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  Subjects -> GEOGRAPHY (Total: 493 journals)
Showing 401 - 277 of 277 Journals sorted by number of followers
Arctic     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
The Geographic Base     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Oxford Open Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Jambura Geo Education Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Evolutionary Human Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Remote Sensing in Earth Systems Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
PFG : Journal of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Geoinformation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geographia     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Visión Antataura     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Population and Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Research : Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
People and Nature     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecosystems and People     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
GeoHumanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Wellbeing, Space & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Bulgarian Geographical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Cartography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cartography and GIScience of the ICA     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Progress in Disaster Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geography and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Plants, People, Planet     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Geographical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
AAG Review of Books     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Geographical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Earth System Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biogeographia : The Journal of Integrative Biogeography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Public Space     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Football(s) : Histoire, Culture, Économie, Société     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nomadic Civilization : Historical Research / Кочевая цивилизация: исторические исследования     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
KN : Journal of Cartography and Geographic Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Resilience : International Policies, Practices and Discourses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Papers in Applied Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Area Development and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía & Ambiente     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Offa's Dyke Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regional Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
UNM Geographic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Studies in African Languages and Cultures     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brill Research Perspectives in Map History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
AGU Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue de géographie historique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Urban Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Science : Atmospheres     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Załącznik Kulturoznawczy / Cultural Studies Appendix     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín de Estudios Geográficos     Open Access  
Proyección : Estudios Geográficos y de Ordenamiento Territorial     Open Access  
Parks Stewardship Forum     Open Access  
Scandinavistica Vilnensis     Open Access  
East/West : Journal of Ukrainian Studies     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for Kortlægning og Arealforvaltning     Open Access  
Les Cahiers d’Afrique de l’Est     Open Access  
Mappemonde : Revue trimestrielle sur l'image géographique et les formes du territoire     Open Access  
IBEROAMERICANA. América Latina - España - Portugal     Open Access  
Scripta Nova : Revista Electrónica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Coolabah     Open Access  
Biblio3W : Revista Bibliográfica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Ar@cne     Open Access  
Journal of Cape Verdean Studies     Open Access  
Punto Sur : Revista de Geografía     Open Access  
RIEM : Revista Internacional de Estudios Migratorios     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Meio Ambiente     Open Access  
Sasdaya : Gadjah Mada Journal of Humanities     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica : Tempo - Técnica - Território / Eletronic Magazine : Time - Technique - Territory     Open Access  
Periódico Eletrônico Geobaobás     Open Access  
PatryTer     Open Access  
Espaço Aberto     Open Access  
AbeÁfrica : Revista da Associação Brasileira de Estudos Africanos     Open Access  
Mosoliya Studies     Open Access  
New Approaches in Sport Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Geoheritage and Parks     Open Access  
Watershed Ecology and the Environment     Open Access  
Sémata : Ciencias Sociais e Humanidades     Full-text available via subscription  
Geoingá : Revista do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia     Open Access  
Revista Uruguaya de Antropología y Etnografía     Open Access  
Rocznik Toruński     Open Access  
Southern African Journal of Environmental Education     Open Access  
Proceedings of the ICA     Open Access  
Mediterranean Geoscience Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Geospatial Applications in Natural Resources     Open Access  
Revista Geoaraguaia     Open Access  
TRIM. Tordesillas : Revista de investigación multidisciplinar     Open Access  

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Progress in Earth and Planetary Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.349
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 17  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2197-4284
Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [229 journals]
  • Ground motion hazard of the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC)
           routes in Pakistan

    • Abstract: Pakistan has seen a burst of infrastructure development recently due to the increased connection between Asia and East Europe. The China–Pakistan Economic Corridor is a project between China and Pakistan aimed to improve the regional infrastructure that would ultimately enhance the connection between Asia and Eastern Europe. However, the active tectonics of Pakistan could put this infrastructure at risk if it is not built to the highest hazard prevention standard. This study reports the ground motion hazard by using the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment approach and the areal seismic source model. The seismic hazard maps of the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor in Pakistan are derived using the Cornell–McGuire (1968–1976) approach, which takes into account all earthquakes (25AD-2020) that occurred in Pakistan and nearby regions, the newest ground motion prediction equations, and an updated seismotectonic source model of Pakistan. The final ground motion intensities are attained as peak ground acceleration and 5% damped spectral acceleration at T = 0.2 s and 1.0 s for 475- and 2475-year return periods (estimated for bedrock site conditions). The results are displayed as color-coded maps that represent the amplitude deviation of ground motion. From the spatial evaluation of the maps, a peak ground acceleration value of 0.40–0.52 g for the 475-year return period and a spectral acceleration (0.2 s) value of 1.66–2.13 g for 2475-year return period are mostly observed on the northern and western routes. The central and eastern routes are mostly characterized by a peak ground acceleration value of 0.22–0.24 g for the 475-year return period and a spectral acceleration (0.2 s) value of 0.95–1.13 g due to diffused seismicity and lower number of faults in this region. The ground motion intensity values obtained in this study can be utilized for the seismic design of all kinds of infrastructure and bridges along the CPEC routes in accordance with the Building Code of Pakistan, the International Building codes, and the load and resistance factor design codes published by American Association of the State Highway and Transportation Officials.
      PubDate: 2023-05-29
  • Progress and application of the synthesis of trans-oceanic tsunamis

    • Abstract: Abundant high-quality distant tsunami records from the 2010 Maule (Chile) and 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquakes have revealed two distinctive features compared to long-wave tsunami simulations. The records show that the traveltime delay of the tsunami increases with distance from the earthquakes, and the initial phase reversal of tsunamis appears and grows systematically. The conventional tsunami theory cannot explain the observed waveforms and traveltimes of distant tsunamis, leading to the need for a new theory to explain and synthesize distant tsunamis. The propagating elevated sea surface of a tsunami compresses seawater and deforms the seafloor and the solid Earth. A propagating tsunami changes the mass distribution of the Earth and results in a spatiotemporal change in gravity, thereby altering the propagating tsunami itself. Incorporating these physics, we developed a new tsunami propagation theory in which a tsunami is naturally treated as a wave in a gravitationally and elastically coupled Earth system composed of solid Earth layers and an ocean layer. Two distinct tsunami simulation techniques based on the new tsunami propagation theory were introduced and confirmed to produce nearly identical tsunami waveforms. One technique treats tsunamis as free waves within a deformable Earth system, while the other treats tsunamis as external pressure and gravitational forces acting on the surface of a deformable Earth system. With the new techniques, the waveform and traveltime differences between the observed and simulated distant tsunamis disappear. Past distant tsunamis recorded by coastal tide gauges, which were not previously studied due to the traveltime and waveform mismatch problems, have become the focus of quantitative tsunami studies analyzing waveforms. New tsunami propagation techniques have been applied to the analysis of distant tsunami waveforms from the past 19 events and have helped to unveil the slip distributions of the past large earthquakes and to determine the earthquake origin time of the trans-Pacific tsunami events recorded by tide gauges since 1854.
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
  • Basin-wide erosion and segmentation of the Plio-Pleistocene forearc basin
           in central Japan revealed by tephro- and biostratigraphy

    • Abstract: The basement of the Tokyo metropolitan area consists of the Miocene–Pleistocene forearc basin fills that are well exposed around Tokyo Bay, especially on the Miura and Boso peninsulas. The forearc basin fills on these two peninsulas are called the Miura and Kazusa groups, and they were deposited during the late Miocene–Pliocene and Pliocene–middle Pleistocene, respectively. Because many biostratigraphic datum planes, paleomagnetic reversal events, and other chronostratigraphic tools are available for these deposits, they provide the “type stratigraphy” of other equivalent sedimentary sequences on the Japanese islands and in the northwest Pacific. However, the use of such stratigraphic markers has not been fully applied to understand the architecture of a basin-wide unconformity between the Miura and Kazusa groups called the Kurotaki unconformity. For our study, we made correlations among the Pliocene vitric tephra beds based on their stratigraphic levels, lithologic characteristics, the chemical compositions of glass shards, and calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy. As a result, we were able to correlate tephra beds Ng-Ky25 just above the C3n.3n normal subchronozone (4.7 Ma), IkT16-An157.5 and IkT19-An158.5 near the top of the Mammoth reverse polarity subchronozone (3.21 Ma), and Ahn-Onr (2.6–2.7 Ma) across Tokyo Bay on the Miura and Boso peninsulas. We were able to recognize erosional surfaces and coeval mass-transport deposits immediately below the top of the Mammoth reverse polarity subchronozone, which suggests that submarine landslide(s) may have produced the lack of stratigraphic horizons (4.5–3.2 Ma) in the Miura and eastern Boso regions. Basal pebbly sandstone beds pervasively cover the erosional surfaces, and they show lateral variations into the thick (up to 60 m) mass-transport deposits and overlying turbidite sandstones. The lateral variations in sediment thickness of the post-failure deposits suggest that the basin-wide erosion was associated with the initial growth of a basin-bounding structural high that separates two distinct sub-basins in the forearc basin, which resulted in the subsequent onlapping deposition in the earliest stage of the Kazusa forearc basin. The basin-wide erosion marks the initiation of tectonic reconfigurations that led to segmentation of the forearc basin around the Tokyo Bay region.
      PubDate: 2023-05-17
  • Abrupt water temperature increases near seafloor during the 2011 Tohoku

    • Abstract: We investigated temperature records associated with seafloor pressure observations at eight stations that experienced the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku earthquake near its epicenter. The temperature data were based on the temperature measured inside the pressure transducer. We proposed a method to estimate ambient water temperature from the internal temperature using an equation of heat conduction. The estimated seafloor water temperature showed remarkable anomalies, especially increases several hours after the Mw 9 earthquake. A station of P03 (sea depth of 1.1 km) showed an abrupt temperature increase of + 0.19 °C that occurred ~ 3 h after the earthquake, which lasted for several hours. At stations of GJT3 (sea depth of 3.3 km) and TJT1 (sea depth of 5.8 km), there were abrupt temperature anomalies of + 0.20 °C and + 0.10 °C that began to occur 3–4 h after the earthquake. These anomalies both decayed to their original levels over a few tens of days. During the decay processes, only TJT1 showed several intermittent temperature rises. A water temperature anomaly within + 0.03 °C was found up to ~ 500 m above TJT1 2 weeks after the earthquake. There was no significant anomaly at the other five stations. Processes to cause these seafloor temperature anomalies were discussed. The temperature anomaly of P03 was reasonably caused by a tsunami-generated turbidity current, as also suggested by a previous study. Meanwhile, we proposed a scenario that the abrupt temperature anomalies of GJT3/TJT1 and the intermittent anomalies of TJT1 were caused by warm water discharges from the subseafloor. The pathways of the warm water were probably composed of the branch normal fault between GJT3 and TJT1, the reverse fault near TJT1, the backstop interface, and perhaps reverse faults at the frontal prism. The proposed scenario was almost compatible with other studies based on epicentral observations. We estimated the heat properties of the initial temperature anomalies of GJT3/TJT1. The estimated heat source might be explained by that most of the geothermal fluids trapped in those fault pathways were discharged to the seafloor immediately after the earthquake. The onsets of the subsequent intermittent anomalies of TJT1 were possibly activated by low or falling ocean tidal loading.
      PubDate: 2023-05-16
  • Sedimentary diversity of the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami deposits on the
           Sendai coastal plain and the northern coast of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    • Abstract: This paper documents the sedimentary characteristics of the widespread deposits associated with the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami on the lowlands along the Pacific coast of the Sendai and Fukushima regions, northern Japan, and observed tsunami inundation depths. In eight areas of the region, field observation was carried out at a total of 123 locations and sampling at a total of 49 locations. Grain-size analysis and soft X-ray imaging reveal that the tsunami deposits are usually composed of sheetlike sandy beds and generally show landward-thinning and landward-fining trends and a landward increase in mud content, although site-specific distributional patterns are apparent along each transect. These thickness and grain-size patterns indicate a landward decrease in flow capacity. This information on the sedimentology of tsunami deposits and observed inundation depths will assist with the identification of paleo-tsunami deposits in the geological record and provide valuable constraints for mathematical analyses of tsunami hydraulic conditions related to sedimentary characteristics.
      PubDate: 2023-05-04
  • Correction: Submarine paleoseismology in the Japan Trench of northeastern
           Japan: turbidite stratigraphy and sedimentology using paleomagnetic and
           rock magnetic analyses

    • PubDate: 2023-04-27
  • Simulated distributions of pumice rafts in Japan following eruptions at
           volcanic islands and submarine volcanoes

    • Abstract: Voluminous pumice rafts produced by the 2021 phreatomagmatic eruption of Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba, a submarine volcano located in the Izu-Bonin Islands, reached many Japanese ports and islands, damaging fisheries and hindering marine traffic and trade. This event emphasized the necessity for governments and stakeholders to develop plans in advance and prepare disaster mitigation measures before an eruption. To investigate when and to what extent pumice might intersect trade routes and arrive at islands after future eruptions, we conducted particle tracking simulations of eruptions at major volcanic islands and submarine volcanoes near Japan using the velocity field from the ocean reanalysis dataset. Seven major volcanoes that have produced pumice rafts in the past century were selected: the submarine volcano NNE of Iriomote Island, Izu-Tobu Volcanoes, Miyakejima, Bayonnaise Rocks, Nishinoshima, Kaitoku Seamount, and Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba. We partly reproduced the distribution of pumice arrivals recorded after the 1986 Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba eruption, demonstrating the potential effectiveness of the simulations. We report likely pumice raft arrivals and drifting durations for the investigated eruptive scenarios, which may aid future risk assessments for pumice arrivals.
      PubDate: 2023-04-13
  • Cluster-based foreshock discrimination model with flexible time horizon
           and mainshock magnitudes

    • Abstract: Foreshock detection before mainshock occurrence is an important challenge limiting the short-term forecasts of large earthquakes. Various models for predicting mainshocks based on discrimination of foreshocks activity have been proposed, but many of them work in restricted scenarios and neglect foreshocks and mainshocks out of their scope. In disaster prevention, it is often necessary to change the forecast period and the magnitude of target mainshocks. This paper presents a cluster-based statistical discrimination of foreshocks which is applicable all over Japan and adjustable with respect to forecasting time span and mainshock magnitudes. Using the single-link clustering method, the model updates the expanding seismic clusters and determines in real time the probabilities that larger subsequent events will occur. The foreshock clusters and the others show different trends of certain feature statistics with respect to their magnitudes and spatiotemporal distances. Based on those features and the epicentral location, a nonlinear logistic regression model is used to evaluate the probabilities that growing seismic clusters are foreshocks that will trigger mainshocks within 30 days. The log of odds is estimated between the foreshock clusters and other clusters for respective feature values as nonlinear spline functions from a Japanese hypocenter catalog for the period 1926–1999. Based on the estimated odds functions, foreshock clusters tend to have smaller differences in their two largest magnitudes, shorter time durations, and slightly longer epicentral distances within the individual clusters. Given a potential foreshock cluster, its mainshock magnitude can be predicted by the Gutenberg–Richter law over the largest foreshock magnitude. The timing of mainshock occurrences from foreshocks is also predicted by multiplying the portion of mainshocks within a shorter span from those within 30 days by the evaluated foreshock probabilities. The predictive performance of our model is validated by the holdout method using a Japanese hypocenter catalog before and after 2000. The evaluated foreshock probabilities are roughly consistent with the actual portion of foreshocks in the validation catalog and could serve as an alert for large mainshocks.
      PubDate: 2023-04-12
  • Update of global maps of Alisov’s climate classification

    • Abstract: Proposed in 1954, Alisov’s climate classification (CC) focuses on climatic changes observed in January–July in large-scale air mass zones and their fronts. Herein, data clustering by machine learning was applied to global reanalysis data to quantitatively and objectively determine air mass zones, which were then used to classify the global climate. The differences in air mass zones between two half-year seasons were used to determine climatic zones, which were then subdivided into continental or maritime climatic regions or according to east–west climatic differences. This study renews Alisov’s CC for the first time in almost 70 years and employs data-driven machine learning to establish a standard for causal CC based on air masses.
      PubDate: 2023-04-11
  • Accessing the energy-limited and sparsely populated deep biosphere:
           achievements and ongoing challenges of available technologies

    • Abstract: Microbes in marine sediments detected and counted by direct observation of membrane-filtered sediment samples stained with acridine orange. This technique can still be applied to high-biomass (> 105 cells/cm3) sedimentary habitats, such as organic-rich sediments collected in shallow areas near the seafloor. However, to further explore the nutrients and energy turnover under extremely low energy flux conditions, or in habitats that are close to the lower limit of the biosphere, technological breakthroughs have been required to increase the detection sensitivity for microbial life at densities of a few cells/cm3 of sediment. These technological developments contributed to increasing fundamental information on microbial life at the fringes of the subseafloor biosphere and led to the discovery of revivable microbes in sediments aged up to 101.5 million years old. More recently, chemical detection methods have revealed the existence of spores in the deep biosphere that are impermeable to conventional DNA stains. Previous applications of molecular biology-based approaches have been limited to relatively higher biomass samples, potentially because the cells surviving in these very low energy flux environments have less integrated genomes. Here, I review the contribution and importance of the technological developments that have been made in the study of microbes from the subseafloor biosphere, recent developments of alternative methods to microscopically detect microbial spores and their application to deep subseafloor sediments, and the challenges associated with applying molecular biological approaches to study low-biomass samples.
      PubDate: 2023-04-10
  • Development of particle swarm clustered optimization method for
           applications in applied sciences

    • Abstract: An original particle swarm clustered optimization (PSCO) method has been developed for the implementations in applied sciences. The developed PSCO does not trap in local solutions in contrary to corresponding solutions obtained by the applications of particle swarm optimization algorithm that is frequently used in many disciplines of applied sciences. The integrations of PSCO with multilayer perceptron neural network, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), linear equation, and nonlinear equation were applied to predict the Vistula river discharge. The performance of PSCO was also compared with autonomous groups particle swarm optimization, dwarf mongoose optimization algorithm, and weighted mean of vectors. The results indicate that the PSCO has no tendency to trap in local solutions and its global solutions are more accurate than other algorithms. The accuracy of all developed models in predicting river discharge was acceptable (R2 > 0.9). However, the derived nonlinear models are more accurate. The outcome of thirty consecutive runs shows that the derived PSCO improves the performance of machine learning techniques. The results also show that ANFIS-PSCO with RMSE = 108.433 and R2 = 0.961 is the most accurate model.
      PubDate: 2023-04-05
  • Submarine paleoseismology in the Japan Trench of northeastern Japan:
           turbidite stratigraphy and sedimentology using paleomagnetic and rock
           magnetic analyses

    • Abstract: Previous studies of sediments recovered from the Japan Trench between 37° 25′ N and 38° 30′ N document distinctive turbidite beds induced by huge earthquakes. We studied two sediment cores at 39°N to investigate the depositional record further north along the Japan Trench. These investigations spatially extend our knowledge of the depositional record of earthquakes in the Japan Trench. We examined specifically the precise stratigraphy of turbidite beds using paleomagnetic secular variation, and a tephra correlation. Additionally, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) was investigated to understand the depositional conditions of each turbidite bed. The inferred ages of turbidite beds in this study closely approximate their previously reported ages, which are correlated with the historical and prehistorical huge earthquakes off Tohoku, northeastern Japan. The paleo current directions during deposition of turbidite are inferred from their grain alignment based on AMS data. The directions of basal part reveal northeastward in the slope-side basin and north-northeast in oceanward basin. The directions of basal and upper thick muddy part of a turbidite bed are not always consistent, which suggests the hydraulic condition in the narrow elongated deep-sea basin. This fact could be essential information to elucidate a unique hydraulic condition during the turbidite deposition in the confined basin in the Japan Trench.
      PubDate: 2023-03-28
  • Correction: How large peak ground acceleration by large earthquakes could
           generate turbidity currents along the slope of northern Japan Trench

    • PubDate: 2023-03-27
  • Correction: Climate-relevant properties of black carbon aerosols revealed
           by in situ measurements: a review

    • PubDate: 2023-03-27
  • A simple method for taxon-specific purification of diatom frustules from
           ocean sediments using a cell sorter

    • Abstract: It is necessary to purify diatom frustules by taxon to perform accurate geochemical analyses of diatom fossils preserved in sediments. However, the small size of diatoms has hitherto prevented taxon-specific purification; therefore, previous geochemical analyses of diatom frustules have been performed with mixtures of various taxa. In this study, we developed a taxon-selective collection method of diatom fossils that uses a cell sorter. The experimental material comprised six samples from a sediment core of Hole U1538A in the Scotia Sea, Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean drilled during the International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 382. Following conventional pretreatments (removal of organic matter and carbonates as well as clay minerals), we conducted cell sorter experiments focusing on the optical and fluorescence characteristics of the diatom fossils. We succeeded in selectively isolating with high purity five diatom taxa representing the Southern Ocean diatom flora: (1) discoid diatoms (mainly Thalassiosira) with a moderate degree of fluorescence; (2) Fragilariopsis (mainly Fragilariopsis kerguelensis), which exhibits the highest fluorescence values; (3) Rhizosolenia; (4) Eucampia antarctica; and (5) needle-shaped diatoms (Thalassiothrix). This taxon-specific diatom purification method will enable more accurate geochemical analyses, such as the oxygen isotope ratio (δ18O) of diatom frustules, which is likely to lead to significant advances in paleoceanography, especially at high latitudes or in upwelling zones where diatoms are abundant. This method will also be useful in paleolimnology, ocean biology, and phycology.
      PubDate: 2023-03-08
  • Climate-relevant properties of black carbon aerosols revealed by in situ
           measurements: a review

    • Abstract: Light-absorbing aerosols affect atmospheric radiation, dynamics, and precipitations through shortwave absorption in the atmosphere and snowpack. Black carbon (BC) is considered the most significant contributor to global shortwave absorption among all the known light-absorbing aerosol components. In analyses and predictions of BC’s lifecycle and climate effects, multiscale field observations are needed to test the fundamental assumptions in the climate model. In situ measurements, the focus of this review, fill the gap of observational information accessible from remote sensing and laboratory analyses. This article reviews historical backgrounds, recent advances in in situ measurements of BC, and the resulting observational findings used to update the assumptions in climate models and remote sensing. Finally, we raise open problems that demand a rethinking and future investigation. Illustrating the physical principle of detecting the light-absorbing black carbon and iron oxides aerosol particles using the single-particle laser-induced incandescence
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
  • Fault geometry of M6-class normal-faulting earthquakes in the outer trench
           slope of Japan Trench from ocean bottom seismograph observations

    • Abstract: Since the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake, intra-plate normal-faulting earthquakes, including several M7-class earthquakes, have occurred in the outer trench slope area from the trench to the outer rise along the Japan Trench. Concerns regarding large earthquakes and associated tsunamis have also arisen. Based on aftershock distributions, several outer trench slope normal-faulting earthquakes (hereinafter referred to as outer-rise earthquakes) are likely related to the rupture of multiple faults. However, few observations have clearly shown how multiple faults act during outer-rise earthquakes. During the ocean bottom seismograph (OBS) observations in the outer trench slope area of the central Japan Trench from September 2017 to July 2018, three M6-class normal-faulting earthquakes (Mw 6.2 on September 20, Mw 6.2 on October 06, and Mw 6.0 on November 12) occurred around the OBS network. The near-field OBS observations provided detailed information on hypocenter locations and focal mechanisms of the mainshocks and aftershocks, including immediately after the mainshocks. We investigated the fault configurations of normal-faulting earthquakes based on OBS observations. During the September 2017 earthquake, the mainshock ruptured high-angle normal faults with a dip angle of 65°. Off-fault aftershock activities that were not directly related to the mainshock rupture and could be explained by the stress changes caused by the mainshock were confirmed. However, hypocenter distributions and focal mechanisms of the main and aftershocks of the October and November 2017 earthquakes suggest that the mainshock ruptured multiple faults with various dipping directions, angles, and strike orientations. The complicated fault geometry should be considered a possible fault model for large outer-rise earthquakes and related tsunamis.
      PubDate: 2023-03-03
  • Near-real-time estimation of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from China based on
           atmospheric observations on Hateruma and Yonaguni Islands, Japan

    • Abstract: We developed a near-real-time estimation method for temporal changes in fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions from China for 3 months [January, February, March (JFM)] based on atmospheric CO2 and CH4 observations on Hateruma Island (HAT, 24.06° N, 123.81° E) and Yonaguni Island (YON, 24.47° N, 123.01° E), Japan. These two remote islands are in the downwind region of continental East Asia during winter because of the East Asian monsoon. Previous studies have revealed that monthly averages of synoptic-scale variability ratios of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 (ΔCO2/ΔCH4) observed at HAT and YON in JFM are sensitive to changes in continental emissions. From the analysis based on an atmospheric transport model with all components of CO2 and CH4 fluxes, we found that the ΔCO2/ΔCH4 ratio was linearly related to the FFCO2/CH4 emission ratio in China because calculating the variability ratio canceled out the transport influences. Using the simulated linear relationship, we converted the observed ΔCO2/ΔCH4 ratios into FFCO2/CH4 emission ratios in China. The change rates of the emission ratios for 2020–2022 were calculated relative to those for the preceding 9-year period (2011–2019), during which relatively stable ΔCO2/ΔCH4 ratios were observed. These changes in the emission ratios can be read as FFCO2 emission changes under the assumption of no interannual variations in CH4 emissions and biospheric CO2 fluxes for JFM. The resulting average changes in the FFCO2 emissions in January, February, and March 2020 were 17 ± 8%, − 36 ± 7%, and − 12 ± 8%, respectively, (− 10 ± 9% for JFM overall) relative to 2011–2019. These results were generally consistent with previous estimates. The emission changes for January, February, and March were 18 ± 8%, − 2 ± 10%, and 29 ± 12%, respectively, in 2021 (15 ± 10% for JFM overall) and 20 ± 9%, − 3 ± 10%, and − 10 ± 9%, respectively, in 2022 (2 ± 9% for JFM overall). These results suggest that the FFCO2 emissions from China rebounded to the normal level or set a new high record in early 2021 after a reduction during the COVID-19 lockdown. In addition, the estimated reduction in March 2022 might be attributed to the influence of a new wave of COVID-19 infections in Shanghai.
      PubDate: 2023-03-02
  • Heterogeneous rheology of Japan subduction zone revealed by postseismic
           deformation of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake

    • Abstract: The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake produced the most well-recorded postseismic deformation of any megathrust earthquake in the world. Over the last decade, researchers have used a dense and widespread geodetic network of more than 1300 Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations inland, as well as the about 50 stations on the seafloor, to investigate the various deformation sources responsible for the observed crustal deformation. One of the contributing mechanisms to this crustal deformation is the stress relaxation of the viscoelastic mantle beneath the Japanese arc. As evident in experimental rock physics and geophysical observations, ambient mantle conditions and related rheology are expected to be heterogeneous in space. However, the contribution of such rheological heterogeneities to the postseismic deformation is still poorly understood. Here, we piece together several rheological heterogeneities inferred from the decade-long postseismic deformation of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. We reviewed more than twenty postseismic models to understand how viscoelastic earth can influence the postseismic surface deformation observed after the Tohoku-oki earthquake. Besides, we employed several synthetic models to tease out the contribution of individual rheological heterogeneities such as depth-dependent rheology of mantle wedge, oceanic asthenosphere, and low-viscosity zone beneath the volcanic front. We demonstrate that the vertical postseismic observation is the key to unravel rheological complexity beneath northeastern Japan. The broader vertical deformation pattern reveals the major viscosity contrast between backarc and forearc, and small-scale subsidence detects the presence of low-viscosity bodies related to arc magmatism. In short, this review paper provides a vista of three-dimensional heterogeneous rheology of viscoelastic earth. These rheological heterogeneities may play a crucial role in bridging the gap between our understanding of different phase of subduction zone earthquake cycle.
      PubDate: 2023-02-28
  • How large peak ground acceleration by large earthquakes could generate
           turbidity currents along the slope of northern Japan Trench

    • Abstract: Deep-sea turbidite has been used to determine the history of occurrence of large earthquakes. Surface-sediment remobilization is a mechanism of the generation of earthquake-induced turbidity currents. However, the detailed mechanism of surface-sediment remobilization caused by earthquake ground shaking is unclear. To understand how high peak ground acceleration (PGA) caused by a large earthquake can remobilize surface sediments, we determined the age of a surface-sediment core recovered from the mid-slope terrace (MST) of the inner slope of the Japan Trench in northern Sanriku to determine turbidites generated by large historical earthquakes and calculate the PGAs of these earthquakes using an empirical attenuation relation commonly used in Japan. Small offsets in radiocarbon ages and excess 210Pb activities between turbidite and hemipelagic muds suggest that the turbidites in the core resulted from surface-sediment remobilization. 137Cs and excess 210Pb chronologies indicate that the three uppermost turbidites in the core are correlated with three large historical earthquakes, namely the 1968 common era (CE) Tokachi-oki, the 1933 CE Showa–Sanriku, and the 1896 CE Meiji–Sanriku earthquakes. Calculation of PGAs for large historical earthquakes along the northern Japan Trench indicates that a PGA of > 0.6 g is necessary for turbidite deposition in the MST basin. This threshold is larger than that reported for central Sanriku and may vary spatially. Moreover, turbidites in the MST deposits are more frequent in the northern Japan Trench than in the central Japan Trench, suggesting that the occurrence of three types of large M8-class earthquakes in the northern Japan Trench might have contributed to the frequent occurrence of large PGAs.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
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