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Journal of Environmental Geography
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2060-3274 - ISSN (Online) 2060-467X
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [389 journals]
  • Condition Assessment of Subsurface Drained Areas and Investigation of
           their Operational Efficiency by Field Inspection and Remote Sensing

    • Abstract: The extreme weather events highlight the need to develop action concepts to maintain agricultural production security in the future. Hydrological extremes can occur within a year in the form of surplus water (i.e. inland excess water), water scarcity or even drought. These adverse effects are influenced, inhibited and also facilitated by human activity. Previously, complex amelioration interventions, including subsurface drainage, aimed to improve the productivity of agricultural areas with unfavourable water management properties. The current efficiency of the subsurface drain networks in the regulation of groundwater level or soil moisture content can be questioned from several aspects. After the end of the socialist era (after 1990s), lack of maintenance and operation tasks have become typical, and are still a problem today in Hungary. Unfortunately, there is no exact national cadastre on the tile drained areas, and data is only available to a limited extent in the original amelioration plan documentations. In the present study, we aimed to reveal the possibilities of delineating the subsurface drained areas, and to develop a new method of condition assessment. Three tile drained study sites were selected on the Great Hungarian Plain in Central Europe. Our field investigations revealed the typical problems of the drained areas: (1) excessive vegetation of the receiving channels; (2) inadequate condition of the receiving main channel bed; (3) soil compaction in multiple layers above the drainage network; and (4) poor condition of outlets of the drain pipes. The developed methodology enabled us to evaluate the soil and the surface/subsurface water of the tile drained areas, and the technical condition of the drains. The necessary action plans or treatments were also outlined to replace the unused drain networks into use. Based on the scientific literature, we also sketched the target conditions and technological solutions that are required for the installation of new drains. The organization of the derived data into a GIS database could serve as a basis for the development of a cadastre of the tile drained areas based on a regional approach.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Sensitivity Analysis for Effect of Changes in Input Data on Hydrological
           Parameters and Water Balance Components in the Catchment Area of Hungarian

    • Abstract: Extreme weather and climate changes are emerging more frequently in Central Europe, Hungary, and in the near future the increase in prolonged droughts, high-intensity precipitation events and the temporal variations of precipitation are expected, which may increase the magnitude of local water damages (OVF, 2016). As a result of climate change, these extreme weather events will be more frequent, however it is difficult to predict them, as until now insufficient amount of observations are available on smaller watercourses and on refined territorial water balances. For the future assessment of the environmental and economic impacts of climate change, it is essential to explore the integrated relationship of evapotranspiration, runoff, infiltration, surface and subsurface waters, and other hydrological processes, which can fundamentally describe regionally the water management conditions.In this research, an earlier study (DHI Hungary 2019) on the catchment area of the main canal of the Dong-ér Brook is pursued to continue the development of the MIKE SHE model in a more complex manner. Within the frame of the present study, the relationship between the individual hydrological parameters, the water balance components and extreme precipitation events (drought, heavy rainfall events) for the entire drainage basin have been examined, besides, the expected effects of the predicted temperature rise on the water balance is evaluated. Using data from 2018 as reference, the sensitivity of the changes in daily precipitation and daily mean temperature has been assessed to estimate the effects of the future climate change on hydrological parameters and water balance components.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Statistical Analysis of Weather Parameters for Sustainable Flight
           Operation in Nigeria

    • Abstract: The recent complications in the weather system, which oftentimes lead to flight cancellation, delay and diversion have become a critical issue in Nigeria. This study however considers the weather related parameters and their impacts on flight disruption in the country. Weather data (on thunderstorm, wind speed and direction, visibility and cloud cover) and flight data (delay, cancellation and diversion) were collected from Murtala International Airport, Ikeja-Lagos, Nigeria. The data covered the period between 2005 and 2020. However, Regional Climate Models (RCMs) were also used to run climate data projections between year 2020 and 2035 in the study region. The study employed Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software for the descriptive and inferential analysis. Time series analysis, Pearson Moment Correlation for interrelationship among the weather parameters and the flight disruption data, and multiple linear regression analysis were applied to determine the influence of weather parameters on flight disruption data. Results show that cloud cover and high visibility are negatively correlated. Wind speed has positive relationship with wind direction; and an inverse relationship between visibility, thunderstorm, and fog. Direct relationship exists between highest visibility and thick dust, wind speed and cloud cover. Thick dust, wind speed and cloud cover indicate increased visibility level in the study area. Flight delay is prominent over flight diversion and cancellation, which indicates their relevance in air traffic of the study area. The prediction model indicates high degree of cloud cover at the beginning of every year and later declines sharply in 2035, the visibility flattens out by the year 2025, and low pattern of thick dust was calculated in the same pattern in 2011, 2016 and 2027. Based on this conclusion, the study recommends accurate weather reporting and strict compliance to safety regulations, and attention should be paid to changing pattern of weather parameters in order to minimize fight related disasters.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Temporal Relationship of Increased Palaeodischarges and Late Glacial
           Deglaciation Phases on the Catchment of River Maros/Mureş, Central Europe

    • Abstract: River Maros/Mureş has one of the largest alluvial fans in the Carpathian Basin. On the surface of the fan several very wide, braided channels can be identified, resembling increased discharges during the Late Glacial. In our study we investigated the activity period of the largest channel of them, formed under a bankfull discharge three times higher than present day values. Previous investigations dated the formation of the palaeochannel to the very end of the Pleistocene by dating a point bar series upstream of the selected site. Our aim was to obtain further data on the activity period of the channel and to investigate temporal relationships between maximum palaeodischarges, deglaciation phases on the upland catchment and climatic amelioration during the Late Pleistocene.The age of sediment samples was determined by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The investigation of the luminescence properties of the quartz extracts also enabled the assessment of sediment delivery dynamics in comparison to other palaeochannels on the alluvial fan.OSL age results suggest that the activity of the channel is roughly coincident with, but slightly older than the previously determined ages, meaning that the main channel forming period started at 13.50±0.94 ka and must have ended by 8.64±0.82 ka. This period cannot directly be related to the major phases of glacier retreat on the upland catchments, and in terms of other high discharge channels only the activity of one overlaps with a major deglaciation phase at ~17-18 ka. Based on these, high palaeodischarges can be rather related to increased Late Glacial runoff, resulted by increasing precipitation and scarce vegetation cover on the catchment. Meanwhile, the quartz luminescence sensitivity of the investigated channel refers to fast sediment delivery from upland subcatchments. Therefore, the retreat of glaciers could affect alluvial processes on the lowland by increasing sediment availability, which contributed to the development of large braided palaeochannels.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Self-Heating Coal Waste Fire Monitoring and Related Environmental
           Problems: Case Studies from Poland and Ukraine

    • Abstract: The self-heating of coal waste dumps is considered as a serious environmental issue, wherever active or inactive coal mining has been present. This issue is introduced from two active coal mining regions from Poland (Upper Silesian Coal Basin) and Ukraine (Donetsk Coal Basin) based on mineralogy, organic petrography and geochemistry, and remote sensing techniques. Thermally affected coal wastes reveal changes recorded by organic and mineral matter. Irregular cracks and fissures appear within and at the edges of organic matter particles, which are oxidised, devolatilised and plasticised. Mineral phases underwent oxidation, dehydration, structure rebuilding and recrystallisation. Highest temperatures generated during the fire cause melting and paralava formation. During self-heating, some chalcophile elements like Hg (mostly present as HgS), Pb, Zn can be enriched and released, or different organic pollutants like phenols (originated from vitrinite particles), different PAHs with alkyl substitutes, chlorinated PAHs, or sulphur heterocycles are formed. The introduced remote sensing techniques helped to localise and monitor hot spots with different temperature ranges. Applying SWIR bands of Landsat hot spots from extremely burning dumps in Ukraine were successfully localised, however, only night-time scenes with SWIR can be used. The sun’s disturbing effects should be considered as an influential factor for both thermal imaging camera or satellite images. Thermal cameras can reveal the most detailed signs of low to high temperature anomalies with different cracks and line shapes.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Potential Use of Osl Properties of Quartz in Investigating Fluvial
           Processes on the Catchment of River Mureş, Romania

    • Abstract: To understand the functioning of fluvial systems it is important to investigate dynamics of sediment transport and the source of sediments. In case of reconstructing past processes these studies must be accompanied by the numerical dating of sediment samples. In this respect optically stimulated luminescence is a widely used technique, by which the time of sediment deposition can be directly dated. Recently, in various fluvial environments it has been shown that certain luminescence properties of minerals, and especially that of quartz, can be applied as indicators of fluvial erosion and/or sediment provenance. These properties are residual luminescence (or residual dose) and luminescence sensitivity of quartz grains. However, the values of the parameters above are affected by various factors, the importance of which is under debate. The present study therefore aims to assess these factors along a ~560 km long reach of River Mureş (Maros) a relatively large river with a compound surface lithology on its catchment. The research focused on the sandy fraction of modern sediments, collected from the main river and from three tributaries alike. This way not only longitudinal downstream changes, but the influence of tributaries could also be studied. Based on the data, both investigated parameters show a great variation, which can be attributed to the lithological differences of subcatchments and geomorphological drivers, such as erosional activity and potential number of sedimentary cycles, and human activity. However, relationships are not entirely clear and are influenced by the maximum grain size of the samples investigated, and the recycling of previously laid deposits with different properties. Still, when performing detailed dating studies, and tracing sediments from certain parts of the catchment luminescence properties can be a useful tool in the future.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Impact of Soil Erosion on the Spatial Distribution of Soil
           Characteristics and Potentially Toxic Element Contents in a Sloping
           Vineyard in Tállya, Ne Hungary

    • Abstract: Soil erosion is a main problem in sloping vineyards, which can dramatically affect soil quality and fertility. The present study aimed to evaluate the spatial patterns of selected physico-chemical soil characteristics and the soil’s potentially toxic element (PTE) contents in the context of erosion. The study was conducted in a 0.4 ha vineyard plot on a steep slope in Tállya, part of the wine-growing region of Tokaj-Hegyalja (Hungary). A total of 20 topsoil samples (0-10 cm) were collected and analysed for PTEs (B, Co, Ba, Sr, Mn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cu), soil pH (deionized water and KCl solution), particle-size distribution, soil organic matter (SOM), (nitrate+nitrite)-N, P2O5, and carbonate content. Among the selected PTEs, only Cu (125±27 mg/kg) exceeds the Hungarian standards set for soils and sediments (75 mg/kg) due to the long-term use of Cu-based pesticides in the vineyard. Examined PTEs are negatively correlated with the sand content of the topsoil, except for Mn, while the significant positive relationship with the clay content shows the role of clay in retaining PTEs in soil. SOM seems to play a minor role in binding PTEs, as Cu is the only element for which a significant correlation with the SOM content can be detected. The spatial distribution maps prepared by inverse distance weighting (IDW) and lognormal kriging (LK) methods show higher PTE contents at the summit and the shoulder of the hillslope and lower contents at the backslope and the footslope zones. The low slope gradients (0-5 degree) and the high contents of the coarse fraction (> 35%) likely protect the soil at the summit and the hillslope’s shoulder from excessive erosion-induced losses. While the reraising PTE contents at the toeslope are likely due to the deposition of fine soil particles (silt and clay). The highest SOM contents at the summit and the toeslope areas, and increased contents of the coarse fraction at the backslope, confirm the effects of soil erosion on the spatial distribution patterns of main soil quality indicators. Overall, the LK outperformed the IDW method in predicting the soil parameters in unsampled areas.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Environmental History of Rice Plantations in the Early Modern Ottoman
           Empire Between the 15th And 19th Centuries and Its Potential for Climate

    • Abstract: Historians readily discuss the effect of climate change on the 21st century, but Ottomanists rarely reference palaeoclimatology data. This research compares palaeoclimatological data with documentary evidence from institutionalized rice plantations in the Ottoman Empire. Between the 15th and 19th centuries, the empire employed a group of experts for the cultivation of rice in the vast region between the Tigris and the Danube. Extensive registers exist from this period in archives that give documentary evidence about the organization of plantations, yields, prices and destructive floods. The objective of the study, as presented in this article, is to find rice-related phenological data in Ottoman Archive registers. It utilizes a comparative analysis of the Old World Drought Atlas (OWDA) summer precipitation data reconstructed by Cook et al. (2015), temperature changes, documentary evidence about seasonal extremes and archival evidence. The comparison shows that palaeoclimatology proxies are important sources of information regarding changes in rice cultivation. It also indicates that the Ottoman archive is a valuable source of possible phenological data. Thus, research sources from nature and societies complement one another. The comparison also demonstrates that climate change during the Ottoman Empire’s reign showed regional differences, and a local comparison of phenological data and palaeoclimatological data can explain more about the effects of the Little Ice Age (LIA) on the empire.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Detection of Plastic Greenhouses Using High Resolution Rgb Remote Sensing
           Data and Convolutional Neural Network

    • Abstract: Agricultural production in greenhouses shows a rapid growth in many parts of the world. This form of intensive farming requires a large amount of water and fertilizers, and can have a severe impact on the environment. The number of greenhouses and their location is important for applications like spatial planning, environmental protection, agricultural statistics and taxation. Therefore, with this study we aim to develop a methodology to detect plastic greenhouses in remote sensing data using machine learning algorithms.This research presents the results of the use of a convolutional neural network for automatic object detection of plastic greenhouses in high resolution remotely sensed data within a GIS environment with a graphical interface to advanced algorithms. The convolutional neural network is trained with manually digitized greenhouses and RGB images downloaded from Google Earth. The ArcGIS Pro geographic information system provides access to many of the most advanced python-based machine learning environments like Keras – TensorFlow, PyTorch, fastai and Scikit-learn. These libraries can be accessed via a graphical interface within the GIS environment.Our research evaluated the results of training and inference of three different convolutional neural networks. Experiments were executed with many settings for the backbone models and hyperparameters. The performance of the three models in terms of detection accuracy and time required for training was compared. The model based on the VGG_11 backbone model (with dropout) resulted in an average accuracy of 79.2% with a relatively short training time of 90 minutes, the much more complex DenseNet121 model was trained in 16.5 hours and showed a result of 79.1%, while the ResNet18 based model showed an average accuracy of 83.1% with a training time of 3.5 hours.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Environmental Factors that Influence the Geography of Yemen Leading to
           Dust and Sand Storms - A Case Study

    • Abstract: In Yemen, the dust storm is a common phenomenon severely affecting the economy and health. Yemen is located in a semi-desert desert area, where dust and sand storms occur all year round, however they are the most common at summer (from June until the end of September). Coastal areas (Hajjah, Hoddeidah, Taiz, Lahg, Aden, Abyan, Shabwah and Hadramout) and desert areas (Marib and Al Jowf) are affected by dust and sandstorms almost all year round. The western and central governorates of Yemen are mountainous regions, but influenced by dust too. Dust storms in Yemen have an impact on humans, animals, plants and all environmental ecosystems. In this article, we attempted to understand the possible relationship between environmental parameters such as wind temperature, and precipitation, which influence the development of dust and sand storms in and around Yemen. Statistical analysis such as descriptive statistics, T-test, ANOVA one-way test, Tukey test, Levene test, and Correlation test were performed. The statistical analysis confirms that there is a significant correlation between wind, temperature and precipitation at 0.01 and 0.05 levels. The results further depict that environmental factors play a vital role in the formation of dust and sand storm. The results obtained are encouraging and further research will be conducted based on technological evidence.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Modelling the Impact of Tillage on Water Quality for Sustainable
           Agricultural Development in a Savanna Ecological Zone, Kwara State,

    • Abstract: The aim of the study was to examine the effects of tillage methods on surface runoff and model the pattern and processes of surface water pollution associated with tillage methods using Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). This model was designed to predict the impact of land management practices on water, sediment, and varying tillage types in watersheds over two planting seasons. Traditional heap (T), Plough/Harrow (PH), Plough/Harrow/Ridge (PHR) and No-tillage (NT) methods commonly used in the study area were applied to experimental plots at Unilorin Teaching and Research Farm and National Center for Agricultural Mechanization, Idofian (Nigeria). Using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), each treatment had three replicates making 12 experimental plots at each location for the 2015 and 2016 planting season. Nine biophysical parameters were purposively selected, examined and modelled. The study revealed that four of nine biophysical factors (sediment yield: 10.54 t/ha; groundwater discharge: 174.45 mm; organic nitrogen: 62.62 kg/ha, and nitrogen in surface runoff: 5.15 kg/ha) were higher for traditional heaps, while three parameters (surface runoff: 374.42 mm; evapotranspiration: 752.78 mm, and soil loss: 1.05 kg/ha) were higher under plough/harrow and plough/harrow/ridge cultivation practices. The study concluded that tillage methods have impact on water quality. However, plough/harrow has comparatively more favorable effect on the contribution to surface runoff. It is therefore recommended that this type of tillage should be adopted to reduce water pollution and for sustainable environment.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Environmental Armed Conflict Assessment Using Satellite Imagery

    • Abstract: Armed conflicts not only affect human populations but can also cause considerable damage to the environment. Its consequences are as diverse as its causes, including; water pollution from oil spills, land degradation due to the destruction of infrastructure, poisoning of soils and fields, destruction of crops and forests, over-exploitation of natural resources and paradoxically and occasionally reforestation. In this way, the environment in the war can be approached as beneficiary, stage, victim or/and spoil of war.Although there are few papers that assess the use of remote sensing methods in areas affected by warfare, we found a gap in these studies, being both outdated and lacking the correlation of remote sensing analysis with the causes-consequences, biome features and scale. Thus, this paper presents a methodical approach focused on the assessment of the existing datasets and the analysis of the connection between geographical conditions (biomes), drivers and the assessment using remote sensing methods in areas affected by armed conflicts. We aimed to find; weaknesses, tendencies, patterns, points of convergence and divergence. Then we consider variables such as biome, forest cover affectation, scale, and satellite imagery sensors to determine the relationship between warfare drivers with geographical location assessed by remote sensing methods. We collected data from 44 studies from international peer-reviewed journals from 1998 to 2019 that are indexed using scientific search engines. We found that 62% of the studies were focused on the analysis of torrid biomes as; Tropical Rainforest, Monsoon Forest / Dry Forest, Tree Savanna and Grass Savanna, using the 64% Moderate-resolution satellite imagery sensors as; Landsat 4-5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+. Quantitative analysis of the trends identified within these areas contributes to an understanding of the reasons behind these conflicts.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Assessing the Immediate Effect of Covid-19 Lockdown on Air Quality: A Case
           Study of Delhi, India

    • Abstract: In India, a nationwide lockdown due to COVID-19 has been implemented on 25 March 2020. The lockdown restrictions on more than 1.3 billion people have brought exceptional changes in the air quality all over the country. This study aims to analyze the levels of three major pollutants: particulate matter sized 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and 10 μm (PM10), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) before and during the lockdown in Delhi, one of the world’s most polluted cities. The data for PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 concentrations are derived from 38 ground stations dispersed within the city. The spatial interpolation maps of pollutants for two times are generated using Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) model. The results indicate decreasing levels of PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 concentrations in the city by 93%, 83%, and 70% from 25 February 2020 to 21 April 2020 respectively. It is found that one month before the lockdown the levels of air pollution in Delhi were critical and much higher than the guideline values set by the World Health Organization. The levels of air pollution became historically low after the lockdown. Considering the critically degraded air quality for decades and higher morbidity and mortality rate due to unhealthy air in Delhi, the improvement in air quality due to lockdown may result as a boon for the better health of the city’s population.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • A Solution to Treat Mixed-Type Human Datasets from Socio-Ecological

    • Abstract: Coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) are frequently represented by large datasets with varied data including continuous, ordinal, and categorical variables. Conventional multivariate analyses cannot handle these mixed data types. In this paper, our goal was to show how a clustering method that has not before been applied to understanding the human dimension of CHANS: a Gower dissimilarity matrix with partitioning around medoids (PAM) can be used to treat mixed-type human datasets. A case study of land managers responsible for invasive plant control projects across rivers of the southwestern U.S. was used to characterize managers’ backgrounds and decisions, and project properties through clustering. Results showed that managers could be classified as “federal multitaskers” or as “educated specialists”. Decisions were characterized by being either “quick and active” or “thorough and careful”. Project goals were either comprehensive with ecological goals or more limited in scope. This study shows that clustering with Gower and PAM can simplify the complex human dimension of this system, demonstrating the utility of this approach for systems frequently composed of mixed-type data such as CHANS. This clustering approach can be used to direct scientific recommendations towards homogeneous groups of managers and project types.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Trend Analysis of Temperature and Humidity in Kwara State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: This paper examines the trend analysis of temperature and relative humidity in Kwara State. Climatic data on annual mean temperature (minimum and maximum) and relative humidity for 40 years (1978-2017) were collected from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) Ilorin. Semi-Average method, Mann- Kendull statistics and regression method were used to analyse the trend in temperature and relative humidity. The Standardized Anomaly Index (SAI) was also used to examine the changes in temperature and humidity over the period of 1978-2017. The result of the analysis indicates that temperature (minimum and maximum) and relative humidity exhibit an upward trend. This implies that temperature and relative humidity increase over the period of 1978-2017. The Mann-Kendull statistics values show that there is no significant difference in the values of temperature (minimum and maximum) and relative humidity. The result of the Standardized Anomaly Index (SAI) also revealed that the values of temperature and humidity fluctuated around the long –term mean. About 50% of the annual average relative humidity falls above the long term average while 40% of the annual mean maximum temperature falls above the long term average. It can therefore, be deduced that there is the possibility of increment in the values of temperature and relative humidity which could cause a serious challenge to human health and climate change. The study therefore, suggests that increase and fluctuations in temperature and relative humidity should be a critical factor in designing strategies to mitigate the effect of climate change on the environment and human health.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Applying Automatic Mapping Processing By GMT to Bathymetric and
           Geophysical Data: Cascadia Subduction Zone, Pacific Ocean

    • Abstract: The Cascadia Trench is stretching along the convergent plate boundaries of Pacific Plate, North America Plate and Juan De Fuca Plate. It is an important geomorphological structural feature in the north-east Pacific Ocean. The aim of the paper is to analyse the geomorphology of the Cascadia Trench west of Vancouver Island (Canada and USA) using the GMT cartographic scripting toolset. The unique geomorphological feature of the Cascadia Trench is that the thick sediment layer completely obscures the subduction zone and abyssal hills. This results in the asymmetric profile in the cross-section of the trench. Bathymetric data were extracted from the GEBCO 2019 dataset (15 arc-second grid), sediment thickness by the GlobSed dataset. Due to the dominance of high sedimentary rate and complexity of the tectonic processes and geologic settings, Cascadia Trench develops very specific asymmetric geomorphic shape comparing to the typical V-form. The results of the geomorphic modelling show that eastern side of the trench has a gentle curvature (slope: 35.12°), partially stepped, due to the tectonic movements and faults. The opposite, oceanward side is almost completely leveled. The trench is narrow with maximal depth at the selected segment -3489 m and for the whole dataset -6201 m. The most repetitive depth is in a range -2500 to -2400 m (267 samples) and -2500 to -2600 m (261 samples). The bottom is mostly flat due to the high sedimentation rates indicating the accumulative leveling processes. Marine free-air gravity anomalies along the Cascadia Subduction Zone are characterized by weakly positive values (20 mGal) increasing rapidly in the zone of the continental slope (>200 mGal), which is associated with a decrease in thickness of the Earth’s crust.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
  • Characteristics of Winter Urban Heat Island in Budapest at Local and Micro

    • Abstract: Most of the urban heat island (UHI) researches focused on the phenomenon in summer. They mainly studied the causes, different functional areas, and possible mitigation measures to reduce the high temperature in urban areas. However, UHI also exists in winter, but there are a limited number of studies on winter UHI. The characteristics and causes of UHI in winter have not been received much attention or consideration yet. This study aims to characterize the UHI feature in winter in Budapest, Hungary, based on the analysis of land surface temperature (LST) in relation to the factors of elevation, slope exposure, residential type, and snow coverage. Five different Landsat images in the winter season were applied to detect the surface temperature; besides, pictures of the thermal camera at a micro-scale were also used. Results showed that UHI intensity was not strong in winter; built-up areas were warmer than other urban areas. Topography was one of the significant factors affecting the surface temperature in winter. The surface temperature of the hills (300 m asl) was lower than that of the lowlands (below 120 m asl). The south-facing slopes and south oriented buildings were warmer than north-facing slopes and buildings oriented to the north. Areas with snow coverage had a lower temperature than no snow coverage areas. These findings could give general guidance for further UHI research, urban planning as well as landscape design.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
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