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  Subjects -> GEOGRAPHY (Total: 493 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
40 [degrees] South     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
AAG Review of Books     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
AbeÁfrica : Revista da Associação Brasileira de Estudos Africanos     Open Access  
ACME : An International Journal for Critical Geographies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Universitatis Lodziensis : Folia Geographica Socio-Oeconomica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adam Academy : Journal of Social Sciences / Adam Akademi : Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cartography and GIScience of the ICA     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Africa Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
African Geographical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Afrika Focus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AGORA Magazine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía & Ambiente     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AGU Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
All Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Geographic Information System     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Human Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Amerika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Geografía de la Universidad Complutense     Open Access  
Anatoli     Open Access  
Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis / Studia de Cultura     Open Access  
Annals of GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Annals of the American Association of Geographers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Anuario     Open Access  
Applied Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ar@cne     Open Access  
Arctic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arctic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Area Development and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Asian Geographer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Geographical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ateneo Korean Studies Conference Proceedings     Open Access  
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT)     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions (AMTD)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Aurora Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Antarctic Magazine     Free   (Followers: 5)
Australian Geographer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Bandung : Journal of the Global South     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Barn : Forskning om barn og barndom i Norden     Open Access  
Baru : Revista Brasileira de Assuntos Regionais e Urbanos     Open Access  
Belgeo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biblio3W : Revista Bibliográfica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Biogeographia : The Journal of Integrative Biogeography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BioRisk     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletim Campineiro de Geografia     Open Access  
Boletim Gaúcho de Geografia     Open Access  
Boletim Goiano de Geografia     Open Access  
Boletín de Estudios Geográficos     Open Access  
Boletín de la Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles     Open Access  
Brill Research Perspectives in Map History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège     Open Access  
Bulletin de l’association de géographes français     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Geography. Physical Geography Series     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of the Serbian Geographical Society     Open Access  
Caderno de Geografia     Open Access  
Cahiers Balkaniques     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cahiers Charlevoix : Études franco-ontariennes     Full-text available via subscription  
Cahiers franco-canadiens de l'Ouest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
California Italian Studies Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Soil Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Cardinalis     Open Access  
Carnets de géographes     Open Access  
Cartographic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cartographic Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cartographica : The International Journal for Geographic Information and Geovisualization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Cartography and Geographic Information Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Check List : The Journal of Biodiversity Data     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Climate and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Comparative Cultural Studies : European and Latin American Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Urban Science     Open Access  
Confins     Open Access  
Conjuntura Austral : Journal of the Global South     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Coolabah     Open Access  
Creativity Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Critical Romani Studies     Open Access  
Crossings : Journal of Migration & Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Geografía : Revista Colombiana de Geografía     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Geografía de la Universitat de València     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica / Geographical Research Letters     Open Access  
Cuadernos Inter.c.a.mbio sobre Centroamérica y el Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dela     Open Access  
Dialogues in Human Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Didáctica Geográfica     Open Access  
DIE ERDE : Journal of the Geographical Society of Berlin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documenti Geografici     Open Access  
Documents d'Anàlisi Geogràfica     Open Access  
Doğu Coğrafya Dergisi : Eastern Geographical Review     Open Access  
DRd - Desenvolvimento Regional em debate     Open Access  
Earth System Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
East/West : Journal of Ukrainian Studies     Open Access  
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Economic and Regional Studies / Studia Ekonomiczne i Regionalne     Open Access  
Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Économie rurale     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecosystems and People     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Entorno Geográfico     Open Access  
Environment & Ecosystem Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Science : Atmospheres     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Science and Sustainable Development : International Journal Of Environmental Science & Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Smoke     Open Access  
Ería : Revista Cuatrimestral de Geografía     Open Access  
Espacio y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Espacios : Revista de |Geografía     Open Access  
Espaço & Economia : Revista Brasileira de Geografia Econômica     Open Access  
Espaço Aberto     Open Access  
Espaço e Cultura     Open Access  
Espaço e Tempo Midiáticos     Open Access  
Estudios Geográficos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios Socioterritoriales : Revista de Geografía     Open Access  
Ethnobiology Letters     Open Access  
Ethnoscientia : Brazilian Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnoecology     Open Access  
eTropic : electronic journal of studies in the tropics     Open Access  
Études internationales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Études rurales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Études/Inuit/Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Spatial Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Evolutionary Human Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Fennia : International Journal of Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Finisterra : Revista Portuguesa de Geografia     Open Access  
Fire Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Florida Geographer     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Focus on Geography     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Forum Geografi     Open Access  
Frontera Norte     Open Access  
GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Genre & histoire     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geo : Geography and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Geo UERJ     Open Access  
Geo-Image     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geo-spatial Information Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
GeoArabia     Hybrid Journal  
Géocarrefour     Open Access  
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Geochronometria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoderma Regional : The International Journal for Regional Soil Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geodesy and Cartography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geoforum Perspektiv     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofronter     Open Access  
Geografares     Open Access  
Geografisk Tidsskrift-Danish Journal of Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geografiska Annaler, Series A : Physical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geographia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geographica Helvetica     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Geographical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Geographical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Geographical Journal of Nepal     Open Access  
Geographical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Geographical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Geographicalia     Open Access  
Géographie et cultures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geography and Natural Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geography and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geography Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
GeoHumanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
GeoInformatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geoinformatics & Geostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Geoinformatics FCE CTU     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Geoingá : Revista do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia     Open Access  
GeoJournal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
GEOMATICA     Hybrid Journal  
Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
GEOmedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geopauta : Revista de Geografia da Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia     Open Access  
Geophysical Research Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 167)
Geoplanning : Journal of Geomatics and Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
GeoScape     Open Access  
Geosciences Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Geosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GEOUSP : Espaço e Tempo     Open Access  
Ghana Journal of Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
GIScience & Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
GPS Solutions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Grafo Working Papers     Open Access  
HiN : Alexander von Humboldt im Netz. Internationale Zeitschrift für Humboldt-Studien     Open Access  
História, Natureza e Espaço - Revista Eletrônica do Grupo de Pesquisa NIESBF     Open Access  
History of Geo- and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Progress in Earth and Planetary Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.349
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 16  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2197-4284
Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [228 journals]
  • Correction to: Seismicity distribution in the Tonankai and Nankai
           seismogenic zones and its spatiotemporal relationship with interplate
           coupling and slow earthquakes

    • PubDate: 2022-06-22
       
  • Climatic zonation of Egypt based on high-resolution dataset using image
           clustering technique

    • Abstract: Abstract Egypt, a predominantly arid and hyper-arid country, is one of the environmentally most fragile regions of the world. The country became a hot spot for climatic extremes and aridity change in the global warming context. The unavailability of a detailed and reliable climate zonation map is a major hindrance to climatic studies in Egypt. This study attempted to generate a high-resolution climate zone map of Egypt based on a novel image analysis technique. For this purpose, a colored image representing Egypt's composite climatology was developed using three high-resolution (1-km) climate variables: rainfall, maximum temperature and minimum temperature during 1979–2013. A spherical evolution algorithm was used to classify the image into different climate zones. Subsequently, the climate zones representing similar climate distribution were merged to generate the climate map of Egypt. The study revealed that Egypt’s distinguishable climate zones could be recognized when the land area was classified into nine zones using the image analysis technique. The statistical analysis of climate variables of each zone revealed similar climatology only in two pairs of zones. The merging of similar climate zones yielded seven climate zones having distinct climate characteristics. The validation of climate zonation using various statistical tests revealed the robustness of the proposed method in classifying climate. The climate zone map generated in the study can be used as a reference for climate change analysis in Egypt.
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
       
  • Fabrication of dense albite aggregates by hot pressing

    • Abstract: Abstract Synthetic rocks are used in laboratories to measure the physical and chemical properties of Earth’s constituent minerals in order to understand Earth’s interior. To understand the phenomena in the middle and upper crust, dense aggregates of Na-rich plagioclase are necessary. Therefore, we explored a method of fabricating dense aggregates of albite with low porosities, homogeneous microstructures, the absence of melt and sample sizes larger than a cubic centimetre using hot pressing by solid-state sintering. We conducted multiple experiments in which we varied the particle sizes, the agglomerations of powder, the method of forming, the sintering temperature, and the pressure and duration of the hot pressing. Two particle size fractions of powder, less than two micrometres and less than a few hundred nanometres, were prepared by pulverisation and decantation of natural albite powder. Because fine-grained albite powder seems to agglomerate easily, a technique to dry and disperse the powder was also developed. Hot pressing was carried out at temperatures of 1000‒1150 °C and pressures of 40‒120 MPa. The following were found to be important in obtaining dense aggregates of albite: (1) powders with a particle size less than a few hundred nanometres; (2) powders are adequately dispersed; and (3) preparation of green bodies by slip casting, which makes hot pressing efficient. A dense albite aggregate can then be fabricated using hot pressing at a temperature of 1080 °C and pressure of 100 MPa by solid-state sintering.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
       
  • Depth profile of frictional properties in the inner Nankai accretionary
           prism using cuttings from IODP Site C0002

    • Abstract: Abstract We conduct frictional experiments using cuttings collected at Nankai Trough IODP Site C0002 over 980.5–3262.5 mbsf (meters below seafloor) depth interval to better understand the frictional properties through the accretionary prism. The experiments are conducted at the in situ effective normal stresses (9–37 MPa) under brine-saturated conditions, and the slip velocity is abruptly changed in a stepwise manner to either of 0.3, 3, or 33 µm/s after the steady-state friction is reached. The friction coefficient (μ) of the cuttings samples ranges from 0.45 to 0.60, with a slight increase in μ with increasing depth, related to decreasing smectite content. The velocity dependence of friction (a − b) is positive at all depths and ranges from 0.001 to 0.006, which indicates a velocity-strengthening behavior; these values are consistent with relatively homogeneous deformation microstructures. The critical slip distance (Dc) ranges from 0.5 to 123 μm, with relatively large values obtained for the smectite-rich samples. The changes in both the friction coefficient and rate- and state-friction parameters are likely associated with mineralogical change and consolidation with increasing depth. Although all of the cuttings samples collected from Site C0002 exhibit a velocity-strengthening behavior, a slight decreasing trend in a − b with increasing depth indicates either a nearly neutral velocity dependence or a possible transition to velocity-weakening behavior at greater depths, which may be attributed to the occurrence of slow earthquakes in the Nankai accretionary prism.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
       
  • Seismicity distribution in the Tonankai and Nankai seismogenic zones and
           its spatiotemporal relationship with interplate coupling and slow
           earthquakes

    • Abstract: Abstract We conducted seismic tomography to estimate the seismic velocity structure and to evaluate the spatiotemporal distribution of interplate earthquakes of the Kii Peninsula, central Honshu, Japan, where the Tonankai and Nankai megathrusts are located. Microearthquakes were quantitatively detected by using the data from a cable-type seafloor seismic observation network, completed in 2015. Our velocity model was consistent with the previous 2-D active-source surveys, which reported the areal extent of key structures: a high-velocity zone beneath Cape Shionomisaki, a subducted seamount off Cape Muroto, and the subducted Paleo-Zenith Ridge. The absence of any other subducted seamount with the same or larger spatial scale, than the identified key structures, was confirmed. Our velocity model also revealed that there was not a simple relationship between areas of large coseismic slip or strong interplate coupling and areas of high velocity in the overriding plate. Relocated hypocenters widely ranged from the upper plate to within the slab, while the most active region was attributed to the oceanic crust in the aftershock region of 2004 off-Kii earthquake. Compared with the results from the land-based observation network, the accuracy of the focal depth estimation was substantially improved. Furthermore, we identified the seismic activity in the vicinity of the plate boundary and determined 14 locations for interplate seismicity areas. They were primarily distributed in the range of seismogenic zone temperature (150–350 °C) along the plate boundary and were located outside of the strong interplate coupling zone. Several active areas of interplate earthquakes exhibited clustered activity during the periods of slow-slip events, observed and accompanied with shallow very-low-frequency earthquakes. Thus, regular interplate microearthquakes became active at the plate boundary in the conjunction with slow slip. In summary, as regular earthquakes provide a more accurate source location than slow earthquakes and can detect events of smaller magnitude, monitoring such interplate earthquakes may reveal spatiotemporal variations in the stick–slip conditions on the plate boundary.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
       
  • Global polygons for terrain classification divided into uniform slopes and
           basins

    • Abstract: Abstract Global terrain classification data have been used for various issues related to topography such as the estimation of soil types and of ground vulnerability to earthquakes and the creation of seismic hazard maps. However, due to the resolution of digital elevation models (DEMs), the terrain classification data from previous studies could not discriminate small landforms such as plains at the bottom of narrow valleys and small rises in plains. Owing to the greater regional variation of small landforms, there is trade-off between DEMs of higher resolution and the creation of global geomorphological legends. To address this problem, we first merged regions with similar topographic characteristics using slope gradients and HAND (height above the nearest drainage) calculated by the 90-m-spatial-resolution DEMs interpolated from the multi-error-removed improved-terrain DEM (MERIT DEM), and united the polygons with the unit catchments of the MERIT-Basins dataset, so that the polygons contain calculated terrain measurements (slope gradient, HAND, surface texture, local convexity, sinks) and noise types as attributes, as well as the ID number of the unit catchment. In addition, we performed k-means clustering on the dataset using slope gradient, HAND, and surface texture, which can be combined with the dataset as a simple terrain classification. The clustering results were prepared in 15 and 40 global uniform clusters and 15 and 40 clusters for each basin to understand the global appearance of the terrain and provide zoning data for regional problem-solving. The 15 clusters were prepared to observe the outline of the terrain without any processing, whereas the 40 clusters were prepared to group and reclassify the polygons to create zoning data for each region. This dataset showed improvements in terms of capturing the small rises in plains compared to the authors' previous global terrain classification data. This dataset can be used as a proxy and is expected to contribute to modeling and estimation in various applications that are known to be related to topography. The datasets of this article are available at [https://gisstar.gsi.go.jp/terrain2021/].
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
       
  • The response of the hydrological cycle to temperature changes in recent
           and distant climatic history

    • Abstract: Abstract The relationship between the hydrological cycle and the temperature is rather complex and of great importance to human socioeconomic activities. The prevailing theory suggests that as temperature increases the hydrological cycle is intensified. Practically, this means more and heavier precipitation. However, the exact magnitude of hydrological cycle response and its spatio-temporal characteristics is still under investigation. Looking back in Earth’s hydroclimatic history, it is easy to find some periods where global temperature was substantially different than present. Here, we examine some of these periods to present the current knowledge about past hydrological cycle variability (specifically precipitation), and its relationship to temperature. The periods under investigation are the Mid-Miocene Climate Optimum, the Eemian Interglacial Stage, the Last Glacial Maximum, the Heinrich and Dansgaard–Oeschger Events, the Bølling–Allerød, the Younger Dryas, the 8.2 ka event, the Medieval Climate Anomaly, and the Little Ice Age. We report that the hypothesis that a warmer climate is a wetter climate could be an oversimplification, because the response of water cycle appears to be spatio-temporally heterogeneous.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
       
  • Identifying tsunami traces beyond sandy tsunami deposits using terrigenous
           biomarkers: a case study of the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami in a coastal pine
           forest, northern Japan

    • Abstract: Abstract The distributions of sandy tsunami deposits do not reflect the true extents of tsunami inundation areas, leading to underestimates of inundation by past tsunamis and thus the magnitudes of their associated tsunamigenic earthquakes. To archive the sedimentological and geochemical features of the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami deposit, we performed visual observations and computed tomography, grain-size, water content, and organic geochemical analyses of sediments from a coastal forest at Oirase Town, northern Japan. Stratigraphic observations revealed the 2011 tsunami deposit to be a landward-thinning interbedded sand and soil layer that became ambiguous in landward locations. The sediment samples from the inundated area did not contain marine-sourced biomarkers; instead, peak concentrations of isolongifolene, an organic compound derived from Pinus in the forest, were observed within or just above the sandy tsunami deposits in sediment sections. Peak isolongifolene concentrations were also detected in landward soils inundated by the tsunami in which no sand layer was observable, but were not observed beyond the inundation limit. Although this characteristic biomarker is unique to this and similar depositional environments, these results suggest that lateral changes of the concentrations of environment-specific biological proxies in the sedimentary column may record tsunami inundation.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
       
  • Enstatite chondrites: condensation and metamorphism under extremely
           reducing conditions and contributions to the Earth

    • Abstract: Abstract Enstatite chondrites are a small clan of meteorites, only ~ 1% out of all meteorite collection. However, they are the most reduced meteorites and have almost identical isotopic compositions to those of the Earth, suggestive of significant contributions to the latter and other terrestrial planets. Enstatite chondrites contain a unique mineral inventory of sulfides of typical lithophile elements, Si-bearing metal, silicide and phosphide, which record the nebular processes and the thermal metamorphism in asteroidal bodies under extremely reducing environments. EH group is mainly characteristic of the higher Si content of metallic Fe–Ni and the higher MnS contents of sulfides than EL group, indicative of a more reducing condition than the latter. However, the fugacity pH2S could be the same in both EH and EL regions, because it was buffered by kamacite and troilite. The majority of sulfides condensed from the nebula, partially enclosing schreibersite micron-spherules formed probably by early melting. Another part of troilite, sphalerite and djerfisherite, intergrown with perryite, were produced via sulfidation of metallic Fe–Ni. Minor exotic components were also found in enstatite chondrites, including Ca-, Al-rich inclusions and FeO-rich silicate clasts. The Ca-, Al-rich inclusions are identical to those in carbonaceous chondrites except for the alteration under reducing environments, and the FeO-rich silicate clasts show reduction reactions, both suggestive of migration of dust in the protoplanetary disk. The highly reducing conditions (as C/O ratios) might be established via repeating evaporation and condensation of water ice and organic matter across the snow line along the protoplanetary disk, but need to find evidence. Another issue is the preservation of submicron-to-micron-sized presolar grains during high-temperature condensation of the major constituent minerals. After accretion, the parent bodies of EH and EL chondrites probably experienced distinct thermal histories, indicated by their distinct petrologic-type distributions and different correlations with the closure temperatures determined by the FeS contents of sulfides in contact with troilite. The composition of (Mg, Mn, Fe)S, a key indicator for condensation and metamorphism of enstatite chondrites.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
       
  • A possible mechanism for spontaneous cyclic back-arc spreading

    • Abstract: Abstract Back-arc spreading is a non-steady-state process exemplified by the repeated cycles of spreading of the South Fiji and the Lau Basins behind the Tonga arc, and the Parece Vela Basin and the Mariana Trough behind the Mariana arc. Spreading in these regions starts with rifting within the volcanic arc before shifting to the back-arc region where it develops into a phase of well-defined spreading. 2D thermo-mechanical subduction modeling incorporating phase transitions at depths of 410 km and 660 km suggests the presence of a low-viscosity and low-density mantle wedge is an important condition for arc rifting to occur. Back-arc spreading starts when a nearly vertical slab impinges upon the 660 km discontinuity causing downdip compressive stress that is transmitted up the slab resulting in extensional within-arc stress. Trench retreat during a phase of back-arc spreading causes a decrease in slab dip angle and buckling of the slab. Back-arc spreading ceases during this buckling phase. Rifting starts once more when the nearly vertically dipping ‘heel’ of the buckled slab again impinges upon the 660-km boundary. The second phase of rifting initially focuses within the arc but subsequently shifts to the back-arc region leading to renewed back-arc spreading. Our modeling predicts that subduction of thick (old age) and weak (small yield stress) slabs, which have intermediate resistance to slab bending, leads to cyclic back-arc spreading. In contrast, continuous back-arc spreading is predicted for thick and strong slabs with a large resistance to bending, and no back-arc spreading is predicted for slabs with a small resistance to bending (thin slabs). Geological processes such as toroidal mantle flow around the lateral edges of a slab, collisions with buoyant lithosphere and interactions with third plates may have important roles in the development of cyclic back-arc spreading in specific cases. However, the presence of a common timescale of ~ 20 Myr suggests there a general underlying control on back-arc basin formation that is common to many if not all subduction zones. The new model presented here can account for the main features of cyclic back-arc spreading seen in the Tonga-Kermadec and the Calabrian arcs.
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
       
  • Complex rupture process on the conjugate fault system of the 2014 Mw 6.2
           Thailand earthquake

    • Abstract: Abstract A moment magnitude 6.2 crustal earthquake occurred in northern Thailand on May 5, 2014, and its aftershocks exhibit several lineaments with conjugate pattern, involving geometric complexity in a multi-segmented fault system of the Phayao Fault Zone. However, a relationship between those geometric complexities and the rupture evolution of the 2014 Thailand earthquake is still elusive, which is critical to understand complex nature of the earthquake physics and to assess the hazard. Here, we elaborated the newly developed potency density tensor inversion method, used it to invert the globally observed teleseismic P waveforms, and estimated the spatiotemporal distribution of both the slip and the fault geometry. We found the complex rupture evolution consisting of two rupture episodes along a conjugated strike-slip fault system that comprises two distinct fault planes. The first episode originated at the hypocenter and the rupture propagated south along the north–northeast to south–southwest fault plane. The second episode was triggered at around 5 km north from the epicenter, and the rupture propagated along the east–northeast to west–southwest fault plane and terminated at the west end of the source area at 5 s hypocentral time. Our work demonstrates that our potency density tensor inversion can be applied to the smaller-scale magnitude-6 class earthquakes, and it resolves the complex rupture process controlled by the underlying geometric complexity in the fault system.
      PubDate: 2022-05-15
       
  • Impact of stratospheric ozone on the subseasonal prediction in the
           southern hemisphere spring

    • Abstract: Abstract Antarctic ozone has been regarded as a major driver of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) circulation change in the recent past. Here, we show that Antarctic ozone can also affect the subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) prediction during the SH spring. Its impact is quantified by conducting two reforecast experiments with the Global Seasonal Forecasting System 5 (GloSea5). Both reforecasts are initialized on September 1st of each year from 2004 to 2020 but with different stratospheric ozone: one with climatological ozone and the other with year-to-year varying ozone. The reforecast with climatological ozone, which is common in the operational S2S prediction, shows the skill re-emergence in October after a couple of weeks of no prediction skill in the troposphere. This skill re-emergence, mostly due to the stratosphere–troposphere dynamical coupling, becomes stronger in the reforecast with year-to-year varying ozone. The surface prediction skill also increases over Australia. This result suggests that a more realistic stratospheric ozone could lead to improved S2S prediction in the SH spring.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
       
  • Experimental simulations of shock textures in BCC iron: implications for
           iron meteorites

    • Abstract: Abstract Neumann band in iron meteorites, which is deformation twins in kamacite (Fe–Ni alloy), has been known to be a characteristic texture indicating ancient collisions on parent bodies of meteorites. We conducted a series of shock recovery experiments on bcc iron with the projectile velocity at 1.5 km/s at various initial temperatures, room temperature, 670 K, and 1100 K, and conducted an annealing experiment on the shocked iron. We also conducted numerical simulations with the iSALE-2D code to investigate peak pressure and temperature distributions in the nontransparent targets. The effects of pressure and temperature on the formation and disappearance of the twins (Neumann band) were explored based on laboratory and numerical experiments. The twin was formed in the run products of the experiments conducted at room temperature and 670 K, whereas it was not observed in the run product formed by the impact at 1100 K. The present experiments combined with the numerical simulations revealed that the twin was formed by impacts with various shock pressures from 1.5–2 GPa to around 13 GPa. The twin in iron almost disappeared by annealing at 1070 K. The iron meteorites with Neumann bands were shocked at this pressure range and temperatures at least up to 670 K, and were not heated to the temperatures above 1070 K after the Neumann band formation.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
       
  • Upper and lower plane bed definitions revised

    • Abstract: Abstract Sedimentary structures in ancient deposits are clues to reconstruct past geohazards. While parallel lamination formed by plane beds is one of the most common sedimentary structures in event deposits such as turbidites, the formative conditions for plane beds remain unclear. In the literature, two types of plane beds (upper and lower plane beds) exist and are supposed to develop under different shear stresses, particle sizes, and flow regimes. Here, we present new phase diagrams based on the compilation of existing data regarding formative hydraulic conditions for plane beds to clarify the formation processes associated with the two types of plane beds. The diagrams indicated that the data form two separate populations and the gap between them corresponds to the threshold condition of the particle entrainment into suspension. Lower plane beds form when sediment particles move only as bed load. This phase space can be discerned from fine sand to gravel and differs from the conventional view in which the formation of the lower plane bed is limited to grain sizes above 0.7 mm. In addition, our phase diagrams suggest that upper plane beds appear under conditions of the active suspended load. Our analyses demonstrate that the suspended load contributes to the formation of plane beds, whereas other mechanisms can also produce fine-grained plane beds in flows with low bed shear stress. Thus, the results of this study suggest that the existing interpretations on fine-grained parallel lamination such as Bouma’s Td division need to be reconsidered. The bedform phase diagrams newly established in this study will be useful for estimating the flow conditions from the geologic records of event beds.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
       
  • Back-transformation processes in high-pressure minerals: implications for
           planetary collisions and diamond transportation from the deep Earth

    • Abstract: Abstract We conducted back-transformation experiments in ringwoodite, bridgmanite, and lingunite at 0.47–8.1 GPa and 310–920 °C by in situ X-ray observation method. Ringwoodite back-transformed to olivine by grain-boundary nucleation and growth mechanism. The site saturation occurred at the early stage under the conditions far from the equilibrium boundary, and we observed the growth-controlled back-transformation kinetics in ringwoodite. The growth kinetics determined in the present study is largely different from that in the previous study (Reynard et al. in Am Min 81:585–594, 1996), which may be due to the effects of water. Bridgmanite did not directly back-transform to the stable phase orthoenstatite at ~ 1–4 GPa, but first becomes amorphous with increasing temperatures. We observed kinetics of the orthoenstatite crystallization from amorphous bridgmanite that was controlled by both nucleation and growth processes. The temperature range in the amorphous state became narrow with increasing pressures, and the direct back-transformation to high-P clinoenstatite without amorphization eventually occurred at 8 GPa. Amorphization was also observed in lingunite when increasing temperature at ~ 1.5 GPa; however, the plagioclase crystallization proceeded before the complete amorphization. The back-transformation in ringwoodite variedly occurs in shocked meteorites depending on the degree of the post-shock annealing, which can be reasonably interpreted based on the growth kinetics. On the other hand, the presence of hydrous ringwoodite in diamond inclusions cannot be explained without the help of residual stress. The present study also indicates that complete amorphization or the back-transformation to enstatite is unavoidable in bridgmanite during the post-shock annealing. This is inconsistent with the presence of crystalline bridgmanite in shocked meteorites, still requiring further investigations of kinetic behaviors in shorter timescales.
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
       
  • Refining the contribution of riverine particulate release to the global
           marine Nd budget

    • Abstract: Abstract The release of neodymium (Nd) from particles along continental margins may contribute to losses in the global of Nd budget. The Changjiang River, which carries a heavy load of total suspended matter, empties into the East China Sea, and a strong particulate–seawater interaction process occurs along the salinity gradient. In the low-salinity region (S < 2.0), strong removal of dissolved rare earth elements (dREEs) occurs, but the Nd isotope values are uniform. At mid- and high-salinity (S = 2.0–28.0 and S > 28.0) areas, the dREE concentrations increase slightly. An Nd isotope mass balance indicates that the release of particulate matter is a source of dREEs in the Changjiang estuary. The release rate of particulate Nd (NdSPM) to the dissolved Nd pool in Changjiang estuary is higher than other estuaries, such as Amazon estuary. Composite all river data available from the previous studies indicate that 5800–9200 Mg per year of Nd is released to global marine waters from riverine particles. This estimated quantity is on the same order of magnitude as the calculated global Nd release flux based on the case study in the Amazon estuary. Our study indicates that to better constrain the global Nd budget, it is required to consider the release rate of NdSPM in different rivers due to the significant difference among various rivers, but with very limited available data as of now.
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
       
  • Trophic niche separation of two non-spinose planktonic foraminifers
           Neogloboquadrina dutertrei and Pulleniatina obliquiloculata

    • Abstract: Abstract Based on laboratory observations, planktonic foraminifers are omnivorous, feeding zooplankton and phytoplankton. Spinose species tend toward greater dependence on zooplankton prey than on phytoplankton prey, while non-spinose species are more adapted to herbivorous diets. However, the trophic activity of planktonic foraminifers in the natural environment and their trophic positions in the marine food web have not yet been fully understood. The trophic position (TP) of two non-spinose species, Neogloboquadrina dutertrei and Pulleniatina obliquiloculata, was determined by differences in the nitrogen isotopic composition between two amino acids (glutamic acid and phenylalanine). Results show that TP values of N. dutertrei were ~ 2.4, indicating dependence on omnivorous (mixed herbivorous and carnivorous) diets, while those of P. obliquiloculata were ~ 2.1, indicating dependence on herbivorous diets. Together with previous laboratory observations, these TP values suggest that N. dutertrei is a detritivore or scavenger, while P. obliquiloculata is generally a herbivore. This trophic niche separation likely allows these two planktonic foraminiferal species to live within a similar depth zone in the open water column and provides a clue for understanding causes of spatial and temporal changes in their relative abundances in living and sediment assemblages.
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
       
  • Paleotsunami history of Hachinohe, northern Japan: a multiproxy analysis
           and numerical modeling approach

    • Abstract: Abstract Paleotsunami studies along the Pacific coast of Tohoku, northern Japan, have been considerably developed recently, particularly after the massive impact of the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami. Nevertheless, in the southernmost Shimokita Peninsula, studies pertaining to paleotsunami are underdeveloped, leading to a vague understanding of the tsunamigenic sources northward of the Tohoku region, along with incomplete hazard evaluation. Paleotsunami deposits in Shimokita can be related not only to the Japan Trench along the Sanriku coast but also to the Kuril trench along the Pacific coast of Hokkaido. In this study, we unveiled the paleotsunami history of Hachinohe in northern Tohoku. Using a combination of sedimentological, geochemical, paleontological, and mineralogical proxies, we characterized seven sand layers that dated from ca. 2700 to ca. 5500 yr BP based on radiocarbon (14C) ages as event deposits of marine origin. Sedimentological and paleontological evidence coupled with ground-penetrating radar imagery revealed a marsh environment comprising successive extinct ponds, controlling the depositional environment. Numerical modeling ruled out the possibility of storms as genetic sources, leading to the conclusion that the presence of event deposits with marine sediments in the study area would be associated with tsunami inundation episodes. Based on 14C dating, the mean frequency of recurrence of tsunamis is estimated as 384 years (320–450 yr, 95% confidence interval) and a coefficient of variation of 0.78 (0.68–0.99, 95% confidence interval). The previously recorded limited paleotsunami evidence and absence of an estimated recurrence interval in the Shimokita Peninsula reaffirm the importance of Hachinohe as a tsunami record site for the activity of both trenches.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Peridotites with back-arc basin affinity exposed at the southwestern tip
           of the Mariana forearc

    • Abstract: Abstract Peridotites at water depths of 3430 to 5999 m have been discovered using the submersible Shinkai6500 (dives 6K-1397 and 6K-1398) on the southwestern slope of the 139°E Ridge (11°12′N, 139°15′E), a small ridge at the southwesternmost tip of the Mariana forearc near the junction with the Yap Trench and Parece Vela Basin. The peridotites studied consist of 17 residual harzburgites and one dunite and show various textures with respect to their depths. Peridotites with coarse-grained (> 1 mm) textures were sampled from the shallowest part (3705–4042 m) of the dive area, and peridotites with fine-grained (< 0.5 mm) textures were sampled deeper (5996 m). Olivine crystal-fabrics vary with grain size, with (010)[100] A-type patterns for the coarse-grained peridotites, {0kl}[100] D-type patterns for the fine-grained peridotites, and various indistinct patterns in samples of variable grain sizes. Fine-grained peridotites with D-type olivine crystal-fabrics could result from deformation under relatively higher flow stresses, suggesting that a ductile shear zone in the lithospheric mantle could occur in the deepest part of 139°E Ridge. Spinel Cr# range from relatively low (0.36) to moderately high (up to 0.57), and correlate with Ti contents (0.07–0.45 wt.%). The trace element patterns of clinopyroxene similarly exhibit steepening slopes from the middle to the light REEs regardless of textural variations. These mineralogical and geochemical features would result from melt-rock interactions under conditions of relatively shallow lithospheric mantle, which are much more comparable with the Parece Vela Basin peridotites than the Mariana forearc peridotites. Consequently, the Parece Vela Basin mantle is more likely exposed on the inner slope of the westernmost Mariana Trench, presumably due to the collision of the Caroline Ridge.
      PubDate: 2022-03-29
       
  • Atmospheric resuspension of insoluble radioactive cesium-bearing particles
           found in the difficult-to-return area in Fukushima

    • Abstract: Abstract The deposition of insoluble radiocesium-bearing microparticles (CsMPs), which were released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident in March 2011, has resulted in the widespread contamination of eastern Japan. Obviously, these deposited insoluble CsMPs may become the secondary contamination sources by atmospheric migration or other environmental transferring process; however, the understanding of the transport mechanism remains non-elucidation, and the relevant evidence has not been directly provided. This study, for the first time, provides the direct evidence for the resuspension of these insoluble CsMPs to the atmosphere from (1) proximity of 137Cs radioactivity and resemblance of the morphology and the elemental compositions of CsMPs in the samples of soil and aerosol derived from the same sampling site, (2) the special characteristics of the resuspended CsMPs of which the ratios of Na/Si, K/Si and/or Cs/Si were smaller than those from the initially released CsMPs collected at either long distance or near F1NPP, which can be ascribed to the slowly natural corrosion of CsMPs by the loss of the small amount of soluble contents in CsMPs, and (3) high CsMPs concentration of 10 granules/g in the surface soil of our sampling site and high resuspension frequency of CsMPs in spring when predominant suspended particles were soil dust. Specifically, 15 single CsMPs were successfully isolated from the aerosol filters collected by unmanned high-volume air samplers at a severely polluted area in Fukushima Prefecture, about 25 km away from F1NPP, from January 2015 to September 2019. The mean diameter of these CsMPs was 1.8 ± 0.5 μm, and the average 137Cs radioactivity was 0.35 ± 0.23 Bq/granule. The contribution rate of the resuspended CsMPs to the atmospheric radiocesium was estimated from the ratio of 137Cs radioactivity of a single CsMP to that of the aerosol filter to be of 23.9 ± 15.3%. There has been no considerable decreasing trend in the annual CsMP resuspension frequency.
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
       
 
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