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  Subjects -> GEOGRAPHY (Total: 493 journals)
Showing 401 - 277 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
Revista de Geografia (Recife)     Open Access  
Revista de Geografia e Ordenamento do Território     Open Access  
Revista de Geografía Norte Grande     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Asociacion Geologica Argentina     Open Access  
Revista de Teledetección     Open Access  
Revista del Museo de La Plata     Open Access  
Revista do Instituto de Estudos Brasileiros     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica : Tempo - Técnica - Território / Eletronic Magazine : Time - Technique - Territory     Open Access  
Revista Espinhaço     Open Access  
Revista Estudios Hemisféricos y Polares     Open Access  
Revista Geama     Open Access  
Revista Geoaraguaia     Open Access  
Revista Geográfica de América Central     Open Access  
Revista Geonorte     Open Access  
Revista Interamericana de Ambiente y Turismo     Open Access  
Revista Intercontinental de Gestão Desportiva     Open Access  
Revista Interdisciplinar da Mobilidade Humana     Open Access  
Revista Latinoamericana de Antropología del Trabajo     Open Access  
Revista Tamoios     Open Access  
Revista Tocantinense de Geografia     Open Access  
Revista Universitaria de Geografía     Open Access  
Revista Uruguaya de Antropología y Etnografía     Open Access  
Revue archéologique du Centre de la France     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue de géographie historique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RIEM : Revista Internacional de Estudios Migratorios     Open Access  
Rocznik Toruński     Open Access  
Rural & Urbano     Open Access  
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access  
Sasdaya : Gadjah Mada Journal of Humanities     Open Access  
Saúde e Meio Ambiente : Revista Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Scandinavistica Vilnensis     Open Access  
Scientific Annals of Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava. Geography Series     Open Access  
Scottish Geographical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Scripta Nova : Revista Electrónica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Sémata : Ciencias Sociais e Humanidades     Full-text available via subscription  
Seoul Journal of Korean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Social Dynamics: A journal of African studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Social Geography Discussions (SGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Sociedade & Natureza     Open Access  
South African Geographical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Geomatics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
South Asian Diaspora     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
South Australian Geographical Journal     Open Access  
Southeastern Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Southeastern Geographer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Southern African Journal of Environmental Education     Open Access  
Sport i Turystyka : Środkowoeuropejskie Czasopismo Naukowe     Open Access  
Sriwijaya Journal of Environment     Open Access  
Standort - Zeitschrift für angewandte Geographie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai, Geologia     Open Access  
Studies in African Languages and Cultures     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technology and Technique of Typography     Open Access  
Tectonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Terra     Open Access  
Terra Brasilis     Open Access  
Terrae Incognitae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Territoire en Mouvement     Open Access  
The Canadian Geographer/le Geographe Canadien     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
The Geographic Base     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
The Geographical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
The South Asianist     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Third Pole: Journal of Geography Education     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for Kortlægning og Arealforvaltning     Open Access  
Tiempo y Espacio     Open Access  
TRaNS : Trans-Regional-and-National Studies of Southeast Asia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Transmodernity : Journal of Peripheral Cultural Production of the Luso-Hispanic World     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Treballs de la Societat Catalana de Geografia     Open Access  
TRIM. Tordesillas : Revista de investigación multidisciplinar     Open Access  
Turystyka Kulturowa     Open Access  
UD y la Geomática     Open Access  
UNM Geographic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Urban Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Urban History Review / Revue d'histoire urbaine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Urban Research & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Vegueta : Anuario de la Facultad de Geografía e Historia     Open Access  
Visión Antataura     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Watershed Ecology and the Environment     Open Access  
Wellbeing, Space & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Załącznik Kulturoznawczy / Cultural Studies Appendix     Open Access  

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Number of Followers: 3  

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ISSN (Online) 2073-445X
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 614: Economic Growth Does Not Mitigate Its Decoupling
           Relationship with Urban Greenness in China

    • Authors: Min Cheng, Ying Liang, Canying Zeng, Yi Pan, Jinxia Zhu, Jingyi Wang
      First page: 614
      Abstract: Accompanied by China’s rapid economic growth, significant urban greening has occurred in Chinese cities, in particular in the urban core areas. In contrast, rapid urbanization and economic growth also led to a high probability of vegetation degradation in urban fringe regions. However, these significant spatial differences in urban greenness associated with economic growth in Chinese cities are not well understood. This study explored the spatiotemporal characteristics of the nighttime light (NTL) and annual maximum enhanced vegetation index (EVImax) in urban areas from 2001 to 2020. A strong decoupling status between economic growth and urban greenness on the national scale was found. Overall, 49.15% of urban areas showed a decoupling status. Spatially, this percentage of urban areas with a decoupling status would significantly decrease when the long-term average NTL surpasses 51. Moreover, this significant threshold of decoupling status was found in 189 cities out of 344 (54.65%) in China. This threshold in each city showed significant spatial heterogeneity but can mostly be attributed to the gradient in the long-term average precipitation (Pmean) of each city during the period of 2001–2020. Specifically, a spatial increase in Pmean of 100 mm responded to a decrease in the threshold of 0.4 DN (p < 0.01). In contrast, there was no significant correlation between the threshold and the economic growth status of each city. Our results provide valuable insights for coordinating the development of urban greening and economic growth.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030614
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 615: Fractal Features of Soil Particles as an Index
           of Land Degradation under Different Land-Use Patterns and Slope-Aspects

    • Authors: Feng He, Neda Mohamadzadeh, Mostafa Sadeghnejad, Ben Ingram, Yaser Ostovari
      First page: 615
      Abstract: This study examines the effects of land use and slope aspect on soil erodibility (K-factor) and the fractal dimension (D) of soil particle size distribution (PSD) in calcareous soils at the watershed scale in western Iran. The study analyzed 113 soil samples collected from four land uses (slope-farmland, farmland, pasture, and woodland) at a depth of 0–20 cm, measuring common soil properties such as soil texture, soil organic matter (SOM), calcium carbonate (CaCO3), pH, and cation exchange capacity (CEC). The PSD of soil samples was measured using the international system of soil size fractions, and the D for PSD was calculated. The K-factor was calculated using the RUSLE model. The results showed that the K-factor was highest in slope farmlands with SOM at 1.6% and lowest in woodlands at 0.02 Mg h MJ−1 mm−1 with SOM at 3.5%. The study also found that there were significant correlations between D and clay content (r = 0.52), sand content (r = −0.29), and CEC (r = 0.36). Woodland soils had the highest SOM content, with a mean D value of 2.895, significantly higher than the mean D value of slope farmland soils, which had the lowest SOM at 1.6%. The study concludes that woodland soils retain finer particles, particularly clay, resulting in lower soil loss and land degradation compared to other land uses. Finally, the study suggests that shady slope aspects (south aspect) contain more organic matter due to less solar radiation and higher soil water content, resulting in lower soil erodibility (0.02 Mg h MJ−1 mm−1) and higher D values compared to other slope aspects.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030615
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 616: The Impact Factors and Management Policy of
           Digital Village Development: A Case Study of Gansu Province, China

    • Authors: Ping Zhang, Weiwei Li, Kaixu Zhao, Yi Zhao, Hua Chen, Sidong Zhao
      First page: 616
      Abstract: (1) Background: Along with the maturity of smart cities, digital villages and smart villages are receiving more attention than ever before as the key to promote sustainable rural development. The Chinese government has made great efforts in promoting the digital development of villages in recent years, as evidenced by policies intensively introduced by the central and local governments, making China a typical representative country in the world. (2) Methods: This paper evaluates the performance and geographic pattern of rural digital development by the Geographic Information System (GIS) in Gansu, a less developed province in western China, and analyzes the driving mechanism of rural digital development using GeoDetector, providing a basis for spatial zoning and differentiated policy design for the construction, planning and management of digital villages based on the GE matrix. (3) Results: First, the development of digital villages shows a prominent geographical imbalance, with 79 counties divided into leader, follower and straggler levels. Second, digital villages show unsynchronized development in different dimensions, with the village facilities digitalization index in the lead and the village economy digitalization index lagging behind. Thirdly, the development of digital villages is characterized by significant spatial correlation and spillover effects, with cold and hot counties distributed in clusters, forming a “center-periphery” structure. Fourth, the factors show significant influence differentiation. They are classified into all-purpose, multifunctional and single-functional factors by their scope of action, and into key, important and auxiliary factors by their intensity of action. Fifth, the interaction and driving mechanism between different factors is quite complex, dominated by nonlinear enhancement and bifactor enhancement, and the synergistic effect of factor pairs helps increase the influence by 1–4 times. (4) Conclusions: It is suggested that the government develop differentiated policies for zoning planning and management based on the level of digital development of villages in combination with the factor influence and its driving mechanism and promote regional linkage and common development and governance through top-level design.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030616
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 617: Coordinated Development and Sustainability of
           the Agriculture, Climate and Society System in China: Based on the PLE
           Analysis Framework

    • Authors: Xuelan Li, Jiyu Jiang, Javier Cifuentes-Faura
      First page: 617
      Abstract: Nowadays, frequent climate extremes exert a serious impact on agricultural production and social development, which is seldom studied in the previous literature. Production–Living–Ecological (PLE) is a useful analysis framework, and China is a suitable model for such study. This paper takes the Huai River Eco-Economic Belt (HREB), an important agricultural zone in China, to study the relationship among agricultural production (P), society (L), and climate change (E), which is referred to as APLE. This paper constructs a coupled coordination evaluation index system for the APLE system and uses coupling coordination degree models and geographic detector to study the spatial and temporal evolution of the coordinated development of 34 counties (cities) in the HREB from 2009 to 2018. The results show the following: (1) The development of the agricultural subsystem and the social subsystem formed a “scissors difference” from 2009 to 2014, and the three subsystems showed a slight upward trend during 2014–2018. (2) The coupling and coordinated development of the APLE system in the HREB was generally stable, and the coupling coordination degree was improved from low-grade and slightly uncoordinated to barely and primarily coordinated. Furthermore, the spatial differentiation of the coupling coordination degree shows a clear pattern of being high in the southeast and low in the northwest. (3) The main influencing factors are the drought and flood protection rate, the effective irrigation rate, the per capita electricity consumption in agriculture, the number of beds in healthcare facilities per 10,000 people, the per capita disposable income of urban residents, the annual average temperature, and the annual precipitation. (4) The spatial–temporal evolution of the coupling and coordinated development of the APLE system is the result of the comprehensive effect of internal driving forces such as food security, the consumption level of rural residents, and the development level of urbanization construction, and external driving forces such as government public welfare and natural conditions.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030617
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 618: Rethinking China’s Rural Revitalization:
           The Development of a Sense of Community Scale for Chinese Traditional

    • Authors: Wei Wang, Yun Gao, Adrian Pitts
      First page: 618
      Abstract: Improving the sense of community (SOC) in Chinese traditional villages is crucial to preventing population loss and conserving the cultural heritage of China’s rural areas. These factors are important components of China’s rural revitalization policy, and thus, it is necessary to measure the SOC of villagers as part of the process. This study has developed a new SOC scale for Chinese traditional villages based on McMillan and Chavis’s four-factor theory involving membership, influence, need fulfillment, and emotional connections. An initial proposed sense of community scale for Chinese traditional village (SCSCTV) was structured as a four-factor scale with 28 items, including items from existing SOC studies and new items created by considering the features of Chinese traditional village communities. The scale was tested in the studies of three traditional villages in Chongqing by using two different methods. The findings provide guidance for the study of villages in the context of Chinese rural societies and a reliable scale for measuring villagers’ SOC.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030618
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 619: Exploring Associations between the Built
           Environment and Cycling Behaviour around Urban Greenways from a
           Human-Scale Perspective

    • Authors: Yiwei Bai, Yihang Bai, Ruoyu Wang, Tianren Yang, Xinyao Song, Bo Bai
      First page: 619
      Abstract: The incorporation of cycling as a mode of transport has been shown to have a positive impact on reducing traffic congestion, improving mental health outcomes, and contributing to the development of sustainable cities. The proliferation of bike-sharing systems, characterised by their wide availability and high usage rates, has made cycling in urban areas more accessible and convenient for individuals. While the existence of a relationship between cycling behaviour and the built environment has been established, few studies have specifically examined this connection for weekdays and weekends. With the emergence of new data sources, new methodologies have become available for research into this area. For instance, bike-sharing spatio-temporal datasets have made it possible to precisely measure cycling behaviour over time, while street-view images and deep learning techniques now enable researchers to quantify the built environment from a human perspective. In this study, we used 139,018 cycling trips and 14,947 street-view images to examine the connection between the built environment consisting of urban greenways and cycling behaviour. The results indicated that the greenness and enclosure of the level of greenway were positively correlated with increased cycling on both weekdays and weekends. However, the openness of the greenway appears to have opposing effects on cycling behaviour depending on the day of the week, with high levels of openness potentially promoting cycling on weekends but hindering it on weekdays. Based on the findings of this study, policymakers and planners should focus on the cycling environment and prioritise improving its comfort and safety to promote green transportation and bicycle-friendly cities.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030619
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 620: How Does Urban-Rural Capital Flow Affect Rural

    • Authors: Xiaoping Zhou, Xiaotian Li, Xiaokun Gu
      First page: 620
      Abstract: Capital outflow during industrialization and urbanization is a primary reason for global rural recession, and China is no exception. Since China focuses on the integrated development of urban and rural areas, urban-rural capital flow affects the transformation and sustainable development of rural areas. However, few studies have focused on this issue. Based on long-term field observations of Wufang Village in Shanghai, we established an analytical framework to describe how urban-rural capital flow promotes rural reconstruction. The research results show that the influx of urban industrial and commercial capital results in market-oriented organization and reconstruction focusing on land, industry, and capital: (1) Land-use optimization changes the land ownership and spatial structure of rural areas and improves the spatial value of rural areas. (2) Industrial development is focused on diverse development and the integration of primary, secondary, and tertiary industries in rural areas. (3) Capital investment is performed by a consortium of state-owned enterprises, private enterprises, and rural collective enterprises—which jointly invest, obtain revenue, and share profits—while considering the balance between attracting capital to rural areas and achieving independent development. The experience of Wufang Village has implications for the rural transformation policies of other large cities in China and other countries in Asia and Africa during urbanization.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030620
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 621: Sustainable Urban Planning Models for New Smart
           Cities and Effective Management of Land Take Dynamics

    • Authors: Marco Locurcio, Francesco Tajani, Debora Anelli
      First page: 621
      Abstract: The development and management models of land use—both natural and man-made—and infrastructures, in order to be considered sustainable, must guarantee the inhabitants of the area the satisfaction of their vital needs in a way that can also continue to be implemented in the future, without conflicting with the limited availability of natural resources on the planet [...]
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030621
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 622: The Impact of Agricultural Labor Migration on
           the Urban–Rural Dual Economic Structure: The Case of Liaoning
           Province, China

    • Authors: Yixuan Du, Zhe Zhao, Shuang Liu, Zhihui Li
      First page: 622
      Abstract: Based on the practical requirements of China’s urban–rural integrated development, it is of great theoretical and practical significance to analyze the impact of agricultural labor migration on the urban–rural dual economic structure. This paper empirically examined the impact of agricultural labor migration on the urban–rural dual economic structure by using the spatial Durbin model and the geographically and temporally weighted regression model on the basis of the panel data of 14 regions in Liaoning Province from 2005 to 2020. The results show that agricultural labor migration has an obvious optimization effect and spatial spillover effect on the urban–rural dual economic structure; in terms of space, agricultural labor migration has a stronger impact on the central and western regions and a weaker impact on the southeastern regions; in terms of time, agricultural labor migration can stably promote the integration of urban and rural economies before the second Lewis turning point. Therefore, this paper provides references with regard to increasing investment in rural education and training; improving the structure of government spending; and protecting the rights and interests of rural migrants.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030622
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 623: Glacier Change and Its Response to Climate
           Change in Western China

    • Authors: Jiahui Li, Xinliang Xu
      First page: 623
      Abstract: Given that glaciers are good indicators of climate change, it is of great scientific significance to study glacier change for regional environmental protection and water resource development and utilization. Using the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform, we obtained the distribution of glaciers in western China in 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020. Then, we analyzed the temporal and spatial evolutions of the glacier areas and their responses to climate change. The results showed that there were 52,384 glaciers in western China in 2020, with an area of 42,903.57 km2, among which those belonging to the headwater of the Tarim River are the largest, accounting for 35.25% of the total area. From 2000 to 2020, the glaciers indicated an overall trend of retreat, with the total area decreasing by 15,575.94 km2 at a change rate of 1.46%/a. From 2000 to 2010, glaciers in the southeast Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) and Qilian Mountains saw the fastest area loss (>4%/a), followed by the Tianshan Mountains (3.31%/a), while those in the Pamir-Karakoram-West Kunlun regions and the Qiangtang Plateau had the slowest loss. From 2010 to 2020, the glacier retreat rate exhibited an accelerating trend in southeast QTP and the western Himalayas, while it slowed down in the Tianshan Mountains. The change in glaciers was greatly attributed to the combination of snowfall and summer temperature trends. The glaciers in southeast QTP showed an accelerated retreat tendency, probably due to the accelerating snowfall decrease and continuous temperature rise. The decreasing temperature mitigated the loss of glacier area in the Pamir-Karakoram-West Kunlun regions with continuously decreasing snowfall.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030623
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 624: Pandemic Boosts Prospects for Recovery of Rural
           Tourism in Serbia

    • Authors: Tamara Gajić, Filip Đoković, Ivana Blešić, Marko D. Petrović, Milan M. Radovanović, Dragan Vukolić, Marija Mandarić, Goran Dašić, Julia A. Syromiatnikova, Andrej Mićović
      First page: 624
      Abstract: Rural tourism in Serbia had its chance to shine with the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent the quality of rural service can contribute to improving rural tourism, and predictions for the continuation of the trend in terms of increasing the number of overnight stays in rural households. The obtained results show a small number of services in the sector could be improved, but that all elements except price value can influence the future development of rural tourism and that the number of overnight stays is expected to continue to grow. The importance and innovativeness of the research is reflected in the specific methodology that was applied, and the results complement those of previous research. It has been shown that villages in Serbia can create a barrier against COVID-19 through tourism.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030624
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 625: Post-Flood Resilience Assessment of July 2021
           Flood in Western Germany and Henan, China

    • Authors: Bikram Manandhar, Shenghui Cui, Lihong Wang, Sabita Shrestha
      First page: 625
      Abstract: In July 2021, devastating floods occurred in western Germany and Henan, China, resulting in extreme loss of life and property damage. Despite the differences in context, climate change contributed to these events. Flood resilience generally means the system’s ability to recover from floods. A post-flood resilience assessment seeks to determine the impact of the flood on the area, the duration it took to recover, the effectiveness of the measures taken to reduce the risk of flooding, and ways to enhance flood resilience. The post-flood review capacity method was used to assess the event and calculate the flood resilience index. Western Germany experienced a 500-year return period flood in connection with the low-pressure system, Bernd, while Zhengzhou in Henan experienced a 1000-year return period flood with the influence of Typhoon In-Fa and the Western Pacific subtropical high. More than 107,000 people were affected in Germany, with 205 deaths that account for USD 40 billion in economic losses, whereas in Henan, 14.786 million people were affected, and 398 people died, which accounts for USD 18.9 billion in losses. Germany was more impacted and took longer to restore essential services than Henan, China. The flood resilience index shows that the resilience level of both countries is low. The severe rainstorms in Zhengzhou and the Ahr River Valley exposed weaknesses in urban disaster management, particularly in urban areas, such as subway flooding and risk communication with the public. The events highlighted the need to better understand risks and their consequences, early warning systems, preparedness, and emergency response.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030625
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 626: Effects of Multifaceted Street Art on Price
           Premium of Pre War Commercial Buildings: The Case of Georgetown UNESCO
           World Heritage Site

    • Authors: Chin Tiong Cheng, Gabriel Hoh Teck Ling, Hon-Choong Chin, Pau Chung Leng
      First page: 626
      Abstract: Street art is promoted in most countries to intensify the cultural elements of the cityscape. Although street art provides cultural and social values, its impact on the prices of prewar historic property is still unknown. Therefore, an empirical study that examines the relationship between prewar shophouse prices and street art is needed to improve real estate professionals’ understanding of the historic preservation market. Using pre- and post-models for the years 2009 to 2019, this study systematically determined the actual location of 119 street art objects (in the form of sculptures and murals) and the 852 prewar shophouses sold in George Town, Penang. The price change of prewar shophouses correlates with the number of street art objects within 100 m, 500 m, and 1000 m of the properties. Due to the heterogeneous characteristics of the properties, six primary hedonic models were developed to extract the price premium of street art. This study has shown the impact of street art on a prewar commercial building, where an additional unit of sculpture could increase its price by 8.32%, 1.62%, and 0.74%, based on radii of 100 m, 500 m, and 1000 m, respectively, in the post-model (after 2012–2019). However, a mural painting has no significant effect on the price change of prewar shophouses. In addition, the position of street art (representing visibility) in the model was tested. The result shows that, unlike sculptures that were located at the back of prewar houses, such street art effects contributed positively to the price premium when they were located at the front of the buildings, with each additional unit of sculpture increasing the price premium of prewar houses by 1.13%. Sculptures as street art thus created a positive externality for the city, particularly with respect to the price premium for prewar shophouses.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030626
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 627: Urban Flood Hazard Assessment and Management
           Practices in South Asia: A Review

    • Authors: Bikram Manandhar, Shenghui Cui, Lihong Wang, Sabita Shrestha
      First page: 627
      Abstract: Urban flooding is a frequent disaster in cities. With the increasing imperviousness caused by rapid urbanization and the rising frequency and severity of extreme events caused by climate change, the hydrological status of the urban area has changed, resulting in urban floods. This study aims to identify trends and gaps and highlight potential research prospects in the field of urban flooding in South Asia. Based on an extensive literature review, this paper reviewed urban flood hazard assessment methods using hydraulic/hydrological models and urban flood management practices in South Asia. With the advancement of technology and high-resolution topographic data, hydrologic/hydraulic models such as HEC-RAS/HMS, MIKE, SWMM, etc., are increasingly used for urban flood hazard assessment. Urban flood management practices vary among countries based on existing technologies and infrastructures. In order to control urban flooding, both conventional physical structures, including drainage and embankments, as well as new innovative techniques, such as low-impact development, are implemented. Non-structural flood mitigation measures, such as improved flood warning systems, have been developed and implemented in a few cities. The major challenge in using process-based hydraulic models was the lack of high-resolution DEM and short-duration rainfall data in the region, significantly affecting the model’s simulation results and the implementation of flood management measures. Risk-informed management must be implemented immediately to reduce the adverse effects of climate change and unplanned urbanization on urban flooding. Therefore, it is crucial to encourage emergency managers and local planning authorities to consider a nature-based solution in an integrated urban planning approach to enhances urban flood resilience.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030627
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 628: Sustainable Tourism around Ecosystem Services:
           Application to a Case in Costa Rica Using Multi-Criteria Methods

    • Authors: Juan Diego Araya, Ana Hernando, Rosario Tejera, Javier Velázquez
      First page: 628
      Abstract: Tourism is an activity that generates important benefits; in the case of Costa Rica, it focuses its activity on natural areas, using the different ecosystem services (ES) and obtaining economic and social benefits. However, its ecological value can diminish, making it necessary to implement methods to estimate its sustainability. This paper proposes an evaluation of tourism around ES by applying the MIVES method (Value Integrated Model for Sustainability Evaluation), based on the multi-attribute utility theory, which implies that it transforms different variables into a 0 to 1 relationship, where the closer it is to 1, the more sustainable it is. For this purpose, it considered a decision tree, integrating environmental, economic, and social requirements, 6 criteria, and 13 indicators. The method was applied to two sites, Golfito and Jimenez in Costa Rica. It considered the following stages: (i) literature review and expert consultation, (ii) decision tree, (iii) assignment of weights, (iv) sustainability indexes, and (v) sensitivity analysis. The most sustainable site is Jiménez, obtaining an overall index of 0.40 compared to 0.25 for Golfito. The economic and social requirements are the best evaluated, while the environmental requirement was the worst evaluated for both sites. The proposed methodology can be extrapolated to other natural areas.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030628
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 629: Evaluation and Optimization of the Layout of
           Community Public Service Facilities for the Elderly: A Case Study of

    • Authors: Yonghua Li, Qinchuan Ran, Song Yao, Likun Ding
      First page: 629
      Abstract: Community public service facilities have a primary supportive role in the health of the elderly. Under the background of global aging, it has become vital to evaluate the elderly-adaptability of their layouts. Based on the supply and demand interaction perspective, this study used the questionnaire-AHP-2SFCA method for this purpose. Firstly, taking the six main districts of Hangzhou as an example, we analyzed the spatial distribution characteristics of the elderly population, and a weight index table of the health importance of public service facilities was constructed using a questionnaire survey and the AHP method. Secondly, the improved 2SFCA was used to analyze the accessibility of public service facilities in Hangzhou, and combined with the weight index table, the elderly-adaptability of public service facilities in the community life circle was comprehensively evaluated. Finally, the demands of the elderly and the supply of public service facilities in the same region were superimposed to study the differential pattern of supply and demand. The results showed the following: (1) The communities with the largest elderly population are mainly concentrated in Shangcheng District, Xiacheng District, the north of Gongshu District, the west of Jianggan District, and the north of Binjiang District. (2) Green space facilities in parks are most important to the health of the elderly, with a weight of 0.46. (3) The overall evaluation results of the community life circle in the study area were good, and the proportion of areas above the medium level was more than 50%. This showed that the concepts of “neighborhood center” and “big community elderly care” in Hangzhou have achieved initial positive results. (4) Based on the interaction between supply and demand, the research area can be divided into four patterns: supply and demand balance, supply shortage, demand gap, and low supply and demand. The results of this study will help to improve the layout and aging-friendly status of community life circle facilities in Hangzhou, and provide information for other aging cities.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030629
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 630: Urban Sprawl and Its Multidimensional and
           Multiscale Measurement

    • Authors: Linlin Zhang, Xianfan Shu, Liang Zhang
      First page: 630
      Abstract: The evaluation and dynamic monitoring of urban sprawl is essential to the sustainable development of cities and therefore attracts enthusiasm from numerous scholars. This study conducted a thorough review of the literature on the multidimensional and multiscale measurement of urban sprawl. Firstly, it provides a definition based on the common characteristics of urban sprawl to contribute to a relatively uniform definition and judging criteria. Secondly, indicators of growth, morphology, density, land use mixture, and accessibility dimensions are sorted out, as well as dimensions that are not widely operationalized but make sense. Thirdly, the review spotlights single-dimensional measures in large-sample comparative studies and booming comparative studies based on multidimensional measures. Furthermore, another focus lies on different spatiotemporal combinations of temporal and spatial scales for the measurement. Overall, there are large gaps in comparative studies on the multidimensional measurement of urban sprawl under multiple spatiotemporal scales. In particular, few micro-scale studies focus on inner-city units, and few measure urban sprawl at multiple scales simultaneously. Finally, the challenges and future of multidimensional and multiscale measurements are discussed: relativity and uncertainty of sprawl criteria; strong dependence on the choice of spatiotemporal scales; comparability of sprawl measurements that remains to be improved; the necessity of long-term international cooperation on the measurement of urban sprawl at the global and regional levels. The article appeals for more multidimensional and multiscale urban sprawl measurement studies based on multi-case comparisons in the future, especially in the developing context.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030630
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 631: Estimating Fragmentation and Connectivity
           Patterns of the Temperate Forest in an Avocado-Dominated Landscape to
           Propose Conservation Strategies

    • Authors: María Camila Latorre-Cárdenas, Antonio González-Rodríguez, Oscar Godínez-Gómez, Eugenio Y. Arima, Kenneth R. Young, Audrey Denvir, Felipe García-Oliva, Adrián Ghilardi
      First page: 631
      Abstract: The rapid expansion of avocado cultivation in Michoacán, Mexico, is one of the drivers of deforestation. We assessed the degree of fragmentation and functional connectivity of the remaining temperate forest within the Avocado Belt and prioritized patches that contribute the most to connectivity using a network-based approach and modelling different seed and pollen dispersal scenarios, including two types of patch attributes (size and degree of conservation). As landscape transformation in the region is rapid and ongoing, we updated the land-use and land-cover maps through a supervised classification of Sentinel-2 imagery, improving the reliability of our analyses. Temperate forest is highly fragmented within the region: most patches are small (<30 ha), have a reduced core-area (28%), and irregular shapes. The degree of connectivity is very low (0.06), dropping to 0.019 when the degree of conservation of patches was considered. The top 100 ranked patches of forest that support the connectivity of seeds and pollen have different characteristics (i.e., size and topology) that may be considered for implementing conservation and management strategies. Seed dispersal seems to be more threatened by fragmentation than pollen dispersal, and patches that are important for maintaining seed connectivity are embedded in the denser zone of avocado orchards.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030631
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 632: The Impact of Land Transfers on the Adoption of

    • Authors: Yi Chen, Zhengbing Wang
      First page: 632
      Abstract: Land transfers play a vital role in determining the level of farm machinery service and variety selection by scattered land reduction and contiguous land enhancement, which are also conducive to poverty alleviation and welfare utilization. Based on the micro-survey data of 898 kiwifruit growers in Shaanxi Province, this paper analyzed the effect of land transfers on the adoption of new varieties by propensity score matching (PSM) technology. A stepwise regression method was used to test the mediating role of land scale and the moderating role of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The results suggest the following: (1) Farmers with land transfers had a significant positive effect on the adoption of new varieties, with a 12.5% increase in the likelihood of new variety adoption. (2) The impact of land transfers on the adoption of new varieties was partially mediated through land scale. (3) The positive moderating role of UAV services was empirically emphasized. With the goal of promoting the average income and boosting farmland productivity, the improvement of the land property rights trading market, joint efforts from government and rural cooperatives, and professional and regular training are proposed to optimize land-use structures and reduce machinery service costs, thereby encouraging farmers to adopt new, improved varieties.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030632
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 633: Promoting Green Buildings and Low-Carbon Design
           Strategies of Green B&B Rooms for Sustainable Tourism after COVID-19

    • Authors: Gangwei Cai, Min Zhang, Xiandu Zhang, Huijian Xi, Zhong Chen, Chao Liu, Kang Liu, Ke Liu, Shiwen Xu, Zuoping Yu
      First page: 633
      Abstract: COVID-19 opened a window of opportunity to change the green development of the hospitality industry. For many years, Chinese tourists have been the world’s largest source of outbound tourists. Therefore, this study attempted to improve built-environment strategies for green rooms at B&Bs using the empirical statistics of Chinese tourists after the end of COVID-19 control measures and different green B&B standards, combining IPA (importance-performance analysis). For the lack of a green built-environment study from a tourism perspective, this study can be used mainly for improving the green satisfaction of urban B&Bs as it attempted to fill the gaps in research on green B&B rooms. This study will significantly help improve the quality of green rooms for the B&B industry in the future, and it also provides an improved green B&B room sample for other countries and regions. Moreover, it is an optimistic attempt at hospitality and tourism recovery.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030633
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 634: Urban-Rural Revitalization Space for Sustainable
           Social Value: An Evaluation in Redesigning Built Environment in Taiwan

    • Authors: YuLing Tsai, Bart Julien Dewancker, Athina Ardhyanto
      First page: 634
      Abstract: With the rapid development of globalization, industrialization, urbanization, and informatization, numerous economic activities are aggregated in cities, resulting in uneven resources distribution between urban and rural areas. Additionally, the falling fertility rate has led to the existence of many abandoned education-related architectures in both areas. When an architectural space is non-operational, it delivers neither the fundamental spatial value nor contributes any interaction to its neighbors. This research conducts two educational architecture analyses with respect to their redesign programs in order to evaluate the relation between space and local community. Also, the spatial hierarchy, scale, and characteristics of locality are further investigated in the hope of gaining a deeper understanding of how different revitalization approaches might lead to diverse interaction patterns in the areas. This study shows that different spatial characteristics can affect how people perceive the public space and the way they interact with it. In addition, an effective redesign progress should enhance both space utilization and human-environmental interactions since it can not only promote regional development but also the overall environment sustainability. Thus, an abandoned architecture can be a potential element to invigorate the local community either economically or emotionally.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030634
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 635: Achieving Sustainable Development Goals in
           Ghana: The Contribution of Non-Timber Forest Products towards Economic
           Development in the Eastern Region

    • Authors: Yaw Okyere Akomaning, Samuel Antwi Darkwah, Iva Živělová, Petra Hlaváčková
      First page: 635
      Abstract: Globally, non-timber forest products (NTFPs) continue to contribute vastly to addressing the food, poverty reduction, income, and livelihood requirements of people in rural areas. However, as of now, there are no specific existing data highlighting the periodic contributions of NTFPs to the economy of the eastern region and the country. In Ghana, insufficient attention has been paid to the legislative and regulatory environments for the creation of NTFPs. Since forest policies continue to classify NTFPs as “minor” forest products, they receive less attention than wood in forest management initiatives and policies. The absence of a definitive policy on NTFPs has hampered their promotion, commercialization, and supply chain management. This study analyses the contribution of NTFPs towards economic development in the eastern region and the achievement of SDGs in Ghana. Through focus group discussions and a thematic analysis, it was concluded that NTFPs contribute immensely towards the economic development of the eastern region and the country through employment and direct taxes. Ultimately, it is evident from the study that the destruction of the Atiwa Forest Reserve for the purpose of bauxite mining will widely hinder the country’s achievement of its SDGs. Additionally, the study found that residents will continue to exploit forest resources if the core concerns of institutional deficiencies and rural poverty are not addressed. To curb this situation, there should be the sustainable, regulated, and authorized harvesting of NTFPs/NWFPs, community/user empowerment, and sectoral education and training programmes, etc. Even though these are common solutions, the study found them extremely rare within the study area.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030635
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 636: Quantitative Evaluation of Runoff Simulation and
           Its Driving Forces Based on Hydrological Model and Multisource
           Precipitation Fusion

    • Authors: Zice Ma, Rui Yao, Peng Sun, Zhen Zhuang, Chenhao Ge, Yifan Zou, Yinfeng Lv
      First page: 636
      Abstract: The hydrological cycle across the source regions of the Yellow River (SRYR) affects water supply for 324 million people across the Yellow River basin (YRB), and the scarcity of meteorological stations leads to great challenges for the estimation of hydrologic and energy balance. Therefore, our work employs multisource precipitation products across the YRB to develop a new integrated precipitation product with the optimized Bayesian mean algorithm (OBMA). It investigates the performance and hydrological utility of the optimal Bayesian integrated precipitation product (OBIPP). This study found that the OBIPP improved by 14.08% in overall performance relative to the optimal precipitation product across the SRYR, respectively. Meanwhile, the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model, driven by daily OBIPP, can drastically improve the accuracy of runoff simulation compared with other precipitation products across the SRYR. According to the VIC model driven by daily OBIPP, the average precipitation and runoff depth across the SRYR were approximately 621 mm and 64 mm from 2001 to 2019, respectively, showing a spatial trend increasing from northwest to southeast. Overall, OBIPP is characterized by smaller uncertainty of simulation and higher simulation performance across the SRYR, which should provide a scientific basis for accurate prediction and assessment of water resources in areas where meteorological data are scarce.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030636
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 637: Resilience Practices Contribution Enabling
           European Landscape Policy Innovation and Implementation

    • Authors: Angela Colucci
      First page: 637
      Abstract: The paper is rooted in the results of the Resilience Practices Observatory (RPO) project, which engaged more than one hundred community-led practices to improve local resilience capacities and about fifty applied research and institutional-led initiatives. The article in retracing the complex and articulated RPO research-action project aims to stimulate the disciplinary debate on the contribution and role of resilience practices in a renewed landscape planning framework process. In particular, the paper focuses on the resilience practices acting on ecological landscape enhancement, assuming nature-based solutions as an umbrella concept under numerous approaches, models, and theoretical frameworks supporting the integration of ecological values in the territorial and urban transformation towards their conservation and improvement. The selected cases are placed in the Milano metropolitan area, aiming to safeguard, improve, and valorize urban and periurban landscapes. The cases are used to explore three emerging phenomena: (1) the alliances and the role of community in orienting landscape planning; (2) the role of practices in solution co-design and planning implementation; (3) the role of community in micro-intervention for urban biodiversity and landscape functionality. The final section emphasizes the potential role of community-led initiatives in implementing the NBS European policy and landscape planning guidelines. In the meantime, final remarks underline perspectives in overcoming the existing criticalities towards renovated and adaptive governance process, enabling a more collaborative arena supporting the engagement of differentiated actors along the whole process, from decision making to the implementation and management of landscape planning.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030637
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 638: Effects of Main Land-Use Types on Plant and
           Microbial Diversity and Ecosystem Multifunctionality in Degraded Alpine

    • Authors: Hongye Su, Li Ma, Tao Chang, Ruimin Qin, Zhonghua Zhang, Yandi She, Jingjing Wei, Chenyu Zhou, Xue Hu, Zhengchen Shi, Haze Adi, Honglin Li, Huakun Zhou
      First page: 638
      Abstract: Grassland resources occupy an important place in the national economy. However, grasslands in alpine regions of China are severely degraded, and the effects of land-use types on species composition, soil nutrients, and ecosystem multifunctionality of degraded alpine grasslands are less certain. To ascertain the effects of main land-use types (no-tillage reseeding and fertilization) on species diversity and ecosystem multifunctionality in alpine grasslands, we investigated the changes in these factors by subjecting specified areas. Using a standardized field survey, we measured the cover, richness, and evenness of plants. At each site, we measured microbial diversity and twelve soil variables critical for maintaining ecosystem multifunctionality in alpine grasslands. The results showed that: (1) the Margalef, Shannon–Wiener, and Simpson indices of plant community, and fungal diversity indices increased significantly in no-tillage reseeding and fertilization; (2) at the phyla level, the relative abundances of Basidiomycota, Olpidiomycota, and Proteobacteria increased significantly in no-tillage reseeding and fertilization, as well as, at the genus level, those of Coniochaeta, Solirubrobacter, Pseudonocardia, and Microvirga; (3) the soil physicochemical properties (except the C:N of soil) increased significantly in no-tillage reseeding and fertilization; (4) correlation analysis showed that species diversity was mainly correlated with soil nutrients in control check, while it was mainly correlated with soil physical properties in no-tillage reseeding and fertilization; (5) linear regression analysis showed significant positive relationships between Margalef, Shannon–Wiener, and Simpson indices of plant community and ecosystem multifunctionality. In addition, ecosystem multifunctionality was positively related to Pielou, Shannon–Wiener, and Simpson indices of the fungal community and it was positively related to Pielou and Shannon–Wiener indices of bacterial community. These observations indicated that no-tillage reseeding and fertilization of degraded alpine grasslands had the potential to improve ecosystem functions in many ways.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030638
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 639: Study on Soil Erosion Driving Forces by Using
           (R)USLE Framework and Machine Learning: A Case Study in Southwest China

    • Authors: Yuankai Ge, Longlong Zhao, Jinsong Chen, Xiaoli Li, Hongzhong Li, Zhengxin Wang, Yanni Ren
      First page: 639
      Abstract: Soil erosion often leads to land degradation, agricultural production reduction, and environmental deterioration, which seriously restricts the sustainable development of regions. Clarifying the driving factors of soil erosion is the premise of preventing soil erosion. Given the lack of current research on the driving factors/force changes of soil erosion in different regions or under different erosion intensity grades, this paper pioneered to use machine learning methods to address this problem. Firstly, the widely used (Revised) Universal Soil Loss Equation ((R)USLE) framework was applied to simulate the spatial distribution of soil erosion. Then, the K-fold algorithm was used to evaluate the accuracy and stability of five machine learning algorithms for fitting soil erosion. The random forest (RF) method performed best, with average accuracy reaching 86.35%. Then, the Permutation Importance (PI) and the Partial Dependence Plot (PDP) methods based on RF were introduced to quantitatively analyze the main driving factors under different geological conditions and the driving force changes of each factor under different erosion intensity grades, respectively. Results showed that the main drivers of soil erosion in Chongqing and Guizhou were cover management factors (PI: 0.4672, 0.4788), while that in Sichuan was slope length and slope factor (PI: 0.6165). Under different erosion intensity grades, the driving force of each factor shows nonlinear and complex inhibitory or promoting effects with factor value changing. These findings can provide scientific guidance for the refined management of soil erosion, which is significant for halting or reversing land degradation and achieving sustainable use of land resources.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030639
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 640: Coupled and Coordinated Development of the
           Tourism Industry and Urbanization in Marginal and Less Developed
           Regions—Taking the Mountainous Border Areas of Western Yunnan as a
           Case Study

    • Authors: Pengyang Zhang, Lewen Zhang, Dandan Han, Tingting Wang, He Zhu, Yongtao Chen
      First page: 640
      Abstract: Promoting the coupled and coordinated development of China’s tourism industry and urbanization is of great significance for its marginal and less developed regions. Taking a typical marginal and less developed region, the mountainous border areas of Western Yunnan as the research object, this study analyzed the spatial and temporal characteristics of the coupling coordination degree of the tourism industry and urbanization, as well as their influencing factors, in this region from 2010 to 2019 using the coupling coordination model, spatial gravity model, and panel Tobit model. The study results show the following. (1) The development level of the tourism industry and urbanization in the study region had significantly increased, but there was an obvious polarization phenomenon in its spatial distribution. (2) The coupling coordination degree of the tourism industry and urbanization showed a good development trend of steady growth, and the areas were ranked according to the average annual growth rate as follows: West Yunnan > Southwest Yunnan > Northwest Yunnan. (3) The regional differences in the coupling coordination degree had expanded, reflecting an “agglomeration phenomenon” and “distance decay effect”, and the tourism industry lagging (obstructed) subtype was dominant. (4) The industrial structure, transportation accessibility, capital effect, consumption capacity, and talent support had significant positive effects on the coupling coordination degree, but the role of openness to the outside world was not obvious. This study can provide a useful reference for further studies on the marginal and less developed regions of China.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030640
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 641: Examining the Impact of Infrastructure
           Financialization on Uneven Regional Development: Evidence from China

    • Authors: Yun Li, Ming Xu, Juncheng Dai, Zhenshan Yang, Zhe Cheng
      First page: 641
      Abstract: Infrastructure financialization is an important economic phenomenon in urbanization and urban financialization. The existing studies are mainly focused on qualitative and theoretical analysis around the world. To quantitatively evaluate the impact of infrastructure financialization on uneven regional development, this study firstly measures the characteristics of uneven regional development in China, then we use the Tobit model to analyze the impact of infrastructure financialization based on panel data from 2006 to 2019. The results find that infrastructure financialization plays a significant role in uneven regional development in China. Low infrastructure financialization constrains the economic growth and urbanization of underdeveloped regions. This study not only contributes to the knowledge body of global financialization theory, but also provides a scientific basis for the optimization of infrastructure development both in China and the Global South.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030641
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 642: Ascertaining the Knowledge of the General Public
           and Stakeholders in the Forestry Sector to Invasive Alien Species—A
           Pan-European Study

    • Authors: Flavius Bălăcenoiu, Anže Japelj, Iris Bernardinelli, Bastien Castagneyrol, György Csóka, Milka Glavendekić, Gernot Hoch, Boris Hrasovec, Silvija Krajter Ostoić, Marton Paulin, David Williams, Johan Witters, Maarten de Groot
      First page: 642
      Abstract: Against the background of the phenomenon of globalisation, which has increasingly intensified in recent decades, invasive alien species (IAS) have led to biological invasions that have resulted in multiple negative effects on economies, human health, and especially on the environment. In order to control invasive alien species, preventive actions are considered the most effective methods. In this context, society can actively participate in the process of early detection and preventing the spread of these organisms, but there is a need to raise public awareness. In order for this process to take place in the most efficient way, it is necessary to initially evaluate the knowledge of the general public to IAS. Through a questionnaire that was circulated in ten European countries and had over two thousand respondents, this study aimed to investigate the level of knowledge of some stakeholders in the forestry sector regarding IAS. The results showed that a vast majority of respondents who participated in the study had heard about IAS and provided a correct definition of these organisms. Most of the respondents in this study heard for the first time about IAS from school, the Internet, or journal articles. Data analysis also showed that stakeholders in the forestry sector (foresters, forest owners, and members of environmental NGOs) were more likely than the other respondents to be aware of the impact of IAS. The results of this study offer an insight to researchers and decision makers assessing the differences of opinion regarding invasive alien species, and the necessary steps that could be adopted in the process of raising awareness in society.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030642
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 643: Functional Restoration of Desertified,
           Water-Limited Ecosystems: The Israel Desert Experience

    • Authors: Shayli Dor-Haim, David Brand, Itshack Moshe, Moshe Shachak
      First page: 643
      Abstract: Ecological restoration has recognized explicitly the recovery of ecosystem functions. The emphasis on ecosystem functions in restoration efforts can be defined as functional restoration. Functional restoration, i.e., rehabilitation of ecosystem functions, is particularly applicable to highly degraded landscapes such as desertified areas, where restoration to the original state is impossible. This review paper produced a general conceptual model of the fundamental processes that regulate ecosystem functions in water-limited ecosystems. The Israeli Negev Desert was used as a case study to test the model results in the field. We developed general guiding principles for functional restoration of degraded landscapes that integrate functional restoration methods and include four successive steps: (1) identifying the fundamental processes that regulate ecosystem functions in alternative states; (2) detecting drivers leading to degraded states; (3) functional restoration: changing the state of the degraded landscape; and (4) monitoring the impact of the restoration effort and assessing its success in terms of ecosystem services. Our case study, the Negev, provided us with insights on how to reverse desertification in water-limited systems by restoring source–sink networks as a subset of functional restoration. The four suggested steps of functional restoration are essential for ecosystem recovery in the Anthropocene.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030643
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 644: Differences of Social Space of Rural Migrant
           Labor Force: The Influence of Local Quality

    • Authors: Shanshan Wu, Libang Ma, Lucang Wang, Xianfei Chen, Zhihao Shi
      First page: 644
      Abstract: Exploring the spatial differentiation and driving mechanism of labor flow can effectively promote the flow of urban and rural factors and provide a basis for rural revitalization. This paper used the theory of push and pull for reference to explain the role of push and pull in the process of labor migration. On this basis, the paper analyzed the social space characteristics of labor in Longxi County and explored the impact mechanism of local quality on labor migration. It was found that the characteristics of labor migration in Longxi County had a distance attenuation effect and gravitational effect, and the spatial agglomeration of labor attributes was obvious. This was closely related to local quality differences. The labor migration was conducted under the comprehensive effect of the local quality of the source and destination. The local quality of the source was the basic power of the labor migration. The difference in the local quality between destinations was the main reason for the spatial difference in the number and attributes of the labor force. Specifically, the degree of interconnection and cooperation affected the labor migration distance, and the relatively poor employment income-generating capacity and regional livability in the western underdeveloped regions affected the labor quantity. The young and middle-aged labor force was greatly affected by the regional environment.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030644
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 645: Analysis of the Effect of Soil Erosion in
           Abandoned Agricultural Areas: The Case of NE Area of Basilicata Region
           (Southern Italy)

    • Authors: Valentina Santarsiero, Antonio Lanorte, Gabriele Nolè, Giuseppe Cillis, Biagio Tucci, Beniamino Murgante
      First page: 645
      Abstract: Land abandonment is among the most complex la nd use change processes driven by a multiplicity of anthropogenic and natural factors, such as agricultural over-exploitation, implementation of agricultural policies, socio-economic and climatic aspects. Therefore, it is necessary to deepen the effects of land abandonment based on methodologies that are as multidisciplinary as possible. Environmental and social problems related to abandonment include soil erosion and environmental degradation. Approaches combining GIS (Geographic Information System), remote sensing, and image analysis techniques allow for assessments and predictions based on integrating theoretical models with advanced geospatial and geostatistical models. One of the most widely used models for soil erosion estimation is the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). The present work developed a model using remote sensing and GIS tools to investigate some factors of the RUSLE equation to evaluate the adverse effects of soil erosion in areas covered by arable crops and subsequently abandoned. To identify potentially degraded areas, two factors of the RUSLE were related: the C Factor describing the vegetation cover of the soil and the A Factor representing the amount of potential soil erosion. Through statistical correlation analysis with the RUSLE factors, based on the deviations from the average erosion values and mapping of the areas of vegetation degradation relating to arable land, the areas identified and mapped are susceptible to soil degradation.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030645
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 646: The Resource Potential and Optimization of Rural
           Housing Land under Utility Structure Evaluation in Metropolitan Suburbs
           Villages of China

    • Authors: Qinglei Zhao, Guanghui Jiang, Wenqiu Ma, Yuting Yang, Tao Zhou
      First page: 646
      Abstract: Reasonable resource potential calculation is the basic premise for the country to formulate planning and carry out rural housing land consolidation, which can deepen the research on the economical and intensive use of rural construction land. This paper evaluates farmers’ area demands of rural housing land by using the consumption utility function, analyzes the spatial pattern characteristics of demand and potential, and puts forward suggestions for the resource optimization of rural housing land based on the survey data of 613 farmers and land use data in the Pinggu District of Beijing in 2005 and 2018. Research shows that the utilities of life, production, and the ecological are carried and measured by the corresponding internal land-use structure of rural housing land. The proportion of life land area was the largest, and the life and production land area decreased from plain to mountain, from 119.76 m2 to 89.07 m2 and from 44.87 m2 to 32.85 m2, respectively. The average area potential is 395.64 m2 and the change range is −30.35–1413.75 m2, which is basically in accordance with the normal distribution. The area potential can be divided into five grades, which are expressed by I, II, III, IV, and V in order of potential from small to large by using the natural fracture method. The utility needed should be enhanced and expanded, and the redundant utility should be removed and socialized in the village. The resource optimization and allocation of rural housing land should be promoted according to the idea of regionalization and classification. It provides scientific support for the reform of rural housing land.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030646
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 647: Zonation of a Viticultural Territorial Context
           in Piemonte (NW Italy) to Support Terroir Identification: The Role of
           Pedological, Topographical and Climatic Factors

    • Authors: Federica Ghilardi, Andrea Virano, Marco Prandi, Enrico Borgogno-Mondino
      First page: 647
      Abstract: Grapevine production and quality greatly depend on site-specific features such as topography, soil, and climate. The possibility of recognizing and mapping local specificities of a wine-production area is highly desirable, as environmental conditions are the main drivers of wine production in terms of both quality and quantity. Areas showing similar features able to determine specific traits in vine and wine production are referred to as terroirs. It is commonly considered that soil and climate represent the main elements for a functional and balanced viticultural ecosystem; if they change, grapevine quality and yield change too, and this occurs in spite of any agronomic practice. Terroir mapping based on traditional methodology requires a considerable investment of time and money by producers and wine consortia; moreover, it preserves an important subjective component. In this work, the authors propose an approach to map territorial differences, possibly conditioning the definition of terroir, of an important wine-production area located in Piemonte (NW Italy) based on free and open data and free GIS. The resulting zones were related to the main local vine varieties looking for possible relationships. The results proved that, with reference to the pedological, topographical, and climatic factors, six zones were recognized as significantly different in the study area. These were compared against the six main vine varieties in the area (i.e., Barbera, Brachetto, Chardonnay, Dolcetto, Moscato Bianco, and Nebbiolo), finding that: (i) Nebbiolo is highly specialized, covering almost a single zone; (ii) Moscato, Dolcetto, and Chardonnay showed no significant preference for any zone, being almost equally distributed over all of them; and (iii) Barbera and Brachetto are averagely specialized, being distributed mainly over two clusters (out of six) different from the one where Nebbiolo appears to be majorly present.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030647
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 648: Historical Evolution and Multidimensional
           Characterisation of the Butia Palm Landscape: A Comprehensive Conservation

    • Authors: Mercedes Rivas, Juan Martín Dabezies, Laura del Puerto
      First page: 648
      Abstract: The Butia odorata palm grove in southeast Uruguay forms a particular landscape of the Pampa biome, which has been inhabited and transformed since the early Holocene. The forms and meanings of this contemporary landscape are the result of the historical interaction between culture and nature. The conservation of its natural and cultural heritage has been compromised by anthropic activities, leading to conservation proposals from different disciplinary perspectives that are partial and do not consider the landscape’s integrity. In this article, we propose a comprehensive approach, integrating the ecological, cultural and socioeconomic aspects through a historical look at the domestication process of this landscape. This approach is based on a transdisciplinary narrative aimed at generating a multidimensional and diachronic characterisation of the palm grove landscape on which to base a participatory definition of the most appropriate instrument for conservation through sustainable use.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030648
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 649: Investigating the Factors Influencing the
           Intention to Adopt Long-Term Land Leasing in Northern Ireland

    • Authors: Adewale Henry Adenuga, Claire Jack, Ronan McCarry
      First page: 649
      Abstract: Short-term land rental agreements such as the traditional conacre system in Northern Ireland offer flexibility between the landowners and the farmers renting the land. However, the uncertainty of tenure linked to such short-term land rental systems does not allow for farmers renting the land to make longer-term investment planning and decisions, particularly around sustainable land management practices. Long-term tenancy agreements have been identified as a viable option to cope with short-term uncertainties and improve the environmental management of the land. In this study, we analysed the factors influencing farmers’ intention to adopt long-term land leasing with and without income tax incentives in Northern Ireland. To achieve our objective, we employed ordered logistic regression models complemented with qualitative analysis. The results of our analyses showed that varying factors including risk attitude, pro-environmental behaviour, profit consciousness, having a dairy enterprise, the area of farmland owned, the presence of a successor, and the age and education of the farmer influence farmers’ intention to adopt long-term land leasing. However, variability exists depending on the farmers’ rental status and availability of income tax incentives. It can be concluded from the study that policies aimed at encouraging long-term land leasing should take a holistic approach that incorporates environmental and socioeconomic factors.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030649
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 650: Community-Based Approach for Climate Resilience
           and COVID-19: Case Study of a Climate Village (Kampung Iklim) in
           Balikpapan, Indonesia

    • Authors: Ariyaningsih, Rajib Shaw
      First page: 650
      Abstract: COVID-19 and climate change are widely recognized to negatively impact communities in developing countries. Like several other developing countries, Indonesia also dealt with climatic hazards such as flooding and landslides during the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, after the Paris Agreement was signed, the government launched a “Climate Village” program or Kampung Iklim (ProKlim) to enhance community contribution in addressing climatic hazard impacts. Yet, numerous studies have researched integrating COVID-19 and climate change impacts, which calls for a concept of community resilience. To bridge this gap, the objective of this research is to understand and measure the local adaptation and mitigation activities in ProKlim through the smart village concept. Methodological literature review, situation analysis through interviews, and field observations are applied in this study. This research used five indicators to measure the current situation of the Climate Village, which are: resilience, mobility, community, perspectives and digitalization. The findings reveal that the implementation of smart villages in ProKlim is still in its preliminary stages and must seek innovation and system integration from smart cities and smart communities. This research also suggests feasible strategies to build community resilience: (i) collaborative governance in the Climate Village program implementation, (ii) promoting the Climate Village program to other sectors for ICT, and (iii) strengthening community participation in implementing the smart village concept.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030650
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 651: Resilience Thinking and Landscape Complexity in
           the Basentello Valley (BA, MT), c. AD 300–800

    • Authors: Matthew Munro
      First page: 651
      Abstract: Archaeological data for the transformation of late Roman rural landscapes in Southern Italy over the sixth to eighth centuries AD are often meagre. This record often provides little explanatory power in the context of understanding the collapse of Roman political and economic hegemony and the framework for the regeneration of these relationships in the early medieval countryside. Resilience thinking offers a robust suite of heuristics to help guide both method and theory in understanding the key socio-environmental relationships involved in this transformative process based on limited material evidence. Through insights gained from developing a panarchic perspective of the Basentello landscape between AD 300 and 800, both capacities for and strategies of resilience to landscape-scale shocks and stressors emerge as key patterns in this collapse process. To explain how these patterns emerge, resilience thinking employs narratives from complexity science by framing landscapes as self-organizing complex adaptive systems. It is through appreciating this complexity that archaeologists can revolutionize how we understand landscape-scale transformations, the role of resilience in landscape history and, more broadly, the nature of societal collapse.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030651
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 652: Effects of Soil pH on the Growth and Cadmium
           Accumulation in Polygonum hydropiper (L.) in Low and Moderately
           Cadmium-Contaminated Paddy Soil

    • Authors: Ze Zhang, Xinsheng Chen, Xianyan Qin, Chao Xu, Xingfu Yan
      First page: 652
      Abstract: Wetland macrophytes have advantages when used in the remediation of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated paddy fields because they can adapt to overly wet soil environments; however, only a few studies have tested the efficiency of macrophytes in Cd phytoremediation. In this study, we investigated the effect of soil pH (pHs of 5, 6, and 7) on the accumulation and translocation of Cd by Polygonum hydropiper (L.) in low and moderately Cd-contaminated paddy soil (0.56 and 0.92 mg/kg, respectively). Our results indicated that Cd accumulation in stems and roots, as well as subcellular distribution in P. hydropiper, was affected by soil pH, with significant interactions between the soil pH and Cd level. At low soil Cd levels, stem and root Cd contents were higher at a soil pH value of 6. In addition, with higher soil pH values, the proportion of Cd distributed in the cell wall increased, whereas that distributed in the organelles decreased. The Cd content in the roots and stems of P. hydropiper significantly decreased with the increase in soil pH in the moderate Cd-contaminated soil. In addition, with higher soil pH values, the proportion of Cd distributed in the cell wall decreased, whereas that distributed in the organelles increased. The translocation factor (TF) of P. hydropiper was higher than one in all treatments, indicating that it can effectively transport root-absorbed Cd to the aboveground shoots. Based on the relatively high bioconcentration factor and TF, P. hydropiper has the potential to remediate Cd-polluted paddy soil. Furthermore, the remediation efficiency of P. hydropiper can be enhanced by adjusting the pH as per the soil-Cd pollution.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030652
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 653: Inequity in Housing Welfare: Assessing the
           Inter-City Performance of China’s Housing Provident Fund Program

    • Authors: Hongyan Chen, Jinping Song, Huaxiong Jiang
      First page: 653
      Abstract: Accompanied by the monetisation of housing allocation, the Housing Provident Fund (HPF) has become an important part of China’s housing security system. As of 2020, HPF has been implemented for almost 30 years, but limited effort has been made to examine its performance, especially from a spatial (regional) perspective. Taking 287 Chinese cities as a sample and using the “access–process–outcome” framework, this study explores the inter-city differences in the performance of HPF and their relevant influencing factors. The results show that (1) there is significant spatial heterogeneity in the performance of HPF in China; (2) from 2015 to 2020, regional variation in the process and outcome performance showed a convergence trend, but the access performance between cities tended to widen and diverge; (3) regression results show that process-relevant variables (i.e., the contribution rate and the capital utilization level) are positively associated with the loan beneficiary rate (the HPF outcome performance), whereas access-relevant attributes (i.e., the HPF participation rate) exert negative influences. The study contributes to revealing the spatial heterogeneity of China’s HPF development. It highlights that more regionally oriented policy interventions are needed for policy makers and practitioners to optimize the development of HPF.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030653
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 654: Correction: McCordic et al. The Household Food
           Security Implications of Disrupted Access to Basic Services in Five Cities
           in the Global South. Land 2022, 11, 654

    • Authors: Cameron McCordic, Bruce Frayne, Naomi Sunu, Clare Williamson
      First page: 654
      Abstract: In the published publication [...]
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030654
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 655: Spatial Study of Enzymatic Activities from
           Bacterial Isolates in a Mediterranean Urban Park

    • Authors: Sergi Maicas, Jaume Segura-Garcia
      First page: 655
      Abstract: Urban parks are a rich source of microbial diversity, as they are heavily used by city residents. In this study, we sampled a Mediterranean park and were able to isolate bacteria that have the ability to inhibit the growth of control microorganisms. Out of the 560 bacteria we tested, many displayed antibacterial activity, particularly against Salmonella sp. and K. pneumoniae. These results suggest that the microorganisms in the park are in close proximity to the human population. Additionally, the isolated bacteria demonstrated diverse enzymatic activities, possibly as a response to the environmental substances available to them, which could aid in the degradation of different compounds of interest. The study of the spatial distribution of soil parameters and the inhibition against relative-safe pathogens in an urban park in València (Spain) demonstrated a higher proportion of isolates in certain areas. These spatial data maps can help researchers understand the behaviors of bacterial populations on a regional level, which can assist in the creation of novel antimicrobial agents and promote advancements in public health.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030655
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 656: Land-Use/Land-Cover Change and Ecosystem Service
           Provision in Qinghai Province, China: From the Perspective of Five
           Ecological Function Zones

    • Authors: Xiaofan Ma, Haifeng Zhang
      First page: 656
      Abstract: Qinghai Province is an important part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and has special importance in the construction of ecological civilisation in China, which is related to the ecological security of the country and long-term development. The land is the basis of terrestrial ecosystem services. Land use/cover change (LUCC) can alter the structure, distribution and processes of terrestrial ecosystems, thereby affecting ecosystem services. Ecological Function Zone (EFZ) is the special zone designated by the government to protect ecosystems more effectively. Studying the response of ecosystem services value (ESV) to LUCC within EFZ is of great significance to the construction of ecological civilization in Qinghai Province. This study uses five periods of land use data from 1980 to 2020 and selects the equivalent factor method, correction method and elasticity model to analyse the characteristics of land use change and its impact on the value of ecosystem services. The conclusions are as follows. (1) The results showed that the ESV of Qinghai Province decreased from 822.559 billion yuan in 1980 to 819.903 billion yuan in 2000, and then increased rapidly to 905.775 billion yuan in 2020, showing a total increase of 83.216 billion yuan (1 RMB equates to 0.144129 USD). The restoration of grassland and the expansion of water bodies are the main reasons for the growth of ESV. (2) The ESV of Sanjiangyuan EFZ was the highest, followed by Qaidam EFZ, Qinghai Lake EFZ and Qilian Mountains EFZ, while Hehuang EFZ was the lowest. (3) The elasticity of the ESV to LUCC generally declined in all EFZs. Every 1% change in the LUCC in the Qaidam EFZ will result in a 4.78% change in ESV, followed by the Sanjiangyuan EFZ (2.56%), Qilian Mountains EFZ (2.1%), Qinghai Lake EFZ (1.01%), and the Hehuang EFZ with the lowest elasticity index (0.53%). (4) The distribution of the high values of the ESV elasticity gradually expands, with a clear spatial distribution characteristic of high west and low east. (5) The most suitable area for urban construction in Qinghai Province is the Hehuang EFZ, and urban construction in the Qaidam EFZ should avoid encroaching on water bodies or polluting water sources. The conclusions can provide a reference for optimising the land use structure and harmonising conservation and development in Qinghai Province.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030656
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 657: Hotel Rooftops as a Space for Consumption in
           Historic Centres: The Case Study of Palma (Spain)

    • Authors: Pere Mercadé-Melé, Fernando Almeida-García, Aitor Martinez-Garcia, Miquel Angel Coll-Ramis
      First page: 657
      Abstract: This research analysed the transformation of hotel rooftops in the historic centre of Palma into new spaces for tourist consumption. Nowadays, tourists are looking for unique and special experiences, which has led tourist destinations to seek new attractions to offer. Rooftops are becoming privileged places and provide a differential experience, leading to an increase in the offer of tourist services on hotel rooftops. This study explored the change of use in hotel rooftops in historic city centres for the commercialization of tourism. In this sense, this research sheds light on the factors that influence the commodification of rooftops and the attributes that are most valued by users in Google Maps and TripAdvisor reviews of their experiences. Furthermore, the transformation of rooftops has not followed a single model of commodification, but different typologies were identified according to uses and access modalities. Finally, implications for the city’s tourism planning and management are presented.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030657
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 658: Groundwater Urban Heat Island in
           Wrocław, Poland

    • Authors: Magdalena Worsa-Kozak, Adalbert Arsen
      First page: 658
      Abstract: In the face of climate change and constantly progressing urbanization processes, so-called heat islands are observed with growing frequency. These phenomena are mainly characteristic of large cities, where increased air and land surface temperatures form an atmospheric (AUHI) or surface (SUHI) urban heat island (UHI). Moreover, UHIs have also been recognized in the underground environments of many cities worldwide, including groundwater (GUHI). However, this phenomenon is not yet as thoroughly studied as AUHI and SUHI. To recognize and characterize the thermal conditions beneath the city of Wrocław (SW, Poland), we analyze the groundwater temperature (GWT) of the first aquifer, measured in 64 wells in 2004–2005. The study aimed to identify groundwater urban heat islands (GUHI) in Wrocław. Therefore, we used a novel approach to gather data and analyze them in predefined seasonal periods. Meteorological data and satellite imagery from the same period allowed us to link GWT anomalies to the typical conditions that favor UHI formation. GWT anomaly related to the GUHI was identified in the central, urbanized part of Wrocław. Moreover, we found that the GUHI phenomenon occurs only seasonally during the winter, which is related to the city’s climate zone and anthropogenic heat sources. Comparing our results with previous works from other cities showed untypical behavior of the observed anomalies. In contrast to AUHI and SUHI temperatures, the GWT anomalies detected in Wrocław are characterized by seasonal transitions from a heat island in winter to a cold lake in summer. Such a transitional character of GUHI is described for the first time.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030658
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 659: The Role of Historical Data to Investigate
           Slow-Moving Landslides by Long-Term Monitoring Systems in Lower Austria

    • Authors: Philipp Marr, Yenny Alejandra Jiménez Jiménez Donato, Edoardo Carraro, Robert Kanta, Thomas Glade
      First page: 659
      Abstract: Landslides are one of the most significant natural hazards worldwide. They can have far-reaching negative impacts on societies in different socio-economic sectors as well as on the landscape. Among the different types and processes that can also affect infrastructure and land use planning, slow-moving landslides are often underestimated. Therefore, studying areas affected by slow movements provide an opportunity to better understand the spatial and temporal patterns of these processes, their forcings, mechanisms, and potential risks. This study aims to investigate the importance of historical data for improving landslide hazard assessment in Lower Austria (Austria), which is particularly prone to landslides. This paper focuses on how historical information formed the basis for the establishment of three long-term landslide monitoring observatories in this region. The analysis conducted highlithts the importance of using historical data to better assess the frequency and magnitude relationships and phases of landslide activity. In particular, they can extend the temporal window and provide relevant information on past events and accelerations to improve knowledge of landslide dynamics and the resulting socio-economic impacts. In order to better assess the landslide hazard associated, it is necessary to integrate historical data and monitoring datasets obtained by surface and subsurface methods. Both components allow for the characterization of the spatio-temporal evolution of slow movements and the analysis of the hazard over time. Based on a variety of historical sources, it was possible to install the instruments constituting the long-term landslide monitoring observatories in a meaningful manner. The results demonstrate the influential role of human impact on the stability conditions, which may also contribute to landslide occurrence. In this regard, the attempt to combine historical data and long-term, continuous monitoring systems in the presented landslide observatories can improve landslide risk reduction measures in the region. The integration of different techniques and tools, along with ongoing research and collaboration with local authorities, will further improve our understanding of these slow-moving processes and the development of effective management strategies.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030659
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 660: Characterization and Mapping of Public and
           Private Green Areas in the Municipality of Forlì (NE Italy) Using
           High-Resolution Images

    • Authors: Mara Ottoboni, Salvatore Eugenio Pappalardo, Massimo De Marchi, Fabrizio Ungaro
      First page: 660
      Abstract: Urban Green Spaces (UGS) contribute to the sustainable development of the urban ecosystem, positively impacting quality of life and providing ecosystem services and social benefits to inhabitants. For urban planning, mapping and quantification of UGS become crucial. So far, the contribution of private green spaces to ecosystem services in urban areas has yet to be studied. At the same time, in many Italian cities, they represent a considerable part of the urban green cover. This study utilises a methodological approach and provides insights into the contribution of urban public and private green spaces by the consideration of a case study area in Northeast Italy. To achieve this goal, the main steps were: (i) NDVI extraction from very high-resolution (20 cm) orthophotos, (ii) classification of property status and (iii) analysis of the degree of the greenness of land cover units. From our results, the total amount of the green spaces is 5.70 km2, of which 72.1% (4.11 km2) is private, and 28.9% (1.59 km2) is public. As for the land cover, three NDVI classes were identified, highlighting different degrees of homogeneity in NDVI reflectance response within each urban land cover unit. These results will support the planning of new green areas in the post-epidemic National Recovery and Resilience Plan.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030660
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 661: Analyzing Transregional Vernacular Cultural
           Landscape Security Patterns with a Nature–Culture Lens: A Case Study
           of the Yangtze River Delta Demonstration Area, China

    • Authors: Jiaying Yan, Shuang Du, Jinbo Zhang, Weiyu Yu
      First page: 661
      Abstract: Cultural landscape security is important to national spatial and cultural security. However, compared with the many achievements in the study of ecological security, transregional cultural landscape security research lacks enough attention to match its importance. In the context of advocacy of ‘connecting practices’ between nature and culture in the field of international heritage conservation, this paper developed an approach for constructing transregional vernacular cultural landscape security patterns and identifying the key protected areas. A method is put forward based on the case of the Yangtze River Delta Demonstration Area, one of the fastest urbanizing regions in China, and included the following three steps: (1) analyze the core values of the transregional vernacular cultural landscape from a long-time series and multi-scale perspective; (2) integrate ecological security assessment and value security evaluation by combining qualitative with quantitative methods; (3) build a comprehensive vernacular cultural landscape security pattern to identify key protected areas and develop a zoning and grading conservation strategy toolkit. The results proved that our new method could effectively build a cross-regional network of integrated spatial and functional relationships between the historical cultural and natural landscape and have great significance in improving the level of transregional territorial spatial governance.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030661
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 662: The Extension of Vegetable Production to High
           Altitudes Increases the Environmental Cost and Decreases Economic Benefits
           in Subtropical Regions

    • Authors: Tao Liang, Weilin Tao, Yan Wang, Na Zhou, Wei Hu, Tao Zhang, Dunxiu Liao, Xinping Chen, Xiaozhong Wang
      First page: 662
      Abstract: Global warming has driven the expansion of cultivated land to high-altitude areas. Intensive vegetable production, which is generally considered to be a high economic value and high environmental risk system, has expanded greatly in high-altitude mountainous areas of China. However, the environmental cost of vegetable production in these areas is poorly understood. In this study, pepper production at low (traditional pepper production area) and high (newly expanded area) altitudes were investigated in Shizhu, a typical pepper crop area. The output and environmental cost at the two altitudes were identified. the influence of resource inputs, climate, and soil properties on pepper production was evaluated. There were obvious differences in output and environmental cost between the two altitudes. High-altitude pepper production achieved a 16.2% lower yield, and had a higher fertilizer input, resulting in a 22.3% lower net ecosystem economic benefit (NEEB), 23.0% higher nitrogen (N) footprint and 24.0% higher carbon (C) footprint compared to low-altitude farming. There is potential for environmental mitigation with both high- and low-altitude pepper production; Compared to average farmers, high-yield farmers groups reduced their N and C footprints by 16.9–24.8% and 18.3–25.2%, respectively, with 30.6–34.1% higher yield. A large increase in yield could also be achieved by increasing the top-dress fertilizer rate and decreasing the plant density. Importantly, high-altitude pepper production was achieved despite less advanced technology and inferior conditions (e.g., a poor road system and uneven fields). It provides a reference for the study of the environmental cost of other high-altitude regions or other crop systems at high-altitude areas.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030662
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 663: A Study of Historical Urban Landscape Layering
           in Luoyang Based on Historical Map Translation

    • Authors: Shujing Dong, Danjie Shen
      First page: 663
      Abstract: China has undergone a tremendous urbanization process over the past four decades, resulting in a considerable conflict between the desire to construct contemporary urban areas and the desire to safeguard old urban structures. In addition to destroying the physical space of ancient urban sites, urban development has fragmented the natural landscape and severed its structural relationship with the historical urban landscape. In this study, we selected Luoyang as the research object and digitally translated and laminated the laminar process of Luoyang’s historical urban landscape based on historical maps and related historical documents. It is intended to establish a digital historical urban landscape information database comprising data from different periods of the city through the systematic translation of historic maps and through combining the following different landscape carriers: urban spatial patterns, roads and streets, landscape units, and landmark buildings. While reading the historical maps of the city, the spatial analysis tool, ArcGIS, was used to identify the trajectory of the spatial evolution of Luoyang’s spatial structure throughout its history. In this paper, we suggest the establishment of a Luoyang urban historical axis system to integrate the city’s fragmented historical urban landscape, thereby strengthening the social perception of such historical urban landscapes and preserving their memory.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030663
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 664: The Conceptual Framework of Smart TOD: An
           Integration of Smart City and TOD

    • Authors: Liwei Bai, Lelong Xie, Chaoyang Li, Shengqiang Yuan, Dening Niu, Tao Wang, Zheng Yang, Yi Zhang
      First page: 664
      Abstract: Smart City (SC) is a booming model of urban development with great potential, armed to be one of the urban development’s most powerful developing weapons. However, the development of SC is far from satisfactory. Therefore, finding new paths for SC becomes imperative. Transit Oriented Development (TOD), which often focuses on the core areas of SC, is believed to be a substantial contributor to the development of SC. Nonetheless, the relationship between SC and TOD and the effects of TOD in promoting SC are rarely studied. In this study, we proposed a conceptual framework of Smart TOD (S-TOD), which could highlight TOD 5.0 but more than that. S-TOD is an integration of SC and TOD, utilizing the deconstructive method and the abductive method. We first defined S-TOD, which integrates SC and TOD as the twin sources. Then, we employed the concept of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) to construct S-TOD in a cross-boundary path as the connection between DNA and its twin subchains can perfectly reflect the inner relationship between S-TOD and its twin sources, SC and TOD. Finally, we built up the structure of S-TOD with three layers, i.e., the cloud layer, the tactile layer, and the land zones layer. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the practical value of SC, from a perspective that has been neglected, that is, the combination with TOD, provide a new perspective for the research and practice of the integration of SC and TOD, and effectively facilitate the advantages of SC and global sustainable development.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030664
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 665: The Impact of the Digital Economy on Carbon
           Emissions from Cultivated Land Use

    • Authors: Jie Li, Zhengchuan Sun, Jie Zhou, Yaya Sow, Xufeng Cui, Haipeng Chen, Qianling Shen
      First page: 665
      Abstract: Is digitalization conducive to promoting carbon reduction in cultivated land use while empowering high-quality socio-economic development and intelligent territorial spatial planning' Derived from China’s provincial panel data from the period 2011 to 2019, in this paper, we employ a fixed-effect model to study the impact of the digital economy on carbon emissions from cultivated land use and apply an intermediary-effect model to estimate the impact that the structure of the digital economy has on carbon emissions from cultivated land use. The results indicate the following: (1) The expansion of the digital economy can significantly decrease the carbon emissions caused by cultivated land use. This conclusion is still valid after considering endogenous issues and conducting a series of robustness tests. (2) Green technical renovation has played a significant intermediary role in the effect the digital economy has on the amount of carbon emissions from cultivated land use. (3) Digital economy development has significantly promoted innovation in green technology by increasing the size of green invention patent applications and authorizations, thus effectively curbing carbon emissions from cultivated land use and achieving the carbon emission reduction effect of the digital economy. However, some suggestions are put forward, including speeding up the deep integration of digital technology and cultivated land use planning, strengthening the application of green technical renovation achievements in the agricultural field, and enhancing the government’s function in the institutional guarantee of the growth of the digital economy.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030665
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 666: Homesteads, Identity, and Urbanization of
           Migrant Workers

    • Authors: Weite Cheng, Shuiyuan Cheng, Haitao Wu, Qian Wu
      First page: 666
      Abstract: The key to advancing urbanization is to promote the urban integration of numerous migrant workers. Two stages of decision making are involved for migrant workers, including residence (staying in cities) and settlement (transferring hukou into cities). The homestead is a necessity for migrant workers to keep their “peasant” status, which will further affect migrant workers’ identification with cities and influence their decision making towards urbanization. This paper uses data from the 2017 China Migrants Dynamic Survey (CMDS), through the coarsened exact matching (CEM) method and the analysis of mediation effects, to estimate how homesteads influence migrant workers’ urbanization intention and how the sense of identity serves as a mediator variable in this mechanism. Empirical results show that the ownership of homesteads is negatively correlated with migrant workers’ urbanization intention. Migrant workers with homesteads are 1.2% less likely to stay and 4.4% less likely to settle down in cities compared with their counterparts who do not have a homestead. In addition, identity plays a mediating role in the influence mechanism of homesteads on migrant workers’ urbanization intention. That is, the homestead has an indirect effect on migrant workers’ willingness to stay and settle down in cites through the sense of identity, aside from its direct effects. The mediation effect accounts for 20.87% of the total effect for willingness to stay and 25.63% of the total effect for willingness to settle down. This paper also represents how these coefficients vary by different regions and migration distances. Therefore, policymakers should provide institutional support for correctly guiding migrant workers to “abandon their land and enter the city” and strengthen their sense of identity to the city.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030666
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 667: Spatial–Temporal Evolution and Prediction
           of Habitat Quality in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Region Based on
           Land Use Change

    • Authors: Li Zhao, Mengwei Su, Xueyan Wang, Xiaoqing Li, Xinhan Chang, Pengtao Zhang
      First page: 667
      Abstract: In order to solve the problem of habitat fragmentation in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region and realize the sustainable use of land, based on remote sensing data from 2010 to 2020, this paper uses GIS and the CA–Markov model to predict the land use structure in 2030, and uses the InVEST model to quantitatively analyze the changes in habitat quality in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region from 2010 to 2030. The results indicate that (1) from 2010 to 2020, the area of construction land increased significantly, mainly from cultivated land, woodland and grassland; the proportion of cultivated land decreased by 7.2%. It was predicted that by 2030, the area of construction land will continue to expand, accounting for 19.6%. According to the results of land use dynamic degree, the conversion speed between land types in 2010–2015 was higher than that in 2015–2020. (2) The average habitat quality indexes of the study area in 2010, 2015, 2020 and 2030 were 0.57, 0.56, 0.55 and 0.52, respectively, and the habitat quality level was moderate and continued to decline. The habitat center of gravity moved in the north, from Fengning Manchu Autonomous County to the junction of Fengning Manchu Autonomous County and Longhua County, and then moved to the Mentougou District of Beijing. Therefore, in order to amendthe continuous decline in habitat quality, scientific measures should be taken according to local conditions to promote the improvement of habitat quality and the rational use of land.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030667
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 668: Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Dust
           Storms and Aeolian Processes in the Southern Balkash Deserts in
           Kazakhstan, Central Asia

    • Authors: Gulnura Issanova, Azamat Kaldybayev, Yongxiao Ge, Jilili Abuduwaili, Long Ma
      First page: 668
      Abstract: Sand and dust storms are hazardous to the environment and have a significant role in desertification. Under the influence of climate change and human activities, dust storms and aeolian processes have been common phenomena in the Southern Balkash deserts in Kazakhstan, Central Asia. However, knowledge gaps on spatial and temporal characteristics of dust storms and aeolian process in the Southern Balkash deserts still exist. Therefore, in present study, meteorological observations and numerous cartographic materials were used to identify the powerful sources with the highest frequency of dust storms and aeolian processes in the Southern Balkash deserts. The result showed that the Southern Balkash deserts were covered mainly by transverse parabolic sands (48%), dome dunes (24%), and transverse dome dunes (23%), where the aeolian processes occurred to a significant degree. Significant and strong degrees of aeolian processes occurred in most of the Southern Balkash deserts. The eastern part of the Taukum and the northern part of the Zhamankum and Karakum deserts were prone to aeolian processes to a substantial degree. The Moiynkum, Bestas, Saryesikatyrau, and Taukum deserts had the most frequent storms, occuring, on average, 17 to 43 days/per year. The occurrence of dust storms has been of a stable decreasing trend since the 1990s, except for 2008–2009. Aeolian dust in the Southern Balkash deserts flowed mainly from the western and southwestern to the eastern and northeastern. The results of the present study shed light on the temporal and spatial characteristics of dust storms and aeolian processes in the Southern Balkash deserts. This is of great importance in helping to monitor and predict dust storms and motion patterns of aeolian dust in this region.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030668
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 669: The Function of Money in
           Water–Energy–Food and Land Nexus

    • Authors: G.-Fivos Sargentis, Demetris Koutsoyiannis
      First page: 669
      Abstract: The water–energy–food (WEF) and land nexus is a basic element of prosperity. However, the elements of WEF are not equally distributed, and the dynamics of trading drives the distribution of goods. Money controls the trading, but money is just a convention and not a stable measure. Therefore, we have used the data of gross domestic product (GDP) and the price of electricity of each country in order to convert money to stable energy units. To evaluate the role of money in the WEF nexus, we also convert all the elements of the nexus, in energy units. In addition, we observe that land is the base of WEF and is positively correlated with all of its elements. However, we find that even the richest countries are facing critical deficits in WEF. Adding the money (GDP in energy units) to the WEF nexus, the balance becomes positive and we conclude that trading is necessary for both survival and prosperity. This may be obvious, but at present, global geopolitical conflicts which use economic sanctions as a tool transform the global balance of the WEF nexus, putting the global prosperity in jeopardy.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030669
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 670: Using Social Media to Determine the Global
           Distribution of Plastics in Birds’ Nests: The Role of Riverine

    • Authors: Luca Gallitelli, Corrado Battisti, Massimiliano Scalici
      First page: 670
      Abstract: Plastics are widely distributed in all ecosystems with evident impacts on biodiversity. We aimed at examining the topic of plastic occurrence within bird nests. We conducted a systematic search on three social media platforms (Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter) to fill the gap of knowledge on plastic nests worldwide. As a result, we observed nests with plastics mostly belonging to synanthropic species inhabiting riverine habitats, mainly in Europe, North America, and Asia, with an increase in occurrence over the years. Two common and generalist freshwater species (Eurasian Coot Fulica atra and Swans Cygnus sp.) showed the highest frequency of occurrence of plastic debris. We suggest plastics in bird nests as a proxy for debris occurring in the environment. However, our data may be biased, due to our sample’s low representativeness. Therefore, more data are necessary to have more information on plastic distribution. In conclusion, social media might be pivotal in indicating plastic hotspot areas worldwide and being an indicator of plastic pollution within the environment.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030670
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 671: UNESCO Global Geoparks 22 Years after Their
           Creation: Analysis of Scientific Production

    • Authors: Miriam Edith Pérez-Romero, José Álvarez-García, Martha Beatriz Flores-Romero, Donaji Jiménez-Islas
      First page: 671
      Abstract: Geoparks are unique geographical areas whose geological significance is worthy of UNESCO designation as a Global Geopark. As of 2022, 177 geoparks located in 46 countries have this designation. The aim of this paper is to identify and analyse the worldwide scientific production published in the Web of Sciences database in the context of Geoparks. The methodology used was bibliometric analysis, which allows for the rigorous exploration and analysis of large volumes of data. To this end, descriptive and relational indicators were obtained for the field of study; performance analysis, scientific mapping, and network analysis. A total of 324 articles were identified, the first of which was from 1999 by Wolfgang Eder, in which he presented the UNESCO initiative on the creation of geoparks as a tool to promote a better understanding of the geological heritage and the rational use of the Earth’s crust; the rest of the articles were written after the programme was launched (2001). Few authors work on the subject continuously, the author with the highest number of publications has six, and most of the authors with a single authorship are transient. The countries with the highest number of publications are China, followed by Spain, Portugal, Brazil and Italy, where scientific production is concentrated; the high rate of transience indicates that many countries have only one publication. Most publications are concentrated in two journals: geoheritage and geosciences. In the early years (1999–2003), publications were associated with two research areas, geology and palaeontology, and it is in the last five years (2019–2002) that the areas of knowledge showing interest in the subject have diversified.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030671
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 672: Increase in Productivity of Chestnut Soils on
           Irrigated Lands of Northern and Central Kazakhstan

    • Authors: Alexey Rau, Yelzaveta Koibakova, Balgabayev Nurlan, Madina Nabiollina, Zhanymhan Kurmanbek, Yerlan Issakov, Kai Zhu, Lóránt Dénes Dávid
      First page: 672
      Abstract: Natural conditions in North and Central Kazakhstan and the energy potential of chestnut soil testify to the efficiency of agriculture, especially on irrigated lands. The humus horizon of chestnut soils is 35–50 cm, and the humus content is 3.0–3.5%. The majority of the humus (75%) is contained in a half-meter layer, which emphasizes the short humus level. The phosphorus content, both gross and mobile, is very low at 0.98–0.031%. Potassium is in elevated amounts. Soils are most susceptible to the application of nitrogen–phosphorus fertilizers. According to the mechanical composition, chestnut soils are predominantly lightly loamy, light clays with substrates of souses. Salinization is low, with a salt content in the 0–100 cm soil layer of 0.10–0.20%. The mass of the arable soil layer is 1.3–1.4 g/cm3. Deep plowing and loosening of soils improve the water and nutrition regime, creating good conditions for arid agriculture. With deep autumn plowing up to 30 cm, the accumulation of sediment and spring meltwater reaches 1200–1500 m3/ha more than in spring disposal. Deep plowing ensures absorption of irrigation water, eliminates run-off during irrigation, and reduces the number of crops requiring extra irrigation. In an average dry year, at 50% water availability and 70% soil moisture content (MC), the number of irrigations is 4, and the irrigation rate is 300–470 m3/ha; at 60% MC, 2 irrigations are performed, and the irrigation rate is 600–650 m3/ha. On irrigated land, the yield of cereals is 2.8–2.6 t/ha; perennial grasses, 3.0–4.5 t/ha; potatoes, 23.2–24.1 t/ha; carrots, 35.0–40.0 t/ha; and cabbage, 50.0–75.0 t/ha.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030672
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 673: The Flow of Green Exercise, Its Characteristics,
           Mechanism, and Pattern in Urban Green Space Networks: A Case Study of
           Nangchang, China

    • Authors: Zhenrao Cai, Dan Gao, Xin Xiao, Linguo Zhou, Chaoyang Fang
      First page: 673
      Abstract: An urban green space network provides safe and green exercise routes for residents. This study selected Nanchang as the study area. Using fitness application data, we explored the mobility of people exercising in the network, i.e., the flow of green exercise. Spatial analysis based on social networks, GIS, and the gravity model was used to analyze the nodes, network characteristics, and mechanism of the flow of green exercise. The results show that there were differences in the hierarchy and attractiveness of nodes. Distance had an important influence on green exercise. It was found that walkers moved between adjacent parks, runners visited more parks and corridors, while cyclists covered longer distances and preferred to explore suburban green spaces. The length of the exercise route in green spaces had a positive effect on mobility. Because of the many combinations of patches and corridors, three flow subnetworks were formed. In addition, the green space network expanded the scope of exercise services in the central node. The management of green spaces should pay attention to the social value of urban green space networks and create a hierarchical and interconnected green space for exercisers.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030673
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 674: Photography, Land-Cover and Land-Use Changes,
           and Tourism Urbanization: A Narrative Focused on Hotel do Garbe,
           Armação de Pêra, Algarve, Portugal

    • Authors: Nuno de Santos Loureiro
      First page: 674
      Abstract: This article is focused on the use of photography to characterize land-cover and land-use changes in a 7.59 km2 study area centered on Hotel do Garbe, in the village of Armação de Pêra, Algarve, Portugal. Orthorectified vertical aerial, oblique aerial and ground-level photographs were the main data sources required to carry out the analysis. In a preliminary approach, a conventional research design was adopted. Based on the available orthorectified vertical aerial photographs, a sixty-year time series, with four homogeneously distributed steps (1958, 1978, 1997 and 2018), was constructed, and maps were produced to support the description of the changes that have taken place. To deepen the analysis, photographs from fourteen picture postcards were recognized as a useful source of information, and the authors of these photographs were considered “involuntary or accidental photo-geographers” whose work was relevant to feed a case study in which human geography and landscape biography sciences are the main narrative axes. The final result proved to be richer than the interpretation only based on the orthorectified vertical aerial photographs, and the importance of combining photographs taken from different points of view, with different aims and for different recipients is highlighted.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030674
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 675: How Rail Transit Makes a Difference in
           People’s Multimodal Travel Behaviours: An Analysis with the XGBoost

    • Authors: Lixun Liu, Yujiang Wang, Robin Hickman
      First page: 675
      Abstract: The rail transit system was developed in Chinese large cities to achieve more efficient and sustainable transport development. However, the extent to which the newly built rail transit system can facilitate people’s multimodality still lacks evidence, and limited research examines the interrelationship between trip stages within a single trip. This study aims to explore the interrelations between trip stage characteristics, socio-demographic attributes, and the built environment. It examines how rail transit is integrated as part of multimodal trips after it is introduced. The data are extracted from the Chongqing Urban Resident Travel Survey from 2014, three years after the new rail transit network was established. It applies an XGBoost model to examine the non-linear effect. As a result, the separate trip stage characteristics have more of an impact than the general trip characteristics. The non-linear effects revealed by the machine learning model show changing effects and thresholds of impact by trip stage characteristics on people’s main mode choice of rail transit. An optimal radius of facility distribution along the transit lines is suggested accordingly. Synergistic effects between variables are identified, including by groups of people and land use characteristics.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030675
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 676: The Intersections between Food and Cultural
           Landscape: Insights from Three Mountain Case Studies

    • Authors: Michele F. Fontefrancesco, Dauro M. Zocchi, Andrea Pieroni
      First page: 676
      Abstract: In the last decades, scholars from different disciplines have used the foodscape as a concept and an analytical framework to explore the intersection between landscape, people and food culture. Adopting a comparative case-study analysis, this article aims to show how a foodscape can be used as a lens to investigate cultural landscapes, specifically in mountain areas affected by fast structural socio-economic and ecological changes, identifying key tangible and intangible elements, the underpinning relationship and values, as well as the factors underlying their evolution and transformation. In this way, the article indicates this concept as a key tool for landscape management and conservation. We discuss three different and complementary approaches to the analysis of cultural landscapes, namely, from food products to landscape analysis (Albania), from food production practices to landscape analysis (Kenya) and from food-related rural architecture to landscape analysis (Italy). Overall, the research highlights how implementing a foodscape lens among the different levels of landscape analysis could contribute to the assessment, protection and promotion of local food-related resources. In so doing, it opens new research aimed at defining the limits of this heuristic instrument, where its most promising aspects of the foodscape have been explored in the article.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030676
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 677: Spatial and Temporal Interaction Coupling of
           Digital Economy, New-Type Urbanization and Land Ecology and Spatial
           Effects Identification: A Study of the Yangtze River Delta

    • Authors: Yuqi Zhu, Siwei Shen, Linyu Du, Jun Fu, Jian Zou, Lina Peng, Rui Ding
      First page: 677
      Abstract: In the digital era, the contradiction between regional urban development and land ecological protection is still prominent. Clarifying the relationship and internal interaction logic among digital economy (DE), new-type urbanization (NU), and land ecology (LE) is of great significance to the region’s sustainable development. Based on theoretical analysis, this study examines the relationship among DE, NU, and LE in the Yangtze River Delta through spatial analysis and empirical test with the city data from 2011 to 2020. The study found that: (1) The overall development level of DE–NU–LE in the Yangtze River Delta shows a steady upward trend, the development level of DE and NU lags behind LE, and the convergence trend among them gradually strengthened. (2) The DE-NE-LE and the coupling coordination have different and complex spatial and temporal dynamic evolution characteristics. The ability for coordinated development is enhanced continuously, which presents a typical pattern of “high in the east and low in the west”. (3) The DE has a lasting role in promoting the development of the NU and LE, while the support and stimulation of NU and LE for DE needs to be strengthened. The relationship between the NU and LE shows a mutually restricted trend. (4) The DE has a significant “siphon effect”. While NU and LE both have significant positive spatial spillover effects, which can promote the coordinated development of surrounding cities. This study deepens the understanding of DE–NU–LE coordinated development, and provides a new perspective for sustainable urban development and alleviating land conflicts.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030677
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 678: Beyond Homeownership' Examining the
           Mediating Role of Housing Tenure on Young People’s Subjective

    • Authors: Haitong Mo, Yung Yau, Yuting Liu
      First page: 678
      Abstract: Young people around the world are facing similar housing challenges, trapped between a costly and unaffordable homeownership sector and an unstable (private) rental sector. China has opted to promote renting as an alternative to homeownership to alleviate the housing difficulties of young people in big cities. However, the influences of promoting rental housing on the subjective well-being of different groups have not been well understood. Therefore, this study examines the mediating role of housing tenure in the relationship between individual attributes and subjective well-being. The study is based on 1,149 questionnaires conducted on the housing situations of residents in Guangzhou, and 618 samples were extracted for analysis based on the purpose of this study. It is found that individual, marital status, (local/nonlocal) hukou status, and income level have significant indirect effects on subjective well-being, with housing tenure as the mediator. This study contributes to a deeper understanding of the influencing mechanisms of subjective well-being associated with housing tenure and human heterogeneity and specifies the key points for future research and policymaking.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030678
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 679: Numerical Modeling of Kinetic Features and
           Stability Analysis of Jinpingzi Landslide

    • Authors: Jiaxuan Huang, Weichao Du, Mowen Xie
      First page: 679
      Abstract: The kinetic features of a slow-moving landslide situated above the Wudongde hydropower station were analyzed using particle flow code 3D (PFC3D) software. This research was based on geological investigations, remote sensing interpretation, and digital elevation models to build the structure of the Jinpingzi landslide. Finite element analysis (FEM) was used to determine the sliding surface. Strength reduction theory (SRT) and particle flow code coupling were used to invert the macro-strength parameters into micro-strength parameters. Finally, the slope failure process was simulated. Meanwhile, the displacement vector angle (DVA) and velocity were used for stability analysis. The simulation results of the kinetic features of slow-moving landslides show that the initial stage begins with accelerated movement, followed by constant-velocity movement and instability failure. The larger the reduction coefficient is, the shorter the duration of each stage is. A two-parameter instability criterion is proposed based on velocity, DVA, and reduction coefficient. Using this criterion, the critical velocity was 200 mm/s, and the critical DVA was 28.15°. The analysis results agree with the actual field monitoring results and motion process. This work confirms that the PFC3D modeling method is suitable for simulating the motion features of landslides.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030679
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 680: A Paradigm Shift towards Beneficial Microbes
           Enhancing the Efficiency of Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Sources for a
           Sustainable Environment

    • Authors: Haji Muhammad, Shah Fahad, Shah Saud, Shah Hassan, Wajid Nasim, Baber Ali, Hafiz Mohkum Hammad, Hafiz Faiq Bakhat, Muhammad Mubeen, Amir Zaman Khan, Ke Liu, Matthew Tom Harrison, Hamada AbdElgawad, Mostafa A. Abdel-Maksoud
      First page: 680
      Abstract: The use of beneficial microbes as biofertilizer has become fundamental in the agricultural sector for their potential role in food safety and sustainable crop production. A field trial was conducted to study the influence of beneficial microbes on the efficiency of organic and inorganic sources. The experiment was conducted in two consecutive years (2008–2009 and 2009–2010) in a farmer’s field at Dargai Malakand Division. A randomized complete block design was used with four replications. The results revealed a significantly higher straw and grain nitrogen concentrations for the treatments receiving 50% N from urea + 50% N from FYM + BM, followed by the treatments receiving 50% N from urea + 50% N from (FYM + PM) + BM and 120 kg N ha−1 from urea fertilizer, respectively. Comparing the relevant treatments with and without BM, an increasing trend in N concentrations in straw and grain was observed with BM. The results revealed the highest grain total nitrogen, straw total nitrogen and total nitrogen uptake by wheat crop for the treatments receiving 120 kg N ha−1 from urea, followed by the treatments receiving 50% N from urea + 50% N from PM + BM and 50% N from urea + 50% N from (FYM + PM) + BM. Moreover, after comparing the relevant treatments with and without BM, for the parameters mentioned, an increasing trend in nitrogen uptake was observed. Significantly higher total soil nitrogen was obtained for treatment with 50% N from urea + 50% N from FYM + BM, followed by the treatment with 50% N from urea + 50% N from (FYM + PM) + BM or 50% N from urea + 50% N from PM + BM, respectively, as compared to the control treatment plot. Markedly higher soil mineral nitrogen was obtained for the 50% N from urea + 50% N from (FYM + PM) + BM treatment, followed by the treatment with 50% N from urea + 50% N from FYM + BM and 50% N treatment from urea + 50% N from PM + BM, compared to the control treatment. Comparing the relevant treatments with and without BM, an increasing trend in total soil N (g kg−1 soil) and soil mineral N (mg kg−1 soil) was noted with BM application. From the results, a significant increase in soil organic matter status (g kg−1 soil) due to application of organic and inorganic fertilization was summarized. Significantly higher soil organic matter (g kg−1 soil) was recorded for the treatment receiving 50% N from urea + 50% N from FYM + BM compared to untreated control plots. Our study further revealed an increasing trend in soil organic matter status (g kg−1 soil) when comparing the relevant treatments with and without BM.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030680
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 681: How Spatial Resolution of Remote Sensing Image
           Affects Earthquake Triggered Landslide Detection: An Example from 2022
           Luding Earthquake, Sichuan, China

    • Authors: Yu Huang, Jianqiang Zhang, Lili Zhang, Zaiyang Ming, Haiqing He, Rong Chen, Yonggang Ge, Rongkun Liu
      First page: 681
      Abstract: The magnitude 6.8 Luding earthquake that occurred on September 5, 2022, triggered multiple large-scale landslides and caused a heavy loss of life and property. The investigation of earthquake-triggered landslides (ETLs) facilitates earthquake disaster assessments, rescue, reconstruction, and other post-disaster recovery efforts. Therefore, it is important to obtain landslide inventories in a timely manner. At present, landslide detection is mainly conducted manually, which is time-consuming and laborious, while a machine-assisted approach helps improve the efficiency and accuracy of landslide detection. This study uses a fully convolutional neural network algorithm with the Adam optimizer to automatically interpret the aerial and satellite data of landslides. However, due to the different resolutions of the remote sensing images, the detected landslides vary in boundary and quantity. In this study, we conducted an assessment in the study area of Wandong village in the earthquake-affected area of Luding. UAV images, GF-6 satellite images, and Landsat 8 satellite images, with a resolution of 0.2 m, 2 m, and 15 m, respectively, were selected to detect ETLs. Then, the accuracy of the results was compared and verified with visual detection results and field survey data. The study indicates that as the resolution decreases, the accuracy of landslide detection also decreases. The overall landslide area detection rate of UAV imagery can reach 82.17%, while that of GF-6 and Landsat 8 imagery is only 52.26% and 48.71%. The landslide quantity detection rate of UAV imagery can reach 99.07%, while that of GF-6 and Landsat 8 images is only 48.71% and 61.05%. In addition, for each landslide detected, little difference is found in large-scale landslides, and it becomes more difficult to correctly detect small-scale landslides as the resolution decreases. For example, landslides under 100 m2 could not be detected from a Landsat 8 satellite image.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030681
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 682: Horst-Controlled Karstification in the Bakony
           Region (Hungary)

    • Authors: Márton Veress
      First page: 682
      Abstract: The karst of the horsts of the Bakony Region belonging to horst types of different development is described. Horsts elevated to the summit position are characterised by the most widespread and diverse karstification (with covered karst, cave-ins and shafts). Cryptopeneplains affect the karstification of horsts elevated to the summit position, but karst features also occur in their areas. On threshold surfaces of marginal position, the hypogene branches of regional flow systems influenced the development of spring caves. The karstification of basaltic mountains has been mainly governed by the properties of the basalt caprock (the major features being ponors with blind valleys and caprock dolines).
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030682
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 683: The Last Attempt at Land Reform in Spain:
           Application and Scope of the Andalusian Agrarian Reform, 1984–2011

    • Authors: José Díaz-Diego, José Manuel Jurado-Almonte, Juan Antonio Márquez-Domínguez
      First page: 683
      Abstract: In this article, we contextualise, describe and analyse the last attempt at land reform in Spain—the one passed by the Autonomous Parliament of Andalusia in 1984. The Andalusians had passed their Statute of Autonomy by referendum in 1981, incorporating the mandate to carry out an agrarian reform that would boost the rural economy, generate employment and balance the agricultural structure of this region in Southern Spain, peripheral to both national and European centres of power. The Andalusian socialist government complied with this mandate, pushing the agrarian reform law through and applying a package of reform measures, which met with resistance from landowners and conservative political forces from the outset. Political, economic, legal and administrative obstacles swiftly discouraged the Andalusian socialists from persevering in the endeavour, and at the beginning of the nineties, its dismantling began. Finally, in 2011 the end of the agrarian reform was declared, and with it, the waiver of the right to consider alternative models to the liberal management of the agricultural sector. Archives and newspaper libraries, as well as administrative and legal sources, have been consulted, and the information has been examined using content analysis and cross-checked and triangulated with the specialised literature. This article hails a breakthrough in the understanding of the socio-territorial scopes of an agrarian reform little studied to date.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030683
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 684: The Impact and Mechanism of the Increased
           Integration of Urban Agglomerations on the Eco-Efficiency of Cities in the
           Region—Taking the Chengdu–Chongqing Urban Agglomeration in
           China as an Example

    • Authors: Yuting Jian, Yongchun Yang, Jing Xu
      First page: 684
      Abstract: China is attaching increasing importance to the creation of regional integration, high-quality economic development and ecological civilization. An accurate grasp of the traction effect of the increased level of integration of urban agglomerations on the eco-efficiency (EE) of cities in the region will help to promote the steady improvement of urban economic development and the ecological environment. This paper constructs an index system to measure the level of integration of the Chengdu–Chongqing urban agglomeration (CCUA) and the EE of each city within it from 2011 to 2020 and explores the impact of regional integration on urban EE and its mechanism of action. The study presents the follow findings: (1) The level of integration of the CCUA increased nearly 10 times from 2011 to 2020, with the government playing a significant leading role. (2) The positive and negative effects of the level of integration of the CCUA on urban EE depend on factors such as the level of economic development, the stage of development and the location. There are several relationships between the level of intra-regional integration and urban EE: first, a nearly linear increase, as in Chongqing and Chengdu; second, an increase in fluctuation, as in Dazhou, Guang’an and Leshan; and third, a fluctuation, decrease, flat or even no real increase, as in Luzhou, Ya’an and Zigong. (3) Based on this, this paper considers the mechanism of the level of integration within the region on urban EE in terms of both economic and eco-environmental effects, with a view to exploring the future green development path of the CCUA.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030684
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 685: Detecting the Bronze Age Sites by Using CORONA
           Satellite Photography and UAV Photogrammetry: A Case Study from the Middle
           of Yangtze River, China

    • Authors: Qiushi Zou
      First page: 685
      Abstract: The CORONA satellite image preserves the landscape from half a century ago, and has played a great role in landscape archaeology in many regions of the world. In recent years, with the rapid development of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) Photogrammetry technology, Archaeologists can easily obtain the digital surface model (DSM)and Digital Ortho Map (DOM) of a site in the fieldwork. In the archaeological survey of bronze age sites in the middle of the Yangtze River project, we combined the UAV photogrammetry results with CORONA satellite photography, which can help us extract the surface landscape feature of the sites. This strategy has shown significant advantages in reconstructing the settlement layout, detecting the unknown linear features (such as walls, moats and canals) of sites and comparing the landscape between different sites.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030685
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 686: How Effective Risk Assessment and Management Is
           the Key to Turning Volcanic Islands into a Source of Nature-Based

    • Authors: Marta López-Saavedra, Joan Martí, Llorenç Planagumà
      First page: 686
      Abstract: Active volcanic islands are particularly vulnerable to multi-risk natural hazards, many of which are anticipated to become more severe as a result of climate change. It is crucial to create and put into action adequate risk mitigation plans based on comprehensive long-term hazard assessments that include nature-based solutions in order to improve societal safety on these islands. Herein, we study the case of Tenerife. After a compilation and analysis of the potential resources of this island, as well as a study of its main natural hazards and how they are currently managed, we have determined that the most viable solutions are nature-based ones. Land management based on prior assessment of the island’s hazards is the key to strengthening Tenerife’s current risk mitigation plans. This will allow for a two-way relationship between the exploitation of sustainable tourism and the education of its population, both oriented toward the conservation of its geological heritage, and will promote the sustainable use of the energy and material resources currently being exploited. This contribution thus establishes the pillars from which to exploit the nature-based solutions offered by Tenerife as the only viable option for its sustainable economic development.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030686
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 687: Exploring the Impacts of Urbanization on
           Eco-Efficiency in China

    • Authors: Xinyue Yuan, Yang Nie, Liangen Zeng, Chao Lu, Tingzhang Yang
      First page: 687
      Abstract: It is of significant importance to conduct research on the relationship between urbanization and eco-efficiency (EE), for it can aid policy making for urban and regional sustainable development. This paper studied the effects of urbanization on the EE in 30 provinces of China from 2008 to 2019. Using the epsilon-based measure (EBM) model with undesirable outputs, this study measured the EE of China’s provinces before empirically analyzing the effects of urbanization on EE. Conclusions could be drawn: the annual mean EE of the eastern region was the highest (0.837), followed by those of the central region (0.653) and western region (0.570), and that of the northeast region remained the lowest (0.438). Zooming into the provinces and cities, the EEs of Beijing, Shanghai, and Fujian were at the production frontier surface, with a high level of EE during the study period, while those of Gansu, Ningxia, and Xinjiang were generally at a lower level. Empirical analysis showed that the effects of urbanization on EE in China presented a U-shaped relationship, having a negative correlation first and then reversing to a positive one. At present, China is in the early negative stage, and the turning point has yet to come. Considering the control variables, the economic development level, technological progress, and foreign direct investment have positively influenced eco-efficiency. Overall, the paper may shed light on related studies and provide relevant policy suggestions to promote EE through a new urbanization strategy.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030687
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 688: Does the Rural Land Transfer Promote the
           Non-Grain Production of Cultivated Land in China'

    • Authors: Yuanyuan Chen, Mu Li, Zemin Zhang
      First page: 688
      Abstract: In facing the situation of food security, the issue of the non-grain production of cultivated land (NGPOCL) in China has attracted more and more attention. To clarify whether rural land transfer promotes NGPOCL in China, this study collected provincial panel data from 2015 to 2020, and constructed multiple econometric models to explore the impact of land transfer on the planting structure of cultivated land. It is observed that an increase in land transfer area does not promote but significantly inhibits NGPOCL at the national level. The research conclusion is still valid after the robustness test of replacing the explained and core explanatory variables and solving the endogenous problems. The heterogeneity analysis suggests that the inhibitory effect is more pronounced in areas with better topography, economy, or grain production conditions. The analysis of the moderating effect shows that the diversification of land transfer modes and directions can mitigate this inhibitory effect, while the signing of land transfer contracts does not show a significant regulatory effect. This paper reveals the effect of land transfer on grain cultivation from a macro perspective. Its conclusions may provide policy implications for the optimization of rural land transfer and curbing NGPOCL in China.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030688
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 689: Residents’ Satisfaction with Green Spaces
           and Daily Life in Small Urban Settings: Romanian Perspectives

    • Authors: Mariana Cernicova-Buca, Vasile Gherheș, Ciprian Obrad
      First page: 689
      Abstract: The availability and accessibility of green spaces in urban settings are important factors in determining the sustainability of cities and the quality of urban life. However, the literature indicates a need for evidence-based data correlating green areas and perceived well-being in the city. This study focuses on a vignette study of the satisfaction with green spaces in a Romanian small urban setting that meets the standards of green space availability and accessibility proposed by the World Health Organization. The data obtained by applying a questionnaire to a sample of 600 residents highlight the appreciation of the local people for the characteristics, functions, and availability of urban green spaces. The study establishes statistically significant correlations between the general satisfaction with life and the distance in meters to the nearest park, between the general satisfaction with life and the distance in time to the nearest park, and between the distance in meters and the time spent in parks and green spaces. The results can be used to establish a participatory agenda for local authorities interested in gaining insight from residents for the future actions needed to develop green spaces and to provide them with the opportunity to reflect upon the correlations between outdoor activities in such spaces and people’s well-being in urban settings.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030689
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 690: Habitat Use and Positional Behavior of Northern

    • Authors: Anastasia Perodaskalaki, Dimitra-Lida Rammou, Tilak Thapamagar, Shivish Bhandari, Daya Ram Bhusal, Dionisios Youlatos
      First page: 690
      Abstract: Urban forests impose significant challenges to the animals that inhabit them due to the altered properties of available substrates from anthropogenic interventions. To cope with these structural peculiarities, urban species exhibit behavioral adjustments to successfully exploit the urban habitat. The present study examined habitat use and positional behavior of northern palm squirrels (Funambulus pennantii) in the urban forests of Kathmandu, Nepal, to test such behavioral modifications. Between July and August 2018, we collected focal animal instantaneous data on the behavior, locomotor/postural mode, forest layer, tree crown part, and substrate type, size, and inclination use of four different individuals. Our results indicated a primarily arboreal species, mostly using the middle canopy layers and the intermediate and central tree parts. Moreover, tree branches and artificial substrates were commonly used that were mainly large and horizontal. Locomotion was dominated by quadrupedalism and claw climb, whereas postures by quadrupedal stand, and, to a lesser extent, sit and claw cling. Most of our initial predictions were only partly supported by our findings. This behavioral idiosyncrasy most likely reflects the adaptive flexibility of the species to human-modified habitats. In this way, northern palm squirrels apparently expanded their ecological niche and successfully persisted against anthropogenic pressures throughout their range. As urban expansion is inexorable, more research is required to understand the behavioral and ecological flexibility of animals that effectively exploit these impacted habitats.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030690
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 691: The Measurements and Analysis of
           Spatial-Temporal Variations of Human Development Index Based on Planetary
           Boundaries in China: Evidence from Provincial-Level Data

    • Authors: Siying Chen, Zhixiong Tan, Xingwang He, Lichen Zhang
      First page: 691
      Abstract: It is necessary to pursue the economic and social development of humanity to cope with the challenges of the global ecological environment within the constraints of planetary boundaries. For constructing the evaluation model of human development considering the earth pressure from the sub-national level, and observing the changes of human development level under the earth pressure in China in recent years, this paper constructs the PB-HDI (Planetary Boundaries-Human Development Index) index to measure the human development level under planetary boundaries in 30 Chinese provinces of 2010, 2014, 2017, and 2020; and carries out the analysis of evolutionary characteristics and spatial heterogeneity inspired by the path of balancing the relationship between environmental protection and economic development in China. We found: (1) the regional PB-HDI differences show a convergence trend, with a gradual decrease in low-level provinces; (2) the regional heterogeneity of PB-HDI is obvious. The differences between eastern provinces are the largest; (3) resources and environment constitute the outer circle of economic and social development, forming a “doughnut” inclusion pattern that discourages high-level development beyond the boundary and low-level development within the boundary. In general, there are significant differences in economic development, environmental protection level, social security capacity, industrial structure, innovation level, policy environment, and other basic conditions among different regions of China, and sustainable development paths need to be determined according to local conditions. This study is critical for expanding the application of the sub-national human development assessment for global stress and optimizing China’s sustainable development path.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030691
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 692: Provincial Inclusive Green Growth Efficiency in
           China: Spatial Correlation Network Investigation and Its Influence Factors

    • Authors: Baitong Li, Jian Li, Chen Liu, Xinyan Yao, Jingxuan Dong, Meijun Xia
      First page: 692
      Abstract: Inclusive green growth efficiency (IGGE) analysis is an effective tool for improving coordinated economic, social, and environmental development. This study incorporated the game cross-efficiency DEA to measure the IGGE of 30 provinces in China. Then, the modified spatial gravity model and social network analysis model were applied to construct and analyze the spatial correlation network structure of the IGGE. The quadratic assignment procedure was used to mine the influencing factors that affect the formation and evolution of the spatial correlation network of the IGGE. The results are as follows. (1) During the study period, there were significant differences in the IGGE among the 31 provinces, among which the eastern provinces were higher than the central and western provinces. (2) The spatial correlation of the IGGE presented a complex and multi-threaded network structure, indicating that the IGGE has a noticeable cross-regional spillover effect. Beijing, Tianjin, Zhejiang, Shanghai, Jiangsu, and Guangdong played the role of the “net spillover” block. Qinghai, Guizhou, Guangxi, and the surrounding provinces played the role of the “primary beneficial”. The Yangtze delta and Pearl River Delta economic zone (primarily including Shanghai and Guangdong) acted as a “bridge” to the Yunnan–Guizhou region and the surrounding provinces. (3) The spatial adjacency, degree of openness, economic development, and environmental governance were the prominent factors influencing the formation and evolution of the IGGE spatial correlation network. This work provides an example of constructing an IGGE correlation network while considering various factors, such as the economy, population, and distance. It also could help policymakers clarify the IGGE spatial correlation pattern and the provinces’ roles and potential for IGGE synergic improvement.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030692
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 693: Changes in Land Use Pattern and Structure under
           the Rapid Urbanization of the Tarim River Basin

    • Authors: Yifeng Hou, Yaning Chen, Zhi Li, Yang Wang
      First page: 693
      Abstract: Urbanization not only affects a region’s economic development but also impacts its land use structure. As the largest inland river basin in China, the Tarim River Basin has experienced rapid economic growth and urbanization in recent years, posing a serious threat to its soil and water resources and ecological sustainability. In this study, four remote sensing data products from 1990–2020 are selected to explore the distribution of land use types and their land structure changes in the basin in the context of rapid urbanization. The results show that the built-up land area increased by 2855.74 km2 during 1990–2020, mainly from the transfer of grassland and barren land. Furthermore, the migration of the center of gravity of built-up land moved from the desert to oasis areas, indicating that the urbanization process intensified during the study period. The overall trend is toward a continuous increase in arable and built-up land area and a continuous decrease in barren land. Future trends in the Tarim River Basin predict that arable land will decrease and that built-up land will continue to increase. However, the increase in built-up land will level off, mainly due to the transfer of arable land and grassland, which accounts for 37.94% and 20.40%, respectively. The migration characteristics of the center of gravity of each land type in the basin varied widely during 1990–2020, but the land structure will tend toward a gradual balance in the future. Therefore, in the context of increasing urbanization, focusing on the sustainable development of regional soil and water resources and ecology is crucial for the coordinated development of regional resources and economy.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030693
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 694: The Multidisciplinary Approach in the Study of
           Landscape Evolution: The Fluvial Capture of the San Donato Creek (Gubbio,
           Central Italy), an Example of Hydrological Regime and Hydrogeological Risk

    • Authors: Corrado Cencetti, Filippo Paciotti, Ettore A. Sannipoli, Ubaldo E. Scavizzi
      First page: 694
      Abstract: Historical maps, especially those at a small scale and rich in detail (e.g., the old “Cadastres”), represent an exceptionally important tool for understanding the recent historical evolution of landscapes. The note describes the example of the territory of Gubbio, in Umbria (Central Italy), where a map from the end of the 16th century shows a drawing of the hydrographic network partially different from the current one. A multidisciplinary study based on field surveys, observations of satellite images, archaeological discoveries, and archival research proved useful to confirm what was reported by the cartographer at the time. The possible causes that led to this variation of the surface hydrography up to its current configuration are then discussed in the light of other documentary finds from the archives, taken from the chronicles of the time, which have made it possible to identify, with sufficient approximation, the period where this change occurred. All this leads to a highlighting of a profound evolution of fluvial and slope morphogenetic processes that have affected the study area in recent centuries, in which the regulation of surface waters and afforestation, conducted during the 20th century, have played a decisive role.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030694
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 695: Allocation of U.S. Biomass Production to Food,
           Feed, Fiber, Fuel and Exports

    • Authors: Christopher Lant, Suman Paudel, Kaeli Mueller, Grace Larson, Gustavo A. Ovando-Montejo, Jennifer Givens
      First page: 695
      Abstract: This paper analyzes the end uses—food, feed, fiber, fuel, and exports—of biomass production in the U.S. in 1997, 2002, 2007, and 2012. They are also analyzed at the state level in 2012. Biomass production is measured as human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP), an ecological footprint measured as carbon fixed through photosynthesis, derived from data on crop, timber and grazing yields. HANPP was allocated to end uses using publicly available sources from the U.S. Department of Agriculture and internet-based sources publishing data on agricultural trade. HANPP was 717–834 megatons (MT) of carbon per year, which comprised 515–615 MT of crop-based, 105–149 MT timber-based, and 64–76 MT of grazed HANPP. Livestock feed commanded the largest proportion, but decreased from 395 (50%) to 305 MT (42%) of all HANPP and 320 to 240 MT (58–44%) of crop-based HANPP. The proportion allocated to exports was stable at 118–141 MT (17–18%) of total HANPP and 112–133 MT (21–23%) of crop-based HANPP. Biofiber decreased from 141 MT (18%) to 97 MT (13%) of all HANPP. Biofuel increased strongly from 11 MT to 98 MT, from 1% to 14% of all HANPP and 2% to 18% of crop-based HANPP, surpassing food and biofiber by 2012. Direct food commanded 89–105 MT, the lowest proportion at 12–13% of all HANPP, and 17–18% of crop-based HANPP. The highly fertile Midwest and the drought-prone Intermountain West stand out as regions where a very small percentage of biomass is allocated to direct human food. The high proportions of biomass production allocated to nonfood uses is consistent with the tragedy of ecosystem services and commodification of nature frameworks. Reducing these proportions presents opportunities for improving ecosystem services, food security, and human well-being.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030695
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 696: Risk Assessment of Earthquake–Landslide
           Hazard Chain Based on CF-SVM and Newmark Model—Using Changbai
           Mountain as an Example

    • Authors: Kai Ke, Yichen Zhang, Jiquan Zhang, Yanan Chen, Chenyang Wu, Zuoquan Nie, Junnan Wu
      First page: 696
      Abstract: Changbai Mountain is an important part of the development and opening pilot area of Changjitu. It is the birthplace of Songhua River, Yalu River, and Tumen River, and is known as the source of the three rivers. Millions of people live in the basin. A volcanic eruption accompanied by earthquakes would lead to a large number of landslides, debris flows, and show a chain effect, the formation of a secondary geological disaster chain, which is a serious threat to people’s lives and property safety. This paper selected indexes from three aspects: the hazard of earthquake-induced geological disaster chain, the exposure and vulnerability of disaster-bearing bodies, and the risk assessment of earthquake-induced geological disaster chain. The sensitivity values of each influence factor were calculated by the certainty factor (CF) using the support vector machine, and then, the susceptibility assessment was obtained. The cumulative displacement calculated by the Newmark model represented the potential risk intensity. We considered the Changbai Mountain volcanic earthquake–landslide disaster chain as an example. The results of risk assessment showed that the extremely high and high risk areas were mainly located within the 12 km radius of Tianchi Lake, and the other areas in the study area were mainly associated with very low to low risk values. The verification results showed that the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve area was 0.8373, indicating that the method was very effective in the identification and assessment of seismic hazard chain risk. In these high-risk areas, relevant countermeasures should be formulated to prevent the risk of geological disasters, strengthen the implementation of regional disaster prevention and reduction work, and ensure the safety of residents’ lives and property.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030696
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 697: Assessing Integrated Hydrologic Model: From
           Benchmarking to Case Study in a Typical Arid and Semi-Arid Basin

    • Authors: Zheng Lu, Yuan He, Shuyan Peng
      First page: 697
      Abstract: Groundwater-surface water interactions play a crucial role in hydrologic cycles, especially in arid and semi-arid basins. There is a growing interest in developing integrated hydrologic models to describe groundwater-surface water interactions and the associated processes. In this study, an integrated process-based hydrologic model, ParFlow, was tested and utilized to quantify the hydrologic responses, such as changes in surface runoff and surface/subsurface storage. We progressively conducted a complexity-increasing series of benchmarking cases to assess the performance of ParFlow in simulating overland flow and integrated groundwater-surface water exchange. Meanwhile, the overall performance and the computational efficiency were quantitatively assessed using modified Taylor diagrams. Based on the benchmarking cases, two case studies in the Heihe River Basin were performed for further validation and to diagnose the hydrologic responses under disturbance, named the Bajajihu (BJH) and Dayekou (DYK) cases, respectively. Both cases were 2D transects configured with in-situ measurements in the mid- and downstream of the Heihe River Basin. In the BJH case, simulated soil moisture by ParFlow was shown to be comparable with in-situ observations in general, with Pearson’s correlation coefficient (R) > 0.93 and root mean square difference (RMSD) < 0.007. In the DYK case, seven scenarios driven by remote sensing and reanalysis data were utilized to study hydrological responses influenced by natural physical processes (i.e., precipitation) and groundwater exploitations (i.e., pumping) that are critical to surface and subsurface storage. Results show that subsurface storage is sensitive to groundwater exploitation before an obvious stationary point. Moreover, a correlation analysis was additionally provided demonstrating the impacts of different factors on subsurface storage timeseries. It was found that pumping influences subsurface storage remarkably, especially under short-term but large-volume pumping rates. The study is expected to provide a powerful tool and insightful guidance in understanding hydrological processes’ effects in arid and semi-arid basins.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030697
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 698: Synergistic Effect of Multiple Metals Present at
           Slightly Lower Concentration than the Australian Investigation Level Can
           Induce Phytotoxicity

    • Authors: Naser Khan, Nanthi Bolan, Ian Clark, Sebastian Meier, David Lewis, Miguel A. Sánchez-Monedero
      First page: 698
      Abstract: An individual trace metal present in a soil at its ecological screening value or investigation level (trigger/threshold) is expected to cause phytotoxicity. However, phytotoxicity may be induced by a mixture of multiple metals, each present at a concentration lower than the corresponding investigation level. To investigate the accumulative impact of metals present below their individual investigation levels, three successive phytotoxicity trials were conducted in a greenhouse using the triticale plant CrackerJack (Triticosecale rimpaui), a cereal crop, in a sandy acidic soil treated jointly with Cd, Cu, and Zn at various rates. Seed germination and seedling growth were monitored. The metal rates in the first two trials were either too toxic or nontoxic. In the third trial, it was found that the mixture of Cd, Cu, and Zn at rates of 2.5, 97.5, and 188 mg kg−1, respectively, did not affect seed germination, but caused a slight reduction in plant growth. Although metal concentrations used were lower than the Australian Ecological Investigation Level (Urban) for Cd, Cu, and Zn, which are 3.0, 100, and 200 mg kg−1, respectively, the reduction occurred due to synergy. It was concluded that, to enhance the usefulness of environmental investigation limits, the synergistic effects of multiple metals present at levels slightly below the established limits must be considered.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030698
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 699: Spatial Differentiation and Influencing
           Mechanisms of Farmland Transfer Rents in Mountainous Areas: Evidence from
           Chongqing and Its Surrounding Areas

    • Authors: Ting Du, Chao Li, Zhaolin Wang
      First page: 699
      Abstract: This study used Chongqing, a municipality in mountainous southwest China, and its surrounding areas as a case study to explore the spatial differentiation of farmland transfer rents in mountainous areas, with the aim of serving as a theoretical and practical reference to realize the value of farmland, ensure regional food security, and promote stable and sound development of the farmland transfer market. In doing so, we applied the GIS spatial analysis method to explore the spatial differentiation and influencing mechanisms of farmland transfer rents in mountainous areas. Our results indicate that farmland transfer rents in mountainous areas have a significant high and low clustering tendency. The high-value areas of farmland transfer rents are mainly located in the downtown area and the west of Chongqing, while the low-value areas are mainly distributed in the Daba Mountains and Wuling Mountains, which are two national contiguous areas of dire poverty. Location and terrain factors are the main driving forces for the spatial differentiation of farmland transfer rents in mountainous areas. Specifically, a 1% increase in farmland mean slope and farmland supply-demand ratio in the study area will lead to a 0.13 and 0.15% decrease in farmland transfer rents, respectively, while a 1% increase in GDP will drive up farmland transfer rents by 0.09%. The policy factor is not significant. The influence of terrain and farmland supply and demand on transfer rents increased from west to east, whereas the influence of traffic location on transfer rents decreased in an outward direction from the southwest of the study area. It is concluded that local governments should objectively view the spatial differentiation of farmland transfer rents in mountainous areas and avoid the blind comparison of transfer rents between regions. Mountainous areas with low transfer rents should focus on increasing the intrinsic value of farmland assets by stimulating effective demand for farmland and improving farming conditions, while mountainous areas with high transfer rents in major grain-producing counties should be wary of their impact on grain production to ensure regional food security.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030699
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 700: Exploring Associations between Subjective
           Well-Being and Non-Market Values When Used in the Evaluation of Urban
           Green Spaces: A Scoping Review

    • Authors: Elli Papastergiou, Dionysis Latinopoulos, Myrto Evdou, Athanasios Kalogeresis
      First page: 700
      Abstract: Proximity and access to urban green spaces (UGSs) provide city dwellers with multiple benefits related to health and well-being. Understanding what (and how) characteristics of these spaces affect individuals’ perceived preferences and sense of well-being (subjective well-being) could be critical for relevant future planning interventions, policy design, and investments in green spaces. This scoping review aims to summarize, synthesize, and compare previous research findings about the application of (stated) preference-based methods, using non-market valuation techniques (e.g., willingness-to-pay methods), and non-preference-based measures of well-being (e.g., subjective well-being) to evaluate UGSs. By comparing these two methodologies, we aim to explore the differences and similarities among the determinants of benefits associated with UGS design and planning. We also seek to identify the most commonly used research approaches for measuring and/or projecting the impact of (new or rejuvenated) UGSs on people’s welfare and well-being. The review focuses on peer-reviewed empirical scientific work published during the period from 2010 to 2022.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030700
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 701: The Effect of Place-Based Policy on Urban Land
           Green Use Efficiency: Evidence from the Pilot Free-Trade Zone
           Establishment in China

    • Authors: Yuan Feng, Ying Li, Changfei Nie
      First page: 701
      Abstract: The improvement of urban land green use efficiency is significant in promoting sustainable development. As an important place-based policy in China, the pilot free-trade zone establishment has exerted a profound impact on urban economy and society. Meanwhile, the issue of whether the pilot free-trade zone can improve urban land green use efficiency or not is missing from prior literature, which is the concern of this study. Specifically, based on the super-efficiency slacks-based measure model, we first measure urban land green use efficiency of 279 cities in China from 2011 to 2019 and then use the multi-period difference-in-differences method to investigate the causal effect of the pilot free-trade zone establishment on urban land green use efficiency. The results show that the pilot free-trade zone significantly improved urban land green use efficiency, especially in the eastern cities, the coastal cities, and the cities with a high economic development level. Further, there exists a spatial spillover effect of the pilot free-trade zone on urban land green use efficiency. This study has implications for optimal allocation of urban land in the deployment of place-based policies, serving economic structural upgrading and a carbon neutrality vision.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030701
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 702: Filling the Gaps in Biophysical Knowledge of
           Urban Ecosystems: Flooding Mitigation and Stormwater Retention

    • Authors: Stefano Salata
      First page: 702
      Abstract: Urban flooding is one of the most recognized problems cities must tackle in the coming decades due to climate change conditions. Nevertheless, the empirical knowledge of the biophysical capacity of cities to absorb, store or retain and release water after rainfall events is limited, partly due to the gaps that modeling has in terms of representing the complexity of urban systems. This limit, in turn, affects the decision-making process related to the system’s adaptation. This work aims to integrate two types of alternative spatial ecosystem modeling and see how results can be combined, evaluated and used in view of a more holistic comprehension of flooding phenomena while reaching a deeper understanding of the vulnerability to multiple types of rain events: flash floods versus annual precipitation. The results of the two modeling sessions will be analyzed and compared. They will be further used to gather a greater understanding of the biophysical complexity of Izmir’s Metropolitan City in Turkey: one of the most dynamic but climatically threatened urban areas in the Mediterranean basin. The findings confirm the extent to which empirical knowledge of the urban system is partial and uncertain, thus requiring continuous progress through ecosystem modeling to support an evolutive interpretation of biophysical performances based on trial and error.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030702
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 703: Shifting Sands: Assessing Bankline Shift Using
           an Automated Approach in the Jia Bharali River, India

    • Authors: Jatan Debnath, Dhrubajyoti Sahariah, Anup Saikia, Gowhar Meraj, Nityaranjan Nath, Durlov Lahon, Wajahat Annayat, Pankaj Kumar, Kesar Chand, Suraj Kumar Singh, Shruti Kanga
      First page: 703
      Abstract: Bank erosion hazard is a frequent occurrence that poses threats to floodplain ecosystems. This analysis examined changes to the Jia Bharali River channel in India using the GIS-based Digital Shoreline Analysis System [DSAS]. The Jia Bharali’s future channel was predicted so as to identify the most erosion-susceptible zones. The rate of bankline movement was calculated using remotely sensed data collected over a period of 45 years (1976–2021). The results show that the river’s erosion and deposition rates were higher in the early years than towards the later part of the period under analysis. On the right and left banks of the river, the average shift rate was −9.22 and 5.8 m/y, respectively, which is comparatively high. The chosen portion of the river was evenly divided into three zones, A, B, and C. The most positively affected zone was zone A. The left bank of zone B exhibited a higher rate of erosion than the right bank, indicating that the river was moving to the left [eastward] in this zone. At the same time, the right bank was being eroded faster than the left, indicating a westward thrust at zone C. The predicted result demonstrates that the left bank of zone B and the right bank of zone C would have a higher average migration rate. Therefore, these banks were identified as being the most susceptible to bank erosion. The study evaluates the spatio-temporal change of the river in sensitive regions where neighboring settlements and infrastructure were at risk of changing channel dynamics. Using the actual and forecasted bankline, the degree of accuracy was confirmed. The results of the automated prediction approach could be useful for river hazard management in the Jia Bharali and in similar environmental settings with tropical high precipitation zones.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030703
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 704: Diametric Growth of a Forest under
           Reduced-Impact Logging in the Eastern Region of the Brazilian Amazon

    • Authors: William Montero Flores, Isadora França, Graciliano Galdino Alves dos Santos, Izildinha de Souza Miranda, Eric Fabricio Santos Moraes, Gustavo Hernández Sánchez, Sandra Dezuite Balieiro Da Silva, Emil José Hernández-Ruz
      First page: 704
      Abstract: Growth is a component of forest dynamics that encompasses changes in species composition, interactions between species, and stand structure. We evaluated the effect of the presence of lianas, crown shape, and light exposure on the periodic annual increment of trees (PAI) in two phytophysiognomies: the ombrophilous dense forest and the ombrophilous open forest with lianas. This study was conducted in the eastern Brazilian Amazon in 13 permanent monitoring plots of 50 m × 50 m (2500 m2) in the same annual production unit. The area has been subjected to reduced-impact logging from 2014 to 2016. The increment in tree diameter varied significantly between both forests (opens forests: 1.28 cm yr−1; dense forests: 0.82 cm yr−1). Light exposure influenced the increment in tree diameter in the ombrophilous open forest with lianas, while the crown shape and light exposure significantly affected the ombrophilous dense forest. Our study emphasizes the usefulness of the periodic annual increment in exploring the differences between contrasting phytophysiognomies in a single annual production unit in the Brazilian Amazon that is subject to reduced-impact logging.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030704
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 705: Lava Flow Hazard and Its Implication in Geopark
           Development for the Active Harrat Khaybar Intracontinental Monogenetic
           Volcanic Field, Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Károly Németh, Mohammed Rashad Moufti
      First page: 705
      Abstract: Harrat Khaybar is an active monogenetic volcanic field in western Saudi Arabia that hosts spectacular monogenetic volcanoes and a Holocene volcanic cone with extensive lava fields. The volcanic region is a subject of intensive land use development, especially along tourism ventures, where the volcanic features are the key elements to utilize for increasing visitation rates to the region. The youngest eruption is suspected to be Holocene and occurred fewer than 5000 years ago based on the cross-cutting relationship between the youngest lava flows and archaeological sites. Lava flows are typical, from pāhoehoe to ‘a‘ā types with great diversity of transitional textural forms. Here, we recorded typical transitional lava flow surface textures from the youngest flows identified by digital-elevation-model-based terrain analysis, satellite imagery, and direct field observations. We performed lava flow simulations using the Q-LavHA plug-in within the QGIS environment. Lava flow simulations yielded satisfactory results if we applied eruptions along fissures, long simulation distances, and ~5 m lava flow thickness. In these simulations, the upper flow regimes were reconstructed well, but long individual lava flows were not possible to simulate, suggesting that morphological steps likely promoted lava ponding, inflation, and sudden deflation by releasing melts further along shallow syneruptive valley networks.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030705
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 706: Phenological Flowering Patterns of Woody Plants
           in the Function of Landscape Design: Case Study Belgrade

    • Authors: Mirjana Ocokoljić, Djurdja Petrov, Nevenka Galečić, Dejan Skočajić, Olivera Košanin, Isidora Simović
      First page: 706
      Abstract: The study focuses on describing key events in the flowering phenophases of woody taxa that promote practical landscape sustainability and design planning. Apart from the beginning of flowering, the full development and the duration of phenophases are important for landscape architecture, consumers, and pollination. The phenological patterns of 13 woody taxa were monitored for 16 years through 90,860 phenological observations from the BBCH scale for the period 2007–2022. Growing degree days were determined by combining phenological and climatic data and a linear trend was used to assess phenophase tendencies. Mann–Kendall and Sen’s slope tests and Spearman’s correlation coefficient were used to assess statistical significance. Shifts in flowering indicated warming trends, reflecting various changes in phenology. Early flowering taxa were affected the most, but plants shifted phenophases in both directions (earlier and later in the year). Repeated flowering (and occasionally fruiting) and even third flowering, as seen in 2022, can significantly affect biodiversity and lead to plant–pollinator asynchrony and changes in ecosystem functioning, ecological interaction, and landscape design. A list of native and introduced taxa and their adaptation mechanisms to climate change are provided and can be used for sustainable landscape design and nature-based solutions in landscape architecture.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030706
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 707: Research on Changsha Gardens in Ming Dynasty,

    • Authors: Weiwen Li, Chi Gao
      First page: 707
      Abstract: Despite the growing interest in Chinese gardens, there is a lack of research on Changsha Gardens. Through document retrieval, review, and map analysis, we reconstructed the Changsha Gardens during the Ming Dynasty. Our findings reveal that gardening flourished in Changsha during this period. The royal gardens, dominated by literati aesthetics, set the trend for development, while the landscaping techniques were influenced by Jiangnan Gardens. Private gardens placed more emphasis on artistic mood and cultural implications. Landscape architects incorporated towers, terraces, and suburban mountain gardening to borrow scenery. The use of spring water to create landscapes and the rectangular shapes of the water bodies reflected Neo-Confucianism and practical functions. Planting design focused on meaning over form, with landscapes used to commemorate sages and promote the farming and reading culture and other Confucian values. However, it relied too much on borrowing natural scenery and the pragmatism of the Hunan culture, which might have affected the progress of landscaping techniques and the development of Changsha Gardens. Changsha Gardens were not as skilled as Jiangnan Gardens, and the style was not as prominent as other regional schools of gardens. This might be the reason why Changsha Gardens have not become one of the regional schools of gardens in China.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030707
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 708: The Impact of Rural Land on the Life
           Satisfaction of Farming Women: Evidence from China

    • Authors: Philip Arestis, Mianshan Lai, Songpei Zhang, Yunxiang Liu
      First page: 708
      Abstract: This study investigates the impact of rural land on the life satisfaction of rural-farming women with a modified institutional analysis and development (IAD) framework as the theoretical framework. The research sample is composed of data acquired from surveys of thirty-six randomly selected villages in three provinces in China. The main findings include that the quality of the cultivated land, embodied in the cultivated land location and the land cultivation facilities, has an impact on the life satisfaction of rural-farming women; agreeable living conditions can improve the life satisfaction of rural-farming women; and the well-being status of rural-farming women also has an impact on their life satisfaction, but there are differences in this impact. The objective factors, such as household cash and savings, farming income, and farming time, also have inconsistent effects on the life satisfaction of rural-farming women. This study bridges the gap and explains the land-related factors, which have an impact on rural women farmers, and brings attention to this group of people who are easily overlooked.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-19
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030708
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 709: Disaster Risk Regionalization and Prediction of
           Corn Thrips Combined with Cloud Model: A Case Study of Shandong Province,

    • Authors: Yanan Zuo, Fengxiang Jin, Min Ji, Zhenjin Li, Jiutao Yang
      First page: 709
      Abstract: Corn thrips do serious harm to the yield and quality of corn. In this paper, the Shandong Province of China was taken as the study area. Based on the data of the occurrence of corn thrips in Shandong Province, a risk regionalization model was established by using eight indicators under four categories of hazard, sensitivity, vulnerability and the disaster prevention and mitigation capacity of diseases and pests on a monthly time scale. Firstly, the cloud model was introduced to determine the weight of each indicator, and then the risk regionalization of the corn thrips disaster in Shandong Province was carried out using the weighted percentage method, the weighted comprehensive evaluation method and the natural disaster risk index method. Finally, combined with the collected data, the disaster prediction of corn thrip occurrence degree was realized based on multiple linear regression, genetic algorithm optimized back-propagation neural network and genetic algorithm optimized support vector machine methods. The results show that: (1) the risk of Corn thrips disaster is mainly concentrated in the central and western parts of Shandong Province. Heze City is a high-risk area. Liaocheng City, Dezhou City, Jinan City and Weifang City are relatively high-risk areas. (2) By comparing the prediction accuracy of the three models, it was determined that the genetic algorithm optimized support vector machine model has the best effect, with an average accuracy of 79.984%, which is 7.013% and 22.745% higher than that of the multiple linear regression and genetic algorithm optimized back-propagation neural network methods, respectively. The results of this study can provide a scientific basis for fine prevention of corn thrips in Shandong Province.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-19
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030709
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 710: Classification and Evaluation Methods for
           Optimization of Land Use Efficiency at Village Level

    • Authors: Xiaoyu Chen, Qingming Zhan, Yuli Fan
      First page: 710
      Abstract: Land fragmentation hinders sustainable development in rural areas by reducing the efficiency of land use, and it could be mitigated by optimum allocation of land resources. However, most land use allocation models address micro-scale interaction, which is not conducive to the arrangement of the specific implementation plan. Facing such issues, this study proposed a village classification method (LUEOVC) that can provide specific optimization strategies for each village according to different optimization objectives. Specifically, we used a multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm to find the best land use adjustment strategies under different land use optimization objectives, and the pros and cons of these strategies are based on land use efficiency evaluation. The proposed village classification method can reflect the impact of the optimal allocation of different types of land resources on the land use efficiency of each village. The results of experiments conducted in Xinxing County, Guangdong Province showed that the village-based land use optimization strategy provided in this method can improve the land use efficiency of the cultivated land with the most serious fragmentation in the study area by 0.9%. The method also enables planners to compare the costs and gains under different objections, so as to better help decision-makers in formulating land use optimization strategies for different villages.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-19
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030710
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 711: Development of a Methodology and Model for Land
           Administration Data Dissemination Processes

    • Authors: Josip Križanović, Miodrag Roić
      First page: 711
      Abstract: Land administration (LA) is concerned with processes. Simply put, LA cannot be understood, built, or improved unless the processes associated with it are understood. When it comes to the processes involved in LA, two general processes can be identified, namely registration and dissemination. Nowadays, processes are implemented electronically; however, paper-based thinking is still present, and the performance of processes is impeded by siloed data management. These issues could be addressed through the employment of standards such as the Land Administration Domain Model. Processes are not yet part of the standard, but their inclusion in future extensions is planned. Moreover, a literature analysis indicated that there is no standardized methodology or model available for describing LA processes. Consequently, we modeled one part of land administration processes, namely data dissemination, by developing a methodology and model to describe it. The methodology was developed with the goal of providing guidelines for other researchers when modeling use cases of data dissemination processes by enabling comparisons of models, searching for best practices, and developing standardized process models. Additionally, the methodology was tested on a conceptual use case to prove its viability. Furthermore, a model based on conceptual modeling and an activity-centric process modeling approach was developed and linked to existing classes of the Land Administration Domain Model. The organizational and technological challenges which might arise when improving data dissemination processes are discussed, and possible outcomes of the developed methodology and model are provided.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-20
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030711
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 712: “Do I See What You
           See'”—Differentiation of Stakeholders in Assessing
           Heritage Significance of Neighbourhood Attributes

    • Authors: Lidwine Spoormans, Darinka Czischke, Ana Pereira Roders, Wessel de Jonge
      First page: 712
      Abstract: Although attention for citizen involvement in urban development and heritage management processes is growing, both in practice and in research, the specifics of stakeholders’ interests have been less researched. This paper reveals and discusses the assessment by individuals and groups, to differentiate stakeholders, based on the heritage significance they convey on neighbourhood attributes. Fifty-nine interviews on a Dutch neighbourhood in Amsterdam Zuidoost were analysed integrating quantitative and qualitative methods. Results confirm important differences between and within stakeholder groups regarding their interest in particular attribute categories and scales, indicating the need to further specify stakeholders beyond the commonly used ‘community’ and ‘experts’. The identification of stakeholder interests is important to involve relevant groups in the identification and designation of significant attributes, buildings, and areas and to anticipate potential conflicts or shared interests in neighbourhood renovation processes.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-20
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030712
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 713: NDVI Characteristics and Influencing Factors of
           Typical Ecosystems in the Semi-Arid Region of Northern China: A Case Study
           of the Hulunbuir Grassland

    • Authors: Yating Zhao, Chunming Hu, Xi Dong, Jun Li
      First page: 713
      Abstract: The semi-arid region of northern China is highly sensitive to environmental changes, especially the Hulunbuir Grassland, which has an essential ecological status and a fragile environment. This study focused on the NDVI characteristics of three different ecosystems and their dominant influencing factors. It proposed a method to show the immediate effects of factors influencing NDVI on a statistical level. The results showed that: (1) NDVI of floodplain wetland > NDVI of meadow > NDVI of sand ribbon. There were obvious differences among the three ecosystems, and the spatial distribution of NDVI was consistent with altitude. (2) The main explanatory factors were the phenological period, humidity, temperature, accumulated precipitation, runoff, and evaporation, which accounted for 68.8% of the total explanation. (3) Phenological period, humidity, and precipitation were positively correlated with NDVI. Temperature and evaporation had a positive effect on NDVI within a certain range. This study revealed the differences in environmental factors in different ecosystems, enriched the theory of NDVI influencing factors, and provided a scientific basis for future NDVI research and regional ecological conservation.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-03-20
      DOI: 10.3390/land12030713
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
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