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ISSN (Online) 2571-550X
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 29: Middle Holocene Environment on the Ozark
           Margin in Southeast Missouri: Deciphering a Testudine Testament

    • Authors: James J. Krakker, Linda A. Krakker
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Turtle taxa represented at Lepold site 23RI59 in southeastern Missouri, USA provide a record of environmental conditions spanning the Middle Holocene. Identified turtle taxa show that open water was present between 7500 and 4000 radiocarbon years ago. Aquatic resources seem to be more intensively exploited beginning about 6300 years ago, about 1200 years after intensive occupation of the site had begun. The observed turtle taxon composition is consistent with the presence of a floodplain with shallow, seasonal, overflow ponds, but with riverine and upland habitats also being represented.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5030029
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 30: On the Use of Spores of Coprophilous Fungi
           Preserved in Sediments to Indicate Past Herbivore Presence

    • Authors: Claire M. Lee, Bas van van Geel, William D. Gosling
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Fungal spores that grew on the faeces of herbivores in the past can be extracted from sediments and used to identify the presence of herbivores in former ecosystems. This review: (i) examines the factors that should be considered when interpreting these fungal spores, (ii) assesses the degree to which they can be used to estimate past herbivore populations and biomass density change, and (iii) identifies gaps in our current understanding that limit, or confound, the information that can be extracted from the fungal spore record. We focus on the life cycles of coprophilous fungi and highlight the importance of understanding spore dispersal mechanisms to ensure robust palaeoecological interpretation. We then discuss how variation in methodological approaches across studies and modifications can influence comparability between studies. The key recommendations that emerge relate to: (i) improving our understanding of the relationship between spores of coprophilous fungi (SCF) and herbivores through the study of the coprophilous fungi succession; (ii) refining our understanding of how climate and environment parameters effect fungal spore abundance, with particular reference to estimating past herbivore biomass density; and (iii) enhancing sedimentary DNA (SedaDNA) analysis to identify SCF that do not allow preservation in a way that allows visual identification. To further this field of study and provide more robust insights into herbivores in the past, we suggest that additional research is required to help to reduce bias during the preparation process, that concertation metrics are used for the quantification of SCF, and that multiple cores should be taken in each site and multiproxy analysis should be utilised.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5030030
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 31: Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene Birds of
           Northern Vietnam (Caves Dieu and Maxa I, Thanh Hoa
           Province)—Paleornithological Results of the Joint
           Bulgarian-Vietnamese Archaeological Expeditions, 1985–1991
           (Paleoavifaunal Research)

    • Authors: Boev
      First page: 31
      Abstract: The examined material (207 bones and bone fragments) of 53 avian taxa from two human cave dwellings is dated between 24,000 ± 1000 BP and 9400 ± 100 BP. It reveals that 49.0% of the bird species/taxa disappeared from the recent bird fauna of the Thanh Hoa Province; 39.6% disappeared from the recent bird fauna of North Vietnam (except Thanh Hoa Province); 33.9% disappeared from the recent bird fauna of Vietnam (except North Vietnam); 28.3% are not extant in the recent bird fauna of Indochina (except Vietnam); and 52.8% disappeared from the recent bird fauna of Southeast Asia (except Indochina). This suggests more considerable influence of the Late Pleistocene climatic events on the environment and bird fauna than previously accepted in the Eastern part of the Indochinese peninsula in the last 24–millenia. The gallinaceous birds are best represented. Of the 39 Southeast-Asian species, 18 species/taxa (46.2 percent) are Galliforms. They consist of 34 percent of all bird taxa recorded in both caves. Four categories of the IUCN Red List have been represented among the established birds in the sites: LC—28, NT—7, VU—2 (Buceros bicornis and Rhyticeors undulates), and CR—2 (Lophura edwardsi and Rhinoplax vigil).
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5030031
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 32: When the Land Sings: Reconstructing
           Prehistoric Environments Using Evidence from Quaternary Geology and
           Geomorphology, with Examples Drawn from Fluvial Environments in the Nile
           and Son Valleys

    • Authors: Martin Williams
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Geomorphic evidence from rivers and lakes can help explain past changes in the locations of archaeological sites as well as environmental and climatic changes in their catchment areas. Examples drawn from the Blue and White Nile valleys in northeast Africa and from the Son and Belan valleys in north-central India reveal how Quaternary climatic fluctuations in the headwaters of these rivers are reflected in changes in river channel patterns downstream as well as in the type of sediment transported. Soils and sediments that contain prehistoric and historic artefacts can be analysed to show the type of environment in which the artefacts accumulated. Beds of volcanic ash may preserve former landscapes and their fossil remains and can provide a synchronous time marker against which to assess changes in the archaeological record. The pattern and tempo of past sea level fluctuations has controlled the distribution of coastal archaeological sites and helps to explain the absence of certain Holocene Neolithic sites in southeast Asia. Disturbance of archaeological sites by plants and animals, especially termites in tropical regions, can affect the stratigraphic and chronological integrity of the site.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5030032
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 33: Disasters and Society: Comparing the Shang
           and Mycenaean Response to Natural Phenomena through Text and Archaeology

    • Authors: Alexander Jan Dimitris Westra, Changhong Miao, Ioannis Liritzis, Manolis Stefanakis
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Disasters do and have happened throughout human existence. Their traces are found in the environmental record, archaeological evidence, and historical chronicles. Societal responses to these events vary and depend on ecological and cultural constraints and opportunities. These elements are being discovered more and more on a global scale. When looking at disasters in antiquity, restoring the environmental and geographical context on both the macro- and microscale is necessary. The relationships between global climatic processes and microgeographical approaches ought to be understood by examining detailed societal strategies conceived in response to threatening natural phenomena. Architectural designs, human geography, political geography, technological artefacts, and textual testimony are linked to a society’s inherited and real sense of natural threats, such as floods, earthquakes, fires, diseases, etc. The Shang and Mycenaean cultures are prime examples, among others, of Bronze Age societies with distinctive geographical, environmental, and cultural features and structures that defined their attitudes and responses to dangerous natural phenomena, such as floods, earthquakes, landslides, and drought. By leaning on two well-documented societies with little to no apparent similarities in environmental and cultural aspects and no credible evidence of contact, diffusion, or exchange, we can examine them free of the onus of diffused intangible and tangible cultural features. Even though some evidence of long-distance networks in the Bronze Age exists, they presumable had no impact on local adaptive strategies. The Aegean Sea and Yellow River cultural landscapes share many similarities and dissimilarities and vast territorial and cultural expansions. They have an apparent contemporaneity, and both recede and collapse at about the same time. Thus, through the microgeography of a few select Shang and Mycenaean sites and their relevant environmental, archaeological, and historical contexts, and through environmental effects on a global scale, we may understand chain events of scattered human societal changes, collapses, and revolutions on a structural level.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5030033
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 34: A Review of Event Deposits in Lake Sediments

    • Authors: Pierre Sabatier, Jasper Moernaut, Sebastien Bertrand, Maarten Van Daele, Katrina Kremer, Eric Chaumillon, Fabien Arnaud
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Event deposits in lake sediments provide invaluable chronicles of geodynamic and climatic natural hazards on multi-millennial timescales. Sediment archives are particularly useful for reconstructing high-impact, low-frequency events, which are rarely observed in instrumental or historical data. However, attributing a trigger mechanism to event deposits observed in lake sediments can be particularly challenging as different types of events can produce deposits with very similar lithological characteristics, such as turbidites. In this review paper, we summarize the state of the art on event deposits in paleolimnology. We start by describing the sedimentary facies typical of floods, glacial lake outburst floods, avalanches, hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and spontaneous delta collapses. We then describe the most indicative methods that can be applied at the scale of lake basins (geophysical survey, multiple coring) and on sediment cores (sedimentology, inorganic and organic geochemistry, biotic approach). Finally, we provide recommendations on how to obtain accurate chronologies on sediment cores containing event deposits, and ultimately date the events. Accurately identifying and dating event deposits has the potential to improve hazard assessments, particularly in terms of the return periods, recurrence patterns, and maximum magnitudes, which is one of the main geological challenges for sustainable worldwide development.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5030034
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 35: Late Pleistocene Geomorphic Evolution of

    • Authors: Konstantinos Tsanakas, Giannis Saitis, Niki Evelpidou, Efthimios Karymbalis, Anna Karkani
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Combined with eustatic sea-level changes, uplifted Quaternary marine terraces provide insight into the tectonics of coastal areas. Cephalonia Island lies 35 km off the western coast of mainland Greece and 15 km northeast of the Hellenic subduction zone. Late Pleistocene eustatic sea-level oscillations and the long-term tectonic movements are imprinted on the landscape of the southern part of the island, in the form of seven uplifted marine terraces. In the present study we aim to identify and map in detail these terraces, applying Digital Elevation Model analysis, utilizing Geographic Information Systems techniques and extensive fieldwork. The GIS-based analysis combined with field geomorphological observations revealed a sequence of seven marine terraces at the southern part of the main island ranging in elevation between 4 m and 176 m asl. Microscope, petrological and microgeomorphological analyses on two caprock samples suggest strong marine influence during the deposition of the sediments covering the marine terraces. The age of the formation of the 32 m marine terrace was assigned to the MIS 3e, based on OSL dating of a caprock sample, and an average uplift rate of 1.4 ± 0.35 mm a−1 was calculated for the last 61 ± 5.5 ka. Assuming a uniform uplift rate for the Late Pleistocene allowed us to correlate the marine terrace with the sea-level highstands and constrain their ages.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5030035
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 19: Synchronous or Not' The Timing of the
           Younger Dryas and Greenland Stadial-1 Reviewed Using Tephrochronology

    • Authors: Simon A. Larsson, Malin E. Kylander, A. Britta K. Sannel, Dan Hammarlund
      First page: 19
      Abstract: The exact spatial and temporal behaviour of rapid climate shifts during the Last Glacial–Interglacial Transition are still not entirely understood. In order to investigate these events, it is necessary to have detailed palaeoenvironmental reconstructions at geographically spread study sites combined with reliable correlations between them. Tephrochronology, i.e., using volcanic ash deposits in geological archives as a dating and correlation tool, offers opportunities to examine the timing of events across wider regional scales. This study aims to review the posited asynchrony of the Younger Dryas stadial in comparison with Greenland Stadial-1 by correlating new proxy data from southernmost Sweden to previous palaeoclimate reconstructions in Europe based on the presence of the Hässeldalen Tephra, the Vedde Ash, and the Laacher See Tephra. μ-XRF core-scanning data were projected using a recently published age–depth model based on these tephras and several radiocarbon dates, and compared to previous findings, including by adapting previous chronologies to the recently proposed earlier date of the Laacher See Tephra (13,006 ± 9 cal. a BP). Although the results to some extent support the idea of a more synchronous Younger Dryas event than previously assumed, this issue requires further high-resolution proxy studies to overcome limitations of temporal precision.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5020019
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 20: Geoarchaeological Analyses of a
           Late-Copper-Age Kurgan on the Great Hungarian Plain

    • Authors: Péter Cseh, Dávid Molnár, László Makó, Pál Sümegi
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Kurgans are the custodians of outstanding archaeological, natural and environmental-historical value in the lowland landscape of Eastern Europe, which has been continuously transformed over millennia by agricultural activity. Their protection and study are, therefore, essential. By comparative soil and sedimentological analysis of the soil levels buried during the kurgans’ construction, the levels of buried soil, and the recent surface soil, we can gain information on the environmental changes of the second half of the Holocene; we can also gain information about how the activity of humans, even in the case of prehistoric cultures, can cause changes in the soil and environment on a local scale, beyond the regional scale. The aim of our research was to conduct a geoarchaeological examination of the Császárné Mound, which is one of the kurgans in the Hungarian Great Plain. For this purpose, sedimentological analyses (grain size distribution, magnetic susceptibility measurements), a pollen analysis, and a malacological analysis were carried out on the samples from the Császárné Mound. The complex geoarchaeological investigation of the mound allowed us to distinguish three different construction layers in the kurgan’s soil material. Besides the archaeological results, we were able to reconstruct steppe-like environmental conditions before and during construction in the local surroundings of the kurgan.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-04-03
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5020020
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 21: Correction: Konidaris et al. Dating of the
           Lower Pleistocene Vertebrate Site of Tsiotra Vryssi (Mygdonia Basin,
           Greece): Biochronology, Magnetostratigraphy, and Cosmogenic Radionuclides.
           Quaternary 2021, 4, 1

    • Authors: George E. Konidaris, Dimitris S. Kostopoulos, Matteo Maron, Mirjam Schaller, Todd A. Ehlers, Elina Aidona, Mattia Marini, Vangelis Tourloukis, Giovanni Muttoni, George D. Koufos, Katerina Harvati
      First page: 21
      Abstract: The authors wish to make the following corrections to their paper [...]
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5020021
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 22: The Evolution of an Ancient Coastal Lake
           (Lerna, Peloponnese, Greece)

    • Authors: Efterpi Koskeridou, Danae Thivaiou, Christos Psarras, Evangelia Rentoumi, Niki Evelpidou, Giannis Saitis, Alexandros Petropoulos, Chryssanthi Ioakim, George Katopodis, Konstantinos Papaspyropoulos, Spyros Plessas
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Degradation of coastal environments is an issue that many areas in Europe are facing. In the present work, an ancient coastal lake wetland is investigated, the so-called Lake Lerna in NE Peloponnese, Greece. The area hosted early agricultural populations of modern Greece that started modifying their environment as early as the early–middle Neolithic. Two drill cores in the area of the ancient lake were analysed to establish the sedimentological succession and the depositional environments using sub-fossil assemblages (molluscs and ostracods). Three lithological and faunal units were recovered, the latter being confirmed by the statistical ordination method (non-metric multidimensional scaling). The usage of sub-fossil mollusc species for the first time in the region enriched the dataset and contributed significantly to the delimitation of the faunas. These consist of environments characterised by various levels of humidity (from stagnant waters to freshwater lake) and salinity, with ephemeral intrusions of salt water to the lake, documented by mollusc and ostracod populations. We conclude that the lake and its included fauna and flora were mostly affected by climatic fluctuations rather than human intervention in the area.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5020022
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 23: Late-Glacial and Holocene Lake-Level
           Fluctuations on the Kenai Lowland, Reconstructed from Satellite-Fen Peat
           Deposits and Ice-Shoved Ramparts, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

    • Authors: Edward E. Berg, Darrell S. Kaufman, R. Scott Anderson, Gregory C. Wiles, Thomas V. Lowell, Edward A. D. Mitchell, Feng Sheng Hu, Alan Werner
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Recent decades of warmer climate have brought drying wetlands and falling lake levels to southern Alaska. These recent changes can be placed into a longer-term context of postglacial lake-level fluctuations that include low stands that were as much as 7 m lower than present at eight lakes on the Kenai Lowland. Closed-basin lakes on the Kenai Lowland are typically ringed with old shorelines, usually as wave-cut scarps, cut several meters above modern lake levels; the scarps formed during deglaciation at 25–19 ka in a kettle moraine topography on the western Kenai Lowland. These high-water stands were followed by millennia of low stands, when closed-basin lake levels were drawn down by 5–10 m or more. Peat cores from satellite fens near or adjoining the eight closed-basin lakes show that a regional lake level rise was underway by at least 13.4 ka. At Jigsaw Lake, a detailed study of 23 pairs of overlapping sediment cores, seismic profiling, macrofossil analysis, and 58 AMS radiocarbon dates reveal rapidly rising water levels at 9–8 ka that caused large slabs of peat to slough off and sink to the lake bottom. These slabs preserve an archive of vegetation that had accumulated on a lakeshore apron exposed during the preceding drawdown period. They also preserve evidence of a brief period of lake level rise at 4.7–4.5 ka. We examined plant succession using in situ peat sequences in nine satellite fens around Jigsaw Lake that indicated increased effective moisture between 4.6 and 2.5 ka synchronous with the lake level rise. Mid- to late-Holocene lake high stands in this area are recorded by numerous ice-shoved ramparts (ISRs) along the shores. ISRs at 15 lakes show that individual ramparts typically record several shove events, separated by hundreds or thousands of years. Most ISRs date to within the last 5200 years and it is likely that older ISRs were erased by rising lake levels during the mid- to late Holocene. This study illustrates how data on vegetation changes in hydrologically coupled satellite-fen peat records can be used to constrain the water level histories in larger adjacent lakes. We suggest that this method could be more widely utilized for paleo-lake level reconstruction.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5020023
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 24: Quaternary Evolutionary Stages of Selinitsa
           Cave (SW Peloponnese, Greece) Reveal Sea-Level Changes Based on 3D
           Scanning, Geomorphological, Biological, and Sedimentological Indicators

    • Authors: Isidoros Kampolis, Stavros Triantafyllidis, Vasilios Skliros, Evangelos Kamperis
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Significant evolutionary stages of Selinitsa Cave (SW Peloponnese, Greece) were revealed by 3D mapping, as well as geomorphological study of the cave and the nearby landscape. Four marine terraces were identified in the area of the coastal cave at 6, 10.7, 16.6, and 30–32 m above sea level (asl), with the terrace at 16.6 m representing Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5. The widest karstified space of Selinitsa Cave clusters between 15.73 and 18.05 m above sea level (asl), with the peak lying at 16.4 m asl, corresponding to the level where the phreatic/epiphreatic zone was stable for a sufficient period of time. A tidal notch at 16.4 m asl at the cave entrance is correlated to the marine terrace at 16.6 m. Both features correspond to the sea-level stand at which intense karstification occurred. The tidal notch bears a horizontal arrangement of Lithophaga borings at the vertex. Sedimentological investigation of the Selinitsa fine-grained deposit revealed the paleohydrologic regime of the cave. It is characterized by “slack-water” facies, indicating very low water flow speeds, whereas the thickness of the deposit points to stable hydrological conditions for prolonged periods. The cave sediment height of 18.8 m asl indicates a flooding level higher than sea level. The overlying Plattenkalk flysch is most probably the major source of detritus, and the predominance of authigenic dolomite (>98% modal in the carbonate fraction) indicates a hyposaline environment related to mixing of sea water with percolating fresh water. The approach of this study shows the significance of 3D mapping, bio-geo-Relative Sea Level (RSL) indicators, and sedimentology in deciphering the paleogeographic evolution of coastal karstic systems and subsequently defining the paleoclimate regime of coastal areas in Greece and the eastern Mediterranean during the Late Quaternary.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-04-16
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5020024
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 25: Weather, Land and Crops in the Indus Village
           Model: A Simulation Framework for Crop Dynamics under Environmental
           Variability and Climate Change in the Indus Civilisation

    • Authors: Andreas Angourakis, Jennifer Bates, Jean-Philippe Baudouin, Alena Giesche, Joanna R. Walker, M. Cemre Ustunkaya, Nathan Wright, Ravindra Nath Singh, Cameron A. Petrie
      First page: 25
      Abstract: The start and end of the urban phase of the Indus civilization (IC; c. 2500 to 1900 BC) are often linked with climate change, specifically regarding trends in the intensity of summer and winter precipitation and its effect on the productivity of local food economies. The Indus Village is a modular agent-based model designed as a heuristic “sandbox” to investigate how IC farmers could cope with diverse and changing environments and how climate change could impact the local and regional food production levels required for maintaining urban centers. The complete model includes dedicated submodels about weather, topography, soil properties, crop dynamics, food storage and exchange, nutrition, demography, and farming decision-making. In this paper, however, we focus on presenting the parts required for generating crop dynamics, including the submodels involved (weather, soil water, land, and crop models) and how they are combined progressively to form two integrated models (land water and land crop models). Furthermore, we describe and discuss the results of six simulation experiments, which highlight the roles of seasonality, topography, and crop diversity in understanding the potential impact of environmental variability, including climate change, in IC food economies. We conclude by discussing a broader consideration of risk and risk mitigation strategies in ancient agriculture and potential implications to the sustainability of the IC urban centres.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5020025
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 26: Novel Combined Approach of GIS and
           Electrical Tomography to Identify Marsh/Lake at Kastrouli Late Mycenaean
           Settlement (Desfina, Greece)

    • Authors: Ioannis Liritzis, Niki Evelpidou, Ilias Fikos, Alexandros Stambolidis, Nectaria Diamanti, Theano Roussari, Maria Tzouxanioti, Prodromos Louvaris, Gregorios N. Tsokas
      First page: 26
      Abstract: The Kastrouli Late Bronze settlement in Phocis province, central Greece, has been proved to have been an important center in the periphery of the Mycenaean palaces. It was reused at least partially and was cultivated until the 20th century. The presence of a flat area off the Kastrouli hill and the seasonal flooding nowadays led to the present investigation, questioning the formation of an ancient lake or marsh/swamp. A methodological approach was applied combining the digital elevation model (DEM) and GIS of the wider and confined area, examining slopes between 0 and 5 degrees (0 and 8.75%), with electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) traverses of around 300 and 500 m, reaching a depth of 100 m. The ERT data were rapidly collected on profiles and provided a cross-sectional (2D) plot. It was found that, in the area, there is a basin with a length of 100 m and a depth of around 40–50 m. The sedimentation process over the millennia has filled the basin, with the upper 5–6 m surface layers of the area having a low resistivity. The presence of two natural sinkholes with apparent engineered hydraulic works is noted to conform to drainage and produce a habitable environment, protecting the cultivated land and avoiding a swamp associated with health issues.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5020026
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 27: Ecological and Wildfire Responses to Rapid
           Landscape Changes within the Last ~900 Years on the South Haven Peninsula,
           Dorset (Southern England)

    • Authors: Daniel Howlett, Sabine Wulf, Scarlett Wharram, Mark Hardiman, Harry Byrne
      First page: 27
      Abstract: A multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental dataset (LOI, pollen, charcoal, grain sizes and the humification index) was extracted and radiocarbon dated from a sedimentary sequence from Spur Bog, central South Haven Peninsula (Dorset, southern England) to reconstruct ecological and environmental changes within the last ~900 years. These analyses reveal highly unstable environmental conditions at the site, evidencing the occurrence of multiple, often rapid changes during this period. The results significantly expand upon the existing palaeoenvironmental and geomorphological frameworks of the South Haven Peninsula which previously relied upon sparse, vague historical records prior to ~1750 AD. The multi-proxy dataset of Spur Bog sediments recorded a primary “development” phase (~1150–1470 AD) during which marine processes were the dominant control upon environmental conditions at the site, resulting in marked geomorphological changes that lead to the progressive eastward expansion of the South Haven Peninsula. This is followed by a secondary “maturation” phase (~1470–1880 AD) during which the Spur Bog sequence exhibits significant ecological changes in response to fluctuations in sea level, coastal erosion and human activity, demonstrating the vulnerability of the site to future climatic and anthropogenic pressures.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5020027
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 28: Theoretical Principles and Perspectives of
           Hyperspectral Imaging Applied to Sediment Core Analysis

    • Authors: Jacq, Debret, Fanget, Coquin, Sabatier, Pignol, Arnaud, Perrette
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Hyperspectral imaging is a recent technology that has been gaining popularity in the geosciences since the 1990s, both in remote sensing and in the field or laboratory. Indeed, it allows the rapid acquisition of a large amount of data that are spatialized on the studied object with a low-cost, compact, and automatable sensor. This practical article aims to present the current state of knowledge on the use of hyperspectral imaging for sediment core analysis (core logging). To use the full potential of this type of sensor, many points must be considered and will be discussed to obtain reliable and quality data to extract many environmental properties of sediment cores. Hyperspectral imaging is used in many fields (e.g., remote sensing, geosciences and artificial intelligence) and offers many possibilities. The applications of the literature will be reviewed under five themes: lake and water body trophic status, source-to-sink approaches, organic matter and mineralogy studies, and sedimentary deposit characterization. Afterward, discussions will be focused on a multisensor core logger, data management, integrated use of these data for the selection of sample areas, and other opportunities. Through this practical article, we emphasize that hyperspectral imaging applied to sediment cores is still an emerging tool and shows many possibilities for refining the understanding of environmental processes.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5020028
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 2: A 1900 Year Sediment Record Suggests Recent
           Establishment of Black Mangrove (Avicennia Germinans) Stands within a Salt
           Marsh in St. Augustine, Florida, USA

    • Authors: Jessica Chamberlin, Camryn Soehnlein, Jason Evans, Benjamin Tanner
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Salt marshes and mangroves are currently being affected by rising temperatures. Mangroves thrive below −29° N latitude in Florida, USA, and have a low tolerance for extreme cold events, whereas salt marshes dominate further north. One potential effect of climate change is a reduction in the frequency of extreme cold events, which may lead to mangrove expansion into salt marsh systems. Our research identified sediment proxy indicators of salt marsh and mangrove environments. These indicators were applied to soil cores from intertidal wetlands near the current northern limit of mangrove presence on the east coast of Florida, to determine if mangrove expansion into salt marsh environments has precedence in the deeper past. Our findings suggest that mangrove and salt marsh sediments can be distinguished using a combination of stable carbon isotope ratios of sedimentary organic matter and macroscopic plant fragments, and our results showed that a mangrove stand that we cored established only recently. This result is consistent with other work in the southeastern United States that suggests that mangroves established at the current boreal limit only recently after the end of the Little Ice Age, and that the current mangrove expansion may be fueled by anthropogenic climate change.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5010002
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 3: Characterization of the Obsidian Used in the
           Chipped Stone Industry in Kendale Hecala

    • Authors: Üftade Muşkara, Ayşin Konak
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Kendale Hecala is located on the Ambar River in the Upper Tigris Basin, province of Diyarbakır in Southeast Anatolia. Various raw materials, including obsidian, radiolarite, chert, jasper, chalcedony, and quartzite, were used in the lithic industry. Obsidian artefacts constitute an average of 64% of the chipped stone assemblage. Technological analysis reveals that obsidian was brought to the settlement as nodules and chipped into various tools at the settlement. Understanding the operational sequence of the lithic industry, chaîne opératoire, including the distribution of raw material from source to site, is important to demonstrate the socio-cultural organization of the settlement in Southeastern Anatolia during the Ubaid period. In order to identify source varieties, the obsidian artefacts uncovered from Ubaid layers of Kendale Hecala were analyzed by macro-observations, and the characterization of archaeological samples was performed using a handheld XRF. Multivariate analysis of the data indicates the use of obsidian from different resources at the settlement, including Nemrut Dağ, Bingöl B, and Group 3d.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5010003
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 4: The Microvertebrates of Shanidar Cave:
           Preliminary Taphonomic Findings

    • Authors: Emily Tilby, Preston Miracle, Graeme Barker
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Shanidar Cave, Iraqi Kurdistan, is one of the most important Palaeolithic sites in Southwest Asia. This is due to the long sequence of hominin occupation of the cave and the discovery of multiple Neanderthal individuals from the original Solecki excavations (1951–1960) and recent excavations (2014 to present). Preliminary taphonomic analyses of the microvertebrate assemblage were undertaken to understand the factors affecting assemblage formation and accumulation, and this paper presents the first results of these analyses. All contexts display a high proportion of fragmentation, with a slight decrease in breakage towards the base of the sequence. Black staining and root etching were observed in a similar pattern, present in most contexts but with an increase in the lower levels. A significant proportion of the microvertebrate remains examined displayed light traces of digestion, indicating some contribution to the assemblage by predators. The results are consistent with wider palaeoecological records that indicate relatively warm, wet conditions at the base of the sequence and cooler, drier conditions at the top.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5010004
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 5: Digital Deforestation: Comparing Automated
           Approaches to the Production of Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) in Agisoft

    • Authors: Matthew D. Howland, Anthony Tamberino, Ioannis Liritzis, Thomas E. Levy
      First page: 5
      Abstract: This paper tests the suitability of automated point cloud classification tools provided by the popular image-based modeling (IBM) software package Agisoft Metashape for the generation of digital terrain models (DTMs) at moderately-vegetated archaeological sites. DTMs are often required for various forms of archaeological mapping and analysis. The suite of tools provided by Agisoft are relatively user-friendly as compared to many point cloud classification algorithms and do not require the use of additional software. Based on a case study from the Mycenaean site of Kastrouli, Greece, the mostly-automated, geometric classification tool “Classify Ground Points” provides the best results and produces a quality DTM that is sufficient for mapping and analysis. Each of the methods tested in this paper can likely be improved through manual editing of point cloud classification.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5010005
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 6: Along the Rivers and into the Plain: Early
           Crop Diversity in the Central and Western Balkans and Its Relationship
           with Environmental and Cultural Variables

    • Authors: Anne de Vareilles, Dragana Filipović, Djurdja Obradović, Marc Vander Linden
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Agriculture is a complex and dynamic socio-ecological system shaped by environmental, economic, and social factors. The crop resource pool is its key component and one that best reflects environmental limitations and socio-economic concerns of the farmers. This pertains in particular to small-scale subsistence production, as was practised by Neolithic farmers. We investigated if and how the environment and cultural complexes shaped the spectrum and diversity of crops cultivated by Neolithic farmers in the central-western Balkans and on the Hungarian Plain. We did so by exploring patterns in crop diversity between biogeographical regions and cultural complexes using multivariate statistical analyses. We also examined the spectrum of wild-gathered plant resources in the same way. We found that the number of species in Neolithic plant assemblages is correlated with sampling intensity (the number and volume of samples), but that this applies to all archaeological cultures. Late Neolithic communities of the central and western Balkans exploited a large pool of plant resources, whose spectrum was somewhat different between archaeological cultures. By comparison, the earliest Neolithic tradition in the region, the Starčevo-Körös-Criş phenomenon, seems to have used a comparatively narrower range of crops and wild plants, as did the Linearbandkeramik culture on the Hungarian Plain.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-01-15
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5010006
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 7: Palaeogeographical Reconstruction of Ancient
           Diolkos Slipway by Using Beachrocks as Proxies, West Corinth Isthmus,

    • Authors: Giannis Saitis, Anna Karkani, Niki Evelpidou, Hampik Maroukian
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Beachrocks are well known as significant proxies for paleoenvironmental analysis as they indicate the coastal evolution. The combination of geomorphological and archaeological sea level indicators has a significant contribution to the coastal paleogeographic reconstruction. In this study, we studied a beachrock from the Diolkos area (West Corinth canal, Greece) and remnants of Diolkos slipway to reconstruct the coastal evolution before Diolkos construction until today. We conducted detailed mapping of Diolkos beachrock using DGPS-GNSS, as well as mineralogical analysis and OSL dating of beachrock samples. The results showed that a beachrock slab was preserved before the construction of Diolkos below it, followed by its submergence by a co-seismic event after Diolkos abandonment during 146 B.C. Consequently, a new beachrock was developed on top of the submerged Diolkos around 120 ± 14 A.D. The RSL was stable until 1596 ± 57 A.D. when the beachrock developed even closer to the present-day coastline. After 1596 A.D., it was uplifted by 12 cm until it reached today’s condition.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5010007
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 8: A Late Holocene Stable Isotope and Carbon
           Accumulation Record from Teringi Bog in Southern Estonia

    • Authors: Nathan D. Stansell, Eric S. Klein, Kristyn Hill, Jaanus Terasmaa, Justin Dodd, Maxwell Boes, Mariliis Eensalu, Carolyn Fortney, Annabella Fritts, Roxana Garcia, Brittany Price, Brandy Swanson
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Radiocarbon-dated peat cores collected from an ombrotrophic bog in southern Estonia record shifting environmental conditions and carbon accumulation rates in northern Europe during the late Holocene. Modern observations indicate that the water balance of the peatland is highly influenced by changes in relative humidity, followed by temperature and precipitation. The modern δ18O and δ2H values of surface water suggest that the groundwater is an integration of several months of precipitation. There also appears to be little or no direct influence of surface evaporation on the water within the bog, suggesting that water loss is preferentially through transpiration and sub-surface flow. Bulk peat δ13C values exhibit a trend of higher values through the late Holocene, suggesting a pattern of overall increased surface wetness. The δ15N values were low from ~4130 to 3645 cal yr BP, suggesting drier conditions, followed by intermediate values until ~2995 cal yr BP. The δ15N values decrease again from ~2995 to 2470 cal yr BP, suggesting a return to drier conditions, followed by intermediate values until ~955 cal yr BP. The δ15N values were high, suggesting wetter conditions from ~955 to 250 cal yr BP, followed by intermediate values through the modern. Carbon accumulation rates were low to intermediate from ~4200 to 2470 cal yr BP, followed by intermediate-to-high values until ~1645 cal yr BP. Carbon accumulation rates were then low until ~585 cal yr BP, followed by intermediate values through the modern. The geochemical data, combined with observed changes in peat composition and regional proxies of temperature and water table fluctuations through the late Holocene, suggest that carbon accumulation rates were relatively low under dry and warm conditions, whereas accumulation was generally higher (up to ~80 g C m−2 yr−1) when the climate was wetter and/or colder. These findings further suggest that future environmental changes affecting the regional water balance and temperature will impact the potential for northern peatlands to capture and store carbon.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5010008
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 9: Reconstructing Paleoflood Occurrence and
           Magnitude from Lake Sediments

    • Authors: Bruno Wilhelm, Benjamin Amann, Juan Pablo Corella, William Rapuc, Charline Giguet-Covex, Bruno Merz, Eivind Støren
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Lake sediments are a valuable archive to document past flood occurrence and magnitude, and their evolution over centuries to millennia. This information has the potential to greatly improve current flood design and risk assessment approaches, which are hampered by the shortness and scarcity of gauge records. For this reason, paleoflood hydrology from lake sediments received fast-growing attention over the last decade. This allowed an extensive development of experience and methodologies and, thereby, the reconstruction of paleoflood series with increasingly higher accuracy. In this review, we provide up-to-date knowledge on flood sedimentary processes and systems, as well as on state-of-the-art methods for reconstructing and interpreting paleoflood records. We also discuss possible perspectives in the field of paleoflood hydrology from lake sediments by highlighting the remaining challenges. This review intends to guide the research interest in documenting past floods from lake sediments. In particular, we offer here guidance supported by the literature in how: to choose the most appropriate lake in a given region, to find the best suited sedimentary environments to take the cores, to identify flood deposits in the sedimentary sequence, to distinguish them from other instantaneous deposits, and finally, to rigorously interpret the flood chronicle thus produced.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5010009
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 10: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Quaternary in

    • Authors: Quaternary Editorial Office Quaternary Editorial Office
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5010010
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 11: Understanding the Impact of Trampling on
           Rodent Bones

    • Authors: Yolanda Fernández-Jalvo, Lucía Rueda, Fernando Julian Fernández, Sara García-Morato, María Dolores Marin-Monfort, Claudia Ines Montalvo, Rodrigo Tomassini, Michael Chazan, Liora K. Horwitz, Peter Andrews
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Experiments based on the premise of uniformitarism are an effective tool to establish patterns of taphonomic processes acting either before, or after, burial. One process that has been extensively investigated experimentally is the impact of trampling to large mammal bones. Since trampling marks caused by sedimentary friction strongly mimic cut marks made by humans using stone tools during butchery, distinguishing the origin of such modifications is especially relevant to the study of human evolution. In contrast, damage resulting from trampling on small mammal fossil bones has received less attention, despite the fact that it may solve interesting problems relating to site formation processes. While it has been observed that the impact of compression depends on the type of substrate and dryness of the skeletal elements, the fragility of small mammal bones may imply that they will break as a response to compression. Here, we have undertaken a controlled experiment using material resistance compression equipment to simulate a preliminary experiment, previously devised by one of us, on human trampling of owl pellets. Our results demonstrate that different patterns of breakage can be distinguished under wet and dry conditions in mandibles, skulls and long bones that deform or break in a consistent way. Further, small compact bones almost always remain intact, resisting breakage under compression. The pattern obtained here was applied to a Pleistocene small mammal fossil assemblage from Wonderwerk Cave (South Africa). This collection showed unusually extensive breakage and skeletal element representation that could not be entirely explained by excavation procedures or digestion by the predator. We propose that trampling was a significant factor in small mammal bone destruction at Wonderwerk Cave, partly the product of trampling caused by the raptor that introduced the microfauna into the cave, as well as by hominins and other terrestrial animals that entered the cave and trampled pellets covering the cave floor.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5010011
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 12: Neanderthal Fossils, Mobile Toolkit and a
           Hyena Den: The Archaeological Assemblage of Lateral Gallery 1 in Cova Del
           Gegant (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    • Authors: Joan Daura, Montserrat Sanz, Manuel Vaquero, Juan Manuel López-García, Hugues-Alexandre Blain, Antonio Sánchez Marco
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Lateral Gallery 1 (GL1) in Cova del Gegant is a Middle Palaeolithic assemblage yielding diagnostic Neanderthal remains, together with Mousterian tools and faunal remains. It is a good archive for evaluating the environmental conditions of the coastal areas during MIS 4 and MIS 3 in the NE of the Iberian Peninsula, and also the Neanderthals’ behaviour and mobility. Here we provide a comprehensive assessment of all of the data available from GL1, such as lithics, human remains, fauna and chronostratigraphic details. The biotic ecofacts studied point to the development of a coastal plain in front of the cave and indicate that local conditions likely favoured a large variety of ecosystems characterised by open environments and woodland-edge taxa, and favoured repeated visits by humans during the Middle Palaeolithic. The evidence suggests that the gallery was mainly used by carnivores, such as hyenas, and also by Neanderthals as a brief stopping place, in view of the presence of transported and abandoned ergonomic lithic artifacts and/or the placement of bodies (or parts of bodies). The regional context suggests high human mobility and emphasises the variability of Neanderthal behaviour.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5010012
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 13: Evolution of the Upper Reaches of Fluvial

    • Authors: Andrey Panin, Olga Borisova, Vladimir Belyaev, Yuri Belyaev, Ekaterina Eremenko, Yulia Fuzeina, Elena Sheremetskaya, Aleksey Sidorchuk
      First page: 13
      Abstract: The headwaters of fluvial systems on the East European Plain between the boundaries of the Marine Isotope Stage 2 (MIS 2) and MIS 6 glaciations evolved during the last 150,000 years. At least three main events of high surface runoff caused intensive erosion: at the end of MIS 6, at the end of MIS 2 and in the Middle Holocene. Erosion developed in the territory with variable resistance of geological substrate, from hard-to-erode tills to weak sandy deposits. All erosional features in moraines formed in the pre-Holocene time. Even relatively large forms, such as balkas (small dry valleys), have not yet reached concave longitudinal profiles. A general tendency of their development was deepening. Short episodes of incision occurring during climatic events with increased water flow alternated with long periods of stabilization. Sand-covered areas are most favorable for linear erosion. The gullies formed in the Middle Holocene developed concave longitudinal profiles. The diversity of catchment areas, initial slope inclinations and sediment properties causing their resistance to erosion led to greater differences in the relief features and evolution of the upper reaches of the fluvial systems within the MIS 6 glaciation area compared to the more uniform landscape conditions in the extraglacial regions.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5010013
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 14: Defining Fragmentation Patterns of
           Archaeological Bone Remains without Typologies: A Landmark-Based Approach
           on Rodent Mandibula

    • Authors: Marine Durocher, Sandrine Grouard, Violaine Nicolas, Renan Maestri, Allowen Evin
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Fragmentation is a recurring feature of archaeological faunal material, and impacts many aspects of zooarchaeological studies from taxonomical identification to biometric studies. It can result from anthropic and natural actions that occurred respectively before and/or after bone deposit. While several bone fragmentation typologies have been described, they are currently based on both macroscopic observations and researcher subjectivity and lack the universality necessary for inter-study comparisons. To fulfill this need we present a standardized landmark-based protocol for the description and quantification of mandibular fragmentation patterns, using two insular rodents of different sizes as models. The rice rats (Oryzomyini tribe) and the agouti (Dasyprocta) from the Lesser Antilles were abundant during the pre-Columbian Ceramic Age (500 BCE-1500 CE). Their mandibles’ shapes were quantified using the coordinates of 13 2D-landmarks. We show that landmark-based measurements can be used to:—assess the preservation differences between taxa of the same taxonomic group (e.g., rodents),—estimate the level of preservation of a skeletal part (e.g., mandible),—describe fragmentation patterns without pre-existing typologies and—facilitate the application of geometric morphometric methods to fragmented archaeological material. Our novel approach, leveraging fragmentation analyses and establishing specific fragmentation patterns, frees itself from existing typologies and could be systematically applied to future research.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5010014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 15: Macroscopic Chop Mark Identification on
           Archaeological Bone: An Experimental Study of Chipped Stone, Ground Stone,
           Copper, and Bronze Axe Heads on Bone

    • Authors: Tiffany R. Okaluk, Haskel J. Greenfield
      First page: 15
      Abstract: This paper presents a new macroscopic method for identifying chop marks on archaeological faunal assemblages and highlights the major differences in the morphology of chop marks created by stone and metal axes. The method provides macroscopic criteria that aid in the identification of both complete and incomplete chop mark types as well as the raw material of the axe. Experiments with modern stone (chipped and ground) and metal (copper and bronze) axes found that the degree of fragmentation within a chop mark is related to both the width and sharpness of the axe and can be classed on a scale from 1–5 using a variety of criteria. The experiments demonstrate that sharp chipped stone axes are fragile (often break upon impact) and do not create clean and well-defined chop marks. Ground stone axes are more durable but tend to create very fragmented chop marks without a clean cut (sheared) surface. Unalloyed copper metal axes can create sheared chopped surfaces; however, the relatively soft metal creates more crushing at the point of entry than bronze axes. In contrast, bronze axes are durable and create chop marks with exceptionally low rates of fragmentation resulting in a clean-cut sheared surface that extends into the bone for more than 3 mm. The method is applied to the faunal assemblage from the Early Bronze Age site of Göltepe, Turkey to determine whether the chop marks on bones were made by stone or metal axes at this early metal processing settlement. The results suggest that many of the chop marks were made by metal implements (e.g., axes). Hence, this method provides another means to monitor the adoption rates of new raw materials at a time when both metal and stone axes coexisted.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5010015
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 16: Contextual, Taphonomic, and Paleoecological
           Insights from Anurans on Tiwanaku Sites in Southern Peru

    • Authors: Juliana Rubinatto Serrano, Maria Camila Vallejo-Pareja, Susan D. deFrance, Sarah I. Baitzel, Paul S. Goldstein
      First page: 16
      Abstract: We examine the processes that resulted in the deposition of bones of at least three anuran genera on four archaeological sites associated with the Tiwanaku culture occupied between 700–1100 CE in the Moquegua Valley of far southern Peru. We review archaeological data and ethnographic accounts of Andean peoples using frogs and toads for food and in rain-quest rituals. Anuran bones are common in prehispanic cemeteries, but far less common in habitational and ceremonial sites. The quantity of anuran remains in certain cemeteries is anomalous in comparison to other archaeological sites in the valley and to Tiwanaku sites in other geographic settings. We conclude that anurans are most common where abandoned below-ground rock-covered tombs are likely to have been reused by nesting owls, and propose that most anuran remains in archaeological contexts in Moquegua are the result of predation. We consider environmental, cultural and taphonomic explanations and posit that the abundance of anuran remains relates to the 14th-century Miraflores ENSO event. This event generated increased rainfall in the desert, creating conditions favorable for frogs and toads, and predation by owls. We also advocate for the use of fine-screening to recover small-sized animal remains, such as anurans, that can be used to understand taphonomic processes and paleoenvironmental conditions.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5010016
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 17: Extreme Body Size Variation in Pleistocene
           Dwarf Elephants from the Siculo-Maltese Palaeoarchipelago: Disentangling
           the Causes in Time and Space

    • Authors: Matthew Edward Scarborough
      First page: 17
      Abstract: The phenomenon of insular dwarfism in proboscideans is particularly well represented on the Siculo-Maltese Palaeoarchipelago, an island group on which a species complex of palaeoloxodont elephants evolved during the Middle-Late Pleistocene. This likely included three species from Malta, four from Sicily (and possibly its palaeo-islands), and one from Favignana Island, ranging in size from the 1 m-tall Palaeoloxodon falconeri to continental-sized 4m-tall P. antiquus. However, our understanding of the causes for extreme differences in body size among insular samples in such a small geographic region is still limited. Here, I document the full range in size of elephants from the palaeoarchipelago, and discuss the reasons for size differences on the three islands in time and space in relation to predation, competition, resource limitation, accelerated life history, and duration of isolation. Differences in size between larger and smaller Sicilian elephants from Luparello Fissure, as well as possibly also in P. ex gr. P. mnaidriensis from Puntali Cave, San Teodoro Cave, and Favignana Island, may relate to the duration of isolation, or alternatively environmental stressors associated with the Last Glacial Maximum in the case of the Favignana elephant. Additionally, small but significant differences in size observable in Middle Pleistocene P. ex gr. P. falconeri from different localities on Sicily, as well as in Maltese P. ‘melitensis’ may also relate to duration of isolation, highlighting the need for better geochronological data in order to better distinguish macro-ecological causes driving body size change from more subtle effects relating to duration of isolation.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5010017
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Quaternary, Vol. 5, Pages 18: Late Quaternary Proboscidean Sites in Africa
           and Eurasia with Possible or Probable Evidence for Hominin Involvement

    • Authors: Gary Haynes
      First page: 18
      Abstract: This paper presents a list of >100 publicly known late Quaternary proboscidean sites that have certain or possible traces of hominin utilization in Africa, Europe, and Asia, along with a sample of references, chronometric or estimated ages, and brief descriptions of the associated materials and bone modifications. Summary discussions of important sites are also presented. Lower Palaeolithic/Early Stone Age hominins created far fewer proboscidean site assemblages than hominins in later Palaeolithic phases, in spite of the time span being many times longer. Middle Palaeolithic/Middle Stone Age hominins created assemblages at eight times the earlier hominin rate. Upper Palaeolithic/Later Stone Age hominins created site assemblages at >90 times the rate of Lower Palaeolithic hominins. Palaeoloxodon spp. occur in nearly one third of the sites with an identified or probable proboscidean taxon and Mammuthus species are in nearly one half of the sites with identified or probable taxon. Other identified proboscidean genera, such as Elephas, Loxodonta, and Stegodon, occur in few sites. The sites show variability in the intensity of carcass utilization, the quantity of lithics bedded with bones, the extent of bone surface modifications, such as cut marks, the diversity of associated fauna, and mortality profiles.
      Citation: Quaternary
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/quat5010018
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
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