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  Subjects -> GEOGRAPHY (Total: 493 journals)
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Moravian Geographical Reports
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ISSN (Print) 1210-8812 - ISSN (Online) 2199-6202
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [389 journals]
  • Consumer perception of food value: A comparative study of global
           supermarkets and local farmers' markets in Slovakia

    • Abstract: The paper explores how Slovak consumers perceive the value of food, sold by different retail formats (especially farmers’ markets and supermarkets), in terms of the quality, price, and healthiness. The aim of this paper is to evaluate consumer perceptions regarding global and local types of retail stores where they buy food most frequently. In the study, the segmentation of consumers by generation, income, and type of residence is provided. From the methodological point of view, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests are used to test hypotheses. According to the sample of respondents (n = 1,004), large-scale stores do not offer healthier and higher-quality food. This perception, however, varies based on the income of the consumer groups. On the other hand, respondents perceive that food sold at farmers’ markets is healthier and of higher quality than food in conventional stores. They do not perceive that food sold at farmers’ markets is cheaper than food in conventional stores.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Turów coal mine international dispute as a determinant of the
           cross-border integration of inhabitants of the Polish-Czech border

    • Abstract: The crisis around the operation of the Turów coal mine and its impact on cross-border relations in the Polish-Czech borderlands is examined in this article. The genesis of the international dispute and its course is analysed on the basis of international relations and border studies theories. Moreover, the specific cross-border relations and asymmetries in the area are studied. Then, the authors discuss the methodology and results of the research through questionnaires and formulate conclusions drawn from the research conducted by the Polish-Czech research team in 2022. The results prove that the nearly two-year Polish-Czech dispute over the Turów mine hurt the cross-border activity of the inhabitants of the Polish-Czech border. Despite alarming media news, this impact was weak and short-lived. It ultimately did not significantly impact the cross-border integration of the inhabitants or cause a deterioration of relations between the Polish and Czech sides of the Euroregion Neisse-Nisa-Nysa. The crisis was caused by the lack of adequate communication between local governments from Poland and the Czech Republic and insufficient commitment from the local and regional authorities. Another cause was the poor integration of residents in the border area, although the cross-border cooperation epitomised by the Euroregion Neisse-Nisa-Nysa is not poorly rated.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The divided town of Český Těšín/Cieszyn as the most integrated part
           of the Czech-Polish borderland: A life in the cross-border educational
           togetherness or side by side'

    • Abstract: The (non)contribution of schools towards cross-border integration in the divided town of Těšín/Cieszyn, located on the Czech-Polish border, is analysed in this article. The pandemic-related border closures revealed a substantial level of togetherness in this town, manifested by various social activities. Moreover, a part of these (during the pandemic restricted) cross-border social practices were those in education. We applied a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods to diagnose the directions of cross-border educational flows, the approach of schools towards the identified joint cross-border social practices, and the possible level of togetherness. As a result, one-sidedness (Polish pupils attending schools in the Czech Republic) of cross-border flows was identified – which also follows the direction of a cross-border workforce. Except for the schools with Polish as the instruction language, located in the Czech part of the town, primarily serving Polish speakers living in the Czech Republic, we can mention hardly any mutually shared feeling of togetherness and an actual place-based approach towards educational governance in this divided town. We observe some ties in education between the autochthonous Polish minority in the Czech Republic and the Poles in Poland, without the involvement of pupils or teachers of Czech ethnicity, who do not reflect opportunities behind the border.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Assessing and forecasting the influence of environmental controls on
           windstorm disturbances in the Central Low Tatras, through regression
           models

    • Abstract: Nowadays, the large-scale disturbance and subsequent temporary deforestation of mountain forests are widely discussed phenomena. In this study, we built both a logistic regression model (LRM) and a generalised additive model (GAM), in order to understand the drivers of deforestation after the Elisabeth windstorm (2004) in the Central Low Tatras, Slovakia. A set of topographic and biotic characteristics was selected as explanatory variables, while the presence of deforestation was a response variable. The results show that the most prone to windstorm-driven damage are forests growing at a high elevation, in the ridge’s surroundings, and on gentle slopes exposed to the wind during the disturbance. Moreover, the stands with a high proportion of Norway spruce and with medium-diameter trees, which are under forest management, were identified as more vulnerable. Additionally, both models were used to identify those stands, which would be most susceptible to damage by future windstorms. According to its explanatory power and building efficiency, we propose using of LRM rather than GAM in similar large-scale studies. The addressed methods can be used in local forest management, as scientifically based decision-making appears to be crucial for maintaining mountain forests resistant to gusty winds, as well as other disturbing agents.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Examining voter turnout using multiscale geographically weighted
           regression: The case of Slovakia

    • Abstract: Voter turnout is an essential aspect of elections and often reflects the attitude of a country’s population towards democracy and politics. Therefore, examining the distribution of voter turnout and determining the factors that influence whether or not people will vote is crucial. This study aims to find significant factors that underlie the different levels of electoral participation across regions in Slovakia during the 2020 parliamentary elections. In this interpretation, special attention is paid to the ability of the main theories of voter turnout to explain the behaviour of Slovak voters. The primary analytical tool is multiscale geographically weighted regression, which represents an advanced local regression modelling variant. The results indicate that the multiscale geographically weighted regression is superior to the global ordinary least square model in virtually all aspects. Voter turnout is generally higher in economically and socially prosperous localities and regions, which is in line with the societal modernisation theory. Additionally, factors connected to mobilisation theory and the concept of ‘left behind places’ also proved to be valuable. However, in other cases, such as with the share of retirees and potential habitual voting, the outcomes were not overly convincing, and further research is required.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Compact and polycentric urban forms as intertwined concepts: Learning from
           the impacts of Covid–19 retail restrictions on spatial (in)equalities in
           Brno (Czech Republic)

    • Abstract: Urban structure conceptualisation using compact and polycentric city narratives is often performed separately. However, although both are based on different spatial grammars, they are inextricably linked. The spatially equitable distribution and accessibility of urban functions are often seen as their main contributions. This paper uses the unprecedented circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic to further analyse the relationship between the two narratives, using the radical transformation of a retail network in a post-socialist city (Brno, Czech Republic) as an example. Based on an in-depth analysis of government measures aimed at preventing the spread of the coronavirus and their coverage in the media, operational changes among all stores in the city are quantified. A comparative spatial analysis then shows that, in addition to economic inequalities, spatial injustice was exacerbated by the position of the central government, with varying degrees of intensity depending on the type of urban structure. It is argued that the resilience potential of polycentric and compact structures is very low, especially in the absence of retail planning and reflection upon spatiality in ensuring social equity.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Geography of migration motives: Matching migration motives with
           socioeconomic data

    • Abstract: Motives behind internal migration reported by internal migrants often differ from those assumed by standard economic and social theories. This research aims to narrow the gap between the stated motives and those suggested by human capital models. It relates the net migration rates by specific motives to socioeconomic and sociodemographic variables at the LAU 1 level in the period 1997–2021 in Slovakia. This research establishes that most of the stated motives behind internal migration (housing and family) differ from those assumed by human capital theories. This finding is valid for motives stated at the proximal level. The analysis of migration rates and housing supply indicates a substantial concentration of interdistrict migrants in suburban districts of affluent metropolitan regions. This finding resonates with assumptions on the latent importance of employment and income for internal migration.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Borderlands in times of crisis: The possibility of de-marginalisation of
           the Polish border zone with Russia after the outbreak of war in Ukraine

    • Abstract: The Polish-Russian border, closed since the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic, transformed into an iron curtain without any chance for its disappearance in a long-term perspective. The ongoing conflict between Russia and the EU started an experiment in the Polish zone bordering with Russia with respect to the planning of economic growth in the new reality – in a fully isolated area – where the border is a limitation and not an opportunity. According to the author’s research, the crisis caused by the permanent closing of the Polish-Russian border and suspension of contacts with the Kaliningrad Oblast, which initially was a hard blow for the border communes, with a particularly difficult economic situation, may – in the long-term perspective – turn out to be an important driving force for changes. The primary purpose of this paper is to identify the main actions taken by the Polish local authorities at the border with Russia, the aim of which is revitalisation of the local economy after the Polish-Russian border was closed. The article is based on a number of in-depth expert interviews carried out in the Polish border area.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • In memory of Stanislav Martinát (1976–2023)

    • Abstract: On Sunday, August 13, 2023, Stanislav Martinát – a respected Czech geographer and member of the Editorial Board of Moravian Geographical Reports journal – died after a short serious illness at the age of 47. Despite his relatively young age, Stanislav Martinát was one of the most productive and the most cited Czech geographers. He is the author or coauthor of over 100 peer-reviewed articles, of which more than 70 were published in journals indexed in the Web of Science database. This article is a collection of personal memories from people from different workplaces from several countries who had the opportunity to work with Stanislav (Standa) and to share a part of their life stage with him.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Identification of the spatial extent of the peri-urban area: The case of
           three cities in Poland

    • Abstract: The work detailed here seeks to recognise features by which areas that can be deemed peri-urban differ from both city and countryside, to the extent that a separate specific identity for them can be discerned. The recognised features made it possible to identify the extent of the peri-urban area. The wealth of relevant literature is first considered, and this is seen to relate to the spatial side and to definition on the one hand, and to ongoing socio-economic processes on the other. Several Polish cities are then selected as the authors seek to discuss indicators useful in determining the spatial scope of the said peri-urban zones. The work proceeds on the assumption that these represent a real component of an urban-rural continuum characterised by reduced diversity and intensity of social and economic phenomena with steadily-increasing distance from the limits of a city in the direction of “traditional” rural areas.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Modelling the road network riskiness for motorcycle transport: The use of
           accident probability and accessibility to emergency medical service

    • Abstract: Motorcycle users are generally perceived as one of the most vulnerable road user groups. It is therefore evident that, in addition to a range of prevention and awareness-raising activities, it is also necessary to identify specific locations where motorcycle users are at risk. We use a synthetic approach to identify the road network sections dangerous for motorcycle traffic. We perceive the risk level of individual sections as a complex combination of the causes (accident probability) and consequences (accessibility of medical services) of motorcycle accidents. The combination of both factors is then used to define the Road Network Hazard Index (RNHI) as a newly introduced indicator synthetically assessing the risk levels of individual road network sections for motorcycle traffic. The motorcycle accident probability on the Czech road network is extremely differentiated. The time accessibility of accident locations from EMS dispatch stations shows a clear correlation with the severity of motorcycle accidents. The model for the accident locations’ accessibility indicates that the sparsely populated peripheral regions of the Czech Republic in particular show not only a higher motorcycle accident probability but also higher time accessibility values for emergency vehicles. The new RNHI provides a comprehensive view of the risk levels for motorcycle traffic in different Czech road network sections.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Spatial factors affecting the functional diversity of regenerated
           brownfields: The case of Silesian Voivodeship (Poland)

    • Abstract: Until 1990, the Silesian Voivodeship was one of the most industrialised regions in Central Europe. The restructuring of the national economy after the change of the political system, in particular the extensive deindustrialisation, resulted in the emergence of substantial quantity of post-industrial brownfields. During the research we identified a total of 125 post-industrial brownfield sites that had undergone a regeneration process between 1990 and 2019. The total value of these regeneration projects was estimated at over EUR 1.7 billion. About 55% of the projects were carried out by public bodies, 40% by private enterprises and 5% by non-governmental organisations. The EU aid from structural funds was used in 37% of projects. The aim of the paper is to provide new empirical evidence about the role of spatial factors on the regeneration and new functional use of the brownfields. The analysis has revealed that there is a statistically significant relationship between the distance from the city centre and the functions of regenerated brownfield sites: commercial services were located closest to the centre, whereas manufacturing plants and investment zones were found at the greatest distance from the city centre. The research has also shown the crucial role of post-industrial heritage for projects related to redevelopment for public services, which was insignificant for other project types. These results have been interpreted in the context of the rent gap theory and the brownfield redevelopment potential model (the so-called ABC model).
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Gender differences in unsafety perception and precautionary behaviour
           among adolescents: Case study of a small peripheral town in Slovakia

    • Abstract: The aim of this study is to question gender stereotypes regarding differences in the unsafety perceptions and perceived threats of adolescents, with a special emphasis on their precautionary behaviour. This research was based on emotional mapping in the very small peripheral town of Fiľakovo (Slovakia). Altogether, 151 adolescents in the age of 10–16 years were asked to mark places where did not feel safe, along with perceived threats, as well as information on precautionary strategies they use there. Regardless of the time of day, neither girls nor boys felt significantly less safe, with residential location and age playing a more important role in unsafety perception differences than gender. Girls perceived significantly more people-related threats than boys (regardless of daylight), while boys were aware of significantly more risk in buildings, streets, and places with negative associations (after dark). Avoidance, dependence, and self-reliant precautionary behaviours were identified. Regardless of daylight, girls chose dependence (e.g. calling someone, having a companion) among other types of precautionary behaviour significantly more often than boys. Avoidance and self-reliance were gender neutral. The perception of girls as perceiving more risks and being more avoidant is showed to be a form of gender stereotype and should not be considered a generally valid paradigm.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Spatial patterns of EU funds absorption in Romanian rural municipalities

    • Abstract: This study analyses the spatial differences in EU funds absorption among Romanian rural municipalities through the 2014–2020 programming period. The absorption capacity for EU funds is measured by the volume of spent EU funds by inhabitant, for each Romanian rural municipality. The results of the analysis highlight the importance of the territorial dimension when studying the distribution of EU funds among the rural municipalities of Romania. Affiliation with a specific development region (NUTS 2), county (NUTS 3) or a functional urban area (FUA) is used to differentiate the volume of absorbed EU funds. In Romania, rural municipalities with higher levels of absorbed EU funding are, to a statistically higher extent, located in development regions in the Centre, North-West, South-West and West of the country; in communes with no change, or even an increase, in population between 2014 and 2021; in the highest quartile of fiscal capacity and in communes with experience with EU funding from the preceding programming period. This article adds to the growing body of territorial evidence and can be used as a policy instrument to more closely examine the intervention tools embedded in EU funding policy.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Spatial planning as a tool of flood risk management in rural landscapes'
           Position, limitations, and other findings: The case of Myjava Region
           (Slovakia)

    • Abstract: In the context of flood risk management, the application of spatial planning is challenging. This article specifies the position of spatial planning in the context of flood risk management in Slovakia. Through a case study, it assesses the potential of municipal spatial plans to reduce flood risk in rural landscapes. The analysis of municipal spatial plans includes the following aspects: the legislative framework, the actionability of spatial plans and the competences of municipalities. The results showed that in terms of key aspects of flood risk management in the rural landscape, i.e. reducing flood risk through the application of eco-stabilisation measures and reducing the negative consequences of floods through the functional and spatial arrangement of the rural landscape, spatial plans have the status of a formal document. There are several reasons for this. The first one is centralised governance of flood risk. The second reason is the flood risk policy where protection by the technical infrastructure is dominant. The third reason is inconsistent use of municipal powers to reduce flood risk based on a spatial plan. The expectation that the municipalities’ spatial plans could contribute to effective flood risk management in the rural landscape thus remains a challenge.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Changes in the services of general interest in mountainous areas in Poland
           over the period 1988–2020: Their types, dynamics and driving forces

    • Abstract: Changes in the services of general interest (SGI) of peripheral locations in the depopulating mountainous areas in Poland, in the context of their socio-economic transformation over the period 1988–2020, are discussed in this contribution. A total of 13 SGI of different importance, scope and purpose, both social and economic, were analysed in the study (e.g. basic health centres, libraries, pharmacies, post offices, primary schools). The institutions were categorised according to the target groups of beneficiaries: residents and tourists. The research was mainly based on the analysis of statistical data using basic statistical methods. This research revealed that the SGI has been declining in quantitative terms, particularly in rural areas, and the service facilities have become concentrated mainly in towns and in some villages with tourist infrastructure. In general, access to SGI in rural areas has become more difficult with exceptions for settlements with developed tourist functions. The number of and access to SGI is largely related to the number of inhabitants of a given settlement, its location, and the development of the tourist functions there.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Changeability of transport behaviour in a large city from the perspective
           of working days and Sundays: The case of Łódź, Poland

    • Abstract: The transport behaviour of Lodz residents with a view to constructing a balanced traffic model to include both private and public transport is examined in this paper. A survey was conducted among 6,000 Łódź citizens using mixed-mode techniques: CAWI and CATI: respondents were asked to complete a travel log for the previous day and the previous Sunday. This served as a basis for further analyses, performed with PTV simulation software, following a four-step model. The main results of the study are presented, including the mobility rate of Łódź residents, the motivations and duration of journeys, and the division of transport tasks into workdays and Sundays, indicating that a higher private carload is typical for home-other and other-home trips on Sundays compared to working days. The number of home to work and work-home trips via private cars is higher for working days compared to Sundays. Furthermore, the simulated traffic load of the public transport system is much higher for working days compared to Sundays. A higher percentage of non-motorised trips and longer trip duration are found to be common for Sundays as well.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Spatial changes in the Hungarian and Slovenian cattle sector before and
           after accession to the European Union

    • Abstract: A comparative analysis of the spatial transformation of two different farm-size cattle systems, in Hungary and Slovenia, is presented in this paper. Concentration, mobility, and spatial autocorrelation measures are used to study spatial cattlestock distribution and their changes over time, as well as spatial cattle-stock clustering using data from two agricultural censuses. Results confirm the decline in cattle stock on large-size farms in Hungary and on small-size farms in Slovenia, with a relative increase in the importance of medium-size farms in both countries. The decline and spatial changes in cattle stock are greater in Hungary than in Slovenia. Hungarian cattle clusters are concentrated in flat areas with medium- and large-size largely commercial farms, whilst in Slovenia they predominate in mainly hilly grassland and partly cornsilage areas on small and some medium-size family farms. Such specific cattle clustering is linked to geographical and farm-size structural characteristics that can also be linked to agricultural-policy-measure-related support for cattle and dairy, associated with less-favoured or disadvantaged-area status linked to geographical and structural land and farm characteristics typical of Slovenian mountain and particularly hilly areas. These spatial changes in the cattle sector have socioeconomic, land use, and environmental implications in terms of ecological sustainability and rural livelihoods.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Public transport accessibility and spatial exclusion in Roma settlements:
           A case study of three regions in Eastern Slovakia

    • Abstract: Spatial isolation and social exclusion of some of the Roma communities have been a long-term issue in specific Slovakia regions. Along with some other factors, these may contribute to poor access to labour markets for Roma residents of such communities. As public transport acts as an important means of mobility of socially excluded residents, we consider the quality and accessibility of the public transport network as an important element that can impact on the spatially isolated Roma’s ability to reach labour markets, as well as services, education, etc. Based on our empirical evidence, this paper aims to provide a better understanding and analysis of the social exclusion of segregated Roma neighbourhoods in the context of spatial exclusion and transport disadvantage related to public transportation accessibility. We tried to focus on physical accessibility of public transport points for the communities, as well as on the quality and frequency of public transport services available at these points for residents of Roma communities. Our research covered three different regions of Eastern Slovakia, where the concentration of Roma communities is high compared to the rest of the country.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Housing affordability, quality of life, and residential satisfaction in
           the Austrian cross-border suburban region of Bratislava, Slovakia

    • Abstract: Bratislava’s satellites have experienced massive development in recent years. The population of a regional centre has moved into its Slovak hinterland. However, Bratislava’s cross-border suburbs have recorded spectacular population growth too. After 2008, housing in the EU became more affordable due to rising incomes and decreasing bank interest rates. Yet, the housing affordability index in the EU (and in the studied area) decreased in recent years due to increasing property prices and, more recently, a reverse tendency in bank interest rates. Through a questionnaire, we sought to establish a link between housing affordability and suburban residents’ expected quality of life. We assumed that a large proportion of the population had moved here specifically for a higher quality of life (residential satisfaction) and more affordable housing. Indeed, these were among the most common reasons for moving, with a large proportion of respondents choosing at least one. The Mann-Whitney U test showed that residents who moved to the Austrian suburbs of Bratislava for affordable housing were more satisfied with living in the municipality and housing costs. The article tries to fill the gap in the literature on housing affordability in suburban areas and on the quality of life of cross-border suburban residents.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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