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  Subjects -> GEOGRAPHY (Total: 493 journals)
Showing 401 - 277 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
Revista de Geografia (Recife)     Open Access  
Revista de Geografia e Ordenamento do Território     Open Access  
Revista de Geografía Norte Grande     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Asociacion Geologica Argentina     Open Access  
Revista de Teledetección     Open Access  
Revista del Museo de La Plata     Open Access  
Revista do Instituto de Estudos Brasileiros     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica : Tempo - Técnica - Território / Eletronic Magazine : Time - Technique - Territory     Open Access  
Revista Espinhaço     Open Access  
Revista Estudios Hemisféricos y Polares     Open Access  
Revista Geama     Open Access  
Revista Geoaraguaia     Open Access  
Revista Geográfica de América Central     Open Access  
Revista Geonorte     Open Access  
Revista Interamericana de Ambiente y Turismo     Open Access  
Revista Intercontinental de Gestão Desportiva     Open Access  
Revista Interdisciplinar da Mobilidade Humana     Open Access  
Revista Latinoamericana de Antropología del Trabajo     Open Access  
Revista Tamoios     Open Access  
Revista Tocantinense de Geografia     Open Access  
Revista Universitaria de Geografía     Open Access  
Revista Uruguaya de Antropología y Etnografía     Open Access  
Revue archéologique du Centre de la France     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue de géographie historique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RIEM : Revista Internacional de Estudios Migratorios     Open Access  
Rocznik Toruński     Open Access  
Rural & Urbano     Open Access  
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access  
Sasdaya : Gadjah Mada Journal of Humanities     Open Access  
Saúde e Meio Ambiente : Revista Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Scandinavistica Vilnensis     Open Access  
Scientific Annals of Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava. Geography Series     Open Access  
Scottish Geographical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Scripta Nova : Revista Electrónica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Sémata : Ciencias Sociais e Humanidades     Full-text available via subscription  
Seoul Journal of Korean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Social Dynamics: A journal of African studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Social Geography Discussions (SGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Sociedade & Natureza     Open Access  
South African Geographical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Geomatics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
South Asian Diaspora     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
South Australian Geographical Journal     Open Access  
Southeastern Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Southeastern Geographer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Southern African Journal of Environmental Education     Open Access  
Sport i Turystyka : Środkowoeuropejskie Czasopismo Naukowe     Open Access  
Sriwijaya Journal of Environment     Open Access  
Standort - Zeitschrift für angewandte Geographie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai, Geologia     Open Access  
Studies in African Languages and Cultures     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technology and Technique of Typography     Open Access  
Tectonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Terra     Open Access  
Terra Brasilis     Open Access  
Terrae Incognitae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Territoire en Mouvement     Open Access  
The Canadian Geographer/le Geographe Canadien     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
The Geographic Base     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
The Geographical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
The South Asianist     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Third Pole: Journal of Geography Education     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for Kortlægning og Arealforvaltning     Open Access  
Tiempo y Espacio     Open Access  
TRaNS : Trans-Regional-and-National Studies of Southeast Asia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Transmodernity : Journal of Peripheral Cultural Production of the Luso-Hispanic World     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Treballs de la Societat Catalana de Geografia     Open Access  
TRIM. Tordesillas : Revista de investigación multidisciplinar     Open Access  
Turystyka Kulturowa     Open Access  
UD y la Geomática     Open Access  
UNM Geographic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Urban Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Urban History Review / Revue d'histoire urbaine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Urban Research & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Vegueta : Anuario de la Facultad de Geografía e Historia     Open Access  
Visión Antataura     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Watershed Ecology and the Environment     Open Access  
Wellbeing, Space & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Załącznik Kulturoznawczy / Cultural Studies Appendix     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Progress in Earth and Planetary Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.349
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 16  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2197-4284
Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [229 journals]
  • Submarine paleoseismology in the Japan Trench of northeastern Japan:
           turbidite stratigraphy and sedimentology using paleomagnetic and rock
           magnetic analyses

    • Abstract: Abstract Previous studies of sediments recovered from the Japan Trench between 37° 25′ N and 38° 30′ N document distinctive turbidite beds induced by huge earthquakes. We studied two sediment cores at 39°N to investigate the depositional record further north along the Japan Trench. These investigations spatially extend our knowledge of the depositional record of earthquakes in the Japan Trench. We examined specifically the precise stratigraphy of turbidite beds using paleomagnetic secular variation, and a tephra correlation. Additionally, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) was investigated to understand the depositional conditions of each turbidite bed. The inferred ages of turbidite beds in this study closely approximate their previously reported ages, which are correlated with the historical and prehistorical huge earthquakes off Tohoku, northeastern Japan. The paleo current directions during deposition of turbidite are inferred from their grain alignment based on AMS data. The directions of basal part reveal northeastward in the slope-side basin and north-northeast in oceanward basin. The directions of basal and upper thick muddy part of a turbidite bed are not always consistent, which suggests the hydraulic condition in the narrow elongated deep-sea basin. This fact could be essential information to elucidate a unique hydraulic condition during the turbidite deposition in the confined basin in the Japan Trench.
      PubDate: 2023-03-28
  • Correction: How large peak ground acceleration by large earthquakes could
           generate turbidity currents along the slope of northern Japan Trench

    • PubDate: 2023-03-27
  • Correction: Climate-relevant properties of black carbon aerosols revealed
           by in situ measurements: a review

    • PubDate: 2023-03-27
  • A simple method for taxon-specific purification of diatom frustules from
           ocean sediments using a cell sorter

    • Abstract: Abstract It is necessary to purify diatom frustules by taxon to perform accurate geochemical analyses of diatom fossils preserved in sediments. However, the small size of diatoms has hitherto prevented taxon-specific purification; therefore, previous geochemical analyses of diatom frustules have been performed with mixtures of various taxa. In this study, we developed a taxon-selective collection method of diatom fossils that uses a cell sorter. The experimental material comprised six samples from a sediment core of Hole U1538A in the Scotia Sea, Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean drilled during the International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 382. Following conventional pretreatments (removal of organic matter and carbonates as well as clay minerals), we conducted cell sorter experiments focusing on the optical and fluorescence characteristics of the diatom fossils. We succeeded in selectively isolating with high purity five diatom taxa representing the Southern Ocean diatom flora: (1) discoid diatoms (mainly Thalassiosira) with a moderate degree of fluorescence; (2) Fragilariopsis (mainly Fragilariopsis kerguelensis), which exhibits the highest fluorescence values; (3) Rhizosolenia; (4) Eucampia antarctica; and (5) needle-shaped diatoms (Thalassiothrix). This taxon-specific diatom purification method will enable more accurate geochemical analyses, such as the oxygen isotope ratio (δ18O) of diatom frustules, which is likely to lead to significant advances in paleoceanography, especially at high latitudes or in upwelling zones where diatoms are abundant. This method will also be useful in paleolimnology, ocean biology, and phycology.
      PubDate: 2023-03-08
  • Climate-relevant properties of black carbon aerosols revealed by in situ
           measurements: a review

    • Abstract: Abstract Light-absorbing aerosols affect atmospheric radiation, dynamics, and precipitations through shortwave absorption in the atmosphere and snowpack. Black carbon (BC) is considered the most significant contributor to global shortwave absorption among all the known light-absorbing aerosol components. In analyses and predictions of BC’s lifecycle and climate effects, multiscale field observations are needed to test the fundamental assumptions in the climate model. In situ measurements, the focus of this review, fill the gap of observational information accessible from remote sensing and laboratory analyses. This article reviews historical backgrounds, recent advances in in situ measurements of BC, and the resulting observational findings used to update the assumptions in climate models and remote sensing. Finally, we raise open problems that demand a rethinking and future investigation. Illustrating the physical principle of detecting the light-absorbing black carbon and iron oxides aerosol particles using the single-particle laser-induced incandescence
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
  • Fault geometry of M6-class normal-faulting earthquakes in the outer trench
           slope of Japan Trench from ocean bottom seismograph observations

    • Abstract: Abstract Since the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake, intra-plate normal-faulting earthquakes, including several M7-class earthquakes, have occurred in the outer trench slope area from the trench to the outer rise along the Japan Trench. Concerns regarding large earthquakes and associated tsunamis have also arisen. Based on aftershock distributions, several outer trench slope normal-faulting earthquakes (hereinafter referred to as outer-rise earthquakes) are likely related to the rupture of multiple faults. However, few observations have clearly shown how multiple faults act during outer-rise earthquakes. During the ocean bottom seismograph (OBS) observations in the outer trench slope area of the central Japan Trench from September 2017 to July 2018, three M6-class normal-faulting earthquakes (Mw 6.2 on September 20, Mw 6.2 on October 06, and Mw 6.0 on November 12) occurred around the OBS network. The near-field OBS observations provided detailed information on hypocenter locations and focal mechanisms of the mainshocks and aftershocks, including immediately after the mainshocks. We investigated the fault configurations of normal-faulting earthquakes based on OBS observations. During the September 2017 earthquake, the mainshock ruptured high-angle normal faults with a dip angle of 65°. Off-fault aftershock activities that were not directly related to the mainshock rupture and could be explained by the stress changes caused by the mainshock were confirmed. However, hypocenter distributions and focal mechanisms of the main and aftershocks of the October and November 2017 earthquakes suggest that the mainshock ruptured multiple faults with various dipping directions, angles, and strike orientations. The complicated fault geometry should be considered a possible fault model for large outer-rise earthquakes and related tsunamis.
      PubDate: 2023-03-03
  • Near-real-time estimation of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from China based on
           atmospheric observations on Hateruma and Yonaguni Islands, Japan

    • Abstract: Abstract We developed a near-real-time estimation method for temporal changes in fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions from China for 3 months [January, February, March (JFM)] based on atmospheric CO2 and CH4 observations on Hateruma Island (HAT, 24.06° N, 123.81° E) and Yonaguni Island (YON, 24.47° N, 123.01° E), Japan. These two remote islands are in the downwind region of continental East Asia during winter because of the East Asian monsoon. Previous studies have revealed that monthly averages of synoptic-scale variability ratios of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 (ΔCO2/ΔCH4) observed at HAT and YON in JFM are sensitive to changes in continental emissions. From the analysis based on an atmospheric transport model with all components of CO2 and CH4 fluxes, we found that the ΔCO2/ΔCH4 ratio was linearly related to the FFCO2/CH4 emission ratio in China because calculating the variability ratio canceled out the transport influences. Using the simulated linear relationship, we converted the observed ΔCO2/ΔCH4 ratios into FFCO2/CH4 emission ratios in China. The change rates of the emission ratios for 2020–2022 were calculated relative to those for the preceding 9-year period (2011–2019), during which relatively stable ΔCO2/ΔCH4 ratios were observed. These changes in the emission ratios can be read as FFCO2 emission changes under the assumption of no interannual variations in CH4 emissions and biospheric CO2 fluxes for JFM. The resulting average changes in the FFCO2 emissions in January, February, and March 2020 were 17 ± 8%, − 36 ± 7%, and − 12 ± 8%, respectively, (− 10 ± 9% for JFM overall) relative to 2011–2019. These results were generally consistent with previous estimates. The emission changes for January, February, and March were 18 ± 8%, − 2 ± 10%, and 29 ± 12%, respectively, in 2021 (15 ± 10% for JFM overall) and 20 ± 9%, − 3 ± 10%, and − 10 ± 9%, respectively, in 2022 (2 ± 9% for JFM overall). These results suggest that the FFCO2 emissions from China rebounded to the normal level or set a new high record in early 2021 after a reduction during the COVID-19 lockdown. In addition, the estimated reduction in March 2022 might be attributed to the influence of a new wave of COVID-19 infections in Shanghai.
      PubDate: 2023-03-02
  • Heterogeneous rheology of Japan subduction zone revealed by postseismic
           deformation of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake

    • Abstract: Abstract The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake produced the most well-recorded postseismic deformation of any megathrust earthquake in the world. Over the last decade, researchers have used a dense and widespread geodetic network of more than 1300 Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations inland, as well as the about 50 stations on the seafloor, to investigate the various deformation sources responsible for the observed crustal deformation. One of the contributing mechanisms to this crustal deformation is the stress relaxation of the viscoelastic mantle beneath the Japanese arc. As evident in experimental rock physics and geophysical observations, ambient mantle conditions and related rheology are expected to be heterogeneous in space. However, the contribution of such rheological heterogeneities to the postseismic deformation is still poorly understood. Here, we piece together several rheological heterogeneities inferred from the decade-long postseismic deformation of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. We reviewed more than twenty postseismic models to understand how viscoelastic earth can influence the postseismic surface deformation observed after the Tohoku-oki earthquake. Besides, we employed several synthetic models to tease out the contribution of individual rheological heterogeneities such as depth-dependent rheology of mantle wedge, oceanic asthenosphere, and low-viscosity zone beneath the volcanic front. We demonstrate that the vertical postseismic observation is the key to unravel rheological complexity beneath northeastern Japan. The broader vertical deformation pattern reveals the major viscosity contrast between backarc and forearc, and small-scale subsidence detects the presence of low-viscosity bodies related to arc magmatism. In short, this review paper provides a vista of three-dimensional heterogeneous rheology of viscoelastic earth. These rheological heterogeneities may play a crucial role in bridging the gap between our understanding of different phase of subduction zone earthquake cycle.
      PubDate: 2023-02-28
  • How large peak ground acceleration by large earthquakes could generate
           turbidity currents along the slope of northern Japan Trench

    • Abstract: Abstract Deep-sea turbidite has been used to determine the history of occurrence of large earthquakes. Surface-sediment remobilization is a mechanism of the generation of earthquake-induced turbidity currents. However, the detailed mechanism of surface-sediment remobilization caused by earthquake ground shaking is unclear. To understand how high peak ground acceleration (PGA) caused by a large earthquake can remobilize surface sediments, we determined the age of a surface-sediment core recovered from the mid-slope terrace (MST) of the inner slope of the Japan Trench in northern Sanriku to determine turbidites generated by large historical earthquakes and calculate the PGAs of these earthquakes using an empirical attenuation relation commonly used in Japan. Small offsets in radiocarbon ages and excess 210Pb activities between turbidite and hemipelagic muds suggest that the turbidites in the core resulted from surface-sediment remobilization. 137Cs and excess 210Pb chronologies indicate that the three uppermost turbidites in the core are correlated with three large historical earthquakes, namely the 1968 common era (CE) Tokachi-oki, the 1933 CE Showa–Sanriku, and the 1896 CE Meiji–Sanriku earthquakes. Calculation of PGAs for large historical earthquakes along the northern Japan Trench indicates that a PGA of > 0.6 g is necessary for turbidite deposition in the MST basin. This threshold is larger than that reported for central Sanriku and may vary spatially. Moreover, turbidites in the MST deposits are more frequent in the northern Japan Trench than in the central Japan Trench, suggesting that the occurrence of three types of large M8-class earthquakes in the northern Japan Trench might have contributed to the frequent occurrence of large PGAs.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
  • Historical regional climate changes in Japan in winter as assessed by a
           5-km regional climate model with a land surface process

    • Abstract: Abstract We investigate historical regional climate changes in Japan from 1959 to 2020, analyzing a high-resolution dynamical downscaling forced by the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55). One-year continuous simulations are conducted by the non-hydrostatic regional climate model with a land surface model that includes the snow accumulation process, which enables us to evaluate the seasonal variation of snow cover in all of Japan. Our simulation reproduces interannual variations of the annual mean surface air temperature and annual total precipitation, and it shows rapid warming since around 1980. The annual maximum snow depth and annual maximum daily snowfall show significant decreasing trends at lower elevations on the Japan Sea sides of eastern and western Japan. Areas at higher elevations in eastern Japan show no trend in the maximum snow depth and a significant increasing trend in the maximum daily snowfall. In northern Japan, altitudinal dependencies in snow depth and snowfall changes are smaller on the Japan Sea side than on the Pacific Ocean side: the Japan Sea side shows insignificant changes in snow depth at all elevations, while the Pacific Ocean side shows decreasing and significant increasing trends at lower and higher elevations, respectively. The total number of snow-covered days is decreasing at most elevations in all regions, while the rate of decrease is smaller at higher elevations and latitudes. Composite analyses of annual maximum daily snowfall events at one prefectural city facing the Japan Sea in central Japan indicate that heavy daily snowfall occurs when the Japan Polar air mass Convergence Zone appears over the Japan Sea and the snowfall amounts show increasing and decreasing trends over the mountainous and coastal areas, respectively, due to historical warming and moistening. Our results are basically consistent with previous studies that have focused on future changes in snow depth and snowfall.
      PubDate: 2023-02-24
  • Synoptic meteorological conditions of gamma-ray glows in winter

    • Abstract: Abstract The Gamma-ray Observation of Winter Thunderclouds collaboration has detected 70 gamma-ray glows, a high-energy phenomenon associated with thunderstorms, from October 2016 to March 2020 in Kanazawa and Komatsu, Ishikawa Prefecture, a central part of Japan facing the Sea of Japan. Based on surface and 500 hPa analyses, numerical prediction models, and surface and satellite observations, we classify their synoptic meteorological conditions into mainly three types. Most of the glow-detection cases were in west or west-southwest winds around the detection sites. Over half of the cases took place when a convex structure of surface pressure, often associated with a trough at 500 hPa, was formed along the coast of the Sea of Japan. Besides, we extract non-detection cases during winter thunderstorms in Kanazawa to compare with the glow-detection cases. While some of the non-detection cases have similar meteorological conditions as the glow-detection cases, most of the non-detection cases exhibited higher temperatures at the surface and 850 hPa, and higher − 10 \(^{\circ }\) C altitudes, which indicates that electrification occurs at higher altitudes than the glow-detection cases. Therefore, gamma rays might have been produced but were attenuated before reaching the ground and undetectable at sea level.
      PubDate: 2023-02-21
  • Ensemble rainfall–runoff and inundation simulations using 100 and 1000
           member rainfalls by 4D LETKF on the Kumagawa River flooding 2020

    • Abstract: Abstract This paper presents the 1000 ensemble flood simulations using ensemble rainfalls simulated by 4D LETKF. The number of ensemble rainfall members is large as 1000 compared to the operational rainfall products of two-digit numbers to avoid sampling errors in the three-dimensional meteorological simulation based on chaotic theory. Using the large data set, 1000 ensemble rainfall–runoff for dam catchments and high-resolution inundation simulations of large area are carried out focusing on the Kumagawa river catchment. Herewith, the comparisons were carried out with 21-member ensemble rainfalls of an operational forecast by Japan Meteorological Agency and 100-member 4D-LETKF ensemble rainfalls simulated independent of 1000-member 4D-LETKF. At the same time, the accuracy of selective 100-member ensembles out of 1000 members is investigated. As a result, although many previous research works show a large number of ensemble simulations are necessary for three-dimensional meteorological field, the number could be reduced in the catchment-average rainfall–runoff and 2.5-dimensional inundation simulations given that the rainfall prediction has a certain level of accuracy since improving the discharge prediction accuracy with lower dimension is sometimes possible by adjusting the horizontally/vertically integrated model parameters determined by topography and soil characteristics in advance against the observed rainfall. Also, the 1000 ensembles could be classified into several patterns in horizontally accumulated 2D rainfall field. Likewise, the flood flow moves toward the low elevation area and river; thus, the resultant 2.5-dimensional flood field does not show much variety as three-dimensional meteorological simulation. The paper summarizes these studies.
      PubDate: 2023-02-02
  • Uplift rate of Kitadaito Jima Island on the lithospheric forebulge of the
           Philippine Sea Plate

    • Abstract: Abstract Estimates of uplift rates for lithospheric forebulges are needed to understand exact plate motions at plate convergence zones and to delineate the fate of coral reefs atop the forebulges. A carbonate island on a lithospheric forebulge can provide excellent materials for estimating uplift rate because carbonate sediments can be dated and their paleo-water depth determined. We estimated the uplift rate of Kitadaito Jima Island, a carbonate island on the lithospheric forebulge of the Philippine Sea Plate that is subducting beneath the Eurasian Plate. Marine skeletal sands containing pebble-sized bioclasts and filling the concavity of an intertidal erosional notch at an elevation of ~ 71 m were found near the top of this island. Strontium isotope ages ranging from 1.78 to 2.01 Ma with an average of 1.89 Ma (standard deviation = 0.07 Ma) were obtained from these deposits. As global sea level at 1.89 Ma was ~ 21 m lower than the present, the mean uplift rate was estimated at ~ 49 m/million years (Myr) with a compounded uncertainty of ± 2.6 m/Myr. This rate is comparable to, or up to ~ 140 m/Myr less than, rates reported from other Indo-Pacific carbonate islands in similar tectonic settings. This study illustrates how contemporary Sr isotope age models and careful considerations of limestone sample depositional depths can yield more accurate and precise uplift rates of modern forearc bulges than possible in many older studies.
      PubDate: 2023-01-18
  • Significance of the high-pressure properties and structural evolution of
           gas hydrates for inferring the interior of icy bodies

    • Abstract: Abstract Hydrogen, methane, and water ice are among the most abundant materials in the universe. Based on experimental, theoretical, and spacecraft data, gas hydrates consisting of gas and water ice have been predicted to exist throughout the universe. This review discusses the high-pressure properties of two common gas hydrates (methane and hydrogen hydrates) at low and high temperatures based primarily on experimental results. Gas hydrates consist of a water molecule host and a gaseous guest. They have a clathrate structure at low pressure and a filled-ice structure at high pressure. The host encloses the guest, and a specific interaction occurs between the guest and host, resulting in unique physical properties. When subjected to pressure, gas hydrates undergo various phase changes. Based on pressure and guest size, a general rule for phase changes occurring in gas hydrates exists. Analysis of the phase-transition mechanism shows that some cages are maintained after the transition to the next clathrate structure, while others are recombined into different cages of the next structure. This is a novel mechanism that can be called “cage recombination mechanism.” Low-temperature and high-pressure experiments have revealed that as the pressure increases, the guest molecules undergo a stepwise progression of orientational ordering, i.e., restriction of free rotation, which induces structural changes that stabilize the structure at high pressure. Theoretical studies have predicted that hydrogen-bond symmetrization in the host occurs at even higher pressures, further stabilizing the structure. Thus, hydrates respond to environmental changes such as pressure to achieve self-organization by the orientational ordering of the guest and hydrogen-bond symmetrization of the host. Additionally, results of high-temperature and high-pressure experiments conducted at conditions comparable to those in Neptune’s ice mantle show that methane hydrate decomposes into solid methane and ice VII, both of which melt at further elevated temperatures. Then, the methane molecules undergo further molecular dissociation to form diamonds. These findings are valuable for modeling the interiors of icy planets and understanding how magnetic fields and heat are generated.
      PubDate: 2023-01-13
  • Single station bias calculation using data from calibrated GNSS station
           for various baseline distances

    • Abstract: Abstract Precise ionospheric TEC can be derived from dual-frequency GNSS carrier phase leveled pseudorange measurements. However, differential code biases (DCB) of satellite and receiver are the main errors that cannot be ignored for precise TEC calculation. We have proposed a method of calculating station DCB using calibrated STEC data from a baseline GNSS station. The method is simply based on the understanding that the ionosphere observed by two baseline GNSS stations at the same universal time (UT) can be considered similar and would pose similar delay to the signals propagating to the two stations. The method is tested for different baseline distances of 250–1000 km and in different latitudinal regions. For 500 km baseline, the average DCB calculation error for one year data is less than 0.22 ns, 0.11 ns, and 0.25 ns for low, mid and high latitude regions, respectively. The most consistent results were obtained from high latitudes where the standard deviation remains less than 0.22 ns. The least accurate were the low latitude results where the spread of error were between 0.29 to 0.50 ns. Results showed that the accuracy and consistency of the DCB estimation reduced with the increasing baseline distance between the two participating GNSS stations. This was specifically true for low latitude regions.
      PubDate: 2023-01-09
  • A review on slow earthquakes in the Japan Trench

    • Abstract: Abstract Slow earthquakes are episodic slow fault slips. They form a fundamental component of interplate deformation processes, along with fast, regular earthquakes. Recent seismological and geodetic observations have revealed detailed slow earthquake activity along the Japan Trench—the subduction zone where the March 11, 2011, moment magnitude (Mw) 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake occurred. In this paper, we review observational, experimental, and simulation studies on slow earthquakes along the Japan Trench and their research history. By compiling the observations of slow earthquakes (e.g., tectonic tremors, very-low-frequency earthquakes, and slow slip events) and related fault slip phenomena (e.g., small repeating earthquakes, earthquake swarms, and foreshocks of large interplate earthquakes), we present an integrated slow earthquake distribution along the Japan Trench. Slow and megathrust earthquakes are spatially complementary in distribution, and slow earthquakes sometimes trigger fast earthquakes in their vicinities. An approximately 200-km-long along-strike gap of seismic slow earthquakes (i.e., tectonic tremors and very-low-frequency earthquakes) corresponds with the huge interplate locked zone of the central Japan Trench. The Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake ruptured this locked zone, but the rupture terminated without propagating deep into the slow-earthquake-genic regions in the northern and southern Japan Trench. Slow earthquakes are involved in both the rupture initiation and termination processes of megathrust earthquakes in the Japan Trench. We then compared the integrated slow earthquake distribution with the crustal structure of the Japan Trench (e.g., interplate sedimentary units, subducting seamounts, petit-spot volcanoes, horst and graben structures, residual gravity, seismic velocity structure, and plate boundary reflection intensity) and described the geological environment of the slow-earthquake-genic regions (e.g., water sources, pressure–temperature conditions, and metamorphism). The integrated slow earthquake distribution enabled us to comprehensively discuss the role of slow earthquakes in the occurrence process of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. The correspondences of the slow earthquake distribution with the crustal structure and geological environment provide insights into the slow-earthquake-genesis in the Japan Trench and imply that highly overpressured fluids are key to understanding the complex slow earthquake distribution. Furthermore, we propose that detailed monitoring of slow earthquake activity can improve the forecasts of interplate seismicity along the Japan Trench.
      PubDate: 2023-01-03
  • Assessment of S-net seafloor pressure data quality in view of seafloor

    • Abstract: Abstract Long-term continuous observation of seafloor pressure is effective for detecting seafloor vertical deformations that are associated with transient tectonic phenomena such as slow slip events. Since the aseismic slip event prior to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, several discoveries have been made on spontaneous slow slip events and various other types of slow earthquake along the Japan and Kuril Trenches. Seafloor observation network for earthquakes and tsunamis along the Japan Trench (S-net) is expected to provide invaluable information on slow slip activities via geodetic signals that are detected by pressure observation. This study inspects the quality of the S-net pressure data in view of seafloor geodesy by comparison with records obtained by more than 100 autonomous ocean bottom pressure recorders (OBPRs) deployed along the Japan Trench. OBPRs have long been standard tools in seafloor geodesy, and the data collected are considered a benchmark in terms of quality. Most of the S-net stations showed noise levels that are considerably higher than those of the OBPRs over periods of more than 2 d. We speculate that a strong correlation between pressure and temperature accounts for much of the long-term noise. In this study, the temperature-dependent fluctuation component was estimated by prediction filtering and removed from the original data, leading to a significant reduction in the noise level at 51 stations, which reached levels almost equivalent to those of OBPRs. Although no significant pressure changes have been identified as associated with the 2018 Boso SSE or repeated tremor bursts in the northern Japan Trench thus far, our findings indicate that these stations are sufficiently sensitive to detect slow slip events occurring nearby.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
  • Numerical estimation of a tsunami source at the flexural area of Kuril and
           Japan Trenches in the fifteenth to seventeenth century based on
           paleotsunami deposit distributions in northern Japan

    • Abstract: Abstract Paleotsunami deposit investigations and numerical tsunami computations have been performed to elucidate the source and size of large tsunamis along the Kuril to Japan Trenches, particularly for unusual tsunamis that occurred in the seventeenth century, the 1611 CE Keicho tsunami (M 8.1) along the Japan Trench and seventeenth-century tsunami (> Mw 8.8) along the Kuril Trench, which caused serious damages on the coastal residents and environments. Moreover, several paleotsunami deposits dating from the thirteenth to eighteenth centuries have been reported along the area between the Kuril and Japan subduction zones, but their sources have not been clarified. In this study, we estimated the tsunami sources from numerical simulations using the distribution of fifteenth- to seventeenth-century tsunami deposits at Sekinehama along the coast of the Shimokita Peninsula. Based on numerical simulations with previously proposed fault models, the tsunami deposits showing similar ages at Sekinehama and another site on the coast of Shimokita Peninsula, which are within 50 km apart, could not be explained except with the huge earthquake models (> Mw 9.1), whose rupture zones extend to not only the Kuril or Japan Trenches but also their flexural area. Thus, we modified or newly proposed twelve fault models located in the flexural area between the two trenches to explain tsunami deposits possibly around the seventeenth century at the above-mentioned two sites on the coast of Shimokita Peninsula. Simulations using these models elucidated that the rupture in the shallow or deep plate boundaries with > 14–32 m slip (> Mw 8.55–8.76) is necessary. If the tsunami deposits around the seventeenth century along the Iburi–Hidaka coast in Hokkaido and those at the two sites mentioned above might be left by an identical event, an interplate earthquake with > 18–40 m slip (> Mw 8.62–9.2) in the flexural area is needed. Moreover, this interplate earthquake might have occurred in the deep plate boundary than in the shallower plate boundary based on slip deficit and slow earthquake distribution data. Our results offer significant insights into a large earthquake (> M 8) along the Kuril and Japan Trenches in the fifteenth to seventeenth century.
      PubDate: 2022-12-22
  • Petrogenetic history and melt inclusion characteristics of mantle
           plume-derived ijolites from NE India: implications for multistage
           crystallization and occurrence of “nano-calciocarbonatites”

    • Abstract: Abstract The Sung Valley ultramafic–alkaline–carbonatite complex (UACC) of Meghalaya, NE, India, is a result of magmatic activity related to the Kerguelen mantle plume spanning from 101 to 115 Ma. In the present study, an integrated crystal size distribution (CSD), mineral chemistry, and melt inclusion analysis are carried out on the ijolites present within this UACC. The CSD analysis shows that these ijolites were formed in multiple stages through changes in the crystallization environment, such as cooling and nucleation rates. Raman spectroscopy of mineral inclusions of rutile, aphthitalite, apatite, carbonate–silicate melt inclusions, and disordered graphite within clinopyroxene and titanite, respectively, indicates a heterogeneous composition of the parental magma. These mineral and melt inclusion phases further suggest localized changes in oxygen fugacity (fO2) due to redox reactions in the lower crust. SEM–EDX analysis of the exposed melt inclusions reveals the presence of alkali-bearing diopside, phlogopite, and andradite, along with an unidentified carbonated silicate daughter phase. The studied melt inclusions are dominated by carbonate, whereas silicates are subordinate. The presence of this fully crystallized carbonate–silicate melt as calcite, diopside, phlogopite, magnetite, apatite, and andradite suggests the presence of “nano-calciocarbonatites” in these ijolites. Our study provides insights into different mechanisms of the loss of alkalies from initially entrapped alkaline carbonate melt in clinopyroxenes. The predominant occurrence of calcite as the only carbonate phase in the studied melt inclusions is a result of silicate–carbonate melt immiscibility, calcite-normative system in these inclusions, dealkalization of the alkaline carbonates in the presence of external fluid, and/or redistribution of the alkalies to the daughter alkali-bearing silicates.
      PubDate: 2022-12-19
  • Simulated decadal variations of surface and subsurface phytoplankton in
           the upstream Kuroshio Extension region

    • Abstract: Abstract Using outputs from an ecosystem model embedded in an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model that can realistically simulate decadal modulations of the Kuroshio Extension (KE) between stable and unstable states, decadal variations of phytoplankton concentration in the upstream KE region are investigated. During stable states of the KE, surface phytoplankton concentrations are anomalously suppressed to the south of the KE front, while those to the north are anomalously enhanced. Although the surface phytoplankton concentration anomalies are prominent only during winter to spring, significant subsurface anomalies centered around 60 m depth persist even in summer and autumn. Anomalies persist throughout the year in phytoplankton biomass integrated over the upper 100 m despite the strong surface anomalies during the spring bloom season. An analysis of nitrogen concentration anomalies suggests that the vertical movement of the isopycnal surfaces, vertical mixing of nutrients, and meridional shifts in the KE jet contribute to the anomalous phytoplankton biomass.
      PubDate: 2022-12-16
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
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