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Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Section B: Natural, Exact and Applied Sciences
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1407-009X - ISSN (Online) 2255-890X
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [389 journals]
  • Development of a Marker within the Candidate True Loose Smut Resistance
           Gene for Use in Barley Breeding

    • Abstract: Breeding for resistance to true loose smut infection caused by the pathogen (Ustilago nuda (Jens.) Rostr.) is an economical and environmentally safe way to limit the effect of this pathogen on barley. However, screening for resistance using natural infection can lead to inconsistent results and artificial inoculation is labour intensive, and unless done in growth chambers or greenhouses, can also be affected by environmental conditions, leading to inconsistent phenotyping. Marker-assisted selection of genes conferring disease resistance can increase the efficiency of breeding programmes. A candidate gene for Un8 resistance was used to develop a genetic marker, which was tested on a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the resistant ‘CDC Freedom’ and the susceptible ‘Samson’ varieties. The RIL population (98 lines) was pheno-typed for resistance to true loose smut by artificial inoculation and genotyped with the newly developed marker. Only one of the 98 RILs tested had a resistant genotype, but was susceptible according to the artificial inoculation results. The marker was also tested in 47 additional barley cultivars and breeding material, and of the five lines with inconsistent results, four were susceptible according to the genotyping results, but were resistant according to the artificial inoculation results, while one line was resistant according to the genotyping results but had a susceptible resistance phenotype.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Establishment of Biotesting System to Study Features of Innovative
           Multifunctional Biotextile

    • Abstract: An established biotesting system designed to discover specific features of innovative multifunctional biotextile, encompassing integrated silica dioxide and succinite (Baltic amber) particles, is founded on reproducible, reliable, and relatively fast methods. The main idea starting this study was to create a system of test methods devoted to identification of specific features of biotextile materials designed to preserve living organisms from adverse environmental factors like enhanced electromagnetic radiation of different frequencies, without use of vivarium animals. Cultures of the freshwater macrophyte duckweed (Lemna minor) line Sta2 and fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) were chosen as model systems suitable for the study of the influence of electromagnetic field (EMF) radiation. The experiments showed changes of phenotypic features and growth parameters of test objects, as well as induction of point mutations of DNA (for example, insertions or deletions in chloroplast DNA and nucleotide substitutions in nuclear genes). The responses of test organisms induced by EMF were studied using microscopy, flow cytometry, and DNA sequencing methods. On the cell level, a new fast flow cytometry method for biotextile testing was developed: immature gametic (pollen) cell cultures were used as a highly sensitive model system (plant gametic cell response is comparable to human neutrophil response) to study the influence of EMF radiation. The method was based on the measurement of differences of fluorescence intensity between group of cells experimentally affected by EMF radiation and non-affected cells.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Impact of Vitamin D Therapy on C-Reactive Protein, Ferritin, and IL-6
           Levels in Hospitalised Covid-19 Patients

    • Abstract: Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients. Vitamin D supplementation is related to improved clinical outcomes in terms of intensive care unit admission and death, particularly in individuals with moderate-to-severe forms of COVID-19. The placebo-controlled five-day study was performed on 99 hospitalised COVID-19 patients with vitamin D insufficiency randomised into two groups. Vitamin D in the form of a sublingual sprayable microemulsion was given three times daily (daily dose 12,000 IU) to 51 patients with blood 25(OH)D levels below 30 ng/ml. Forty-eight patients in the control group received a placebo spray in the same daily regimen. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis and pre-protocol analysis were used to verify the impact of 25(OH)D level elevation on inflammatory markers. There was a statistically significant increase by 8.7 ± 7.6 ng/ml in 25(OH)D level from the baseline level of 15.6 ± 6.5 ng/ml in the case group. Individuals with moderately severe disease showed negative correlation between changes in 25(OH)D and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in both ITT and pre-protocol analysis (p < 0.05). Mild and severe cases showed no statistical significance in CRP levels. There were no statistically significant changes in ferritin and IL-6 levels in ITT and pre-protocol analysis. In conclusion, high-dose vitamin D therapy was accompanied by significant decrease in CRP levels in COVID-19 patients with a moderate to severe illness.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Evaluation of Prenatal and Postnatal Risk Factors of Obesity in Obese and
           Normal Weight Children and Adolescents

    • Abstract: Obesity is considered a global epidemic worldwide. During the COVID lockdown, many daily habits changed not only for adults, but also for children. These changes are likely to further increase the prevalence and severity of obesity, which could lead to early health problems and chronic diseases. Therefore, it is important to identify preventable and non-preventable risk factors of obesity, which would be useful in planning long-term obesity prevention programmes in the country. The aim of the study was to investigate the prenatal and postnatal obesity risk factors in obese and normal weight children and adolescents. The prospective study from 2013 to 2018 included 198 children and adolescents — 181 children with obesity and 17 children with normal body weight who attended a paediatric endocrinologist. No statistically significant differences in prenatal risk factors of obesity were found between normal weight and obese children in the study: birth weight (p = 0.530), excessive weight gain during pregnancy in mothers (p = 0.787), type 2 diabetes mellitus in the family (p > 0.999). No statistically significant difference was found for the postnatal risk factor of obesity — duration of exclusive breastfeeding (p = 0.120), a statistically significant difference was only observed in parental obesity prevalence between children with normal weight and obesity (p = 0.004). Therefore, it is important to involve all family members to change children’s daily habits.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Primary Burkitt Lymphoma of the Rectum

    • Abstract: Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive mature B-cell neoplasm with the highest incidence in a pediatric population. Three clinical subtypes of BL are known: sporadic, endemic, and immune deficiency associated. The most common site of involvement in the case of the sporadic form is an ileocecal region. We describe a rare case of sporadic BL in a 71-year-old male with a primary localisation in the rectum presenting with progressive bowel obstruction and rectal bleeding. The clinical evaluation involved colonoscopy, biopsy with a following morphological examination, computerised tomography of thorax, abdomen and pelvis, magnetic resonance imaging of pelvis, and laboratory analysis. Due to the unclear tumorous mass and progressive clinical symptoms, surgical treatment was applied – laparotomy, total mesorectal excision with the formation of permanent colostomy. Morphological examination of the specimen revealed a phenotype characteristic to BL. One month after the surgery, two single liver metastasis were detected. The patient received six courses of DA-EPOCH chemotherapy. Post-treatment radiological examinations revealed full clinical remission and disease-free survival for 68 months (5 years and 8 months).
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Composition of Mastitis Causing Microorganisms and Cytokines in Healthy
           Cow’s Milk: A Pilot Study

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine clinically healthy cow’s udder milk microbiota and presence of cytokines in different seasons. Milk samples taken from the cows were checked for the presence of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and the somatic cell count was detected. Immunohistochemistry methods were performed to detect interleukin (IL) -2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17a, β-defensin-3, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, interferon-γ and nuclear factor (NF)-κB presence in the milk. S. agalactiae, S. uberis, S. aureus, E. coli, and Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter spp. were found in healthy cow’s milk. In the first round, the highest prevalence was observed for S. aureus. In the second round, the highest mean levels were observed for S. uberis, then followed S. aureus. IL-4, IL-17a and TGF-β1 demonstrated the highest expression in the milk samples. NF-κB had the lowest expression among all factors. The presence of a rich bacterial microbiome (mostly S.aureus, S.uberis) in the milk of healthy animals, as well as changing bacterial species between in spring and autumn seasons occur as a result of both the immune state of the animal and many external factors, which consequently affects the amount of expressed cytokines.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Macroelement Seasonal Variations in Latvian Organic Milk

    • Abstract: Consumer perception of organic milk is associated with the assumption that organic milk differs from conventionally produced milk. The aim of the present study was to analyse calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus concentration in organic milk in the context of the season. The study was conducted from November 2019 to the end of October 2020. Over a year, raw bulk milk samples were collected and analysed. The milk for the study was supplied by two organic farms located in Latvia. Cows received a total mixed ration consisting of high moisture maize silage, grass silage, etc. The chemical composition of the total mixed rations was analysed, as well as fat, protein, lactose, milk solids non-fat, and total solids, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium content in organic milk were determined. Seasonal variation in milk composition was observed. The average calcium concentration in our study was 107.96 ± 9.61 mg·100 g−1 with a lower average concentration 97 mg·100 g−1 in organic milk in March. The concentration of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium was higher in organic milk during the spring–summer season. The sale of organic milk is growing in Latvia, and the presence of a favourable level of calcium in organic milk during the whole year should be reached, providing calcium concentration in cow’s milk around 120 mg·100 g−1 throughout the lactation period. Milk and milk products are an important part of daily nutrition, recommended to every consumer due to their wholesomeness and calcium concentration. Evaluating the bone health data of the Latvian population, 100 ml of milk consumption should provide at least 15% of the recommended daily intake of calcium.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cultivation of Saprobic Basidiomycetes (, and ) Using Different Biological
           Waste Substrates

    • Abstract: Development of new biological preparations to control Heterobasidion root rot is a complex process, but when a potential antagonist is identified, cultivation of the fungus is required. In this study, five different substrates (deciduous sawdust, coniferous sawdust, rye bran, straw and corn kernels) were tested as substrates for the cultivation of three fungal species: Bjerkandera adusta, Phlebiopsis gigantea, and Sistotrema brinkmannii, which could be potentially used against Heterobasidion spp. Mycelial growth was evaluated visually, and oidia production was estimated microscopically. In the straw substrate, P. gigantea produced significantly more (p < 0.05) oidia compared to the other substrates. In addition, oidia production at two different incubation temperatures were compared. As a result, the best substrate for cultivation of all three fungal species was coniferous sawdust.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Number of White Stork Nests in Latvia Between 1934 and 2014

    • Abstract: The article summarises the results obtained during the 7th International White Stork Census 2014 in Latvia as well as analyses of changes since 1934. More than 2000 participants were involved in the census. About 14,000 pairs of white storks (WS) were found nesting in Latvia in 2014, i.e. about 52% more than in 1934, and about 25% more than in 1994 and 2004. The breeding density was one of the highest in the breeding area — on average, 21.7 occupied nests/100 km2 territory and 60.8 nests/100 km2 agricultural lands. The proportion of occupied nests in 2014 was 90.1%, and the proportion of successful ones — 95.7%. The average number of raised chicks decreased from 2.7 in occupied nests and 2.8 in successful nests in 1934 to 2.1 and 2.4 in 2014, correspondingly. The main reasons for this decrease were deterioration of feeding conditions (amount and availability of food, as well as the regionally growing use of agricultural chemicals). Since 1934, considerable changes in WS nest location and human aid in their construction have been observed. Eighty years ago, an absolute majority of nests (about 80%) were built with human aid (artificial nest support) on trees; whereas in 2014, only 3.5% such nests were registered. Most nests (64.8%) in 2014 were built on electric poles without artificial support. According to observations after 2014, the growth of the breeding population of WS in Latvia has come to an end, and even a slight regional decrease has been observed. Nevertheless, at present, there are no reasons to consider the local breeding population of the WS as being endangered and vanishing.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Establishing of an Axenic Line as a Model Organism for a Wide Spectre of
           Biological and Environmental Investigations

    • Abstract: Common duckweed (Lemna minor L.) is a widely used plant for phytoremediation and environment monitoring of wastewater in vivo, as this plant can be efficiently grown in Petri dishes and quickly multiplied in laboratory conditions. It is also a valuable test object to study the impact of various environmental factors by measuring growth and biochemical parameters. Our goal was to establish an axenic diploid line of L. minor free from symbionts, for use as a model plant to obtain reproducible results in experiments. In this work, we used 29 L. minor clones collected in natural conditions in Lithuania and Latvia, which were naturally inhabited with bacteria and algae. The L. minor clone entitled Sta2 was found to be best to fit requirements to establish a laboratory line suitable for testing of the genetic and physiological influence of environmental factors. Application of flow cytometry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and sequencing of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase genes proved that the selected and specifically sterilised line Sta2 was diploid and free from symbiotic bacteria or algae. Media for storage and for rapid propagation of L. minor biomass were also developed. The axenic line Sta2 can be maintained in sterile laboratory conditions and can be used as a model organism in a wide spectrum of biological and environmental investigations.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Penetrance of and Double Heterozygotes in Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer

    • Abstract: Germline pathogenic BRCA1 variants confer increased risk of breast and/or ovarian cancer. The penetrance of BRCA1 pathogenic variants is variable due to the effects of other genetic factors. The interaction between CHEK2 and BRCA1 proteins is crucial in homology directed DNA repair pathway. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of three pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants of the CHEK2 gene on BRCA1 pathogenic allelic variant penetrance. The analysis included 380 DNA samples of women with confirmed positive BRCA1 status for one of founder variants c.4035del and c.5266dup. The c.444+1G>A and c.470T>C variants of CHEK2 gene were identified by Sanger’s sequencing, and the del5395 variant was detected by multiplex PCR. The studied CHEK2 variants were found in 13 double heterozygous cases (c.444+1G>A, n = 1; c.470T>C, n = 11, del5395, n = 1). Although the prevalence of CHEK2 variants in the ovarian cancer group was comparatively high (5.41%), the increase of the ovarian cancer risk was not statistically significant (OR = 1.56; 95% CI: 0.32–9.94; p = 0.73). The association of the age at the onset of cancer with the presence of particular CHEK2 variant was not consistent.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Mortality Rate and Clinical Outcome
           of Patients Admitted to Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital With
           Spontaneous Intracerebral Haemorrhage

    • Abstract: Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH) remains the most devastating type of stroke with the highest morbidity and mortality. Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, serious modifications have been made in health care systems, affecting patients with all kinds of disease, including SICH. This study compared mortality rates, and clinical and functional outcomes of patients diagnosed with SICH in the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 time periods. Retrospective analysis was performed using patient data from Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital from 2018 to 2021, dividing it into two subgroups based on the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, 329 patients in total were analysed. No statistically significant differences were found in mortality rate (p = 0.389) and neurological status at hospital admission (p = 0.309) between the time periods prior to COVID-19 and during the COVID-19 period. A statistically significant difference was found in the clinical status of patients (p = 0.016) measured using the Glasgow Coma Scale, indicating a worse level of consciousness of patients diagnosed with SICH at the time of admission to the hospital in the COVID-19 period. No statistically significant differences were found in the clinical outcome (p = 0.204) and functional outcome (p = 0.556) of the patients at discharge from the hospital. In the COVID-19 period, admission of patients with SICH fell by 25%. For patients with SICH, the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a reduced admission rate and a worse level of consciousness at the time of admission, calling for further research to identify what caused it and how to avoid delayed medical help in the case of the development of acute neurological symptoms during the COVID-19 outbreak.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • A Matlab-Based Approach for Estimating the Area Taken Up by Cells Attached
           to Micropatterned Optically Opaque Surfaces

    • Abstract: Cell attachment is of paramount importance in implant design, bioreactor design, tissue engineering and the design of non-fouling surfaces. Surface roughness is a significant factor that affects cell attachment. To explore the impact of roughness characteristics, micromachining approaches can be used to fabricate surfaces with controlled microscale topography. When optical microscopy is employed to study cell attachment to optically opaque micropatterned surfaces, one needs to separate the area of an image coated with cells from the background. Manual cell counting can be used to assess the amount of attached cells. However, this process is very time consuming, when the studied surface is larger than several square millimeters. This paper describes an approach for the automatic estimation of the area of cells attached to the surfaces of micro-patterned optically opaque platforms. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells were used to test the developed approach. The approach uses image registration and segmentation tools available in MathWorks MATLAB R2020b Image Processing Toolbox. The factors that affect the accuracy of the developed approach (magnification, contrast and focus) as well as the ways of improving the results are discussed.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Antimutagenic 1,4-Dihydropyridine AV-153 Normalizes Expression of GLUT1,
           GLUT4, INOS, PARP1, and Gamma H2AX Histone in Myocardium of Rats with
           Streptozotocin Model of Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: Diabetic cardiomyopathy increases the risk of heart failure and worsens prognosis for diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Its development depends on many factors, including modification of nitric oxide production and impaired DNA repair. The goal of the present work was to study in vivo effects of a 1,4-dihydropyridine AV-153, known as antimutagen and DNA-binder, on DNA integrity, and on the expression of several proteins involved in glucose transport, nitric oxide metabolism, and DNA repair in myocardium in diabetic rats. DM was induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ) injection. Expression of proteins was studied by means of immunohistochemistry. Development of the STZ-induced DM significantly induced PARP1 and gamma H2AX histone, markers of DNA breakage, protein expression in heart tissue, while AV-153 administration decreased PARP1 and H2AX protein expression. In this model of diabetes, myocardial expression of iNOS was also significantly increased, but administration of AV-153 reduced it to normal levels. AV-153 also upregulated the expression of insulin-dependent GLUT4 and insulin-independent GLUT1 glucose transporters up to normal level in diabetic rats. Thus, AV-153 appears to be prospective for creation of a remedy for prevention of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Class IC Antiarrhythmic Drugs: Informed Choice

    • Abstract: The article presents data on the most commonly used antiarrhythmic drugs of subclass IC: propafenone, flecainide, and a drug manufactured in Latvia — ethacizine. The features and priority areas of each drug use were identified. The author conducted a critical analysis of the results of Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trials (CAST)-I and CAST-II and suggested ways to further study of subclass IC antiarrhythmic drugs in the context of current treatment strategies. The results of CAST-I and CAST-II should be interpreted in view of the heterogeneity of the subclass IC antiarrhythmic drugs and the fact that among the drugs of this subclass that are currently registered and approved for use in Ukraine, only flecainide was studied in CAST-I, and none of these drugs — in CAST-II. Ethacizine has a special position as a promising drug, especially effective in the treatment of vagus-induced heart rhythm disorders, with a small number of contraindications and drug interactions compared with propafenone and flecainide. Despite many years of use in several countries, this drug remains “invisible” to researchers around the world due to a limited number of international studies. The author draws attention to the need to re-evaluate antiarrhythmic drugs with an outdated evidence, in some cases quite limited, and to plan new experimental studies to clarify the possibility of subclass IC drugs to influence new pharmacological targets in arrhythmology, as well as large-scale well-planned studies of the safety and efficacy of subclass IC antiarrhythmic drugs in real present-day clinical practice.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Quantitative Assessment of Indispensable Amino Acids in the Flour
           Confectionery Food Products of Plant Origin — Tofu Cake and Tofu Muffin
           with Chickpea Flour

    • Abstract: The article provides a study of the quantitative composition of amino acids in some baked flour confectionery product of plant and animal origin. The objective of the study was to determine the profiles of indispensable amino acids in several products. Source materials with high content of protein, and which have been used for the production of these confectionery products were studied. A source of protein in final products that contain ingredients of animal origin is cottage cheese, the content of which in the products amounts to 25% and 50%. The sources of protein in products that contain ingredients of plant origin include tofu, soya protein isolate, chickpea flour, and coconut milk. The results showed evidence of the presence of a full profile of indispensable amino acids in all tested products. The source ingredients had high biological value with well-balanced content of indispensable amino acids. The only exception was coconut milk, which had the lowest calculated amino acid amounts among the tested raw materials. Tofu cake contained leucine with the highest concentration — 0.78 g/100 g of product, followed by lysine (0.5 g/100 g). Tofu muffin with chickpea flour contained 0.63 g/100 g leucine and 0.45 g/100 g lysine. The profiles of indispensable amino acids showed that these products can excellently help to supplement daily needs for indispensable amino acids.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Evaluation of the Impact of Nutrition Knowledge on Nutrition Behaviour and
           Diet in a Physically Active Person’s Cohort

    • Abstract: Specific high physical and psychological load energy expenditure should be covered by balanced diet that is adapted to physical load. Food intake is one of the vital processes that support body activity and maintain physical working capacity in special environment. Various objective and subjective factors have an impact on body energy expenditure and determine a definite amount of food energy. Dietary intake influences the readiness and training performance outcome. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the diet of physically active persons before and after a nutritional education course and determine the impact of nutrition knowledge on nutrition behaviour and diet in two subgroups: respondents with a standard BMI level (BMI < 25, in the interval 18.5–24.9) and overweight respondents with BMI ³ 25, in the interval 25.0–29.9. Participants aged 22–35 years, who had daily physical activity and physical load, were selected for the study group. We divided respondents into two subgroups: respondents with standard BMI level (BMI < 25; BMI in the interval 18.5–24.9) and overweight respondents with BMI ³ 25 (BMI in the interval 25.0–29.9). Nutritional education course included the theoretical part (lectures) and practical part (dietary diary self-assessment) as well as a quiz that allow to evaluate nutrition knowledge level in the selected cohort of respondents with BMI < 25 and BMI ³ 25. We provided intervention before and after a nutritional education course by using the standardised questionnaire “Diet 3-day menu diary” and standardised survey “Physical activity during the current life period”, which allowed to evaluate the balance between the daily intake for energy recovery and daily physical activity as energy expenditure. We determined the value of the main dietary components (protein (%), carbohydrates (%) and fat (%), as well the total amount of energy (kcal) in the diet before the nutritional education course (Diet 1st) and after the nutritional education course (Diet 2nd) in the selected cohort of respondents with BMI < 25 and BMI ³ 25. The study group participants preferred a diet with a higher amount of fat and lower amount of carbohydrates compared with nutritional recommendation for general population. There were no significant differences in Diet 1st components between overweight and standard BMI groups. Analysis of post-course (Diet 2nd) dietary diary showed a statistically exact significance of fat level (%) and carbohydrate level (%), and no statistically approved changes in protein level (%) intake. Nutritional knowledge of the study group participants after the nutritional education course was evaluated by using a standardised test in points (1–10), which showed that about 60% of the respondents received an assessment “good”. The results of the study can be used to develop optimal diet planning during the pre-training period before planning physical exercises with high physical and psycho-emotional load, in order to benefit physical exercise performance.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • A Sensory Evaluation of Arabica Gayo Coffee Flavour Based on Varieties and
           Processing Techniques

    • Abstract: Post-harvest handling of coffee is one of the main factors in producing a high-quality coffee, including its processing techniques. This study aimed to conduct a sensory evaluation of arabica Gayo coffee flavour in various varieties and processing techniques. There were four selected coffee varieties in this study, namely Bor-bor, Tim Tim Aceh, Bergendal and Ateng Super, which were obtained from the garden of farmers in Gayo Highlands, Province of Aceh, Indonesia. The coffee processing methods used in this study were both dry and wet processing techniques. The sensory assessment of arabica Gayo coffee flavour was carried out by ten panelists by evaluating the acceptance of the product based on the level of preference. The sensory assessment of flavour included fragrance, flavour, after-taste, acidity, balance, body, and overall based on the panelist decision values using the exponential comparison method (ECM/MPE). Results showed that the wet processing technique was the most suitable technique for arabica Gayo coffee based on the preference of panelists compared to the dry processing technique. Arabica Gayo coffee varieties that have the highest acceptance value by panelists in sequence were Bor-bor varieties (1st choice), Tim Tim Aceh (2nd choice), Ateng Super (3rd choice), and Bergendal (4th choice). Therefore, the Bor-bor variety was the most important coffee variety recommended to be developed by the farmers compared to other coffee varieties.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Histological Characteristics of the Endometrium and its Affecting Factors
           in Dairy Cattle on Embryo Transfer Day

    • Abstract: In cows embryo transfer occurs on the 7th day of the oestrous cycle. Embryo survival and successful pregnancy depend on many factors, including early interaction between embryo and endometrium. Therefore, the aim of our research was to describe histo-morphological characteristics of endometrium in donor and recipient cows on obtaining and transfer day, respectively (7th day of the oestrus cycle). In addition, progesterone and oestradiol levels, the ipsilateral and contralateral corpus luteum, animal age, lactation number and days postpartum were determined. The results of the study revealed a significant difference in endometrial gland cell size, vacuolisation of glandular epithelium cytoplasm, and stromal oedema in the donor and recipient cows. However, these parameters were related only to the level of progesterone in the blood, and no other investigated factors in this study.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Neutrophilic Leukocytes and Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Native
           Aortic Valve Endocarditis

    • Abstract: Infective endocarditis is a disease that affects the endocardium and often alters heart valves, notably the aortic valve. Bacteraemia and valvular endothelial damage play an essential role in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis. The pertinent literature suggests that neutrophil extracellular traps are important contributors to the development of the disease. However, features of the valvular damage and contribution of neutrophils to the alteration of cardiac tissue are not explored sufficiently. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence and distribution of neutrophilic leukocytes and neutrophil extracellular traps in native aortic valves affected by infective endocarditis, using histopathology and immunohistochemistry assays. In addition, the presence of vegetations on the heart valve was determined. Infiltration of neutrophils into the valvular leaflet was significantly more severe at the free margin (mean 5.89 ± 3.00, p < 0.001) and the middle portion (mean 4.58 ± 3.64, p = 0.032) when compared to the base portion (2.05 ± 1.90). No significant differences in neutrophilic leukocyte infiltrating inflammatory lesions were found between cusp layers. The presence of myeloperoxidase and citrullinated histone expression characteristic of neutrophil extracellular traps was demonstrated by the use of immunohistochemistry in IE-affected valvular leaflets and vegetations. Collectively, the study results suggest that the free cusp margin and its middle portion of the aortic valve are exposed to enforced blood flow; endothelial damage and vegetation formation are likely to occur along with the presence of infective endocarditis-related bacteraemia.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
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