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Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Section B: Natural, Exact and Applied Sciences
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1407-009X - ISSN (Online) 2255-890X
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [389 journals]
  • Penetrance of and Double Heterozygotes in Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer

    • Abstract: Germline pathogenic BRCA1 variants confer increased risk of breast and/or ovarian cancer. The penetrance of BRCA1 pathogenic variants is variable due to the effects of other genetic factors. The interaction between CHEK2 and BRCA1 proteins is crucial in homology directed DNA repair pathway. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of three pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants of the CHEK2 gene on BRCA1 pathogenic allelic variant penetrance. The analysis included 380 DNA samples of women with confirmed positive BRCA1 status for one of founder variants c.4035del and c.5266dup. The c.444+1G>A and c.470T>C variants of CHEK2 gene were identified by Sanger’s sequencing, and the del5395 variant was detected by multiplex PCR. The studied CHEK2 variants were found in 13 double heterozygous cases (c.444+1G>A, n = 1; c.470T>C, n = 11, del5395, n = 1). Although the prevalence of CHEK2 variants in the ovarian cancer group was comparatively high (5.41%), the increase of the ovarian cancer risk was not statistically significant (OR = 1.56; 95% CI: 0.32–9.94; p = 0.73). The association of the age at the onset of cancer with the presence of particular CHEK2 variant was not consistent.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Mortality Rate and Clinical Outcome
           of Patients Admitted to Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital With
           Spontaneous Intracerebral Haemorrhage

    • Abstract: Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH) remains the most devastating type of stroke with the highest morbidity and mortality. Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, serious modifications have been made in health care systems, affecting patients with all kinds of disease, including SICH. This study compared mortality rates, and clinical and functional outcomes of patients diagnosed with SICH in the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 time periods. Retrospective analysis was performed using patient data from Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital from 2018 to 2021, dividing it into two subgroups based on the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, 329 patients in total were analysed. No statistically significant differences were found in mortality rate (p = 0.389) and neurological status at hospital admission (p = 0.309) between the time periods prior to COVID-19 and during the COVID-19 period. A statistically significant difference was found in the clinical status of patients (p = 0.016) measured using the Glasgow Coma Scale, indicating a worse level of consciousness of patients diagnosed with SICH at the time of admission to the hospital in the COVID-19 period. No statistically significant differences were found in the clinical outcome (p = 0.204) and functional outcome (p = 0.556) of the patients at discharge from the hospital. In the COVID-19 period, admission of patients with SICH fell by 25%. For patients with SICH, the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a reduced admission rate and a worse level of consciousness at the time of admission, calling for further research to identify what caused it and how to avoid delayed medical help in the case of the development of acute neurological symptoms during the COVID-19 outbreak.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • A Matlab-Based Approach for Estimating the Area Taken Up by Cells Attached
           to Micropatterned Optically Opaque Surfaces

    • Abstract: Cell attachment is of paramount importance in implant design, bioreactor design, tissue engineering and the design of non-fouling surfaces. Surface roughness is a significant factor that affects cell attachment. To explore the impact of roughness characteristics, micromachining approaches can be used to fabricate surfaces with controlled microscale topography. When optical microscopy is employed to study cell attachment to optically opaque micropatterned surfaces, one needs to separate the area of an image coated with cells from the background. Manual cell counting can be used to assess the amount of attached cells. However, this process is very time consuming, when the studied surface is larger than several square millimeters. This paper describes an approach for the automatic estimation of the area of cells attached to the surfaces of micro-patterned optically opaque platforms. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells were used to test the developed approach. The approach uses image registration and segmentation tools available in MathWorks MATLAB R2020b Image Processing Toolbox. The factors that affect the accuracy of the developed approach (magnification, contrast and focus) as well as the ways of improving the results are discussed.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Antimutagenic 1,4-Dihydropyridine AV-153 Normalizes Expression of GLUT1,
           GLUT4, INOS, PARP1, and Gamma H2AX Histone in Myocardium of Rats with
           Streptozotocin Model of Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: Diabetic cardiomyopathy increases the risk of heart failure and worsens prognosis for diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Its development depends on many factors, including modification of nitric oxide production and impaired DNA repair. The goal of the present work was to study in vivo effects of a 1,4-dihydropyridine AV-153, known as antimutagen and DNA-binder, on DNA integrity, and on the expression of several proteins involved in glucose transport, nitric oxide metabolism, and DNA repair in myocardium in diabetic rats. DM was induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ) injection. Expression of proteins was studied by means of immunohistochemistry. Development of the STZ-induced DM significantly induced PARP1 and gamma H2AX histone, markers of DNA breakage, protein expression in heart tissue, while AV-153 administration decreased PARP1 and H2AX protein expression. In this model of diabetes, myocardial expression of iNOS was also significantly increased, but administration of AV-153 reduced it to normal levels. AV-153 also upregulated the expression of insulin-dependent GLUT4 and insulin-independent GLUT1 glucose transporters up to normal level in diabetic rats. Thus, AV-153 appears to be prospective for creation of a remedy for prevention of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Class IC Antiarrhythmic Drugs: Informed Choice

    • Abstract: The article presents data on the most commonly used antiarrhythmic drugs of subclass IC: propafenone, flecainide, and a drug manufactured in Latvia — ethacizine. The features and priority areas of each drug use were identified. The author conducted a critical analysis of the results of Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trials (CAST)-I and CAST-II and suggested ways to further study of subclass IC antiarrhythmic drugs in the context of current treatment strategies. The results of CAST-I and CAST-II should be interpreted in view of the heterogeneity of the subclass IC antiarrhythmic drugs and the fact that among the drugs of this subclass that are currently registered and approved for use in Ukraine, only flecainide was studied in CAST-I, and none of these drugs — in CAST-II. Ethacizine has a special position as a promising drug, especially effective in the treatment of vagus-induced heart rhythm disorders, with a small number of contraindications and drug interactions compared with propafenone and flecainide. Despite many years of use in several countries, this drug remains “invisible” to researchers around the world due to a limited number of international studies. The author draws attention to the need to re-evaluate antiarrhythmic drugs with an outdated evidence, in some cases quite limited, and to plan new experimental studies to clarify the possibility of subclass IC drugs to influence new pharmacological targets in arrhythmology, as well as large-scale well-planned studies of the safety and efficacy of subclass IC antiarrhythmic drugs in real present-day clinical practice.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Quantitative Assessment of Indispensable Amino Acids in the Flour
           Confectionery Food Products of Plant Origin — Tofu Cake and Tofu Muffin
           with Chickpea Flour

    • Abstract: The article provides a study of the quantitative composition of amino acids in some baked flour confectionery product of plant and animal origin. The objective of the study was to determine the profiles of indispensable amino acids in several products. Source materials with high content of protein, and which have been used for the production of these confectionery products were studied. A source of protein in final products that contain ingredients of animal origin is cottage cheese, the content of which in the products amounts to 25% and 50%. The sources of protein in products that contain ingredients of plant origin include tofu, soya protein isolate, chickpea flour, and coconut milk. The results showed evidence of the presence of a full profile of indispensable amino acids in all tested products. The source ingredients had high biological value with well-balanced content of indispensable amino acids. The only exception was coconut milk, which had the lowest calculated amino acid amounts among the tested raw materials. Tofu cake contained leucine with the highest concentration — 0.78 g/100 g of product, followed by lysine (0.5 g/100 g). Tofu muffin with chickpea flour contained 0.63 g/100 g leucine and 0.45 g/100 g lysine. The profiles of indispensable amino acids showed that these products can excellently help to supplement daily needs for indispensable amino acids.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Evaluation of the Impact of Nutrition Knowledge on Nutrition Behaviour and
           Diet in a Physically Active Person’s Cohort

    • Abstract: Specific high physical and psychological load energy expenditure should be covered by balanced diet that is adapted to physical load. Food intake is one of the vital processes that support body activity and maintain physical working capacity in special environment. Various objective and subjective factors have an impact on body energy expenditure and determine a definite amount of food energy. Dietary intake influences the readiness and training performance outcome. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the diet of physically active persons before and after a nutritional education course and determine the impact of nutrition knowledge on nutrition behaviour and diet in two subgroups: respondents with a standard BMI level (BMI < 25, in the interval 18.5–24.9) and overweight respondents with BMI ³ 25, in the interval 25.0–29.9. Participants aged 22–35 years, who had daily physical activity and physical load, were selected for the study group. We divided respondents into two subgroups: respondents with standard BMI level (BMI < 25; BMI in the interval 18.5–24.9) and overweight respondents with BMI ³ 25 (BMI in the interval 25.0–29.9). Nutritional education course included the theoretical part (lectures) and practical part (dietary diary self-assessment) as well as a quiz that allow to evaluate nutrition knowledge level in the selected cohort of respondents with BMI < 25 and BMI ³ 25. We provided intervention before and after a nutritional education course by using the standardised questionnaire “Diet 3-day menu diary” and standardised survey “Physical activity during the current life period”, which allowed to evaluate the balance between the daily intake for energy recovery and daily physical activity as energy expenditure. We determined the value of the main dietary components (protein (%), carbohydrates (%) and fat (%), as well the total amount of energy (kcal) in the diet before the nutritional education course (Diet 1st) and after the nutritional education course (Diet 2nd) in the selected cohort of respondents with BMI < 25 and BMI ³ 25. The study group participants preferred a diet with a higher amount of fat and lower amount of carbohydrates compared with nutritional recommendation for general population. There were no significant differences in Diet 1st components between overweight and standard BMI groups. Analysis of post-course (Diet 2nd) dietary diary showed a statistically exact significance of fat level (%) and carbohydrate level (%), and no statistically approved changes in protein level (%) intake. Nutritional knowledge of the study group participants after the nutritional education course was evaluated by using a standardised test in points (1–10), which showed that about 60% of the respondents received an assessment “good”. The results of the study can be used to develop optimal diet planning during the pre-training period before planning physical exercises with high physical and psycho-emotional load, in order to benefit physical exercise performance.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • A Sensory Evaluation of Arabica Gayo Coffee Flavour Based on Varieties and
           Processing Techniques

    • Abstract: Post-harvest handling of coffee is one of the main factors in producing a high-quality coffee, including its processing techniques. This study aimed to conduct a sensory evaluation of arabica Gayo coffee flavour in various varieties and processing techniques. There were four selected coffee varieties in this study, namely Bor-bor, Tim Tim Aceh, Bergendal and Ateng Super, which were obtained from the garden of farmers in Gayo Highlands, Province of Aceh, Indonesia. The coffee processing methods used in this study were both dry and wet processing techniques. The sensory assessment of arabica Gayo coffee flavour was carried out by ten panelists by evaluating the acceptance of the product based on the level of preference. The sensory assessment of flavour included fragrance, flavour, after-taste, acidity, balance, body, and overall based on the panelist decision values using the exponential comparison method (ECM/MPE). Results showed that the wet processing technique was the most suitable technique for arabica Gayo coffee based on the preference of panelists compared to the dry processing technique. Arabica Gayo coffee varieties that have the highest acceptance value by panelists in sequence were Bor-bor varieties (1st choice), Tim Tim Aceh (2nd choice), Ateng Super (3rd choice), and Bergendal (4th choice). Therefore, the Bor-bor variety was the most important coffee variety recommended to be developed by the farmers compared to other coffee varieties.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Histological Characteristics of the Endometrium and its Affecting Factors
           in Dairy Cattle on Embryo Transfer Day

    • Abstract: In cows embryo transfer occurs on the 7th day of the oestrous cycle. Embryo survival and successful pregnancy depend on many factors, including early interaction between embryo and endometrium. Therefore, the aim of our research was to describe histo-morphological characteristics of endometrium in donor and recipient cows on obtaining and transfer day, respectively (7th day of the oestrus cycle). In addition, progesterone and oestradiol levels, the ipsilateral and contralateral corpus luteum, animal age, lactation number and days postpartum were determined. The results of the study revealed a significant difference in endometrial gland cell size, vacuolisation of glandular epithelium cytoplasm, and stromal oedema in the donor and recipient cows. However, these parameters were related only to the level of progesterone in the blood, and no other investigated factors in this study.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Prevalence of Distress and Depression and Related Health and Behavioural
           Factors in the Student Population of Latvia During the COVID-19 Outbreak

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic, which has spread across the world, has made an impact on every student’s ordinary life and mental health, from studying conditions, internship, employment to freedom of movement. This was a cross-sectional study where Latvian university and college students were asked to fill the self-report online questionnaire developed as part of an international study. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of COVID-19 pandemic and investigate clinical depression, distress and identify the predicting factors. Depression and distress were determined using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) with a previously developed algorithm and cut-off scores. The statistical analysis included the Pearson’s chi-square test and binomial logistic regression. The study included 1047 students. The prevalence of distress was 18% (n =188) and prevalence of depression was 33.8% (n = 354). Depression was more common among women — 35.9 % (n = 298). Risk factors for depression were poor quality of sleep (OR = 8.31), unemployment (OR = 1.42), excessive internet usage (OR = 7.17), thoughts about death (OR = 12.14), and suicidal behaviour (OR = 4.99). Physical activities operated as a protective measure to prevent depression. This study potentially could help to develop a plan in the future for dealing with psychological support for the student population.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Living on the Climate Edge Suitable for Early Farming: The Complex
           Subsistence Strategies of the Late Neolithic People at the Abora Site in

    • Abstract: The Late Neolithic Abora settlement site occupies a prominent place in Lake Lubāns micro-region archaeology. The Lake Lubāns wetland, including the Abora site, has been systematically researched by the archaeologist Ilze Biruta Loze in 1962–1990 and episodically in 1999–2012. Besides the settlement culture layers, the Abora site includes human burials as well, providing both osteological and archaeological material. Altogether, 61 burials have been excavated within the settlement territory. The Abora settlement is a tempting site for further investigations of complexities of the transition to farming in the Late Neolithic in Latvia. This paper represents an attempt to apply palaeodemographic methodology, 14C dating, FRUITS analysis and estimates of the freshwater reservoir effect to preserved osteological and archaeological material of Abora site and discusses the results in context with the previous data and archaeological interpretations. The new radiocarbon dates of the human bones generally correspond with the previous absolute dating of the site, spanning from 3484–3102 calBC to 2137–1925 calBC. The adult and adolescent isotopic data (29 individuals) generally corresponds very well with the local Lake Lubāns wetland isotope ecology. However, it contradicts the previous interpretations that overemphasised the role of domesticated animals and cultivated crops in the Abora human subsistence strategies. The new data show that the majority of individuals had a freshwater diet and others — a mixed freshwater/terrestrial diet.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Neutrophilic Leukocytes and Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Native
           Aortic Valve Endocarditis

    • Abstract: Infective endocarditis is a disease that affects the endocardium and often alters heart valves, notably the aortic valve. Bacteraemia and valvular endothelial damage play an essential role in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis. The pertinent literature suggests that neutrophil extracellular traps are important contributors to the development of the disease. However, features of the valvular damage and contribution of neutrophils to the alteration of cardiac tissue are not explored sufficiently. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence and distribution of neutrophilic leukocytes and neutrophil extracellular traps in native aortic valves affected by infective endocarditis, using histopathology and immunohistochemistry assays. In addition, the presence of vegetations on the heart valve was determined. Infiltration of neutrophils into the valvular leaflet was significantly more severe at the free margin (mean 5.89 ± 3.00, p < 0.001) and the middle portion (mean 4.58 ± 3.64, p = 0.032) when compared to the base portion (2.05 ± 1.90). No significant differences in neutrophilic leukocyte infiltrating inflammatory lesions were found between cusp layers. The presence of myeloperoxidase and citrullinated histone expression characteristic of neutrophil extracellular traps was demonstrated by the use of immunohistochemistry in IE-affected valvular leaflets and vegetations. Collectively, the study results suggest that the free cusp margin and its middle portion of the aortic valve are exposed to enforced blood flow; endothelial damage and vegetation formation are likely to occur along with the presence of infective endocarditis-related bacteraemia.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Study of Impact of a 1,4-DHP Derivative Glutapyrone on DNA Using Tests

    • Abstract: The goal of the study was to test the ability of a representative of the 1,4-DHP group — glutapyrone to protect DNA against damage. The compound increased the concentration of the hydroxyl radicals produced in the Fenton reaction, it did not scavenge peroxynitrite and did not protect plasmid DNA against damage by products of the Fenton reaction. On the other hand, the compound protected HeLa cells against damage by peroxinitrite and B-lymphocytes against DNA damage in the conditions of oxidative stress induced by transfection of the Tat protein derived from the HIV virus. It is supposed that glutapyrone mobilises DNA repair systems.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Identification of Altered Transcripts and Pathways in Triple Negative
           Breast Cancer

    • Abstract: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a breast cancer subtype characterised by lack of oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor, and by worse prognosis than other cancer types. The aim of this study was to identify hub genes and molecular pathways for possible prognostic markers for TNBC. Nineteen breast cancer transcriptomes were sequenced using Illumina platform and analysed to identify differentially expressed genes in the TNBC subtype. Gene ontology enrichment analysis was conducted using the ToppGene tool. Then, the STRING online database was used for protein-protein interaction (PPI) network construction. Cytohubba and the MCODE plug-in were used to screen functional modules and hub genes. In total, 229 DEGs were identified by differential gene expression analysis in the TNBC group. Eight genes were screened out from the PPI network — FOXA1, ESR1, TFF1, GATA3, TFF3, AR, SLC39A6, COL9A1. In conclusion, this study indicates that the molecular subtype specific gene expression pattern provides useful information for targeted, biomarker-driven treatment options.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Microbiological Examination of Clinical Material in Halitosis Patients

    • Abstract: Regarding oral biofilm aspects, there has been strong evidence for a microbiotic component in the aetiology of halitosis. Many oral microbiota have protheolytic and putative activity, but there have been no studies investigating the association of microbiota in oral biofilms with halitosis. The objective of this study was to determine species of oral microbiota in the periodontal area and dorsal part of tongue biofilm, and how their quantitative amounts differ in halitosis patients. The clinical bacterial material from halitosis patients (altogether 98 persons, volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) on average 380 ppb) was taken from periodontal pockets and the dorsal part of the tongue for microbiological diagnostics of anaerobic bacteria, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for the comparison of bacterial quantity. The study showed the primary aetiology factors of halitosis in Latvia, and offers possible versions of microbiological diagnostics of halitosis. Even though the examination of halitosis patients and determination of VSC using a halimeter is technically simpler and cheaper, the determination of aetiological factors and their combinations using microbiological examination of clinical material with PCR tests are more precise. A characteristic ecological niche of anaerobic bacteria is not only the anaerobic environment of periodontal pockets, but also the microbiota of the dorsal part of the tongue. Additionally, some anaerobic bacteria species (Porohyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Prevotella intermedia) in larger amounts are found on the microbiome of the tongue. Therefore, it is advisable to begin microbiological diagnostics in halitosis patients with quantitative diagnostics of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola on the biofilm of the tongue coating.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Physical Development of Six- and Seven-Year-Old Children in Rīga and
           Latvian Regions

    • Abstract: The growth and maturation of a child’s body are going on continuously, but unevenly. Therefore, children of the same age may have different growth and functional abilities. On the initiative of the Latvian government, a pilot project was launched, which aims to evaluate the readiness of children to start school at the age of six as well as compare physical development, separate functional abilities, and posture for six and seven-year-old children of regions of Latvia and Rīga preschool educational institutions. The study involved 918 children, who were divided into two groups — Rīga (R) and regions of Latvia (RL). Respondents in each group were further divided by age — six- and seven-year-olds, and by sex. Anthropometric parameters were determined for each individual’s height, weight, chest circumference, lung vital capacity (PVC), forearm flexor muscle strength, and posture. In our study, the mean values of height for six-year-old girls were: R – 117.6 ± 5.8 cm, RL – 117.1 ± 6.3 cm, for boys R – 118.7 ± 5.0 cm, RL – 118.6 ± 5.1 cm. Seven-year-old children had an average increase in chest circumference of 1 to 2 cm, both by sex and by place of residence. Symmetrical posture was observed only for six-year-old children in 23.1% of cases and 17.1% of seven-year-old children. 59.5% of the children in the study group spent more than one hour a day watching TV, and 66.3% played computer games every day. The results of the study showed that children aged six and seven years grew and functionally developed very differently and individually. These age groups of children did not have accelerated growth ages; there were no large annual increases. A relatively small sex dimorphism was observed. The readiness of six-year-old children to start school should be assessed very individually by the child’s parents in collaboration with the pediatrician.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Association Between 25(OH)D Levels and Primary Arterial Hypertension

    • Abstract: This study seeks to determine whether patients from a family physician’s practice have an association between 25(OH)D levels and primary arterial hypertension (AH). The study included a total of 1068 patients who were tested for vitamin D status. Data from their outpatient medical records were analysed: sex, age, body mass index, glomerular filtration rate, and the history of AH. Primary arterial hypertension was diagnosed in 63% of the patients. The mean vitamin D level in the study population was 25 ng/ml, and the largest group, or 36%, was found to have vitamin D deficiency (20–29 ng/ml). Odds ratio (OR) for hypertension was not inversely correlated with higher vitamin D levels. No statistically significant increase was observed in OR in a multi-factor analysis. The relevant hypertension ORs were 1.8 (0.4–7.5), 1.1 (0.3–4.5), 1.7 (0.4–7.2) and 0.7 (0.1–4.8) 30 ng/ml to 45 ng/ml, 20 to 29 ng/ml, 10 to 19 ng/ml, and < 10 ng/ml compared to the group of ³ 45 ng/ml. No association was found between 25(OH)D levels and the primary arterial hypertension in study participants.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • New Nanometal-Containing Hepatoprotectors: Obtaining and Studying
           Biological Properties

    • Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the biological properties of nanocomposites obtained by immobilisation of precious metals (Au2+, Ag2+) in the structures of extracts of plant hepatoprotectors (milk thistle, saffron), in experiments on small sexually mature laboratory animals. Aqueous solutions of nanocomposites were administered to animals intraperitoneally 30 minutes prior to exposure to ionising radiation. Quantitative changes in lipid peroxidation were determined on the basis of the analysis of the concentration of malonic dealdehyde and hydroperoxide in liver tissue of control and experimental animals. It was revealed that nanocomposites introduced to animals before irradiation partially protect them from its destructive effect. More pronounced hepatoprotective effects in comparison with Ag2+ ions are manifested by Au2+ ions. Animals were also tested for behavioural responses in an open field model against the background of the introduction of a corresponding dose of the nanocomposite solution before irradiation. There were also changes in behavioural responses.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Outpatient Care Aspects of Rheumatic Patients in Latvia: Real Life Data in
           the Context of the First Month of the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyse the rheumatic disease profile and treatment aspects of the patients consulted in the outpatient department of Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital during the first month of the COVID-19 pandemic from 2020 March 13 till April 14. A total of 457 (76.04%) remote and 144 (23.96%) face-to-face consultations were analysed, totalling 601 patients: 434 (72.21%) females and 167 (27.79%) males with mean age 51.40 ± 14.73 years. Rheumatoid arthritis (223 (37.10%)), psoriatic arthritis (93 (15.47%)) and ankylosing spondylitis (80 (13.31%)) were the most frequently consulted conditions. Disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) or immunosuppressants (IS) were taken by 515 (85.69%) patients. These included synthetic DMARD (242 (46.99%)), mainly methotrexate; and biologic DMARD (156 (30.29%)), mainly tumour necrosis factor inhibitor. More than one-half of the cohort (427 (71.05%)) was not taking a glucocorticoid (GC). NSAIDs were used in 391 (65.08%) patients, mainly on demand (354 (90.54%)). Most patients (401 (66.72%)) had no comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, malignancy and/or chronic respiratory disease). The profile of patients consulted in the outpatient department consisted mainly of middle-age females with autoimmune inflammatory arthritis treated by DMARD. Most of the patients did not use GCs, they did not regularly use NSAIDs and did not have comorbidities. Telemedicine is an acceptable way of care delivery for chronic rheumatic patients with previously known disease and treatment, especially during a pandemic.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • 13 International Barley Genetics Symposium, Rīga, Latvia, 3–7
           July 2022

    • PubDate: Thu, 09 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
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