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  Subjects -> GEOGRAPHY (Total: 493 journals)
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Environmental Smoke
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2595-5527
Published by Universidade Federal da ParaĆ­ba Homepage  [5 journals]

    • Authors: Thiago Soethe Ramos, Elizabeth Ohjama, Roberto Recart dos Santos
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: The lifestyle unleashes biological processes that lead the body to a mixed exhaustion, leading to a state called “stress”, getting sick or aggravating pathologies. The aim of this study is to analyze the emotional stress on the immune system and to develop a comprehensive concept that allows for fewer erroneous ramifications in its approach. This is a literature review based on articles in Immunology taken from the PubMed database. Articles that related the stressor problem with the immunopathogenic etiology, published between 2021 and 2022 (until March 16, 2022) and searched with the truncated terms “stress immunology”, “stress physiology” and “stress psychology” were selected. We evidenced that emotional stress is multifaceted, changes according to the nature of the stimulus, can be benign or deleterious and can affect populations of TCDs, which start to carry “scars” that make them hyper-responsive to inflammatory activities in stem cells, B and NK cells. Molecules such as mTOR and PI3K, which expose APCs viral agents, lead to the paucity of the process. In a situation contrary to stress, the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α tend to balance, improving coping with noxa. Stress can aggravate numerous conditions in biological systems. However, “positive” stress is responsible for learning, making the allostatic process less expensive. The cognitive condition and the stressful nature can influence better responsiveness and learning. We found that negative stress that raises glucocorticoid levels is cognitive-dependent, predicting the worsening of chronic pathologies or producing sequelae. Finally, we conclude that stress is all exogenous cause and effect that physiologically are neuroimmunoendocrine triggers of cognitive-dependent response, which allostatically lead the system to homeostasis by nature regardless of the cause of its damage, be it benign and/or deleterious, in the acute form of bioinformational character and in the immunopathogenic chronic form.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.32435/envsmoke.2022521-9
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Márcia Venâncio
      Pages: 10 - 14
      Abstract: Scientific illustration can be defined as a realistic representation of an object that the illustrator or the scientist observes, pointing out features that they want to show. Over the years, illustration has fulfilled different objectives, becoming an indispensable tool in the science service, being extremely important to understanding the natural world and recognized as a significant factor in the emergence of modern science (MOSER, 2014). The scientific illustration helps to define the object in a simple way, being instantly “readable” or easy to interpret, even for a non-erudite and is a form of visual scientific communication (ALCARAZ; CORREIA; CERVIÑO, 2015; MOSER, 2014). For these reasons, drawing is a tool appreciated by scientists. The aim of this article is to show the different areas of application of scientific illustration and also the emergence of the digital illustration, particularly the 3D illustration.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.32435/envsmoke.20225210-14
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Grazielly Diniz Duarte, Gil Dutra Furtado, Martin Lindsey Christoffersen
      Pages: 15 - 18
      Abstract: The surgical performance in animal patients affected by carcinoma is justified by the search for the subjects quality of life. Surgical intervention is possible due to the current technical quality now available for veterinarians. Since carcinoma is a pathology, often of rapid evolution, the readiness to carry out the a surgical intervention as soon as possible is confirmed. In the specialized literature, castration also aims to minimize the occurrence of this pathology, being therefore indicated for tutors. This report covers a reality that is quite common within current veterinary medicine, where the patient is subjected to a partial mastectomy that involves castration. We conclude by establishing the importance that veterinary medical professionals have in maintaining animal welfare and the importance of trusting tutors when their PETs become subject to pathologies.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.32435/envsmoke.20225215-18
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Casey Mace Firebaugh, Tishra Beeson, Debra Rich, Yasmin Vivana Barrios, Amie Wojtyna
      Pages: 19 - 23
      Abstract: Introduction: A previous study was conducted to examine the relationship between poor air quality in the form of PM2.5 exposure and COVID-19 morbidity and mortality in Yakima County, Washington (USA). Results showed there was a significant correlation (p<0.05) between PM2.5 exposure and COVID-19 hospitalization and mortality in the 12-day lag analysis, however it was not clear if this association remains consistent over time. The purpose of this study was to analyze a second year of PM2.5 exposure and COVID-19 morbidity and mortality in a population significantly impacted by poor air quality (PM2.5) and high COVID-19 morbidity to determine whether the findings of the previous study could be confirmed. Methods: A 12-day lag analysis correlating PM2.5 levels and county-level COVID-19 case counts, hospitalization, and mortality was conducted using Pearson correlation between the period of February 1, 2021 and December 20, 2021 in Yakima, County, Washington, USA. Results: PM2.5 was found to be significantly correlated (p<.011) to COVID-19 morbidity (r = 0.38), hospitalization (r = 0.41), and mortality (r = 0.18). Discussion: This study expands upon and confirm previous preliminary findings examining the association between poor air quality exposure and negative COVID-19 outcomes. Populations exposed to long-term PM2.5 may need additional safeguards from COVID-19 as they may have a higher risk of infection, hospitalization, and mortality.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.32435/envsmoke.20225219-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Geuba Maria Bernardo Da Silva
      Pages: 24 - 26
      Abstract: This manuscript proposes to demonstrate the importance of scientific collections as an effective means of sharing biological/taxonomic information. The organisms from this collection were sampled by Dimítri de Araújo Costa, creator of this collection. The elaboration and maintenance of this type of materials, even without public investment, is essential to safeguard the heritage of a people, which will serve as a basis for future studies and improve connectivity with society, due to its strong link with environmental education.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.32435/envsmoke.20225224-26
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Franciely Ferreira Paiva, Dalescka Barbosa de Melo, Lucianna Marques Rocha Ferreira, Joseline Molozzi
      Pages: 27 - 27
      Abstract: Introduction: Reservoirs are artificial aquatic ecosystems created by damming rivers, and are influenced by different sorts of impacts. Anthropic land use and occupation are one of the main causes of the loss of environmental quality and biological diversity in aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of land use and occupation on the taxonomic and functional richness of benthic macroinvertebrates in reservoirs in the Brazilian semiarid region during a period of extreme drought. Material and methods: The study was conducted in six reservoirs located in the semiarid region from Brazilian Northeast (Paraíba and Rio Grande do Norte states): Sabugí, Passagem das Traíras, Cruzeta, Cordeiro, Sumé and Poções. The collections of benthic macrofauna, physical and chemical variables of water and the mapping of land use and occupation were performed for the years 2014 and 2019, in June and September. The sampling period was characterized as the most severe drought in the last 50 years in this study area. The land use and occupation were verified through the semi-supervised classification method of images captured by the Landsat 8 satellite, within 100 meters of the reservoir margin. The diversity of benthic macrofauna was analyzed through the taxonomic richness and functional richness, according to five functional characteristics: feeding trophic groups, breathing mode, voltinism, body size and body protection. To check for significant differences in physical and chemical water variables and taxonomic and functional richness among land use and land cover categories we performed PERMANOVA test. Results and Discussion: Seven land use and land cover categories were found in the reservoirs studied in the years 2014 and 2019, these are: water, agriculture, pasture, exposed soil, human occupation, open vegetation (native and exotic species of small/medium size with continuous spacing) and tree/shrub vegetation (native and exotic species of medium/large size with associated herbaceous stratum and predominance of semi-continuous dorsel). In all reservoirs the prevalent-use was pasture. Physical and chemical variables of water varied significantly among land use and land cover types, they were soluble reactive phosphate (p=0.02), total phosphorus (p=0.002) and water volume (p=0.01). The highest concentrations of total phosphorus were associated with predominant human occupation and soluble reactive phosphate with agriculture. The highest percentage of water volume was associated with a predominant use of tree/shrub vegetation. In reservoirs of semiarid regions with low connectivity due to intermittent rivers and extreme drought periods, adjacent anthropic activities such as agriculture, pasture and human occupation are the main external sources of nutrients. The taxonomic and functional richness of benthic macrofauna was higher in areas of open vegetation, however, it did not vary significantly between land use and land cover categories. Conclusions: Our results show that the effects of anthropic use and occupation in reservoirs associated with water scarcity lead to the homogenization of the macrobenthic community, which can generate negative consequences in processes sustained by the community.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.32435/envsmoke.20225227
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
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