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  Subjects -> GEOGRAPHY (Total: 493 journals)
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Polish Cartographical Review
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0324-8321 - ISSN (Online) 2450-6966
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [389 journals]
  • Nationality issues on Polish maps prepared for the Paris Peace Conference
           1919–1920

    • Abstract: The military and political outcome of World War I, and the deliberations of the Paris Peace Conference, offered a real chance for the rebirth of Polish statehood. A key issue was the justification of Poland’s future territorial shape, in which ethnic issues played a significant role alongside historical, economic and strategic criteria.The aim of this paper is to show and discuss selected archival nationality maps, often of an expert nature, produced by Polish scholars for the purpose of negotiating the territorial extent of Poland during the Paris Peace Conference. To what extent were they an attempt at an objective representation of the national reality of the Polish territory, and to what a subjective perception and experience of space by the authors of the maps' What were the aims and ideas of their creators, what did they want to achieve' To what extent did the political reality of the time determine their behaviour'
      PubDate: Sat, 20 Jan 2024 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Role of Geographic Information Systems in analysing the selection of
           cichociemni drop zones based on a case study of the “Mewa 1” drop zone
           

    • Abstract: The article discusses the possible use of GIS tools in detailed spatial analysis of materials and old maps showing the activities of Polish soldiers during World War II. The research was based on information regarding the military operations of the “Silent and Unseen” paratroopers (in Polish: cichociemni) in the General Government (GG), available in the archives of the Polish Underground Movement Study Trust (in Polish: Studium Polski Podziemnej) in London, as well as on prewar maps of the Polish Military Geographical Institute (in Polish: Wojskowy Instytut Geograficzny – WIG). The authors present the historical background to, and important details of the cichociemni airdrops. They also describe how these operations were organised and suitable airdrop sites selected. The main part of the article is devoted to an analysis and assessment of the extent to which selected drop sites of the cichociemni complied with the criteria contained in the instructions of the Staff of the Commander-in-Chief in London (in Polish: Sztab Naczelnego Wodza w Londynie). The article presents a case study of the “Mewa 1” drop zone located in the GG. The authors used calibrated WIG maps, which they then converted into vector versions. They also made use of modern DTM and a slope map created on its basis. All the criteria for selecting drop zones included in the historical instructions were analysed. Based on the example of the drop zone in question, as well as on the authors’ own spatial analyses, it was concluded that this particular drop zone met some of the criteria formulated in the guidelines of the Commander-in-Chief’s Staff, but only partially met others or failed to meet them at all. In addition, the authors noted a number of limitations regarding these criteria. For example, they did not take into account the locations of the occupiers’ garrisons or anti-aircraft positions, which are particularly important for the success of airdrop operations. The analyses and the results thereof constitute the first study of the armed operations of the cichociemni in GG areas using digital maps and spatial analyses based on GIS.
      PubDate: Sat, 20 Jan 2024 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Automatic simplification of the geometry of a cartographic line using
           contractive self-mapping – illustrated with an example of a polyline
           band

    • Abstract: The present article is another attempt to adapt map geometry to automatic digital cartography. The paper presents a method of digital polyline generalisation that uses contractive self-mapping. It is a method of simplification, not just an algorithm for simplification. This method in its 1996 version obtained a patent entitled “Method of Eliminating Points in the Process of Numerical Cartographic Generalisation” – Patent Office of the Republic of Poland, No. 181014, 1996. The first results of research conducted using the presented method, with clearly defined data (without singular points of their geometry), were published in the works of the authors in 2021 and 2022.This article presents a transition from the DLM (Digital Landscape Model) to the DCM (Digital Cartographic Model). It demonstrates an algorithm with independent solutions for the band axis and both its edges. The presented example was performed for the so-called polyline band, which can represent real topographic linear objects such as rivers and boundaries of closed areas (buildings, lakes, etc.). An unambiguous representation of both edges of the band is its axis, represented in DLM, which can be simplified to any scale. A direct consequence of this simplification is the shape of the band representing the actual shape of both edges of the object that is classified in the database as a linear object in DCM.The article presents an example performed for the so-called polyline band, which represents real topographic linear objects (roads, rivers) and area boundaries. The proposed method fulfils the following conditions: the Lipschitz condition, the Cauchy condition, the Banach theorem, and the Salichtchev’s standard for object recognition on the map. The presented method is objective in contrast to the previously used approximate methods, such as generalisations that use graph theory and fractal geometry, line smoothing and simplification algorithms, statistical methods with classification of object attributes, artificial intelligence, etc. The presented method for changing the geometry of objects by any scale of the map is 100% automatic, repeatable, and objective; that is, it does not require a cartographer’s intervention.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The use of web-GIS and crowdsourcing in the acquisition of historical data
           on the example of Polegli1939 project

    • Abstract: The historical Polegli1939 geoportal is probably the first thematic portal using spatial-temporal databases to present information on people killed during the World War II. In this study, we address the problem of capturing, processing and sharing historical information by supplementing it with a spatial attributes. The aim of the study is to determine the role of crowdsourcing data and the use of web-GIS applications in the process of obtaining and verifying historical information. The study was carried out as part of the implementation of the “Spatial database of soldiers killed in warfare” project, which is also known as Polegli1939. In order to achieve this goal, we acquired information using three methods: manual, automated and Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI). Making spatial data available through the Polegli1939 geoportal enables users to popularize and verify it. The method includes a geospatial web platform (GeoWeb) as well as a VGI application with an integrated process for verifying submitted information. As a result of the project, nearly 35,000 records were obtained. Making the project available to a wider audience opens up the possibility of extending the presented research or replicating it in other countries, taking into account a wider chronological range than just World War II.
      PubDate: Sun, 26 Nov 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Post-1800 copies of : may we talk about the second edition'

    • Abstract: In the earlier paper (Paprotny, 2022b) I have presented all known states of maps encountered in the 1750 (i.e. 1752) edition of Atlas Silesiae, together with the composition of several Atlas copies from this edition (in terms of states of included maps). The present paper for the first time compares this composition with copies of the Atlas published after 1800. It demonstrates that the latter are most probably compilations of the partially updated material available at the moment of publication, appearing irregularly at dates differing by years and in few copies only. For this reason, they should not be considered a genuine “second edition” of the Atlas as sometimes called in cartographical literature. The appendix with an update to Paprotny (2022b) presents newly identified states of two Atlas maps.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Nov 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The first state of Georg Freudenhammer’s map of Palatinatus
           Posnaniensis from 1645

    • Abstract: The subject of this analysis is Georg Freudenhammer’s map of Palatinatus Posnaniensis, editions of which were published by all major publishing houses of the 17th century: the Blaeu family, Janssonius, Schenk/Valk or Janssonius van Waesbergen. The formerly unknown first state was dedicated to the new Queen of Poland, Louise Marie Gonzaga. The author hypothesises that it was probably a gift from the author of the map, who participated in Krzysztof Opaliński’s envoy to the future queen. The speed at which this work was produced did not allow for its final completion, so in the later state of the map, a number of additions were made, the addressee of the dedication was changed, and the text of the royal privilege to print it was added. Several features indicate that Freudenhammer’s original intention was changed over time, and the new addressee of the work became the author’s employer and mentor – Krzysztof Opaliński.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Nov 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Methodology for creating dynamic emergency vehicle availability maps

    • Abstract: One of the main priorities of emergency services is to minimize the response time to calls. In the process of proper allocation of emergency vehicles, maps of emergency vehicle accessibility are found to be helpful. These maps represent areas within which emergency services can reach the specified location within a certain time. Calculating travel times requires taking into account the rapidly changing current road conditions. This paper presents a method for dynamically generating maps of emergency vehicle accessibility, considering network models and irregular computational grids.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Nov 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Tell me where you are and I’ll tell you what you learn. Investigating
           hidden curricula using GIS analysis of place names in a case study of an
           English language textbook published in Japan

    • Abstract: The article aims to look for a way to geographically delineate the notion of target culture in the language textbook “The World We Live in” by Ogasawara et al. (2013) published in Japan for Japanese students and teachers. Looking at the textbooks as cultural artefacts, we identified geographical space within the scope of the sample textbook and analysed the pedagogical context the place names appeared in. By doing that we attempt to find the spatial bias of the book, which is a manifestation of values there inscribed, often called the “hidden curriculum”. The elaborated method, following a seminal study by Risager (2018), is an attempt to adapt the proposed content analysis of the textbooks into GIS tools in order to capture the geographic dimension of the content. The method serves as a stepping stone towards the creation of a model to analyse and identify the attitudes toward the cultural content of educational materials. This will not only enable a more authentic classroom experience responding to the needs of particular groups of students and teachers but also look for ways to make the textbooks more inclusive.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Cartometric analysis of selected works by Leonardo da Vinci

    • Abstract: This research presents the results of the cartometric analysis of two Leonardo da Vinci’s works, i.e. the Mapa mundi and A map of Imola. The analysis of the Mapa mundi was conducted by employing various distortion measures and creating maps to show their distribution by distortion isograms. A map of Imola was analysed utilising MapAnalyst, taking advantage of the software’s tools, such as distortion grids, isolines of scale and local map rotation angles.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Apr 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Cartographic sources as a base of knowledge about land use in selected
           areas in the north-western Poland

    • Abstract: The aim of the research was to analyse land use changes and to develop a coherent base on the basis of available cartographic source materials – archival and contemporary topographic maps and spatial databases. The presented research is a continuation of works related to the cartographic visualization of changes in the distribution of the settlement network in the Noteć Forest – one of the largest forest complexes in Poland. The analysis was performed for nine villages together with their immediate surroundings, located in this area. The total surface area of lands covered by the study was 32,468 km2. Cartographic source materials were collected for selected areas. The archival maps were georeferenced and then digitized. In this way, the data has been transformed into a homogeneous system enabling further comparisons and analyses in an automated manner. Geodetic software (C-Geo), GIS (MapInfo, QGIS) and GNSS technology were used in the work. Cartographic sources can be successfully used for spatial analyses and environmental studies, providing reliable and available quantitative data. This type of research is important because it shows the changes taking place in the natural environment and can be used in works related to spatial planning, landscape ecology and social research.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Orthophotomap of Lublin 1944: from photographs to map application –
           idea, methods, contemporary challenges of processing and publishing
           archival aerial photographs

    • Abstract: The origins of aerial photography can be traced back to the second half of the 19th century, and periods of World Wars contributed to the development of techniques for developing and disseminating aerial photographs for military purposes. In the literature, we find descriptions of the Polish Military Geographical Institute’s (WIG) use of aerial photography to update topographic maps of nearly 40% of the country’s area at the time. Unfortunately, the fate of the pre-war collection of photographs is difficult to establish. Given this, the aerial photographs from the period of the Second World War (German and Allied) constitute the oldest possible complete and consistent photographic documentation of Poland. The series of German prints (373-GXPRINTS) collected at the National Archives and Records Administration in College Park (NARA, USA) are maintained according to the most liberal policy on access and further use. At the same time, the organisation of the NARA archive and the extent to which the collection has been digitised (over one million images) leave a deficiency, and searching for images requires knowledge, methods and experience.In 2020–2021, the Department of Geomatics and Cartography of the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University implemented the project Development of the Ortophotomap of Lublin 1939–1945 (NCN, Miniatura 4.0. No. 2020/04/X/HS4/00382). The result of the project is a dedicated web portal https://ortolub.umcs.pl, consisting of a digital repository of aerial images, a map application and standardised GIS raster data services. The author believes this is a unique source base, with unprecedented detail. The publication of the project results under the Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 4.0 licence is intended to foster the widest possible use of wartime aerial images in scientific research and popularisation activities.The process of developing a historical orthophotomap, as presented in the article, is universal and can be repeated on any set of aerial photographs. At the same time, development work is needed to automate the operations as fully as possible. In conclusion, current challenges and prospects for the development of historical orthophotomaps of national coverage are indicated.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Developing a simulator of a mobile indoor navigation application as a tool
           for cartographic research

    • Abstract: Solutions designed for indoor navigation are extremely rare compared to outdoor navigation; however, the potential for development is, therefore, very high. Several pilot projects exist in airports, universities, hospitals, and shopping centres. The difficulties in development are currently mainly due to the continuing low quality of indoor positioning and lack of widespread access to high-quality building models. A strong methodological basis for how the interior and exterior of buildings can be cartographically represented in navigation applications has also not yet been developed. Therefore, an attempt was made to design a virtual environment dedicated to supporting the design of indoor navigation applications.
      Authors present the results of a study aimed at creating a concept of a simulation environment accompanied by the assessment and preliminary validation of its technological feasibility in terms of the method and technology used – although it does not yet constitute a target study. The result was a fully functional prototype of a virtual test environment, which was successfully used in a pilot study on the effectiveness of different types of navigation guidance. The participants’ behaviour within the desktop virtual environment was investigated and their opinions were collected through a questionnaire. This research proved the technological feasibility of the proposed concept and demonstrated the usefulness of the Unreal Engine game engine in building new tools to support the work of cartographers. The created environment will be further developed and used in indoor mapping research.
      PubDate: Sat, 05 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Plan of Kalisz by Andrzej Politalski from 1785 – a source edition in the
           Polish Historic Towns Atlas

    • Abstract: The plan of Kalisz by Andrzej Politalski is the oldest geometrically accurate depiction of the town. Compiled in 1785, it has survived to this day in a redrawing by Ottomar Wolle in 1878 at the scale of 1:3,000. The author discusses the process of developing the edition of Politalski’s plan for the “Kalisz” volume of the Historic Towns Atlas (HTA) and compares it with editions in other volumes. The most recent (2021) volumes developed in three different centres were chosen as comparative material: Biecz volume (Kraków); Fordon, 2nd edition (Toruń); and Racibórz (Wrocław). Each volume adopts different editorial rules, although, in general, they conform to the overarching principles of redrawing a map at the scale of 1:2,500. The differences touch on virtually all aspects (source material, scope of content, non-cartographic elements), but they are united by the aforementioned common scale and purpose. Developing the edition of Politalski’s plan was preceded by genetic analysis and the identification of filiation of its remaining copies. The original (1785) has not survived, nor has the first redrawing (1800). We only have a redrawing by Wolle (1878), which was the basis for the development of the plan for the HTA. In addition to this, we also have several other less significant versions. Politalski’s plan was georeferenced, its content was vectorised, and cartographical representation was created. The result has been put together with selected editions elaborated to date. A distinctive feature of the work on the “Kalisz” volume is the use of a redrawing of the original as a source plan, as it is – in fact – its historical edition. The author also draws attention to the issues of standardisation of data models and, consequently, of legends between particular volumes.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Maps from (1750): a listing of plates and states

    • Abstract: The paper sets out to attempt identification of all known plates used to print maps included in the Atlas Silesiae and of all identified states of these maps. While the early states of the Atlas maps are relatively well studied (though far not in every detail), printings pulled from the same though deeply reworked plates, published in Nurnberg in the first two decades of the 19th c., are not always recognised as the late states of the same maps. For each of twenty maps from Atlas Silesiae listed are all identified states together with the most distinctive differences between them. Eleven copies of Atlas Silesiae were also examined in search for possible regularities of their composition in terms of states of the included maps. Public collections with exemplary copies of the Atlas maps in each state identified in the paper are listed in the Appendix.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Verifying and improving map specifications of river network selection for
           automatic generalization of small-scale maps

    • Abstract: Automated generalization is highly desired for effective map production. This research focuses on the initial stage of generalization, namely object selection. The study aims to conduct river network automatic selection based on map specifications contained in the Minister of Internal Affairs and Administration regulation. The research covers river network selection from the General Geographic Objects Database from 1:250,000 to 1:500,000 detail level. Within the research scope, three selection variants were designed. The first was a basic variant that only included the implementation of the specifications contained in the regulation. The other two were experimental variants: an extended variant and an extended-modified variant with the parameters and data enrichment proposed by the authors. The extended variant has been supplemented with the Id_MPHP index usage, derived from the Map of Hydrographic Division of Poland (MPHP), which defines the hierarchy of watercourses in the river network. The extended-modified variant was implemented according to the guidelines of the regulation, with the use of the Id_MPHP index and additionally with the help of the parameter denoting “priority” watercourses, which was assigned by the authors. The results of the work constitute the generalization models designed in ArcMap 10.8. with the use of Model Builder functionality as well as the maps presenting the selection variants output visualizations. The results were compared visually as well as verified with the reference atlas map generalized by an experienced cartographer. As a result, the map specifications concerning the selection process presented in the regulation proved to be insufficient to generalize river networks properly. The variants proposed in this research made it possible to improve the selection results and enabled the automation of the river selection process. Additional specifications and parameters proposed in this work may constitute an essential supplement to the guidelines contained in the regulation.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Conformal projections of a tri-axial ellipsoid based on isometric
           coordinates: history, methodology, and examples

    • Abstract: The paper presents a review of the conformal projections of a tri-axial ellipsoid and the methodology of creating these projections with the use of isometric coordinates. The concept is very simple and has been known for a long time; if isometric coordinates are introduced on the surface of the original and on the plane of the image, then any analytical function of the complex variable, i.e. a function that has a continuous derivative, creates a conformal projection. The introduction presents the history of conformal projections. Then, existing projections are presented, including the Bugayevskiy projection and several projections developed by the author that apply selected functions of the complex variable. Scripts were prepared in the Octave software with the use of the presented methodology. Programming in Octave offers a possibility of a simple implementation of complex variable functions, which is also briefly discussed in the paper. The developed scripts were then used to perform calculations and to draw cartographic grids and distortion isolines in the selected conformal projections. The test object was the tri-axial ellipsoid that represents Phobos.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Do navigation maps need a legend' Empirical assessment of the
           intuitiveness of point symbols on mobile maps

    • Abstract: Navigation applications and the mobile maps that are integral to them are now widely used all over the world. The most popular applications of this type, such as Google Maps, has more than a billion users a month. To save time, users of navigation applications generally use the maps without referring to their legends, which are not shown in the default settings. In such circumstances, only intuitive symbols are read correctly. Mobile maps often have an extensive system of point symbols (POIs – points of interests), and navigation applications sometimes differ significantly in the symbols they use. Point symbols have been the subject of theoretical considerations and empirical studies of users, but there is a lack of comparative research indicating more and less effective solutions for designing intuitive symbols on mobile maps. This article presents the results of empirical research on the intuitiveness of POI symbols used in selected navigation applications. The study was conducted in the form of a questionnaire with 127 respondents. The results confirmed the hypothesis that the analysed symbols used in navigation applications would differ in level of intuitiveness. In addition, features of design solutions that increase or decrease the intuitiveness of point symbols were identified.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Analysis of the possibility of using key-value store NoSQL databases for
           IFC data processing in the BIM-GIS integration process

    • Abstract: The article discusses the possibility of using Redis key-value NoSQL database to process building data in different BIM-GIS integration solutions. Whichever data integration model is adopted, it will require an efficient serving of building data in Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) format. The author proposed a method of processing building data in the Redis database to support the process of feeding IFC data to his own concept of an integrated BIM-GIS database. However, other approaches to BIM-GIS integration, including the import of IFC data to CityGML, or the construction of an integrated BIM-GIS solution based on data integration at the application server level or client application in client-server environments, also require an efficient IFC data serving mechanism. This article describes three methods of storing IFC data in a Redis database using different data types and formats. The author conducted performance tests of the proposed methods in the processing of fourteen test BIM models. The article contains detailed results of the model processing tests in the Redis database.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Algorithm of automatic digital cartographic generalisation with the use of
           contractive self-mapping

    • Abstract: The research of modern cartography in the field of digital generalisation focuses on the development of such methods that would be fully automatic and give an unambiguously objective result. Devising them requires specific standards as well as unique and verifiable algorithms. In metric space, a proposal for such a method, based on contractive mapping, the Lipschitz and Cauchy conditions and the Banach theorem, using the Salishchev metric, was presented in the publication (Barańska et al., 2021). The method formulated there is dedicated to linear objects (polylines). The current work is a practical supplement to it. It presents the practical implementation of the algorithm for automatic and objective generalisation. The article describes an operational diagram of the subsequent stages of the proposed generalisation method. In the test example, a binary tree structure of an ordered polyline was created. It was simplified in two selected scales and its shape after generalisation was illustrated. The resulting polyline obtained by the fully automatic method was verified in terms of accuracy.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Using different mapping techniques and GIS programs in the analysis and
           visualisation of mental maps

    • Abstract: The paper presents the review of mapping techniques applied in research using mental maps. The review covers both evaluative and structural mapping. The choice of a method is influenced by the level of freedom given to the respondents while creating sketch maps. It is also highly affected by the area of a given region, scale used in the research and limitations of mapping techniques in GIS software. For large scale maps created in GIS software, it is possible to use quantitative methods, i.e. proportional symbol maps or quantitative signature symbols. Using multiple complementary mapping techniques allows to draw the most comprehensive conclusions in the analyses of perception of a given space in the society.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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