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  Subjects -> GEOGRAPHY (Total: 493 journals)
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Hungarian Geographical Bulletin
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2064-5031 - ISSN (Online) 2064-5147
Published by Hungarian Academy of Sciences Homepage  [2 journals]
  • The system and spatial distribution of protected areas in Hungary,
           Slovakia, Romania, Serbia and Croatia

    • Authors: László Mari, Zsófia Tábori, Ivan Šulc, Petra Radeljak Kaufmann, Ranko Milanović, Alena Gessert, Zoltán Imecs, Anetta Baricz, Tamás Telbisz
      Pages: 99 - 115
      Abstract: Protected areas play a key role in nature conservation but are also crucial for tourism. There are international recommendations in nature conservation (IUCN), and several international conservation conventions exist. Nevertheless, the protection categories are different in each country, and the proportion of protected areas also varies. Here we compare the nature conservation systems of some countries (Hungary, Slovakia, Romania, Serbia and Croatia) taking into consideration their nature protection laws. The selection of countries is based on an international project dealing with “Karst and National Parks”. For the comparison, national data sources and an international database (WDPA) are used. Our results show that the protection categories of the studied countries are largely similar, but there are unique characteristics as well (such as “forest park”, “monument of park architecture” in Croatia; “nature conservation area” in Hungary or “protected landscape element” in Slovakia, etc.). On the other hand, the internal proportions of protection categories are more heterogeneous, like, for example, the proportion of national parks within all protected areas which is 57.0 percent in Hungary but 11 percent in Croatia. International protection categories (Natura 2000, Ramsar, UNESCO World Heritage natural sites, UNESCO MAB reserves) are more or less similarly present in the countries studied (except Serbia, where there are no Natura 2000 areas yet). If national categories and Natura 2000 sites are all taken into consideration (and the overlapping areas are counted only once), then Croatia has the highest proportion of protected areas (39.1%), Slovakia is in second place with 37.5 percent, while Romania (23.5%) and Hungary (22.0%) show a similar proportion, and with the lack of Natura 2000, Serbia has 9.1 percent at present. As for the reliability of the WDPA, we found that this varies from country to country, with significant deficiencies for certain countries (e.g. Serbia) and very good reliability for others (e.g. Hungary, Slovakia). However, the availability of WDPA is in many cases better than that of national data, and since it also provides GIS data, it can be considered a useful tool for examining international trends and mapping protected areas.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.15201/hungeobull.71.2.1
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Attitudes and preferences of visitors of Krka National Park, Croatia

    • Authors: Tamás Telbisz, Ivan Šulc, László Mari, Petra Radeljak Kaufmann
      Pages: 117 - 132
      Abstract: The primary function of national parks (NPs) is nature conservation, but for the majority of them, tourism also plays an important role. Tourism generates significant incomes, but the benefits are often unequally distributed in space, as are the disadvantages. The karst regions are generally less developed terrains in terms of traditional livelihoods, but due to their special morphology, tourism offers great opportunities. Nonetheless, mass tourism can also pose increased environmental risks. In this article, we examine the above questions on the example of Krka NP, especially from the perspective of tourists, as we conducted a questionnaire survey with visitors. The results confirmed that there is a high degree of spatial inequality both in the awareness of attractions and the distribution of tourist accommodation. This fact has already been recognised by the management of the NP, and serious steps have already been taken to reduce inequality, but their impact is not yet significant enough. Based on the survey, tourism in Krka NP is determined by same-day visits. Tourists who come here primarily consider waterfalls, lakes and rivers to be the most important values of the landscape, while cultural values are considered less significant and even less known. Local products are virtually unknown in the NP palette, so this could be a direction for development. Another point that could be developed is the awareness of visitors in the field of karstification. As the survey was conducted during COVID period, its impact on tourism was also briefly examined. This impact was manifested in the fact that the proportion of retirees and tourist buses was very small, whereas the majority of visitors (90%) arrived in the NP as independent travellers. For one third of foreigners, COVID played a role in choosing Croatia as a destination. As for domestic tourists, two thirds chose to find a destination in Croatia because of COVID.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.15201/hungeobull.71.2.2
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Attitudes of local people towards Apuseni Nature Park, Romania

    • Authors: Zoltán Imecs, András Máthé, Balázs Kohán
      Pages: 133 - 148
      Abstract: Nature parks are protected natural areas whose purposes are the protection and conservation of landscapes in which the interaction of human activities with nature over time has created a distinct area, with significant landscape and/or cultural value, often with great biological diversity. This is the case of Apuseni Nature Park, which includes a significant karst terrain and is a very important tourist destination. In this article, we examine the attitude of local people towards the protected area with the help of a questionnaire composed of 32 questions. After the general questions, the economic situation was examined first. Then the respondents had to evaluate the values and the difficulties of their region and their relation to tourism. The answers reveal that they are aware of the importance of tourism, which may represent a serious complementary income for them. The most intriguing questions were some open-ended questions, which focused on the relationship of locals to Apuseni Nature Park. Based on the answers, we can conclude that the negative opinions slightly dominate. The dissatisfaction of the locals, the feeling of limitations due to the park are expressed in many different ways. But probably the most relevant problems can be linked to the rules and laws. As it is a nature park, people in fact, live inside the park, thus, the equilibrium between their lives and the purposes of the park should be approached. The administration of the nature park should involve local people more closely in decision-making, and maybe certain rules should be changed.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.15201/hungeobull.71.2.3
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Social assessment of national parks through the example of the Aggtelek
           National Park

    • Authors: Margit Kőszegi, Alena Gessert, Janetta Nestorová-Dická, Péter Gruber, Zsolt Bottlik
      Pages: 149 - 162
      Abstract: Karst areas, which are less involved in productive activities are often declared protected areas that can have a positive impact on the lives of the local communities. To verify this hypothesis, we examine karst areas, where national parks have been established to preserve mostly geological but also biological values. According to the threefold system of objectives in national parks, not only protection and conservation, but also the presentation of the natural values to the outside world is important. Thus, tourism and related services are essential and often exclusive economic activities in these protected areas. Our questions are how national parks appear in the daily lives of the local communities and how much locals perceive the beneficial effects of national parks. The selected area of our study is the Gömör-Torna / Gemer-Turňa Karst on the Hungarian-Slovak border, where national parks have been established on both side of the border (Aggtelek National Park in Hungary and Slovak Karst National Park in Slovakia) to preserve karst landforms and caves. We conducted structured interviews with leaders of settlements in and around the national park. Interviews reveal the ambivalent system of everyday relationships. Local communities are experiencing multiple conflicts with national parks. The conflicts stem from the contrast that usually occurs within the threefold system of objectives of national parks (the tension between the practice of protection/preservation and presentation). Locals are negatively affected by the presence of national park as an authority, which limits to some extent their economic activities. They perceive national parks as barriers that prevents them from building a more diversified economy, so the existence of the national park is seen by the majority as a disadvantage rather than an advantage. Some people even question the need to protect nature, which can be seen as a legacy of the former socialist regime. Thus, we conclude that there is a need to change the attitudes of local communities more positive towards nature conservation.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.15201/hungeobull.71.2.4
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Public knowledge on karst and protected areas: A case study of Tara
           National Park, Serbia

    • Authors: Jelena Kovačević-Majkić, Jelena Ćalić, Jasna Micić, Jovana Brankov, Ranko Milanović, Tamás Telbisz
      Pages: 163 - 179
      Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present the results of our research on the knowledge and awareness of visitors and residents about karst and protected areas (PAs). The research was carried out in the Tara National Park (NP)in western Serbia, which includes karst landscapes. By conducting surveys with visitors, local population, and National Park employees, as well as interviews with local key persons, NP key persons and external experts, we got a deeper understanding of the issues related to knowledge on karst and PAs. We also investigated whether local people or visitors knew the values of karst landscapes in general and how they were informed or learned about the Tara NP. In addition, we also analysed the content of these topics in school curricula and textbooks in Serbia. We concluded that the awareness about the researched topics is unsatisfactory at present thus it should be raised to a higher level, both in the case of local people and in the case of visitors. One of the most significant ways to improve the current level is through formal, non-formal, and informal education.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.15201/hungeobull.71.2.5
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • A new ecosystem services approach to enable identification of
           pro-biodiversity businesses of protected karst areas in Central and
           South-Eastern Europe

    • Authors: Sašo Gorjanc, Tina Simončič, Aleš Poljanec, Béla Kuslits, Ildikó Arany, Eszter Tanács, Ágnes Vári, Réka Aszalós, Anghel Drasovean, Alin Mos, Laura Maeso Velasco, Andrea Reuter, Udo Gattenlohner
      Pages: 181 - 195
      Abstract: Protected areas are a leading conservation tool for preserving biodiversity. However, the restrictions on human uses often engender resistance of local communities to the idea of living in protected environment. This paper describes the preparation of Biodiversity Investment Opportunities (BIO) maps for seven case areas in Central and South-Eastern Europe, using participatory methods. BIO maps have been further developed with the involvement of local stakeholders to define areas that can support economic activities while achieving a no net loss or even benefits for nature. The BIO maps can then be used to foster the development of Pro-Biodiversity Businesses (PBBs). PBBs are enterprises that generate financial returns without compromising the natural environments they depend on. PBBs were found to be a viable solution, effective in changing the perceptions of both the park managers and the local people towards the protected areas. Moreover, these enterprises can improve the local livelihoods, as well as actively protect nature and biodiversity. Therefore, the approach presented in this paper can be adopted as a model for managing any protected area and conserving cultural landscapes.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.15201/hungeobull.71.2.6
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Andersen, D.J. and Prokkola, E.-K. (eds.): Borderlands Resilience:
           Transitions, Adaptation and Resistance at Borders

    • Authors: Andrzej Jakubowski
      Pages: 197 - 200
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.15201/hungeobull.71.2.7
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Demeter, G. and Bottlik, Zs.: Maps in the Service of the Nation: The Role
           of Ethnic Mapping in Nation-Building and Its Influence on Political
           Decision-Making Across the Balkan Peninsula (1840–1914)

    • Authors: Maciej Górny
      Pages: 201 - 203
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.15201/hungeobull.71.2.8
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Schelhaas, B., Ferretti, F., Novaes, A.R. and Schmidt di Friedberg, M.
           (eds.): Decolonising and Internationalising Geography: Essays in the
           History of Contested Science

    • Authors: Ferenc Gyuris
      Pages: 204 - 208
      Abstract: -
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.15201/hungeobull.71.2.9
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 2 (2022)
       
 
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