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Critical Romani Studies
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2560-3019 - ISSN (Online) 2630-855X
Published by Central European University Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Foreword

    • Authors: Lise Foisneau, Joanna Talewicz
      Pages: 4 - 7
      Abstract: Foreward of the thematic issue Roma Holocaust, Memory, and Representation
      PubDate: 2022-10-25
      DOI: 10.29098/crs.v4i2.159
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • The Roma and the Question of Ethnic Origin in Romania during the Holocaust

    • Authors: Marius Turda, Adrian Nicolae Furtuna
      Pages: 8 - 32
      Abstract: This article suggests that the arguments used to justify the deportation of Roma to Transnistria in 1942 were racial and eugenic. As a selfstyled scientific theory of human betterment, eugenics aimed to sanitize Romania’s population, proposing a new vision of the national community, one biologically purged of those individuals believed to be “defective”, “unfit”, and “unworthy” of reproduction. Based on new archival material we suggest that the racial definition of Romanianness that prevailed at the time aimed to remove not just Jews but also
      Roma from the dominant ethnic nation (“neamul românesc”). To define Romanianness according to blood, ethnic origin, and cultural affiliation had been an essential component of Romania’s biopolitical programme since the 1920s. During the early 1940s, it served as the political foundation upon which the transformation of Romania into an ethnically homogeneous state was carried out. At the time, the “Roma problem”, similar to the “Jewish Question”, was undeniably premised on eugenics and racism.
      PubDate: 2022-10-25
      DOI: 10.29098/crs.v4i2.143
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • Do French ‘Nomads’ Have a War History' A Review of Seventy-five Years
           of Historiography

    • Authors: Lise Foisneau
      Pages: 34 - 54
      Abstract: Through a study of the historiography of the persecution of “Nomads” in France from 1939 to 1946, this article offers a critical analysis of methodological and thematic biases present in much historical research on the topic. Historical studies on “Nomads” have significant practical implications today: this article examines how the history of French Roma and Travellers during the Second World War was written. It shows how French institutions have relied on historical work to deny the racial character of the persecution of the so-called
      “Nomads”. The paper emphasizes that internment and enforced residence were not so much an absolute break but rather part of a particularly virulent moment in the long history of persecution of “Nomads” in the twentieth century in France.
      PubDate: 2022-10-25
      DOI: 10.29098/crs.v4i2.54
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • Fatal Coincidence: On the Root Causes of the Roma Holocaust

    • Authors: Slawomir Kapralski
      Pages: 56 - 74
      Abstract: This article puts forward a broad interpretive scheme to understand the deep causes of the Nazi persecution of Roma. It is argued that a reference to the interplay of modernity and colonialism is required to understand how Roma were constructed as different, how this difference became racialized, and how projects to eliminate this difference were drawn up. The author presents Roma as the main actors in the two most important European historical processes: modernization and colonization. Various modern strategies targeting Roma are described,
      together with the impact of the colonial experience that allowed Roma to be seen as the “savage within”, threatening the identity of German society. Finally, the similarities between colonial violence and persecution of Roma are brought into focus.
      PubDate: 2022-10-25
      DOI: 10.29098/crs.v4i2.78
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • Representing/Roma/Holocaust: Exhibition Experiences in Europe and East

    • Authors: Eve Rosenhaft, Kyu Dong Lee
      Pages: 76 - 98
      Abstract: This article reflects on two exhibitions, in 2018 and 2019, about the Nazi persecution of German Sinti and Roma. One was produced by an Anglo-German curatorial team and toured Britain and Continental Europe. The second was designed by South Korean curators and installed temporarily in a gallery in downtown Seoul. The two exhibitions drew on the same photographic archive, narrated the persecution histories of Romani subjects of the photographs, and used the story of their relationship with the non-Romani photographer to ask questions about responsibility and to prompt visitors to reflect on their own status as “implicated subjects” in contemporary forms of discrimination. Given different expectations of the level of knowledge that visitors bring to the exhibition and different communicative tools familiar to them (the Seoul curators included creative artists), the two curatorial teams took very different approaches to informing and moving their audiences – and to meeting the recognized challenges of representing Romani history and identity – not least in the ways in which the exhibition’s message was mediated in face-to-face conversations on site. The aesthetic approach adopted in Seoul did not fully succeed in maintaining the balance between explanation and exoticization. The evaluation relies on visitor surveys (quantitative and qualitative) and interviews with guides.
      PubDate: 2022-10-25
      DOI: 10.29098/crs.v4i2.82
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • Between Antigypsyism and Human Rights Education: A Critical Discourse
           Analysis of the Representations of the Roma Holocaust in European

    • Authors: Marko Pecak, Riem Spielhaus, Simona Szakács-Behling
      Pages: 100 - 120
      Abstract: This paper investigates representations of the Roma Holocaust in European textbooks on history, civics, and geography for pupils in upper primary to the end of secondary education. By applying critical discourse analysis (CDA) to a dataset of 472 passages and images referring to the Roma Holocaust from 869 textbooks, this paper reveals educational discourses of in/exclusion by focusing on narratives and linguistic tools, such as speech acts, level of detail and specificity, perspectives in semantic and grammatical forms, vocabulary and syntax. Most knowledge disseminated on the Roma Holocaust concerns numbers and technicalities of murder while Roma-specific details, survivor stories, and individual voices, as well as Romani terminology for the Holocaust (Porrajmos) are rare. Generally, the textbooks show little commitment to circulating knowledge about the Roma Holocaust, or specifically focusing on civic or human rights education. Portrayals of the Roma Holocaust are permeated by both explicitly and implicitly racist discourses, coupled with a distinct lack of critical tools with
      which to deconstruct these narratives. Overall, current textbook representations of the Roma Holocaust mirror social discourse and possibly serve to reproduce Romani exclusion and risk reinforcing antigypsyism attitudes.
      PubDate: 2022-10-25
      DOI: 10.29098/crs.v4i2.96
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • Romani Students’ Responses to Antigypsyist Schooling in a Segregated
           School in Romania

    • Authors: Simina Dragos
      Pages: 122 - 140
      Abstract: In this article I explore the responses of Romani students in a segregated school in Romania to majoritarian deficit narratives constructed about them, investigating the specific nature of such deficit discourses and the specific strategies of resistance deployed by the students. To do so, I designed a theoretical framework which fused elements of Foucauldian and Critical Race Theory (CRT). The case study was underpinned by principles of in-depth critical qualitative research, explicitly addressing the racial, political and systemic nature of educational inequalities in Romania. I spent two weeks in a segregated secondary school, in which Romani students were tracked into Romani-only class groups. I observed 12 lessons and interviewed three white Romanian teachers and 11 Romani students. The findings suggested that teachers mobilized deficit discourses about Romani families, culture, cognitive abilities, and potential, reflected in their pedagogical strategies and justifications of Romani students’ ‘school failure’. Students resisted such assumptions through counterstorytelling, naming oppression, class disruption, and refusal of the ‘rules of schooling’, such as homework. I argue that this resistance highlights Romani students’ critical thinking and agency. Among others, the findings indicate the need for urgent change in Romanian teacher training and educational policy.
      PubDate: 2022-10-25
      DOI: 10.29098/crs.v4i2.95
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • Roma, Gypsies, and Travellers As a Community of Difference: Challenging
           Inclusivity As an Anti-racist Approach

    • Authors: Zoë James
      Pages: 142 - 162
      Abstract: In order to consider how white privilege functions in late modernity, this article engages with issues of identity and political economy to theorise the impact of racist discourse on Roma, Gypsies, and Travellers in the United Kingdmom (UK). The article specifically problematizes the increasing aggregation of Roma, Gypsies, and Travellers as one community of difference in the UK. The article expresses the author’s concern that contemporary discourse and associated policy developments have racialized communities, and in doing so negated them through a failure to acknowledge the breadth of experience of Roma, Gypsies, and Travellers. The article makes a theoretical argument, evidenced by a comprehensive review of literature in the social sciences and key policy documents in the UK. It also incorporates an analysis of reports produced by UK
      government and civil society organisations over the past 15-year period. The article argues that the categorisation of Roma, Gypsies, and Travellers as one community of difference has occurred due to
      the embedded racism within contemporary European society that functions through and is augmented by neoliberal capitalist norms. In conclusion the paper argues that the norms of neoliberal capitalism, that are typified by individualism, competition, and the primacy of capital over human experience, allow the  perpetuation of this racist discourse that is not challenged by narratives of inclusion but rather is augmented by them.
      PubDate: 2022-10-25
      DOI: 10.29098/crs.v4i2.104
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • Eliyana R. Adler and Katerina Capková, eds. 2020. Jewish and Romani
           Families in the Holocaust and Its Aftermath. Newark: Rutgers University

    • Authors: Anna Daróczi
      Pages: 164 - 171
      Abstract: Book Review
      PubDate: 2022-10-25
      DOI: 10.29098/crs.v4i2.155
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • Natalia Molina, Ramon Gutiérrez, and Daniel HoSang, eds. 2019. Relational
           Formations of Race: Theory, Method, and Practice. Berkeley: University of
           California Press.

    • Authors: Dalen C. B. Wakeley-Smith
      Pages: 172 - 176
      Abstract: Book review
      PubDate: 2022-10-25
      DOI: 10.29098/crs.v4i2.109
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
  • Futures Past Means Tajsa: Review of an Artwork by Krzysztof Gil

    • Authors: Monika Weychert
      Pages: 178 - 182
      Abstract: Futures Past Means Tajsa: Review of an Artwork by Krzysztof Gil
      PubDate: 2022-10-25
      DOI: 10.29098/crs.v4i2.131
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2022)
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