, calling them the Olympic Games. Especially their first edition received relatively great in- terest in the Galician and Warsaw press. The press releases contained information about the com- petition programme, the involvement of the royal family in the event, the setting of the event and the interest of the audience. However, short, laconic references prevailed, and the Games them- selves were presented as an exotic curiosity rather than an event of great social and cultural im- portance. There is also little evidence that the press reports on the events of 1859–1889 had a significant impact on the development of Polish sport.
      PubDate: 2023-01-11
      DOI: 10.16926/sit.2022.04.01
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
  • General physical fitness of servicemen as the main element of increasing
           military-special training

    • Authors: Oleh Nebozhuk, Oksana Matveiko, Ivan Pylypchak, Ihor Lototskyi, Svitlana Indyka, Natalia Bielikova
      Pages: 39 - 51
      Abstract: With the beginning of Russia's armed aggression against Ukraine, the Armed Forces of Ukraine need significant reforms and improvements both in technical rearmament and reorganization of the administrative structure in accordance with the requirements of professionalization and the transition of the Armed Forces to staffing on a voluntary basis. The training of any serviceman cannot be complete if it is limited only to knowledge of the use of military equipment and weapons and the ability to use them. An integral condition for the successful completion of professional tasks is the ability of each serviceman to make the most of all the power of military equipment in the shortest possible time. An urgent issue is the improvement of programs for physical training of servicemen, which in the future will ensure the quality of tasks in accordance with the purpose and performance of tasks. The purpose of this study was to analysis and improvement of the level of dynamics of the general physical fitness of servicemen taking into account purposeful performance of tasks. The research has shown that, at all stages of the experiment, the level of general physical fitness of contract servicemen is worse than that of civilian youth cadets (t = 2,25-2,66; р < 0.05). It was revealed that in both groups the dynamics of indicators of general physical fitness is posi- tive, but there is no significant difference, which indicates the lack of effectiveness of the current program of physical fitness, regardless of the category of cadets, effectiveness of the current program of physical fitness, or the category of cadets.
      PubDate: 2023-01-11
      DOI: 10.16926/sit.2022.04.02
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
  • Football coach replacement – short-term effect on performance

    • Authors: Filip Pitera, Jarema Batorski
      Pages: 53 - 65
      Abstract: Sporting performance is undoubtedly one of the key aspects of the way in which professional clubs operate. Insufficient results often result in coach turnover. The initial motivation to replace the coach suggests that improvement should come after the change. This paper aims at determining how the rotation on the coach position influences football clubs’ short-term sporting performance. The material for analysis consists of ten games before and ten games after each coach replacement in Premier League and La Liga in the past three seasons from 2018 to 2021. A statistical analysis is conducted to determine and highlight the difference in performance in respective time frames before and after the turnover. The analysis helped to understand that coach replacement does in fact come with a performance booster in most cases – the teams generally benefit short-term. Drawing conclusions from the analysis, it needs to be noted that this positive effect quickly wears off. Eventually, however, accumulated data is an indicator that the shock-therapy, which coach turnover is, works. When the performance regresses, rotation on coaches’ chair should be considered as a possible solution.
      PubDate: 2023-01-11
      DOI: 10.16926/sit.2022.04.03
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
  • The use of hippotherapy in shaping the body posture and balance in
           children with Down syndrome

    • Authors: Anna Marszałek, Tadeusz Kasperczyk, Robert Walaszek
      Pages: 69 - 81
      Abstract: Down syndrome (DS) is one of the most common genetic developmental disorders that is caused by a trisomy of the 21st chromosome pair. The incidence of Down syndrome in the general population is estimated at 1/732 infants. This percentage increases significantly with the increasing age of women in labour. Down syndrome manifests itself in a variety of signs and symptoms. The signs mainly refer to abnormalities in the structure of the central nervous system, internal organs, eye and skeletal system defects. Both aspects of development, i.e., physical and mental, are delayed. One of the methods that supports the treatment of patients with DS is hippotherapy. It takes various forms, including: therapy in the form of contact with a horse, psycho-pedagogical horse riding and therapeutic horse riding. The purpose of the article was to present the influence of hippotherapy on the shaping of body posture and coordination skills with particular emphasis on body balance.
      PubDate: 2023-01-11
      DOI: 10.16926/sit.2022.04.04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
  • Evaluation of the frequency of consumption of vegetables, fruits and
           products rich in antioxidants by amateur and professional athletes

    • Authors: Wiktoria Staśkiewicz, Elżbieta Grochowska-Niedworok, Marek Kardas, Renata Polaniak, Mateusz Grajek, Agnieszka Białek-Dratwa, Małgorzata Piątek
      Pages: 83 - 95
      Abstract: Athletes belong to a group with special nutritional needs. Strenuous physical activity causes an imbalance of oxidation reduction. The purpose of the study was to assess the frequency of consuming antioxidant-rich food products among amateurs and professionals practicing selected sports. A total of 119 athletes were included in the study. The study group consisted of amateur bodybuilders and Cross- Fit athletes, as well as professional football and handball players. A validated original questionnaire assessing the frequency of consumption of selected high-antioxidant products was used. The highest frequency of consuming raw fruits among amateur athletes was 5-6 times a week (40.68%, n = 24). Sport professionals usually reported 1 serving a day (26.67%, n=16). The highest frequency of consumption of raw vegetables was 2-4 portions a week (37.29%, n=22) in amateurs group, and 5-6 portions weekly (33.33%, n = 20) in professionals group. In addition, we evaluated the intake of red wine. Most of the amateurs (47.46%, n = 28) and professionals (41.67%, n = 25) did not consume wine. All the respond- ents consumed food products containing antioxidants in quantities that were much lower than those recommended. The obtained findings indicate the need to develop dietary recommendations on anti-oxidant-rich food products for athletes, as well as appropriate nutritional education.
      PubDate: 2023-01-11
      DOI: 10.16926/sit.2022.04.05
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
  • Risk Factors for Posture Disorders of Esportsmen and Master Degree
           Students of Physical Education and Sports in the Specialty “Esports”

    • Authors: Nataliia Byshevets, Vitalii Kashuba, Lubov Levandovska, Igor Grygus, Igor Bychuk, Oleksandr Berezhanskyi, Svitlana Savliuk
      Pages: 97 - 118
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors for posture disorders in esports-men and master’s degree students of physical culture and sports. The research involved 37 sports-men and students. The research has found out that 32.4% of the respondents spend more than six hours a day on a computer. The research has proven that the posture of the respondents is most negatively affected by the reduced strength level of the lower extremities and torso, lack of active breaks during long work with a personal computer (PC), lack of awareness in the prevention of posture disorders when working with a PC, and neglect to control a PC user posture. The re- search suggests the structure of factors that negatively affect the posture condition of esportsmen and master’s degree students in the specialty “Esports”. The structure of risks for postural disor- ders contains three factors, that explain 66.2% of the total variance: “Failure to comply with the ergonomically optimal posture of a PC user”, “Disorders of the musculoskeletal system of esports- men” and “Lack of measures to neutralize the negative impact of esports activities”. It is necessary to develop and implement health-improving measures to prevent postural disorders and diseases of the musculoskeletal system in esportsmen and students.
      PubDate: 2023-01-11
      DOI: 10.16926/sit.2022.04.06
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
  • Some aspects of tourism and transport in the COVID-19 pandemic time

    • Authors: Anna Ostrowska-Tryzno, Anna Pawlikowska-Piechotka
      Pages: 121 - 134
      Abstract: This paper is aimed to describe the association between tourism and transport, seen in the perspective of the COVID-19 pandemic. The dual role of transport and tourism in the pandemic crisis is very special: it spreads the virus around the world and at the same time is mostly impacted by the pandemic negative consequences. The research was based mainly on the critical review and analysis of the secondary data (SDA method), such available resources as literature, statistic data and reports, actions taken by governments, international institutions and law regulations (published in 2020-2021). This approach allowed deep insight and overview of the most important issues of transport that have influenced tourism in the pandemic crisis. The final result of the study showed that for destinations highly dependent upon tourism-related revenue, the lockdown and transport suspension became a great concern and resulted in economy crisis. We acknowledge that due to the objective limitations, this paper cannot provide a comprehensive insight in tour- ism, transport and crisis issues. However, as this topic is a rarely discussed theme in academic texts, we hope that this paper could be found useful as it explores approaches to tourism from this new perspective. The paper ends with some reflections on sustainable development of the transport sector in the post-pandemic time, when tourism is expected to recover.
      PubDate: 2023-01-11
      DOI: 10.16926/sit.2022.04.07
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
  • Position of Spain in the global tourism market: its competitive capacity
           and priorities

    • Authors: Andriy Melnyk, Nadiia Melnyk, Yaroslava Korobeinykova, Olena Pobigun, Iryna Ierko
      Pages: 135 - 148
      Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of Spain's place in the world tourism market and determines the specialization of the country's recreational economy. The tourist potential of Spain is characterized. Equal attention is paid to the research devoted to natural recreational resources as well as historical and cultural heritage sites. The role of tourist infrastructure in the development of the country’s tourism sector is outlined. Besides, the paper presents recreational zoning of the territory of Spain. The intensity, dynamics and geography of incoming and outgoing flows, features of domestic tourism, as well as revenues from international tourism and average tourist costs are analyzed. In addition to current data, the dynamics of the main statistical indicators of international tourism are traced. The impact of the global pandemic COVID-19 on the tourism industry of the studied country is estimated. The article depicts the main problems inherent in the Spanish tourism industry, in particular, economic, environmental and social problems. Simultaneously, the main priorities of Spain in the world tourism market are defined. The study was conducted on the basis of analysis of statistical reports and material data of UNWTO and the Institute of National Statistics of Spain, the Alliance for Excellence in Tourism, i.e. Exceltur. The methodological tools of the study involve analytical, statistical, comparative-geographical, mathematical methods, as well as methods of generalization and systematization, etc.
      PubDate: 2023-01-11
      DOI: 10.16926/sit.2022.04.08
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
  • A new culture of travel' Controversial forms of tourism in the
           perception of Polish consumers – pilot study

    • Authors: Grzegorz Godlewski, Anna Bodasińska
      Pages: 149 - 169
      Abstract: Consumer needs are determined by numerous factors, hence their nature is very complex. Some of them are silent, which significantly limits the possibility of their exploration. These include the needs which exist subconsciously in the mind of an individual, who instinctively seeks to satisfy them, and the needs which an individual conceals (from the society), becoming a consumer of unusual or controversial products. The aim of this article is to assess the level of interest in selected controversial types of tourism, which make up a large part of the purchase behaviour of modern consumers. The gap in research on this subject prompts attempts to provide scientific explanations for the mechanisms associated with the demand side of the tourist sector. The research methodology was based on the use of click-tracking technology. The following three types of tourism were most frequently selected by the respondents: party tourism, extreme tourism and sex tourism. Research into the specificities of the tourism market, including controversial types of tourism, can provide vital guidance for the tourist sector as to the choices made when segmenting customers and changes in the categories of products offered to potential customers. The quantitative mapping of consumer behaviour provides a relatively clear picture of how certain controversial types of tourism are perceived.
      PubDate: 2023-01-11
      DOI: 10.16926/sit.2022.04.09
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
  • Is there a room for proper scientific discussion in the area of
           controversies and competing scientific theories' A polemics

    • Authors: Wojciech J. Cynarski
      Pages: 173 - 183
      Abstract: Auto- and allochthonous theories of the origin of the Slavs and their supporters have been competing for many years. Recent research (genetic, anthropological and linguistic) confirms the early appearance of the Slavs on Polish lands and their permanent settlement in these lands. Contrary to this, in some circles, especially among archaeologists, the theses about the indigenousness of the Slavs are treated as substantive errors. The direct reason for writing this article is the fact that the dissemination of an already published book on the history of physical culture has been blocked. The article concerns two issues – 1) the way science functions and the way to find the truth when competing paradigms collide (from the perspective of the sociology of science); 2) the origin of the Slavs, the direct ancestors of today's Poles, which seems particularly important both for Polish history and today's identity. According to the author, supporters of the allochthonous concept ignore the knowledge resulting from research and publications of recent years. Therefore, publications have been cited - a brief review of the literature on the subject.
      PubDate: 2023-01-11
      DOI: 10.16926/sit.2022.04.10
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2023)
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