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Economic and Regional Studies / Studia Ekonomiczne i Regionalne
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ISSN (Online) 2451-182X
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [389 journals]
  • Review of the Monograph by Mieczysław Adamowicz and Magdalena
           Zwolińska-Ligaj “Local Innovation Strategies as an Instrument for
           Creating Innovation and Supporting Development”, Pope John Paul II State
           School of Higher Education in Biała Podlaska, P. 360

    • PubDate: Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • An Analysis of the Public Distribution System in Rural Haryana, India

    • Abstract: Subject and Purpose of the workThe present paper aims to analyze the functioning and coverage of the public distribution system in rural Haryana, India.Materials and methodsFor analyses, secondary data were taken from various government reports like the Economic Survey of Haryana, Economic Survey of India, Census of India, Food and Supply Department, Haryana, etc. The analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics.Results: The study’s findings revealed that the public distribution system facilitates 51.45 percent of the total rural population of Haryana. As Per the guidelines of the National Food Security Act (NFSA) 2013, 75 percent of the rural population should be covered by the States under the benefits of the public distribution system. The public distribution system operates in the State with a vast network of Fair Price Shops (FPS) and a well-organized structure. The study revealed that the ratio of the beneficiaries of PDS to the FPS in Haryana is quite satisfactory and meets the criteria fixed by the Food and Supply Department of India.ConclusionsThe State of Haryana does not meet the criteria of NFSA, 2013. One primary reason is that a large part of the population falls under the APL category, which has been excluded from the benefits of PDS after the implementation of NFSA, 2013.While the ratio of beneficiaries to FPS indicates the magnificent functioning of FPSs in the State.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Comparative Analysis of Methods for Hourly Electricity Demand Forecasting
           in the Absence of Data – A Case Study

    • Abstract: Scope and purpose of workThis paper examines the impact of the number of gaps in data, the analytical form, and the model type selection criterion on the accuracy of interpolation and extrapolation forecasts for hourly data.Materials and methodsForecasts were developed on the basis of predictors that are based on: classical time series forecasting models and regression time series forecasting models, hybrid time series forecasting models and hybrid regression forecasting models for uncleared series, and exponential smoothing models for cleared series of two or three types of seasonal fluctuations, with minimum estimates of errors in interpolation or extrapolation forecasts.ResultsAdaptive and hybrid regression models have proved to have the most favorable predictive properties. Most hybrid time series models for systematic and non-systematic gaps and for both analytical forms are single models that generally describe fluctuations within a 24-hour cycle.ConclusionsThe lowest estimators of prediction errors involving interpolation were obtained for exponential smoothing models, followed by hybrid regression models. A reverse sequence was obtained for extrapolative forecasting.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Turquoise Management Model in Knowledge-Based Organisations

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of the workThe commercial success of an organisation is based on its unique characteristics which make it stand out from its competitors. It can be the result of as many factors as there are many types of organisations and the goals they pursue. However, there are some invariants among them, which include leadership and management style associated with it. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the possible ways of implementing the idea of a turquoise management model in organisations with strong knowledge-based leadership.Materials and methodsThe subject of the study were medical entities of the SMEs group. A faceto- face and telephone interview with a person holding a leadership role in the treatment unit was chosen as the research method.Results and conclusionsAn attempt was made to verify the thesis of the possible synergies between turquoise ideas and strong leadership. The paper demonstrates a natural evolution of the leadership model which has resulted from the generation Y and Z entering the labor market, which is characterised by features converging with the turquoise idea of management.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Regional Discrepancies in the Level of Knowledge-Based Economy in Poland

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of workThis paper analyzes the level of knowledge-based economy (KBE) in terms of sustainable development across the provinces (voivodships) of Poland in 2020. The underlying assumption of this study is that knowledge and skills are one of the fundamental preconditions for successfully implementing the concept of sustainable development.Materials and methodsIn order to calculate the rankings of Polish voivodships a synthetic indicator developed on the basis of the zeroed unitarization method was used.ResultsThere are vast disproportions in the levels of KBE across the voivodeships of Poland. The most advanced KBE was identified in the Mazowieckie Voivodship, and the least developed KBE was found in the Lubuskie voivodship.ConclusionsThe capacity to develop a knowledge-based economy is inextricably interrelated with the quality of the social capital, which is directly attributable to the levels of education. In order to offset the interregional disproportions spending on research and development needs to be increased and the investments in human capital (e.g. through career planning, training, improving the professional qualifications of employees, discretionary bonuses) and new technologies should be expanded.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Pre- and During-Pandemic Financial Standing of Companies in Poland Ranked
           According to the Type of Business Activity

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of workThis paper seeks to examine how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the financial standing of companies classified according to the type of their business activity.Materials and methodsThis paper is based on aggregate data on businesses operating in Poland in the period 2017–2021, grouped according to the type of business activity. The data was published by the Central Statistical Office GUS in Poland. The company status was investigated using the calculated values of diagnostic indicators (return on assets, current financial liquidity, level of debt, stock rotation, and growth in sales). These indicators were normalized with the zero unitarization method to construct a synthetic indicator. The synthetic indicator was then used to generate business rankings.ResultsThe vast majority of the examined companies proved to be profitable. In 2020, the profitability and sales revenue of the businesses concerned were found to deteriorate slightly. There has been a downward trend in the rankings for companies operating in the accommodation and catering sector and the manufacturers of petroleum products. Pharmaceutical companies were the businesses that improved and topped the rankings.ConclusionsThe pandemic had a strong negative impact on businesses operating in the market sector of accommodation and catering. The producers of refined petroleum products were also affected. The producers of pharmaceuticals benefited most during the pandemic. There are no clear indicators as to the impact of the pandemic on other types of businesses.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Evaluation of the Crop Insurance Performance in Haryana

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of the workThe purpose of the study is to evaluate the overall physical and financial performance of the crop insurance schemes in Haryana.Materials and methodsThe study was purely based on secondary data collected from the Department of Agriculture and Farmer Welfare Union of Haryana. The compound annual growth rate and the percentage method have been used to analyse the performance of Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana.ResultsThe compound annual growth rate of benefited farmers was higher in the Rabi crop (28%), and in the same way, the overall area covered (1.4%) was also higher in the Rabi crop. The non-loanee farmers adopted Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) without any kind of loan in any scheme such as the Kisan credit card. The growth rates of non-loanee farmers of Rabi and Kharif crops were observed at 143.2% and 184.3% which was highly satisfactory. Loanee farmers were already large in number since the commencement of PMFBY.ConclusionsIt was found that the parameters such as area covered, loanee, non-loanee farmers and the number of beneficiaries of Rabi and Kharif crops increased and had a significant effect on the farmer’s coverage over the years. Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana gives a positive assurance to farmers. As the number of beneficiaries of this scheme increases and farmers have the assurance that if their crop is damaged due to natural calamities their claim will be settled, they will use a high-yielding variety of seeds, pesticides, herbicides, and new technology, thus production and productivity will increase. They play a vital role in the coverage of cultivated area and will ultimately decide to participate in crop insurance. Hence, this scheme has proved effective in maintaining the farmer’s interest in crop insurance and ensuring the timely settlement of claims, which has been the main driving force in retaining farmers under crop insurance.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Lyme Disease as Farmers’ Occupational Disease. The Evaluation of an
           Increase in Morbidity Rate Tendency Between 2000 and 2019

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of workThe aim of this paper is to make an analysis and evaluation of Lyme disease incidence, understood as a diagnosed farmers’ occupational disease.Materials and methodsThe analysis and an evaluation were made based on materials, data and information originating, among other things, from the following: The analysis and an evaluation were made based on materials, data and information originating, among other things, from the following: The Agricultural Social Insurance Fund, the Main Sanitary Inspectorate and the National Institute of Hygiene, official legal acts published in the Journal of Laws, industry literature, as well as works and publications of researchers dealing with Lyme disease.ResultsThe results of this study indicate that Lyme disease is not only the main and dominant occupational disease of farmers, but also an infectious disease having a growing trend among Polish society. Every year, an increase in cases in which Lyme disease spirochete infection was found and diagnosed, is observed. This situation is affected not only by insufficient preventive measures, difficult and ineffective diagnostics, or low awareness of Lyme disease, but also by environmental factors and climate change.ConclusionsConsidering that the disease leads to numerous dangerous health-related consequences, while a protective vaccine has not yet been prepared, it seems extremely important to implement preventive measures and conduct education on prevention among farmers as well as other professional groups and the entire population.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Use of the Hierarchical Method to Group the Countries of the European
           Union According to their Energy and Climate Policies Adopted on the Basis
           of Directives of the European Parliament

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of workThe European Union’s energy policy focuses mainly on three areas: reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the energy sector by increasing the use of RES, reducing emissions of harmful pollutants, and increasing the efficiency of the electricity used.Sustainable energy use, on the other hand, is clearly associated with an increased use of renewable energy sources, which ensures energy security, as well as diversification of energy supplies that sustain and improve the quality of the environment.The purpose of the paper is to present the diversity of the countries of the European Union in terms of the actions they take in the field of energy and climate policy resulting from the European Union directives.Materials and methodsBased on the goals of energy policy presented in the EU directives a number of indicators were selected in order to describe the actions taken by EU member states. After a substantive and statistical verification, 6 variables were left. The use of the Ward’s method made it possible to create groups of countries that are similar in terms of their energy and climate policies.ConclusionsThe most favorable situation in terms of the effects of the climate and energy policy can be observed in the current leaders, that is in Sweden and Finland as well as in Estonia. Central European countries, mainly Poland, have high-emission economies, accompanied by low investment in modern environmentally friendly technologies. This is manifested, among others, in high concentrations of particulate matter, which contributes to poor air quality, categories in which Poland has some of the worst results in the entire EU.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Integrated and Organic Systems of Sustainable Agriculture in Poland Over
           the Period 2010–2020

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of workThe purpose of the publication is to present two sustainable farming systems in Poland - the system of integrated production and organic farming in 2010 and 2020.Materials and methodsChanges in the number of farms over the decade are analyzed. The study used statistical data published by the Central Statistical Office.ResultsA descriptive method was used, combined with the use of simple dynamics indicators, and a concise review of the literature on the subject was carried out. A decrease in the number of organic farms in 2020 compared to 2010 was noted, while the number of farms using the method of integrated agricultural production increased slightly. A large regional variation in the analyzed farming systems was also noted.ConclusionsThe results lead to the conclusion that sustainable agriculture is not recording the desired growth.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Impact of the Polish Renewable Energy Sector on Employment

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of work: This study analyses employment in the renewable energy sector. The aim of this research was to explore the impact of obtaining energy from renewable sources on the labor market in Poland.Materials and methods: This study is based on secondary data from the Central Statistical Office, Eurostat, and EurObserv’ER. During the literature review, research papers on the labor market, published in Poland and internationally, were examined. The analyzed data was processed using an Excel 2007 spreadsheet. The number of people employed in relation to 1,000 toe of primary energy obtained in individual RES industries was the measure of the impact of the RES sector on employment. The results of the present research were presented using descriptive, graphical and tabular methods.Results: In Poland, the use of renewable energy sources between 2010 and 2020 doubled, from 6,892 ktoe to 12,518 ktoe, and is projected to further double by 2030 compared to 2020.It is generally agreed that obtaining energy from renewable sources has a significant positive impact on the labor market. In the period of analysis, the number of individuals employed in the RES sector increased from 36.8 thousand to 110.8 thousand. The highest labor intensity was reported for the RES sectors of solar power, heat pumps, and liquid biofuels.Conclusions: I f t he r enewable energy sector continues t o develop a s projected, t he demand for employees in this industry will more than double by 2030.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Digital Methods of Working time Management in a Flexible Labor Market

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of the work: Working time management has become particularly relevant by mid-20th century. It has now become one of the top areas of interest for scientists who conduct research on management. This study is designed to review and evaluate selected new forms of work organization in the reality of today’s digital economy.Materials and methods: This research was based on literature review covering scientific publications exploring working time management and forms of work organization in the digital economy. A descriptive method was used.Results: The latest information technologies, computerization and digitization, the use of mobile devices and smartphones, and advanced geolocation technologies add a new dimension to the modern types and methods of working time management. The development of the digital economy accelerates and drives the transformation of the labor market, promoting the uptake of flexible employment systems, which produces multiple types of remuneration and working time systems, and leads to a variety of forms of employment contracts and their reduced duration.Conclusions: Digital technology creates a virtual labor market which is dominated by informal and flexible forms of employment based on outsourcing programs, individual orders, and fixed deadlines with are not accompanied by any regulations of the contractor’s working time. Under these conditions, flexibility and multifunctionality, and the ability to adapt to changing conditions are the key features that make a particular employee competitive.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • A Social Enterprise Within the Meaning of the Social Economy Act in the
           Context of Economic Theory and Practice

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of work: This study explores the characteristics of a social enterprise as laid down in the relevant act currently in force, and analyzes how the tendencies to normatively define a social enterprise have changed over the years with subsequent amendments and modifications of the applicable draft laws.Materials and methods: The study is based on draft laws that concern social enterprises from respective years, as well as specialist literature concerning social entrepreneurship. A selective analysis of the market practice of social enterprises operating in Poland was also carried out.Results: There is a clear discrepancy between and restriction of the definitions of a social enterprise provided in the Social Economy Act, as revealed in the analysis of the act itself, its drafting process and subsequent amendments, and taking into account the perspective of social enterprises as described in the relevant literature, as well as the activities of enterprises pursuing social goals.Conclusions: On the one hand, the current definition of a social enterprise organizes this concept for administrative purposes, but on the other hand, it does not cover all entities having a real impact on social development.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Marketing Costs and Price Spread for Selected Fruit Crops in Haryana
           State: A Study of Selected Districts

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of work: The study aims to analyse the existing marketing system along with marketing channels, costs, margins, and marketing efficiency.Materials and methods: The study was conducted in the districts of Sirsa, Sonipat and Yamuna Nagar in Haryana during the year 2020–21. The study was based on primary data collected from a field survey with the help of a pre-tested questionnaire. A simple tabulated method, price spread, and market efficiency analyses were employed.Results: The study revealed that the producer share in terms of consumer rupees is the highest in Channel VI, followed by Channels IV, V and II. Channel VI is the most efficient channel due to the absence of intermediaries. Channel I is the least efficient due to the greatest number of intermediaries present in this channel.Conclusions: The study has suggested that the government should regulate the fruit trade so that the involvement of mediators in the fruit market may be reduced. Cold storage should be provided at a reasonable price. The government should provide transportation facilities (refrigerated lorries) for fruit products at a reasonable cost.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Consumers’ Preferences as to Product Delivery Methods on the
           E-Commerce Market

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of work: The article’s goal was to discuss consumers’ preferences as to product delivery methods on the e-commerce market. Detailed goals were to identify the delivery methods chosen most often, and to indicate factors determining such decisions and their associations with selected variables.Materials and methods: An on-line questionnaire survey was conducted among 302 respondents. The questionnaire served as a measurement tool. Associations between variables were studied in a series of analyses employing Pearson’s χ2 tests, and comparative analysis was made using Mann- Whitney U tests.Results: InPost parcel lockers proved to be the most popular method to deliver products purchased online. Among the factors determining the choice of the delivery method, those valued most included delivery price, parcel collection flexibility, and no need to wait for a courier at home. Statistical associations were noted between the place of residence and frequency of online shopping, and the delivery methods chosen most often.Conclusions: The study results are useful for companies offering deliveries on the e-commerce market. They provide valuable information concerning popularity of particular methods, as well as factors determining decisions to choose various delivery methods on the e-commerce market.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • A Review Of The Book “The Application Of The Analogy Method In The
           Search For Common Areas Of Cognition In Biology And Economics” By
           Wiesław Musiał And Kamila Musiał. The Publishing House Of The
           University Of Agriculture In Krakow, 2021, 215 Pp

    • PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Investment Financing from EU Funds as a Factor of Local Development on the
           Example of the Włodawa Town and the Włodawa Commune

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of work: The subject-matter of this paper are local government investments and their role in local development. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the use of EU funds for the implementation of local investments on the example of the Włodawa town and the Włodawa rural commune. Investments are evaluated in the context of development strategies being pursued for these units.Materials and methods: The paper is based on the literature of the subject of research and our own surveys among randomly chosen inhabitants.Results: This paper specifies the role of local government investments in local development and presents an outline of the development of the Włodawa town, the current state of the town and the commune and an outline of the strategy of development of these units. We have analysed investments carried out with the support of EU funds in the years 2007–2014 and 2014–2020. The co-operation between governments of the town and the commune in the pursuit of investments has been evaluated, too. In the opinion of inhabitants, governments of the town and the commune used EU funds quite efficiently in development projects. The important role of these funds in the pursuit of investments regarding the repair and construction of roads, the revitalisation of cultural facilities and recreation, has been confirmed.Conclusions: The need for the further support of investments within the scope of the labour market, social infrastructure and tourism.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Role of International Internships in the Vocational Education of
           Technical Secondary School Students

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of work: This study focuses on vocational education. It explores the role of international internships in the vocational education of the students of technical secondary schools.Materials and Methods: This study is based on a survey conducted on a sample of 77 students participating in international internships. The survey covered all students of the Technical and Vocational Schools Complex in Suwałki attending vocational internships in Italy.Results: The analysis validated the hypothesis that international internships improve the practical skills of secondary school students and contribute to the development of practical skills and social competences in the international context.Conclusions: The surveyed students declared they were satisfied with their vocational internships and were happy to attend them. They believed that the experience gained in an international environment would definitely have a positive impact on their future career. During the internship, they improved not only the skills specific to their field of expertise, but also their personal and social competences, as well as foreign language skills, specifically in terms of technical vocabulary.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Constraints in the Functioning of Primary Agricultural Cooperative
           Societies in Haryana State, India

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of work: T he s tudy a ims t o identify t he constraints in t he f unctioning of PACS in Haryana, India.Materials and methods: The study was based on primary data collected from nine PACS managers through schedule. The purposive sampling technique was employed for the selection of PACS. The percentage was used for data analysis. The data were collected in the second quarter of 2022.Results: The study found that 100 % of PACS managers regarded lack of adequate funds, a low level of deposits, and increased day-to-day government intervention as constraints in the functioning of PACS. Subsequently, the respondents mentioned inability to mobilise resources (77.77%), lack of managerial skills (77.77%), lack of trained staff (55.55%), improper channel of recovery system (44.44%), untimely repayment and poor recovery percentage of the loan (44.44%), political interference (33.33%), difficulties due to low educational level of borrowers (22.22%), and uncooperative attitude of borrowers (11.11%).Conclusions: Main constraints in the functioning of PACS are lack of adequate funds, a low level of deposits, increased day-to-day government intervention, inability to mobilise resources, and lack of managerial skills.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Borrowing and Repayment Hardships: Evidences from Farmers in Haryana

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of work: The paper focuses on the problems faced by farmers in obtaining and repaying loans from institutional and non-institutional sources.Materials and methods: The study was conducted in Haryana state, India. It was based on a field survey involving 600 farmers. Proportionate sampling technique was employed and pre-tested schedules were filled during vis-a-vis interviews.Results: T he f indings o f t he s tudy h ighlight m ain p roblems f aced b y f armers i n a cquiring a nd repaying loans. They include: no loan without security, ambiguous terms and conditions, the time-consuming procedure of granting loans, not farmer friendly bank officials, and the request for bribes. In the case of non-institutional sources, main problems include: lack of security, deterioration of social status, and hesitation in mortgaging agricultural land. Furthermore, low price of agricultural produce, crop failure, and the high-interest rates charged by non-institutional sources were major constraints in the timely repayment of loan amounts.Conclusions: Several constraints existed in granting loans to farmers. Government should support and provide hassle free loans to farmers.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
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