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Economic and Regional Studies / Studia Ekonomiczne i Regionalne
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ISSN (Online) 2451-182X
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [389 journals]
  • Industry 4.0: New challenges for the labor market and working conditions
           as a result of emergence of robots and automation

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of work: The paper is discussing the challenges presented by Industry 4.0, specifically in relation to the potential loss of jobs due to automation. The article explores how middle-skilled jobs are more likely to be affected adversely by automation and how the integration of cutting-edge technologies such as automation, AI, and IoT is expected to bring about extensive automation and irreversible changes to employment opportunities.Materials and methods: As this paper is a review of previous research articles, the authors have collected several journal articles.Results: The authors highlight how Industry 4.0 is expected to change working conditions and the nature of work and raises concerns about job insecurity and the erosion of traditional employment relations.Conclusions: The paper suggests that to tackle these challenges, policymakers and employers must be aware of the potential impacts of automation and Industry 4.0 on different types of occupations and take steps to mitigate any negative effects, and invest in retraining programs, implement policies that support the fair distribution of the benefits of automation and promoting the skills needed for the future of work.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Ethics and economy during the COVID-19 pandemic

    • Abstract: Since the beginning of formation of societies (families, tribes), people have looked for ways of arranging mutual relationships so as to improve safety, comfort and development and to be able to differentiate between what is good and what is evil, on the level of everyday life. In their struggles with nature, they sought support in faith. Priests became the intellectual elite, and guidelines how to act became the content of religion. On the higher level of integration, the role of rulers became prominent, and guidelines were sought in the law established by them, with specific contribution from more important subjects (hierarchs). In the background of this process, wise men (philosophers) and theologians made efforts to create and arrange a system of cultivated values in important fields and circumstances of life. The paper deals with the question of ethics in the healthcare sector and during the pandemic.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • The middle-income trap – a problem of definition and empirical

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of work: Theoretical and empirical analysis of the middle-income trap. To test the validity to be able to fix a middle-income band to classify a country in the middle-income trap.Materials and methods: Theoretical and empirical studies on the middle-income trap have been used as material and the descriptive and explorative method of research has been used.Results: To fix a middle-income band was deemed to be unjustified because the middleincome band was found to change every year. The period of the middle-income trap was deemed justified and it was found that a potential based definition can be formed to create a distinction between trapped and non-trapped countries.Conclusions: To define the middle-income trap does not require a middle-income band to be fixed for a period as long as 42 years, but what is require is the period itself and the continuity of increasing the potential of a country to cross the middle-income trap.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Prospects for the development of Ukrainian-Polish cross-border cooperation
           in the environmental sphere

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of work:The purpose of the article is to study the peculiarities of the development of environmental cross-border cooperation, as well as to determine the prospects and ways of deepening interregional Ukrainian-Polish cooperation in the environmental sphere. The relevant international environmental cooperation of the states contributes to the improvement of the environment and provides a defined level of environmental safety. The challenges of international economic greening as well as the needs in cooperation between the neighboring states indicate that studying of the ecological state on the cross-border territories is considered to be of great significance.Materials and methods: The methods used are the analytical and descriptive ones based on the critical literature review and an experiential reflective attitude on the key issues concerning the cross-border cooperation, ecological safety, and prospects of development of environmental cooperation.Results: The role of cross-border cooperation in ensuring environmental security was studied in the article. The strategic priorities of Ukrainian-Polish environmental cooperation were considered. As a result of the analysis of the current state and the achieved results, the prospects for further ecological cooperation between Ukraine and the Republic of Poland in the conditions of European integration were revealed.Conclusions: It is concluded that to assure the development of the Ukrainian-Polish cross-border environmental cooperation and to build the ecological safety system on the trans-frontier territories it is required at the regional level to establish partnership relationships in the environmental and economic sector; to intensify the environmental and economic international cooperation at various cross-border scales; to create a network of cross-border environmental information centers; to promote the environmental public education in the border regions of the neighboring states etc.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Financial Literacy in India: A Review of Literature

    • Abstract: The paper aims to understand various concepts and dimensions of financial literacy by using literature-based analysis. The reviews included various parameters, such as the financial literacy of young people, employees, women and college students, and the impact of financial literacy on well-being and investment decisions. Secondary information was gathered from many publications, websites, research papers, and articles. In the context of India, there is still much work to be done in the domain of financial literacy. Numerous studies have revealed low levels of financial literacy among India’s different demographic segments and some studies have revealed moderate levels. Financial literacy is a difficult topic to describe and quantify. The definition and measurement of this idea are the focus of numerous investigations. Policy changes must be made to improve financial literacy at both the fundamental and advanced levels so that people can save and invest money more sensibly in the various market opportunities.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Development of the financial situation of Hungarian food industry
           enterprises – changes between 2017 and 2021

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the study is to analyse how the main financial data of d ouble-entry b ookkeeping f ood p rocessing e nterprises r eflect t he e ffects o f t he i ndicated economic environment.Materials and methods: The evaluation was fundamentally based on ratios calculated on the basis of the statement of financial position and the income statement as well as trend analysis and financial indicators.Results: The number of Hungarian food processing enterprises has been gradually decreasing over the period under review. Both turnover and expenditure show linear growth at current prices, with increases in the various result categories. The asset structure is stable, and profitability is improving.Conclusions: The number of companies and the employment in the sector have been steadily declining in recent years, while efficiency is increasing. The increase in profits in the food industry is remarkable for all branches of the economy. The sector is adapting well to the negative effects of the changing economic environment.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Voluntariness of social insurance for entrepreneurs – postulates

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of work: The subject of this paper is to discuss the situation of entrepreneurs in the Polish social insurance system and to present postulates based on conclusions resulting from the analysis of the legal situation of entrepreneurs.Materials and methods: The institutional analysis method was used in the paper, which made it possible to present the situation of entrepreneurs in the Polish social insurance system. Based on the analysis of legal acts and the rules of the social security system, the main challenges and issues related to the non-agricultural business activity in Poland were pointed out.Results: As a result of the analyses, de lege ferenda postulates have been formulated indicating the need for changes in the area of social insurance for people engaged in non-agricultural business activity.Conclusions: Assuming that entrepreneurship is more valuable and that the right to social security can be exercised not only though the insurance process (but also by way of provision, cumulative, or assistance techniques), it is reasonable to introduce voluntary social insurance coverage for people engaged in non-agricultural business activities. With the introduction of voluntariness, it would be necessary to redefine the conditions of eligibility for the statutory minimum pension so that the rights to benefits are not abused.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Changes in the performance of the agricultural sector in Hungary due to
           the 2008 economic crisis and COVID-19 pandemic

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of work: The paper examines two of the most important sectors of agriculture, crop and livestock production, in a time series analysis. The authors analyzed the number of enterprises, the number of employees, labor costs, turnover, and balance sheet total, and also assessed the evolution of liquidity and profitability in the two sectors, broken down by size.Materials and methods: The results of livestock and crop production were examined separately for the period 2008-2020. The analysis was based on aggregated data from the National Tax and Customs Administration in Hungary. Enterprises with the NACE REV 0140 for animal husbandry and 0110 for crop production were studied. In the research time series analysis and, where possible, trend analysis were performed.Results: In the research, the following indicators were examined using time series analysis in both crop and livestock production: the number of companies, the number of employees, the net sales revenue, the composition of net sales, the development of the balance sheet total, cost structure, labor costs, the quick ratio of liquidity, and the ROA indicator.Conclusions: Agricultural enterprises are most affected by the downward trend during the period under review, with the exception that the animal husbandry sector started to decline earlier than the crop production sector.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • WIBOR, WIRON, WIBID, POLONIA as reference rates for bank loans

    • Abstract: The paper discusses issues connected with the use of selected indices (WIBOR, WIBID, WIRON, POLONIA) as benchmarks for bank loans. In the introduction, the author addresses the problem of manipulation of rates, which are characterized by the forecasting of interest rate values. The following part of the paper analyses the differences in benchmarks’ construction, describes their operation, methods of setting and use. It also outlines their behavior over time. Subsequently, issues relating to the application of WIBOR, WIBID, POLONIA, WIRON as benchmarks for consumer loans are presented. They have been compared to a sample bank offer based on a fixed interest rate. The final conclusions outline the possible effects of various benchmarks on borrowers, and compare the situation of the Polish banking offer for fixed-rate loans with other countries. The possible effects of new regulations in the context of the share of fixed-rate loans in the credit market are also described.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Constraints in credit accessibility from primary agricultural cooperative
           societies in Haryana state, India

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of work: The objective of the study was to identify the constraints in credit accessibility from Primary Agricultural Cooperative Societies in Haryana State, India.Materials and methods: The primary data were used for achieving the objective of the study. The primary data were collected in the second quarter of 2022 by employing the schedule. The multistage purposive cum proportionate random sampling techniques were adopted to select a sample of 540 respondents. The percentage was used for data analysis.Results: The constraints in accessing credit are identified faced by beneficiary farmers and nonbeneficiary farmers. The major constraints faced by the beneficiary farmers in accessing credit from PACS are inadequate credit limit (87.40%), short time to repayment of loan (66.29%), high penalty rate (55.92%), and unavailability of medium-term loans (50.00%). While inadequate credit limit (80.00%), no new accounts opened (72.22%) and fear of being a defaulter (47.78%) were the major constraints faced by the non-beneficiary farmers in accessing credit from PACS.Conclusions: The various constraints were identified in accessing credit from PACS. Credit limits should be extended on the basis of the scale of the finance. Medium-term loans need to be increased.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Methodologies for Measuring Mobility in Covid-19 Research

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of the work: The subject of this paper is the mobility research in Europe focused on the COVID-19 pandemic, and the aim is to give a comparative overview on the used methods and datasets of the literature and identify research gaps.Materials and methods: The method is based on the methodological literature review method.The source of the reviewed literature is the EBSCO online database.Results: The literature based on the analysed territorial level can be classified. Results show the levels of research are city, national and complex levels. Most research is based on secondary data. Spatial indicators are relevant at a national level. Research gaps have been found in terms of time and space.Conclusions: The existing literature based on the analysed territorial level can be classified. Results show there are 3 levels of research; city, national and complex levels, and most research is based on secondary data, primary data collection is relevant only on a city level. Spatial indicators are common on a national level. Research gaps have been found in terms of time and space.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Ex-Ante Analysis of Macro-Regional Development in the Visegrad Countries,
           with Special Emphasis on Some Turbulent Periods

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of work: Monitoring the development of a given region and forecasting its potential changes is an evergreen topic in regional economic analysis. The aim of the current work is to analyse the development path of four Central-Eastern-European countries and create short term forecast for their development.Materials and methods: The authors discuss and test an autoregressive model for short-run, ex-ante assessment of spatial development using data from four CEE countries (Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary).Results: The research shows that the initial (1995-2021) development trajectories of the countries were still determined by the shocks of the transition period that started after 1990. The analysis shows that further development is essentially determined by inflationary pressures and changes in fiscal and monetary conditions.Conclusions: The analysis shows that after a recovery period of 1.5-2 years, the countries could be back on the path of development from 2024 but starting from a lower level and at a more modest pace.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Role of Social Cooperatives in Hungary Over the Past Ten Years –
           From a Regional Labour Market Perspective

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of the work: The aim of the research is to show how the effectiveness and regional labour market impact of social cooperatives in Hungary has evolved over the past 10 years. Materials and methods: The research database is based on a database of domestic enterprises. It includes data on the assets and income of social cooperatives for the past 10 years.Results: It analyses the evolution of the number of social cooperatives in space and time, in parallel with a legal and support environment. Focusing on a ten-year time horizon, it has examined the areas where the evolution of the number and activity of social cooperatives has had a greater impact on the labour market situation.Conclusions: It has shown that changes in the legal environment have significantly increased the number of social cooperatives. It has shown that, despite the increase in numbers, the cooperatives studied have survived in large numbers. It has shown a positive contribution to employment.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Regional Differences in the Management and Financial Performance of
           Hospitals in Hungary

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of work: The NUTS2 regions of Hungary show great differences in economic and social terms. For example, in the Budapest region, GDP per capita is around 150% of the EU27 average, while in half of the NUTS2 regions GDP per capita is below 50% of the EU27 average. Can these regional differences be observed in the management and operation of hospitals in Hungary'Materials and methods: The balance sheets and income statements of the hospitals were collected from the CREFOPORT database and the missing financial statements were requested directly from the hospitals. The capacity and performance data used in addition to the financial data were taken from the annual statements available on the NEAK website. The data were collected in December 2021 and the beginning of 2022. Specific indicators were constructed from the financial and performance data. The relationships between indicators and regions were first tested by analysis of variance using the ANOVA menu in SPSS. This was followed by a Bonferroni test.Results: For wealth indicators and profitability data, the closeness of the relationship is medium for most indicators, but no significant difference was found for any region using post-hoc tests except for one indicator. The indicator ETA shows a weak to medium strength relationship between liquidity indicators and NUTS2 classification, but with Bonferroni post-hoc tests no significant difference between regions except for one relationship (2016, Budapest-Pest). The same can be said when examining occupational indicators.Conclusions: There are two- to threefold differences between the minimum and maximum values of GDP per capita and the average income of the regions. However, public hospitals in regions with different levels of development do not show significant differences from a financial and professional point of view. Thus, hospitals with different financial and professional situations are not associated with regions of different development.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Measuring the Social, Economic and Environmental Resilience – A Case
           Study of the Hungarian Cities

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of the work: The COVID-19 and 2021-2022 energy crises shed new light on urban resilience. Cities face many more challenges and external shocks. This study aims to measure urban resilience.Materials and methods: For this purpose, a composite indicator was developed, composed of three (social, economic and environmental) resilience components called the Complex Resilience Index. It is applied to study Hungarian settlements in selected years (2000, 2006, 2012, 2018). Based on the results further analysis was conducted. The spatial structure of urban resilience is studied in two ways. First, the spatial differences between cities in the four selected years was examined using the relative range index, which is the difference between the highest and lowest city values relative to the average. Second, spatial patterns were mapped using one of the most commonly used indicators of spatial autocorrelation, the so-called Local Moran I indicator. The next step is to create five clusters to highlight the differences between groups in terms of population and per capita income in the selected years and to analyse the role of resilience in changing these indicators.Results: The identification of these groups provides important information for spatial planning and policy. Hungarian settlements were also ranked based on the Complex Resilience Index. The results show that urban resilience can be measured with a composite indicator (Complex Resilience Index) and that the social, economic and environmental resilience components provide further insights. In the Hungarian urban network, the most resilient elements are Budapest, some regional centres, some county capitals, the metropolitan area of Budapest, and the most developed small and medium-sized cities in the Transdanubian region.Conclusions: The difference in the Complex Resilience Index between cities increases over time, and as a result, the Local Moran I clusters become narrower. The rate of change in the specific income and its relative spread has the opposite sign to resilience. As resilience increases, the average change in income and its relative spread decreases, and as a result of that, stability increases.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Loan Utilisation and Repayment Behaviour: Evidence from Farmers of Haryana

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of work: The present paper assesses the loan utilisation and repayment behaviour of loanee or indebted farmers in Haryana, India.Materials and methods: The study was conducted in Haryana state. The study is based on primary data that have been collected through schedules from a sample of 600 indebted farmers. Proportionate sampling was employed. Further, a percentage is used for data analysis.Results: The study found that about half of the loan amount was utilised by farmers in nonproductive activities that directly stimulate the debt burden on them, because this type of expenditure did not contribute to the earnings of farmers. Further, around two-fifth of the farmers were regularly repaying their loans, one fifth were defaulters and remaining two-fifth were paying their loan irregularly. Overall, Farmers’ repayment behaviour is not satisfactory.Conclusions: The non-productive usage of the loan amount is one of the main causes of their indebtedness. Reducing such expenditure is one of the main challenges for farmers without generating other sources of income.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Resilience Mechanisms of the European Trade Network During the Pandemic

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of work: The economic crisis generated by the COVID-19 pandemic was fundamentally different from those of the past, with unforeseen implication on supply chains and European trade. As the literature regarding the pandemic is vast bibliometric techniques were used to find the most influential themes and authors. The aim of this paper is to test if cascading failure is possible when shocks arise in European trade.Materials and methods: To characterise the European commerce, network analysis was employed using Eurostat data of imports and exports in the following years: 2018, 2019 and 2020. Trade value indices were also used to characterised European trade during the pandemic and Enterprise Survey run by World Bank for in-depth, cross economies comparisons.Results: The results from the network analysis characterise the compactness of the network, showing that the European trade network is characterised by robustness.Conclusions: Cascading failure has a low probability of occurrence.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Is Marketing a Science or an Instrumental and Sociotechnical Method of
           Shaping the Activities of Market, Public Non-Market and Political

    • PubDate: Wed, 12 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Revival of Regional Cooperation in Central Asia in the Perspective of
           Hungary’s Eastern Opening Policy

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of the work: This study explores the specifics of strengthening Central Asian regional cooperation and its potential opportunities according to Hungary’s Eastern Opening Policy.Materials and methods: A two-pronged approach was used to conduct this study, which included a comprehensive literature review of relevant academic publications on regional cooperation, as well as an examination of cooperation projects to identify specific characteristics. Results are explicated using descriptive methodology for the analysis.Results: Central Asian regional integration differs from the traditional model, emphasising the importance of historical factors and the strengthening of Turkish ethnic identity as a foundation for unification efforts.Conclusions: Foreign economic engagement in Central Asia requires a continuous and assertive presence, along with the development of mutual trust due to the region’s unique historical, cultural and geopolitical context. These tendencies and intentions have been recognised by Hungarian foreign strategy - in line with the Eastern Opening Policy - with good sense and at a good pace.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Analysis of Women’s Economic Engagement in the Agricultural Economy and
           Factor Affecting it: A Case Study of Fatehabad District of Haryana State

    • Abstract: Subject and purpose of work: The study analysed women’s contribution to agricultural activities in small, medium and large farm sizes and also examined the socio-economic factors that affect women’s participation in the agricultural sector.Materials and methods: The study is entirely based on primary data collected from a field survey with the help of a pre-structured questionnaire. A simple tabulated method and multiple regression method has been employed to make conclusions.Results: The study has revealed that the participation of women in the agricultural sector is the highest in the small and medium farm size and selected socio-economic variables explain the 85.4% association with women’s participation in the selected area.Conclusions: The study concluded that employment-wise participation of the respondent’s decreases with the increase in farm size and the relationship between women’s participation and farm size, family income and education is statistically significant.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
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