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  Subjects -> GEOGRAPHY (Total: 493 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
40 [degrees] South     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
AAG Review of Books     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
AbeÁfrica : Revista da Associação Brasileira de Estudos Africanos     Open Access  
ACME : An International Journal for Critical Geographies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Lodziensis : Folia Geographica Socio-Oeconomica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adam Academy : Journal of Social Sciences / Adam Akademi : Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cartography and GIScience of the ICA     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Africa Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
African Geographical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Afrika Focus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AGORA Magazine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agronomía & Ambiente     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AGU Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
All Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Geographic Information System     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Human Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Amerika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Geografía de la Universidad Complutense     Open Access  
Anatoli     Open Access  
Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis / Studia de Cultura     Open Access  
Annals of GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Annals of the American Association of Geographers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Anuario     Open Access  
Applied Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ar@cne     Open Access  
Arctic     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arctic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Area Development and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Asian Geographer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Geographical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ateneo Korean Studies Conference Proceedings     Open Access  
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT)     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions (AMTD)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Aurora Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Antarctic Magazine     Free   (Followers: 5)
Australian Geographer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Bandung : Journal of the Global South     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Barn : Forskning om barn og barndom i Norden     Open Access  
Baru : Revista Brasileira de Assuntos Regionais e Urbanos     Open Access  
Belgeo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biblio3W : Revista Bibliográfica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Biogeographia : The Journal of Integrative Biogeography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BioRisk     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletim Campineiro de Geografia     Open Access  
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access  
Boletim Gaúcho de Geografia     Open Access  
Boletim Goiano de Geografia     Open Access  
Boletín de Estudios Geográficos     Open Access  
Boletín de la Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles     Open Access  
Brill Research Perspectives in Map History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège     Open Access  
Bulletin de l’association de géographes français     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Geography. Physical Geography Series     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of the Serbian Geographical Society     Open Access  
Caderno de Geografia     Open Access  
Cahiers Balkaniques     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cahiers Charlevoix : Études franco-ontariennes     Full-text available via subscription  
Cahiers franco-canadiens de l'Ouest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
California Italian Studies Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Soil Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cardinalis     Open Access  
Carnets de géographes     Open Access  
Cartographic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cartographic Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cartographica : The International Journal for Geographic Information and Geovisualization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Cartography and Geographic Information Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Check List : The Journal of Biodiversity Data     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Climate and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Comparative Cultural Studies : European and Latin American Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Urban Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Confins     Open Access  
Conjuntura Austral : Journal of the Global South     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Coolabah     Open Access  
Creativity Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Critical Romani Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Crossings : Journal of Migration & Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Geografía : Revista Colombiana de Geografía     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Geografía de la Universitat de València     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica / Geographical Research Letters     Open Access  
Cuadernos Inter.c.a.mbio sobre Centroamérica y el Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dela     Open Access  
Dialogues in Human Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Didáctica Geográfica     Open Access  
DIE ERDE : Journal of the Geographical Society of Berlin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documenti Geografici     Open Access  
Documents d'Anàlisi Geogràfica     Open Access  
Doğu Coğrafya Dergisi : Eastern Geographical Review     Open Access  
DRd - Desenvolvimento Regional em debate     Open Access  
Earth System Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
East/West : Journal of Ukrainian Studies     Open Access  
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Economic and Regional Studies / Studia Ekonomiczne i Regionalne     Open Access  
Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Économie rurale     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecosystems and People     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Entorno Geográfico     Open Access  
Environment & Ecosystem Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Research : Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Science : Atmospheres     Open Access  
Environmental Science and Sustainable Development : International Journal Of Environmental Science & Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Smoke     Open Access  
Ería : Revista Cuatrimestral de Geografía     Open Access  
Espacio y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Espacios : Revista de |Geografía     Open Access  
Espaço & Economia : Revista Brasileira de Geografia Econômica     Open Access  
Espaço Aberto     Open Access  
Espaço e Cultura     Open Access  
Espaço e Tempo Midiáticos     Open Access  
Estudios Geográficos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios Socioterritoriales : Revista de Geografía     Open Access  
Ethnobiology Letters     Open Access  
Ethnoscientia : Brazilian Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnoecology     Open Access  
eTropic : electronic journal of studies in the tropics     Open Access  
Études internationales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Études rurales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Études/Inuit/Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
European Bulletin of Himalayan Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Spatial Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Evolutionary Human Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Fennia : International Journal of Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Finisterra : Revista Portuguesa de Geografia     Open Access  
Fire Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Florida Geographer     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Focus on Geography     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Football(s) : Histoire, Culture, Économie, Société     Open Access  
Forum Geografi     Open Access  
Frontera Norte     Open Access  
GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Genre & histoire     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geo : Geography and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Geo UERJ     Open Access  
Geo-Image     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geo-spatial Information Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
GeoArabia     Hybrid Journal  
Géocarrefour     Open Access  
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Geochronometria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoderma Regional : The International Journal for Regional Soil Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Geodesy and Cartography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geoforum Perspektiv     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofronter     Open Access  
Geografares     Open Access  
Geografisk Tidsskrift-Danish Journal of Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geografiska Annaler, Series A : Physical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geographia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geographica Helvetica     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Geographical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Geographical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Geographical Journal of Nepal     Open Access  
Geographical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Geographical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Geographicalia     Open Access  
Géographie et cultures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geography and Natural Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Geography and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geography Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
GeoHumanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
GeoInformatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geoinformatics & Geostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Geoinformatics FCE CTU     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Geoingá : Revista do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia     Open Access  
GeoJournal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
GEOMATICA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
GEOmedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geopauta : Revista de Geografia da Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia     Open Access  
Geophysical Research Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 201)
Geoplanning : Journal of Geomatics and Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
GeoScape     Open Access  
Geosciences Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Geosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GEOUSP : Espaço e Tempo     Open Access  
Ghana Journal of Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
GIScience & Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Global Challenges     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
GPS Solutions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Land
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2073-445X
Published by MDPI Homepage  [249 journals]
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 290: Rural Development under Poverty Governance: The
           Relationship between Rural Income and Land Use Transformation in Yunnan
           Province

    • Authors: Xinyu Shi, Xiaoqing Zhao, Pei Huang, Zexian Gu, Junwei Pu, Shijie Zhou, Guoxun Qu, Qiaoqiao Zhao, Yan Feng, Yanjun Chen, Aimeng Xiang
      First page: 290
      Abstract: The process of eliminating absolute poverty is inevitable for China’s social and economic transformation. However, there are currently few studies on the relationship between land use transformation (LUT) and rural income under different stages of poverty governance. This study, therefore, uses spatial autocorrelation analysis and a multiscale geographic weighted regression (MGWR) model to explore the mechanisms of LUT on rural income and its spatiotemporal heterogeneity in Yunnan Province during the comprehensive poverty alleviation (CPA) period and the targeted poverty alleviation (TPA) period at the county scale. The results demonstrate that: (1) the numbers of both low-income and high-income counties continued to decrease, while the number of middle-high-income counties increased, and rural income demonstrated a positive spatial correlation. (2) Most of the variables in the dominant recessive increased in the CPA and decreased in the TPA period. As for recessive morphology, the ecological function variables decreased first and then increased. (3) The driving force of dominant morphology is strong and sustained, and the driving force of recessive morphology is gradually enhanced. The results are vital for consolidating the results of poverty eradication and bridging rural revitalization. They may also provide useful references for sustainable land use and effective poverty alleviation in other developing countries.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020290
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 291: Modelling Impact of Urban Expansion on Ecosystem
           Services: A Scenario-Based Approach in a Mixed Natural/Urbanised Landscape
           

    • Authors: Fatemeh Mohammadyari, Ardavan Zarandian, Mir Mehrdad Mirsanjari, Jurate Suziedelyte Visockiene, Egle Tumeliene
      First page: 291
      Abstract: The present study aims at predicting future land use/land cover (LULC) and quantifying and mapping the ecosystem services (ESs) of water yield, outdoor recreation opportunity and food production in current (here, 2017) and future landscapes in Northern Iran, using the InVEST, Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS) and yield models. To that end, two LULC scenarios known as business as usual (BAU) and protection-based (PB) plan were applied for 2028, using the Markov Artificial Neural Network and Multi-objective land allocation (MOLA) models. The results show that rapid urbanisation, caused by the expansion of human settlements and industrial areas, has led to a decline in the ESs in the region. Compared to the ESs in 2017, the service of water yield increases as urban expansion increases, whereas food production and recreation services decrease as urban expansion increases, under the BAU scenario. On the other hand, in the PB scenario, relatively better conditions can be observed for all three ESs. Considering that the ecological structures of this region have been severely affected by rapid urban expansion, the results of this research will be useful for maintaining the existing ESs and can greatly affect planning and decision-making regarding future development towards urban sustainability.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020291
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 292: Identification and Optimization of Ecological
           Network in Arid Inland River Basin Using MSPA and Spatial Syntax: A Case
           Study of Shule River Basin, NW China

    • Authors: Jinghu Pan, Yimin Wang, Zhao Zhang
      First page: 292
      Abstract: Habitat fragmentation has become an important factor in the reduction of biodiversity. Identifying and optimizing ecological network (EN) can help alleviate the negative impact of habitat fragmentation and improve regional biodiversity. TaoLai River basin is an inland river basin in Northwest China. Due to the impact of climate change and human activities, there are many ecological problems such as grassland degradation and shortage of water resources. It is urgent to identify and optimize the EN. This study comprehensively uses Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis (MSPA), Minimum Cumulative Resistance Model (MCR) and Circuit Theory to identify ENs, evaluates ENs based on Spatial Syntax and determines the protection priority of ENs, then diagnoses ecological “pinch points” and ecological obstacles by combining remote sensing and GIS spatial analysis methods. The results show that: (1) the ecological source area of the basin is 3061.63 km2, with uneven spatial distribution, mainly distributed in the Qilian Mountains in the south of the basin; (2) There are 106 ecological corridors in the basin, with a total length of 2267.30 km and an average length of 21.38 km, which is not conducive to species migration; (3) The optimum widths of ecological corridors in the south, middle and north of the basin are 100 m, 60 m and 300 m respectively; (4) The key areas of watershed ecological restoration include the “pinch area” between the southern core area and the central core area and 108 ecological barrier points; (5) Combined with the spatial characteristics of various key areas of ecological protection and restoration, the spatial pattern of “one core-four rings-five belts” of watershed EN construction is obtained.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020292
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 293: Agro-Ecological Impact of Irrigation and
           Nutrient Management on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) Grown in Semi-Arid
           Conditions

    • Authors: María José Delgado-Iniesta, Aldara Girona-Ruíz, Antonio Sánchez-Navarro
      First page: 293
      Abstract: The environment is affected by most anthropogenic activities; among them, agriculture is one activity with more negative effects, especially when management is inadequate, causing soil degradation or contamination. This paper presents the results of an agronomic field trial on a spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) crop. The objective of which was to monitor soil and crop properties under two doses of irrigation and organic fertilization. The results showed that the use of excessive doses of irrigation and fertilization increased the electrical conductivity (ECext) from 5.5 to 8.5 dS m−1 and the concentration of ions in the soil solution which, for the most soluble ions (NO3−, Cl−, Na+), leached towards the deep horizons, reaching 2194.8 mg L−1 in the case of NO3−. However, their use did not increase spinach production and is thus a waste of resources that increases the risk of soil salinization. Nutrient inputs to the soil were much higher than extractions (between 12% for N and 99% for Fe), partly because of agronomic management and especially because of the return of crop residues, which increased the organic carbon stock by about 2500 kg ha−1 (4–6%), enhancing its function as a CO2 sink. These surpluses form part of complex organic structures or are immobilized as carbonates or alkaline phosphates. Preservation of the agrosystem studied requires limiting the use of low-quality irrigation water and adjusting fertilization.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020293
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 294: Study on the Layout of Ecological Space and the
           Integrated Management Mechanism of the Yangtze River Delta Urban
           Agglomeration

    • Authors: Du, Zhou
      First page: 294
      Abstract: The urban agglomeration at the Yangtze River Delta is one of the six most developed and populated urban agglomerations in the world. In recent years, with accelerating urbanization, the land use has changed significantly. Excessive construction aggravates ecological fragility. In this context, this paper first investigates the evolutionary processes and layout of the ecological space in the Yangtze River Delta. The root causes of various problems are then analyzed. Finally, suggestions for further improvement in both detailed tasks and governance aspects are proposed. The applied methods included use of remote sensing (RS), geographic information system (GIS) and statistical analysis. Main results indicate that from 1990 to 2018, the ecological space of the Yangtze River Delta shrank, especially in the city of Shanghai. Ecological space is insufficient in the area, unevenly distributed and fragmented. The major root causes include rapid urbanization without overall planning, regional population surge and improper industrial structure. Suggestions for improvement include overall planning and integrated management, control of population size, active industry structure upgrade, land-use efficiency balanced with ecological indicators, and multiple integrated strategies encouraging application of new energy technologies.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020294
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 295: Impacts of Aging Agricultural Labor Force on
           Land Transfer: An Empirical Analysis Based on the China Family Panel
           Studies

    • Authors: Chaozhu Li, Xiaoliang Li, Jiaxu Wang, Tianchu Feng
      First page: 295
      Abstract: Aging is an important trend in the global demographic, with rural population aging becoming a significant challenge due to its faster pace and profound implications. Although the most significant impact of the aging agricultural labor force occurs in agricultural production and land use, little is known about their relationship. Based on the 2010–2018 data from the Chinese Family Panel Studies, this study uses the panel probit model to analyze the impact of the aging agricultural labor force on land transfer and tests its influence mechanism from the aspects of health effect and pension insurance effect. The results show the following: (1) there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between the aging of the agricultural labor force and land rent-in—with the deepening of the aging of the agricultural labor force, the aging of the agricultural labor force shifts from promoting land rent-in to inhibiting it; (2) there is a U-shaped relationship between the aging of the agricultural labor force and land rent-out—with the deepening of the aging of the agricultural labor force, the aging of the agricultural labor force shifts from inhibiting land rent-out to promoting it; and (3) the impact of the aging agricultural labor force on land rent-in and rent-out is significantly affected by farmers’ health levels, however pension insurance does not play a significant moderating role. Therefore, the government should strengthen the land transfer market and improve the level of pension insurance for the elderly rural agricultural labor force.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020295
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 296: Fractal Organization of Chilean Cities:
           Observations from a Developing Country

    • Authors: Francisco Martínez, Bastian Sepúlveda, Hermann Manríquez
      First page: 296
      Abstract: Urban forms are human-made systems that display a close connection with fractal objects, following organisation patterns that are not as random as believed. In this context, fractal theory can be seriously considered as a powerful tool for characterizing land-use planning. By applying the box-counting method and image-processing methods, the morphology and fractal metrics of urban networks of Chilean cities were measured. This dimension shows a close correlation with area, population and gross domestic product of each entity, revealing significant asymmetries regarding their distribution throughout the country. Such asymmetries have influenced the current shape of cities, issues concerning economic and social inequalities of urban development that still remain in the territory and explained by social segregation process and the historical evolution of cities. Additionally, some interesting allometric scaling laws obtained from these urban forms are also reported. Our results suggest that the use of fractal metrics can be a meaningful and cheap tool for characterizing the complexity of urban networks, providing useful and quick information about the organisation and efficiency of urban planning in developing countries.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020296
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 297: A Scenario Simulation Study on the Impact of
           Urban Expansion on Terrestrial Carbon Storage in the Yangtze River Delta,
           China

    • Authors: Zhiyuan Ma, Xuejun Duan, Lei Wang, Yazhu Wang, Jiayu Kang, Ruxian Yun
      First page: 297
      Abstract: Assessing the impacts and drivers of urban expansion on terrestrial carbon storage (TCS) is important for urban ecology and sustainability; however, a unified accounting standard for carbon intensity and research on the drivers and economic value of TCS changes are lacking. Here, urban expansion and TCS in the Yangtze River Delta were simulated based on Patch-generating Land Use Simulation and Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs models; scenario simulation; Literature, Correction, Ratio, Verification carbon intensity measurement; and land use transfer matrix methods. The results showed that (1) from 2000 to 2020, urbanization and TCS loss accelerated, with 61.127% of TCS loss occurring in soil, and land conversion was prominent in riverine and coastal cities, mainly driven by the urban land occupation of cropland around suitable slopes, transportation arteries, and rivers. (2) From 2020 to 2030, urban land expansion and TCS loss varied under different scenarios; economic losses from the loss of the carbon sink value under cropland protection and ecological protection were USD 102.368 and 287.266 million lower, respectively, than under the baseline scenario. Even if urban expansion slows, the loss of TCS under global warming cannot be ignored. Considering the indirect impacts of urbanization, the failure to establish a regional development master plan based on ecosystem services may affect China’s carbon targets.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020297
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 298: Mapping Priority Areas for Connectivity of
           Yellow-Winged Darter (Sympetrum flaveolum, Linnaeus 1758) under Climate
           Change

    • Authors: Víctor Rincón, Javier Velázquez, Derya Gülçin, Aida López-Sánchez, Carlos Jiménez, Ali Uğur Özcan, Juan Carlos López-Almansa, Tomás Santamaría, Daniel Sánchez-Mata, Kerim Çiçek
      First page: 298
      Abstract: The yellow-winged darter (Sympetrum flaveolum Linnaeus, 1758, Odonata), which is associated with high mountain areas, can be considered a flagship species. Due to climate change, its natural range will be negatively affected. In this study, we propose global potential distributions for this species up to the year 2100, considering four time periods (2021–2040, 2041–2060, 2061–2080, and 2081–2100) and three shared socioeconomic pathways (optimistic—SSP245, middle of the road—SSP370, and worst—SSP585), by using an ecological niche model to produce two sets of distribution models (80% to 100% and 60% to 100%). It is foreseen that in the worst of the considered climate scenario (SSP585– 2100 year), the distribution of this species could be reduced by almost half, which could pose a risk for the species and provoke the shift from vulnerable to endangered. An analysis of connectivity has also been carried out for all the studied scenarios by applying the MSPA and PC indices, showing that the core habitat of this species will become more important, which is consistent with the decrease in the distribution range. Over time, the importance of the most valuable connectors will increase, implying a greater risk of some populations becoming isolated.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020298
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 299: Exploring the Spatial Heterogeneity and
           Influence Factors of Daily Travel Carbon Emissions in Metropolitan Areas:
           From the Perspective of the 15-min City

    • Authors: Liang Guo, Wenjun Cheng, Chang Liu, Qinghao Zhang, Shuo Yang
      First page: 299
      Abstract: Most of the residents’ daily travel is concentrated within their 15-min walking distance. In China, derived from the 15-min city concept, the 15-min walkable area is often referred to as the 15-min pedestrian-scale neighborhood, and it has become a basic planning unit. Understanding the factors that influence the built environment of the 15-min pedestrian-scale neighborhood on the residents’ daily travel carbon emissions is critical to reduce urban carbon emissions. There may be spatial heterogeneity in daily travel carbon emissions as a dependent variable due to the spatial heterogeneity of built environment factors. Therefore, this study used data from the Wuhan City Resident Travel Survey to describe the spatial pattern of daily travel carbon emissions among Wuhan residents. The study examined the spatial heterogeneity of daily travel carbon emissions and explored the spatial differentiation of the built environment’s impact on daily travel carbon emissions within the 15-min pedestrian-scale neighborhood of the residents using spatial autocorrelation analysis and multi-scale geo-weighted regression (MGWR). The results indicate that Wuhan residents’ daily travel carbon emissions show an increasing circle structure from the center outward. In general, built environment elements in the 15-min pedestrian-scale neighborhood are closely related to the daily travel carbon emissions, and the direction and degree of impact of the built environment varies spatially. This study provides empirical evidence for controlling transportation carbon emissions.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020299
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 300: Spatial Justice and Residents’ Policy
           Acceptance: Evidence from Construction Land Reduction in Shanghai, China

    • Authors: Keqiang Wang, Jianglin Lu, Hongmei Liu, Fang Ye, Fangbin Dong, Xiaodan Zhu
      First page: 300
      Abstract: Nowadays, the contradiction between strict construction land supply restriction and excessive construction land demand is extremely prominent. Construction land reduction (CLR) is a policy innovation for economically developed regions designed to solve the tight constraints of the construction land quota as urban development continues in China, however, it leads to a lack of spatial justice. In this study, we address a gap in land use regulation literature regarding regional economic development in fast-developing nations by presenting a quantitative investigation of spatial justice in Shanghai, China. We theoretically analyze the connotation of spatial justice in CLR and its influence on residents’ policy acceptance of CLR. Based on theoretical analysis and using household questionnaires from JJ Town in W District, Shanghai, China, we investigate how spatial justice affects residents’ policy acceptance of CLR through an ordered probit model. The results show that (1) spatial justice strengthens residents’ policy acceptance of CLR; (2) both policy familiarity and participation are important influencing factors that contribute to residents’ policy acceptance of CLR; (3) age, education, household income, the contracting land scale and household population structure also affect residents’ policy acceptance of CLR. (4) Robustness tests support the above findings. Thus, in the process of CLR, it is essential to fully consider the realization of spatial justice to ensure the development of remote suburbs, especially the regions experiencing a net reduction in their construction land.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020300
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 301: The Farm’s Orientation towards
           Sustainability: An Assessment Using FADN Data in Italy

    • Authors: Concetta Cardillo, Antonella Di Di Fonzo, Claudio Liberati
      First page: 301
      Abstract: The new Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) for the period 2023–2027 commits farmers towards achieving ambitious environmental objectives through farm organization and management. This European agricultural policy has adapted to the contemporary challenges faced by the new model of agricultural development. It aims to enhance the contribution of agriculture to the EU’s environmental and climate objectives while providing better targeted support to small-scale farmers to promote farms’ competitiveness. The main objective of this paper is to describe Italian farms and classify them into groups based on their main characteristics, as well as to analyze their performance and behavior in terms of sustainability and competitiveness. The novelty and innovativeness of this study are found in the data used; a 2020 dataset from the Italian Farm Accounting Data Network (FADN) was used. The quality of FADN data in farm sustainability assessment is widely acknowledge in the literature. To achieve the purpose of this study, a multivariate analysis, in particular, the Principal Components Analysis (PCA), and a Cluster Analysis (CA) were applied. These analyses helped us to obtain the factorial axes which then enabled us to identify economic information on farms, and a better interpretation of farmers’ aptitude to undertake environmentally friendly actions. As a result, eight groups of farms were identified, and their characteristics and performance were described at Italian district level. The results of the study reflect the influence of European interventions towards encouraging farmers to use more environmentally friendly agricultural practices. Under this perspective, the findings contribute to the current debate on green architecture pursued by the future European agricultural policy.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020301
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 302: Resilience Measurements and Dynamics of
           Resource-Based Cities in Heilongjiang Province, China

    • Authors: Ming Lu, Zhuolin Tan, Chao Yuan, Yu Dong, Wei Dong
      First page: 302
      Abstract: In the process of sustainable transformation, resource-based cities (RBCs) in Heilongjiang are in a dilemma. Resilience is a key capability to help RBCs deepen sustainable development, adapt to shocks, and exit the transformation dilemma. This study aims to clarify the resilience measurements and dynamics of RBCs and propose targeted resilience enhancement strategies. First, we construct a resilience indicator system based on the urban complex adaptive system (CAS) and use principal component analysis (PCA) to specify indicator weights to obtain the resilience values of RBCs in Heilongjiang Province during 2010–2019, then use cluster analysis to classify five resilience grades. Second, we identify and analyze the resilience dynamics of RBCs in Heilongjiang Province from 2010–2019 based on the adaptive cycle framework. The results indicate that the overall resilience dynamics of RBCs have exhibited an upward trend over the past decade, but there are clear variations in the level of resilience values and dynamics between the different types of RBCs. The petroleum-based city has the highest level of resilience, is less affected by shocks, and recovers quickly. Forest-based cities have a medium level of resilience and are able to recover from shocks, but they fail to improve and remain at a medium level for a long time. Coal-based cities have a low level of resilience and find it difficult to recover from shocks, but this has improved since 2017. Finally, we propose targeted resilience enhancement strategies for RBCs of different types and resilience levels in Heilongjiang Province to provide RBCs with directional guidance for overcoming the development dilemma through resilience measures.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020302
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 303: RePlant Alfa: Integrating Google Earth Engine
           and R Coding to Support the Identification of Priority Areas for
           Ecological Restoration

    • Authors: Narkis S. Morales, Ignacio C. Fernández, Leonardo P. Durán, Waldo A. Pérez-Martínez
      First page: 303
      Abstract: Land degradation and climate change are among the main threats to the sustainability of ecosystems worldwide. As a result, the restoration of degraded landscapes is essential to maintaining the functionality of ecosystems, especially those with greater social, economic, and environmental vulnerability. Nevertheless, policymakers are frequently challenged by deciding where to prioritize restoration actions, which usually includes dealing with multiple and complex needs under an always limited budget. If these decisions are not taken based on proper data and processes, restoration implementation can easily fail. In order to help decision-makers take informed decisions on where to implement restoration activities, we have developed a semiautomatic geospatial platform to prioritize areas for restoration activities based on ecological, social, and economic variables. This platform takes advantage of the potential to integrate R coding, Google Earth Engine cloud computing, and GIS visualization services to generate an interactive geospatial decision-maker tool for restoration. Here, we present a prototype version called “RePlant alpha”, which was tested with data from the Central Zone of Chile. This exercise proved that integrating R and GEE was feasible, and that the analysis with at least six indicators for a specific region was also feasible to implement even from a personal computer. Therefore, the use of a virtual machine in the cloud with a large number of indicators over large areas is both possible and practical.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020303
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 304: Non-Invasive Prospection Techniques in the Cabo
           de Gata-Níjar Natural Park (Almería, Spain):
           Torregarcía’s Site

    • Authors: María-Juana López-Medina, María de la Paz Román-Díaz, Manuela García-Pardo, Enrique Aragón-Núñez, José-Antonio Calvillo-Ardila, Lázaro G. Lagóstena-Barrios
      First page: 304
      Abstract: Along the Southeast coast of the Iberian Peninsula are numerous remains linked to the ancient purple exploitation destined for elaborating dyes. Our study focused on analysing the Torregarcía’s site (Almeria, Spain), which is set in the Cabo de Gata-Níjar Natural Park, a protected coastal space of huge ecological interest. Torregarcía was excavated in the 1980s. Despite its importance, it has remained invisible to the historiography of the last three decades due to the lack of scientific publications on the matter. The current archaeological works, performed by non-invasive prospection techniques, such as GPR, magnetometer or UAV, revealed the relevance of purple exploitation as one of the main activities and have made possible the documentation of more complex facilities associated with excavated structures and the extensive shell midden. Along with these, other buildings and shell middens have been found throughout the coast of this location. This study emphasised the first results of the 2019 and 2021 campaigns.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020304
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 305: Embracing the Non-Wood Forest Products Potential
           for Bioeconomy—Analysis of Innovation Cases across Europe

    • Authors: Gerhard Weiss, Alice Ludvig, Ivana Živojinović
      First page: 305
      Abstract: This article focuses on the potential role of non-wood forest products (NWFPs) which are so far largely neglected within forest-related bioeconomy research and policy. From an innovation system perspective, we look at the barriers for NWFPs development and propose how they can be supported. We analyse 20 innovation cases in Europe, based on the analysis of documents and semi-structured interviews with experts involved in the cases. Results show that there is no “one” innovation system supporting NWFPs, but support is given rather erratically through certain programmes from various sectoral or regional innovation systems (forestry, agriculture, nature conservation or rural or regional development). There is a pronounced neglection of the institutional system towards NWFPs, resulting in a lack of statistics, research, education and training programmes and focused support structures. However, our results show rich potential of NWFPs in the forest bioeconomy for private forest owners and producers. These activities can range from a collection of NWFPs for subsistence to collectively organized production relevant to rural areas. Most of these are product innovations, some are service or social innovations, while some combine different innovation types. From some successful examples we derive suggestions for how to improve innovation support structures.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020305
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 306: Sociogeomorphological Analysis in a Headwater
           Basin in Southern Brazil with Emphasis on Land Use and Land Cover Change

    • Authors: Itzayana González-Ávila, Daniel Jato-Espino, Mauricio Andrades Paixão, Michele Moraes Carvalho, Masato Kobiyama
      First page: 306
      Abstract: Effects of natural processes on community building and the modification of nature by man’s hands are an intrinsic part of the co-production of the landscape between man and nature. However, the interactions of this co-production have scarcely been analyzed. Based on data from the MapBiomas project, an analysis of the variation in land use and cover over 35 years in the Quilombola São Roque and Mãe dos Homens communities in southern Brazil was carried out. The sociogeomorphological units in the study area were established, and its geomorphological units and social units were analyzed and described. There is a prevalence of more than 50% of forest formation. Cluster analysis classified the analyzed variables into two groups, with the first corresponding to forest and grassland formations associated with more natural landscape features. The second group is formed by anthropogenic activities. Social units including traditional communities seem to be more related to the stimulation of forest formation. The action of conservation units influences the variation in land use and land cover. There is a supplementary material which explains abbreviations concerning the manuscript.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020306
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 307: Mapping and Monitoring Spatio-Temporal Patterns
           of Rainfed Agriculture Lands of North Darfur State, Sudan, Using Earth
           Observation Data

    • Authors: Mohammed B. Altoom, Elhadi Adam, Khalid Adem Ali
      First page: 307
      Abstract: Rainfed agriculture in Northern Darfur is influenced by erratic seasonal and decadal rainfall patterns and frequent droughts. Understanding the spatio-temporal variation in rainfed agriculture is crucial for promoting food security, socio-economic stability and protecting the vulnerable ecosystem. This study aimed to investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of rainfed agriculture in North Darfur State from 1984–2019 using multitemporal Landsat observation data. Using the random forest technique, the multitemporal images were classified into common land use/land cover classes and rainfed agriculture on goz (sandy) and wadi (seasonal river) lands. Overall accuracies were assessed using a confusion matrix. Overall accuracies were assessed using a confusion matrix has ranging between 94.7% and 96.9%, while the kappa statistics were greater than 0.90. The results showed that the high spatial variability in goz land used for rainfed agriculture increased of (889,622.46 ha) over 1994–1999, while it decreased (658,568.61 ha) over 2004–2009 south of the 232.9 mm isohyet. Rainfed cultivation of wadi lands expanded significantly of (580,515.03 ha) over 2014–2019 and decreased (182,701.8 ha) over 1994–1999, especially in the 362.8–477.2 mm isohyets (beyond the climate-adapted 500 mm isohyet agronomic dry limit). These spatial trends need further investigation as they may exacerbate both regional land degradation and disputes among farmers over scarce wadi lands. This study provides essential spatial data which are lacking owing to ongoing conflicts; this can help decision-makers formulate sustainable land use monitoring systems.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020307
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 308: Construction of Water Corridors for Mitigation
           of Urban Heat Island Effect

    • Authors: Jiqing Lin, Wufa Yang, Kunyong Yu, Jianwei Geng, Jian Liu
      First page: 308
      Abstract: The urban heat island (UHI) effect is becoming increasingly prominent owing to accelerated urbanization in Fuzhou, affecting the lives of people. Water is an important landscape element that can effectively improve the urban thermal environment. The construction of water corridors has been proven to mitigate the intensity of the UHI effect in Fuzhou. Therefore, we obtained the distribution of a water system in Fuzhou from image data and analyzed temperature watersheds using the inversion of surface temperature to investigate the inner mechanism of the water system influencing the UHI effect. The water system was superimposed with hot spots to obtain cooling ecological nodes and construct water corridors to mitigate the UHI effect. The temperature watershed areas in Fuzhou are: Minhou County (353.77 km2), Changle (233.06 km2), Mawei (137.82 km2), Cangshan (71.25 km2), Jin’an (55.99 km2), Gulou (16.93 km2), and Taijiang (15.51 km2) Districts. Hot spots were primarily located in Changle, Cangshan, Jin’an, Gulou, and Taijiang Districts. The superposition of the water system and temperature watershed yielded 152 cooling ecological nodes, which were concentrated in the Minjiang and Wulong River watershed, with no cooling ecological nodes distributed within the central city. Twenty-five cooling ecological nodes were selected in the hot spot areas, which were primarily distributed in reservoirs, inland rivers, and park water systems. We constructed 12 water corridors, including four, three, two, one, one, and one in the Minhou County, Changle, Mawei, Jin’an, Cangshan, and the Gulou and Taijiang Districts.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020308
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 309: Combining Spatiotemporally Global and Local
           Interpolations Improves Modeling of Annual Land Surface Temperature Cycles
           

    • Authors: Yangyi Chen, Wenfeng Zhan, Zihan Liu, Pan Dong, Huyan Fu, Shiqi Miao, Yingying Ji, Lu Jiang, Sida Jiang
      First page: 309
      Abstract: Annual temperature cycle (ATC) models are widely used to characterize temporally continuous land surface temperature (LST) dynamics within an annual cycle. However, the existing ATC models ignore the spatiotemporally local correlations among adjacent LST pixels and are inadequate for capturing the complex relationships between LSTs and LST-related descriptors. To address these issues, we propose an improved ATC model (termed the ATC_GL), which combines both the spatiotemporally global and local interpolations. Using the random forest (RF) algorithm, the ATC_GL model quantifies the complex relationships between LSTs and LST-related descriptors such as the surface air temperature, normalized difference vegetation index, and digital elevation model. The performances of the ATC_GL and several extensively used LST reconstruction methods were compared under both clear-sky and overcast conditions. In the scenario with randomly missing LSTs, the accuracy of the ATC_GL was 2.3 K and 3.1 K higher than that of the ATCE (the enhanced ATC model) and the ATCO (the original ATC model), respectively. In the scenario with LST gaps of various sizes, the ATC_GL maintained the highest accuracy and was less sensitive to gap size when compared with the ATCH (the hybrid ATC model), Kriging interpolation, RSDAST (Remotely Sensed Daily Land Surface Temperature), and HIT (Hybrid Interpolation Technique). In the scenario of overcast conditions, the accuracy of the ATC_GL was 1.0 K higher than that of other LST reconstruction methods. The ATC_GL enriches the ATC model family and provides enhanced performance for generating spatiotemporally seamless LST products with high accuracy.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020309
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 310: Integrated Close Range Remote Sensing Techniques
           for Detecting, Documenting, and Interpreting Lost Medieval Settlements
           under Canopy: The Case of Altanum (RC, Italy)

    • Authors: Nicodemo Abate, Diego Ronchi, Valentino Vitale, Nicola Masini, Andrea Angelini, Francesco Giuri, Antonio Minervino Amodio, Andrea Maria Gennaro, Daniele Ferdani
      First page: 310
      Abstract: This paper focuses on the potential of an integrated approach using aerial LiDAR, aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, terrestrial laser scanning, and archaeological survey to detect the presence and configuration of lost medieval settlements under canopy. This approach was applied to the site of Altanum (Calabria, Italy), on the hill of Sant’Eusebio, completely covered by vegetation. Altanum was a large fortified settlement characterised by a long occupation, especially during the Byzantine and Norman-Swabian periods. The activity began by carrying out a LiDAR survey of the whole hill. The acquired LiDAR data were processed and filtered in order to obtain a DFM (Digital Feature Model) useful for the identification of features of archaeological interest. Several enhancement techniques were performed on DFM to increase the visibility of archaeological features. The features thus identified were subsequently surveyed through the use of terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry integrated with laser scanning to document the visible buildings. The most significant result of the study was to create a single GIS platform with the integration of all data in order to delineate the whole settlement layout, as well as to produce 2D and 3D datasets useful for the for knowledge and protection of the identified remains.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020310
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 311: Effect of Agricultural Structure Adjustment on
           Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs in the Pearl
           River Basin from 1990 to 2019

    • Authors: Kai Xu, Jiaogen Zhou, Qiuliang Lei, Wenbiao Wu, Guangxiong Mao
      First page: 311
      Abstract: Worldwide urbanization has brought dramatic changes in agricultural structures, as well as serious agricultural non-point source pollutions of nitrogen and phosphorus. However, understanding the effect of agricultural structure adjustment on net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) has been still limited. In this paper, statistical data from the agricultural statistical Yearbook, the National Economic and Social Development Statistical Bulletin were collected from 1990 to 2019 in the Pearl River Basin, China, and used to analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of NANI and its influencing factors. The results indicated that the agricultural structure adjustment has significantly influenced the spatial and temporal patterns of NANI in the last 30 years in the Pearl River Basin. The NANI decreased from 1990 to 2019, and had a spatial pattern of higher values in the upstream areas and lower in the downstream areas. In terms of the nitrogen input sources of NANI, in the economically developed regions downstream, nitrogen inputs are dominated by food/feed nitrogen, which accounted for an average of 49.6% of total nitrogen inputs. In upstream areas with relatively low economic development, fertilizer nitrogen accounted for an average of 54.9% of total nitrogen inputs. A novel nitrogen input source index of NANI, namely the ratio of agricultural nitrogen inputs to non-agricultural nitrogen inputs of NANI(ASNA), was also proposed to characterize the impact of the agricultural industry restructuring on NANI changes over time. Similar to the characteristics of NANI from 1990 to 2019, the ASNA showed a decreasing trend in the study area. Moreover, agricultural variables (agricultural land area, nitrogen fertilizer consumption and livestock farming density) tended to contribute less to the explained ASNA variances, while the contributions of the non-agricultural factors (population density and non-agricultural GDP) increased from 1990 to 2019. This indicated that the contribution of nitrogen inputs from agricultural sources to the NANI decreased while the contribution of nitrogen inputs from non-agricultural sources increased, with the shifts of agricultural sectors to the secondary and tertiary sectors in the Pearl River Basin. Our findings also suggest that differently regional targeting should be considered for the nitrogen pollution management in the Pearl River Basin, which focuses on the nitrogen pollution management of non-agricultural sources in the downstream areas, and but highlights agricultural nitrogen pollution management in the upstream areas.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020311
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 312: Addressing Peripherality in Italy: A Critical
           Comparison between Inner Areas and Territorial Capital-Based Evaluations

    • Authors: Ivan Blečić, Arnaldo Cecchini, Emanuel Muroni, Valeria Saiu, Serafino Scanu, Giuseppe Andrea Trunfio
      First page: 312
      Abstract: As highlighted by the UN 2030 Agenda, sustainable development is a complex and multidimensional issue that can be effectively implemented and reached at the local level. This implies the evaluation of differences and disparities between territories in order to define local priorities and support cohesion policy objectives. This need has been addressed by the Italian “National Strategy for Inner Areas”, which aims to support the growth of territories with a continuous economic and population decline. However, Inner Areas are identified by a set of indicators related to the low accessibility to Services of General Interest, neglecting other important factors that contribute to this condition. This paper proposes a critical analysis of this measurement and of the related “territorialization” of Inner Areas, by introducing a more comprehensive assessment model based on the concept of Territorial Capital (TC), which highlights a more nuanced understanding of complexities and diversities related to the potential development of a territory. In particular, the proposed model evaluates eight TC dimensions (human, social, cognitive, infrastructural, productive, relational, environmental and settlement capital), which cover a broad spectrum of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In order to accurately demonstrate the differences between the results of the two evaluation methods, this paper presents the results of a case study application concerning all 377 municipalities, which compose the Autonomous Region of Sardinia (Italy). The findings of this study confirm the potential of an approach based on the Territorial Capital for place-based policymaking. TC, in fact, can become relevant for defining local priorities and supporting complex decisions, allowing governments to better design and tailor interventions for the effective and efficient management of available resources. Furthermore, these results pose new questions for future research developments in the field of sustainable and equitable development.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020312
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 313: Attention-Enhanced Region Proposal Networks for
           Multi-Scale Landslide and Mudslide Detection from Optical Remote Sensing
           Images

    • Authors: Chong Niu, Kebo Ma, Xiaoyong Shen, Xiaoming Wang, Xiao Xie, Lin Tan, Yong Xue
      First page: 313
      Abstract: Detecting areas where a landslide or a mudslide might occur is critical for emergency response, disaster recovery, and disaster cost estimation. Previous works have reported that a variety of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) significantly outperform traditional approaches for landslide/mudslide detection. These approaches always consider features from the local window and neighborhood information. The CNNs mainly focus on the features derived at a local scale, which might be inefficient for recognizing complex landslide and mudslide scenes. To effectively identify landslide and mudslide risks at a local and global scale, this paper integrates attentions into the architecture of state-of-the-art CNNs—including Faster RCNN—to develop an attention-enhanced region proposal network for multi-scale landslide/mudslide detection. In detail, we employed the attentions to process the region proposals generated by a region proposal network and then combined the results obtained from the attentions and region proposal network to identify whether the object included in a region proposal was a landslide/mudslide. Based on our developed dataset and the Bijie dataset, the experimental results prove that: (1) although the state-of-the-art CNNs for object detection can precisely detect landslides and mudslides, they are inadequate in dealing with similarity to non-landslide/non-mudslide regions; and (2) the proposed method, which integrates global features from attention layers into local features derived from CNNs, outperforms the unmodified CNNs in detecting non-landslides and non-mudslides. Our findings prove that the representations at the local and global scale might be significant for precise landslide and mudslide detection.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020313
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 314: A Multicriteria Approach to Adaptive Reuse of
           Industrial Heritage: Case Studies of Riverside Power Plants

    • Authors: María V. Añibarro, María J. Andrade, Eduardo Jiménez-Morales
      First page: 314
      Abstract: City riverbanks usually have great landscape value and are iconic public spaces. However, there are many cities with large abandoned industrial buildings, such as power plants, on their riverbanks. Such buildings run the risk of being demolished in order to recover the surrounding natural landscape, despite having an important presence in the collective memory of the citizens and in the history of the city. This article seeks to analyse the reuse and refurbishment of industrial power plants on riversides from a modern artistic/recreational approach in order to restore and enhance the landscape value of the site by regenerating the environs and turning them into hubs of activity. Two case studies from different locations are considered in order to extract the information. A methodology is used that allows us to analyse and study a complex reality in a straightforward, concise and direct way. That means it can be used by many agents currently involved in those reuse processes to compare and to monitor the different cases over time. This research has sought to highlight the power plant typology, its relationship with the riverside, and subsequently, to extrapolate the criteria used to study other industrial buildings.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020314
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 315: The Use of UAVs for Land Use Planning of
           Brownfield Regeneration Projects-Case Study: Former Brick Factory, Cluj
           Napoca, Romania

    • Authors: Sanda Marioara Naș, Mircea Vasile Bondrea, Virgil Mihai Rădulescu, Raluca Gâlgău, Ioel Samuel Vereș, Raluca Bondrea, Adrian Traian Rădulescu
      First page: 315
      Abstract: Brownfields are a real problem which affects the urban appearance of cities and the quality of life of their inhabitants. In Romania, industrial areas were mainly concentrated on the outskirts of large cities, in the immediate vicinity of residential areas. With the closing of factories and the additional population of the big cities, there was a need for expansion of residential areas with a social-economic function. This paper proposes a case study from the classical surveying measurement equipment (GNSS—Global Navigation Satellite System and TS—Total Station) for land use planning of brownfield regeneration projects. The chosen area is in the northwest part of Romania, in Cluj-Napoca, where a former brick factory was closed, leaving behind unaesthetic and unused land. In this paper, it is suggested that a better understanding of the way in which UAV—Unmanned Aerial Vehicle—aerial photogrammetry can contribute to providing information for the design and development of this area. In addition, this study confirms the advantages of effective and practical use of the obtained geospatial information for the design of a residential complex in the studied area, a complex proposed as a sustainable alternative to the former industrial area. Observation and analysis of the differences between the two topo-geodetic works were carried out with the help of UAV technology, such as GNSS—Global Navigation Satellite System and TS—Total Station technology, respectively, to create a topographic plan, level curves, and 3D models made of the building in the study area.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020315
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 316: Measuring and Decomposing Relative Poverty in
           China

    • Authors: Wei Zou, Xiaopei Cheng, Zengzeng Fan, Chuhao Lin
      First page: 316
      Abstract: Poverty is a critical issue in sustainable development, and the study of poverty has gradually shifted from absolute to relative poverty. This paper measures three types of relative poverty—strongly relative poverty (50% of median income), strongly relative poverty (50% of mean income), and weakly relative poverty. Then this paper decomposes the change of relative poverty into the growth component, redistribution component, and poverty line change component. Further, the intra- and inter-group decompositions of relative poverty change are carried out by considering the urban and rural population mobility components. We apply the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data from 1989 to 2015 for an empirical study. The results show that: (1) In recent years, the change in relative poverty in China has shown a trend of low fluctuation (1989–1997), rising fluctuation (1997–2006), and high fluctuation (2006–2015). (2) In the decomposition of relative poverty change, the growth component has the most excellent effect on alleviating relative poverty, the redistribution component exacerbates the occurrence of relative poverty in most years and reduces it in a few years, and the poverty line change component offsets the poverty reduction effect of the growth component. (3) The change in relative poverty is decomposed by urban and rural sub-groups, and it is found that the population mobility from rural to urban can reduce the national relative poverty.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020316
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 317: Spatial Evolution Analysis and Spatial
           Optimization Strategy of Rural Tourism Based on Spatial Syntax
           Model—A Case Study of Matao Village in Shandong Province, China

    • Authors: Xiaonan Qin, Xueting Du, Yue Wang, Lina Liu
      First page: 317
      Abstract: As the tourism industry is embedded in the countryside, space, which is an important means of production of modern industries, has undergone significant changes in the models and trends of spatial transform. This paper aims to analyze the development pattern of rural economic and social structure driven by the tourism industry. Based on the spatial syntax model, it takes Matao Village of China as the research sample and decomposes the evolutionary process of rural space transform. Firstly (1) in the self-driven development stage, the rural space presented a polar core development trend with high intelligibility and obvious agglomeration. Secondly (2) in the tourism-driven development stage, firstly, the driving force of the tourism industry was relatively weak, whereas the traditional spatial core still occupied an absolute advantage in the whole village space. However, with further development, the spatial scope of high Integration and Choice Values has expanded, resulting in multiple spatial development agglomeration centers. Based on this, it is proposed that a village with a tourism industry should integrate village spatial development planning with landscape style, focus on the regeneration and development of the old space core, and strengthen the integration and correlation of the old and new space clusters.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020317
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 318: Ecological Restoration and Transformation of
           Maoming Oil Shale Mining Area: Experience and Inspirations

    • Authors: Zhao, Zhang, Xie, Liu, Yang, Chen, Ren, Chen, Zhang, Folinas
      First page: 318
      Abstract: Oil shale is a kind of unconventional energy resource with abundant reserves, but its exploitation has a continuous negative impact on the environment, which has hindered the research and exploitation of oil shale under the international environmental consensus on issues such as climate change. Therefore, more attention should be paid to environmental problems as the side effect of oil shale exploitation. With the combination of field research, literature collection, and tracking survey, the oil shale open-pit exploitation and management process in Maoming, Guangdong, China, has been investigated, and its development and transformation model has been subsequently refined and summarized. The research results show that Maoming oil shale open-pit mine area has gone through four main stages: pre-exploitation stage, large-scale utilization stage, restoration stage, and green development stage. Through the management of mine pit treatment, vegetation restoration, ecological park construction, and tourism resource development, the abandoned open-pit mine has been transformed into an ecological park combining ecosystem, tourism, and cultural resources. In this process, this area has achieved the transformation from rough resource extraction to environment-friendly sustainable growth in its development mode. As a successful case of open-pit mine management in the world, the ecological restoration experience in Maoming can function as a reference for the smooth development and transformation of other oil shale mines in developing countries.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020318
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 319: Beach Scenic Quality versus Beach Concessions:
           Case Studies from Southern Italy

    • Authors: Alexis Mooser, Giorgio Anfuso, Enzo Pranzini, Angela Rizzo, Pietro P. C. Aucelli
      First page: 319
      Abstract: This paper essentially aims to identify coastal sites of great scenic value not (or barely) affected by human intrusions and propose sound management interventions to improve their landscape quality. Today, management of coastal areas in Italy is a very complex task essentially because of institutional fragmentation and overlapping of laws/regulations at the national, regional and municipal levels. It is estimated that only half of the country’s beaches are freely accessible and usable for bathing, i.e., 43% are occupied by private concessions and in 7.2% bathing is not allowed because of water pollution. Sites’ scenic quality was assessed using the Coastal Scenic Evaluation System (CSES), a robust semi-quantitative methodology based on a set of 26 physical/human parameters, weighting matrices parameters and fuzzy logic mathematics. An evaluation index (D) was afterward obtained for each site and used to classify them into five scenic classes. After a long process of field testing along the coasts of the Tyrrhenian, Ionic and Adriatic seas (25 municipalities, 7 provinces and 4 regions: Campania, Basilicata, Calabria and Apulia), a total of 36 sites were selected for this paper. Twenty-four sites fall within Class I, i.e., were extremely attractive (D≥0.85; CSES) because of their exceptional geomorphological settings that favour a wide variety of coastal sceneries. Most of Class II (8) and Class III (4) sites could be upgraded by implementing clean-up operations or by reducing intrusive beach facilities. Meanwhile “private” beaches are usually cleaned; beach litter at remote/public sites represents a big concern to be challenged. Today, finding a free/aesthetic/clean beach without human intrusions in a fully natural environment is far more complex than it seems. Given this context, emphasis was particularly placed on beach litter and concessions aspects.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020319
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 320: Maintaining Agricultural Production by Building
           Local Distribution Systems in the Northern Area of Japan

    • Authors: Noriaki Kawasaki, Tamaki Washio, Katsunori Nakamura, Ken-ichiro Nagahama
      First page: 320
      Abstract: In the field of vegetable farming, it has become a common approach for farmers to advance into the secondary and tertiary industries to increase their income, an initiative known as the sixth industrialization. Under these circumstances, a growing trend is to outsource a part of the sixth industrialization activities in order to improve consumer satisfaction, strengthen market competitiveness, and avoid investment risks. However, owing to a mismatch between farmers and processors, there are few cases that result in collaboration. Under such circumstances, a new distribution channel called local distribution systems have been born, and its importance is increasing in Japan. This paper demonstrates how a local distribution system for farmers living in rural areas could address this distortion. The concept of local distribution systems has been used since the 1990s, and yet, its significance and importance are still increasing in relevancy in today's Japanese agriculture. In this study, the subject is an intermediary (Company A) that originated from farmers, so it was able to understand the behavioral principles of farmers and to identify businesses that could not be covered by the management resources of farmers themselves. Through the entrustment of the business, company A could support the production and sales activities of the farmers. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) the company does not directly involve members in the decision-making of sales methods but instead provides a number of options for decision-making, and (2) the needs on the production side will match those on the consumer side and play the role of communication. By building such a collaboration system, the company succeeded in establishing a local distribution system. In the distribution of vegetables, which is characterized as perishable items, it is essential to pursue efficiency and rationality through a wholesale market system to distribute the products from producers to a large number of consumers. However, constraints in the wholes system limit the extent to which this local distribution functions. This paper demonstrates how a local distribution system for farmers living in rural areas could address this distortion. The concept of local distribution systems has been used since the 1990s, yet its significance and importance are still increasing in relevancy in today's Japanese agriculture
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020320
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 321: Urban Distribution and Evolution of the Yangtze
           River Economic Belt from the Perspectives of Urban Area and Night-Time
           Light

    • Authors: Huimin Xu, Shougeng Hu, Xi Li
      First page: 321
      Abstract: Research on urban development patterns and urban sprawl in the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) has received wide attention. However, existing research has always made use of statistical data, which are not often available. Considering the high availability of satellite data, this study attempts to combine two satellite-acquired indexes, including urban area and night-time light, to evaluate the urban development of the YREB during 2012–2019. The methods included using growth index, rank-size law, and the Markov transition matrix, as well as constructing urban night-time light density and unbalanced index of night-time light, derived from the Gini Index. Some important patterns were revealed. Firstly, the three reaches (Upper Reaches, Middle Reaches, and Lower Reaches) in the YREB have all shown rapid growth in urban area and night-time light, and they all have increased in urban density. Secondly, from the perspective of regional disparity, the Upper Reaches have the highest growth rate of the urban area, while the Middle Reaches have the highest growth rate of night-time light; and the Upper Reaches have more urban sprawl, while the Middle Reaches have shown more compact growth. Thirdly, higher urban density is related to more balanced development across cities. Our study suggests new knowledge can be obtained by combining the two indexes for understanding urban development in the YREB.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020321
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 322: Exploring the Spatial–Temporal Variation
           in Cultivated Land Quality and Influential Factors in the Lower Reaches of
           the Yangtze River from 2017 to 2020

    • Authors: Zixuan Wang, Xufeng Fei, Meiling Sheng, Rui Xiao
      First page: 322
      Abstract: Cultivated land quality is directly related to national food security; hence, it is necessary to determine the spatial–temporal characteristics and factors that influence its variation. This study analyzed the soil properties and cultivated land quality in the Hang-Jia-Hu Plain, the most important grain production base in Zhejiang Province, located in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, from 2017 to 2020. In addition, the factors that influenced cultivated land quality variation were explored. The results showed that soil pH and soil organic matter (SOM) significantly improved from 6.32 and 29.07 g/kg in 2017 to 6.38 and 31.54 g/kg in 2020, whereas the variations in available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) were not significant. More than 60% of the cultivated land still had the potential for soil nutrient status improvement. The cultivated land quality indicator (CLQI) calculated based on the national standard (GB/T 33469-2016) significantly increased from 0.90 in 2017 to 0.91 in 2020. According to the CLQI classification, approximately three quarters of the cultivated land was defined as high-yielding fields. Although the spatial pattern for CLQI was similar between 2017 and 2020, more than 75% of the cultivated land quality showed an increasing trend that was mainly located in the northeastern and central areas. The results of influential factor detection indicated that the improvement in SOM and available soil nutrients including AP and AK was the main reason for the CLQI increase, whereas the climate, topography, and socioeconomic factors had little influence on the change in CLQI. In addition, when influential factors interacted, a significant increase in the explanatory ability for CLQI was obtained, especially for the interaction of SOM and AP variation, which explained 41% of the CLQI variation. This study provides basic foundations and references for cultivated land quality monitoring and improvement in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020322
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 323: Preferences of Young Adult Visitors to Manor
           Parks in South Poland: A Study on Ecosystem Services and Scenic Quality

    • Authors: Beata Fornal-Pieniak, Agnieszka Mandziuk, Dagmara Stangierska, Stanisław Parzych, Pedro Miguel Ramos Arsénio
      First page: 323
      Abstract: Manor parks are characteristic cultural features in Polish agricultural landscapes. About 10,000 manor parks are estimated to exist in Poland, and due to their high natural, historic and scenic value, these features represent potential in terms of ecosystem services. To properly manage these sites, it is advisable to determine the preferences of its visitors. The present study presents the results of a quantitative survey based on a group of 352 young visitors to manor parks in south Poland. The results show that visitors with higher monthly incomes have a statistically significant higher awareness as far as caring for the authenticity and preservation of the natural and historical heritage of manor parks and forests. Conversely, for visitors with lower incomes, additional touristic promotion attractions (e.g., souvenirs, guided visits) are increasingly important. The results of the study provide an important basis of information for local authorities, as well as private owners, with regard to preserving the natural and historical values (which are closely connected with the scenic values) of these sites, as well as local tourism development. The values of nature, sustainability, tourism and the improvement of life quality are linked to the enhancement of manor parks, as these facilities are providers of ecosystem services.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020323
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 324: Geochemical Features of Ground Ice from the
           Faddeevsky Peninsula Eastern Coast (Kotelny Island, East Siberian Arctic)
           as a Key to Understand Paleoenvironmental Conditions of Its Formation

    • Authors: Pismeniuk, Semenov, Veremeeva, He, Kozachek, Malyshev, Shatrova, Lodochnikova, Streletskaya
      First page: 324
      Abstract: Understanding paleoenvironmental conditions of the permafrost formation allows us to estimate the permafrost carbon pool and its behavior upon thawing in a changing climate. In order to classify different types of ground ice and to reconstruct paleoenvironments, we examined geochemical data of ice wedges (IWs), tabular ground ice (TGI), and lens ice from the eastern coast of the Faddeevsky Peninsula (East Siberian Arctic). We analyzed isotope and ion composition, molecular composition of the gas phase, bulk biogeochemical parameters and dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition in ground ice samples. IWs formed in the Late Pleistocene under the coldest winter conditions and in the Holocene in proximity to the sea. The Holocene IWs have the highest mean d-excess (11–13‰) and a heavier isotope composition by an average of 6‰ compared with the Late Pleistocene IWs. We observe predominance of sea-salt fractions in ion composition of the Holocene IWs, while the Late Pleistocene IW shows enrichment in non-sea-salt component of SO42- (nssSO42-), which is probably associated with mineral leaching of deposits. Higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content in the Late Pleistocene IW (to 17,7 mg/L) may indicate more favorable vegetation conditions or lower degree of organic matter mineralization compared to Holocene IWs and TGI. CH4 concentrations were relatively low with a maximum value of 2.27 μmol/L. DOM composition, supposed to record the paleoenvironment of the freezing process, was for the first time tried as a biomarker for paleoenvironmental reconstructions of ground ice formation. Parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis of EEM (Excitation-Emission matrix) of fluorescent DOM decomposes four components: P1–P3, which are related to allochthonous humiс-like constituents, and P4, which is relevant to autochthonous fraction associated with microbial activity. The distribution of fluorescent DOM tracked the variability in both paleoclimate conditions of the IW formation (discriminating the Holocene and the Late Pleistocene IWs) and types of ground ice (IW and TGI), which demonstrates the potential of the used approach.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020324
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 325: The Role of Allotments and Community Gardens and
           the Challenges Facing Their Development in Urban Environments—A
           Literature Review

    • Authors: Anita Kwartnik-Pruc, Gabriela Droj
      First page: 325
      Abstract: Current research largely focuses on the role of allotment gardens, the challenges facing them, and the direction of their future development in urban environments. The main idea behind the introduction of allotment gardens was to improve the living conditions and food supply of workers and the underprivileged. The impact of allotment gardening does not only concern the allotment gardeners but also the general public and the environment. It is important to emphasise that allotments have impacts not only on food production and outdoor physical activity, but also on the reuse of idle or neglected land, community development, therapeutic and nutritional benefits, and psychological benefits for allotment holders and residents. For this reason, this study captures six broad themes related to allotments: (1) community participation and cohesion, (2) health and well-being, (3) economic opportunities, (4) pollution, (5) urban planning and development, and (6) sustainable environment. The research is a systematic review in which steps were taken to minimise bias in the identification, selection, and summarisation of studies. The initial literature selection was based on a keyword search (title, abstract, and keywords) of the comprehensive literature databases Web of Science (all years) and Scopus (all years). The total scientific literature on which this review is based includes 162 research articles published between 1978 and July 2022. This work aims to fill these gaps and analyse existing knowledge by providing a detailed review of the academic literature, focusing not only on the benefits of community gardens and allotments in urban areas, but also on the existing problems related to allotments and urban gardening. Possible directions of development are also analysed based on the legal regulations in each country.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020325
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 326: Durum Wheat–Potato Crop Rotation, Soil
           Tillage, and Fertilization Source Affect Soil CO2 Emission and C Storage
           in the Mediterranean Environment

    • Authors: Roberto Mancinelli, Sara Marinari, Mariam Atait, Verdiana Petroselli, Gabriele Chilosi, Merima Jasarevic, Alessia Catalani, Zainul Abideen, Morad Mirzaei, Mohamed Allam, Emanuele Radicetti
      First page: 326
      Abstract: At present, the role of agricultural practices on the dynamic of GHGs is being investigated worldwide. In this study, the effects of soil tillage practices (conventional vs. conservation techniques) and fertilization sources (inorganic vs. organic) on soil CO2 emissions in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.)–potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) rotation in the Mediterranean area were evaluated. This study aimed to understand the changes in the soil carbon content and the soil CO2 emissions under different soil tillage practices (moldboard plow (P), subsoiler (R), and spading machine (S)) and fertilization sources (mineral (M) and organic (O) with municipal organic waste). Soil CO2 flux, soil water content, and soil temperature data were collected for both crops using a portable closed-chamber infrared gas dynamics system. Significant relationships were detected between soil CO2 emissions and soil temperate and soil water content. However, these relationships were found only for durum wheat crops. Our findings indicate that including sustainable agricultural practices in wheat–potato rotation system could act as an appropriate alternative option to increase soil organic carbon, mitigate CO2 emissions, and reduce the dependence on chemical inputs and energy.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020326
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 327: How Much Complexity Is Required for Modelling
           Grassland Production at Regional Scales'

    • Authors: Iris Vogeler, Christof Kluß, Tammo Peters, Friedhelm Taube
      First page: 327
      Abstract: Studies evaluating the complexity of models, which are suitable to simulate grass growth at regional scales in intensive grassland production systems are scarce. Therefore, two different grass growth models (GrasProg1.0 and APSIM) with different complexity and input requirements were compared against long-term observations from variety trials with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) in Germany and Denmark. The trial sites covered a large range of environmental conditions, with annual average temperatures ranging from 5.9 to 10.3 °C, and annual rainfall from 536 to 1154 mm. The sites also varied regarding soil type, which were for modelling categorised into three different groups according to their plant available water (PAW) content: light soils with a PAW of 60 mm, medium soils with a PAW of 80 mm, and heavy soils with a PAW of 100 mm. The objective was to investigate whether the simple model performed equally well with the given low number of inputs, namely climate and PAW group. Evaluation statistics showed that both models provided satisfactory results, with root mean square errors for individual cuts ranging from 0.59 to 1.28 t dry matter ha−1. The model efficiency (Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency) for the separate cuts were also good for both models, with 81% of the sites having a positive Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency value with GrasProg1.0, and 72% with APSIM. These results reveal that without detailed site-specific descriptions, the less complex GrasProg1.0 model can be incorporated into a simple decision support tool for optimising grassland management in intensive livestock production systems.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020327
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 328: Seed and Straw Characterization of Nine New
           Varieties of Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz

    • Authors: Montero-Muñoz, Mostaza-Colado, Capuano, Mauri Ablanque
      First page: 328
      Abstract: Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is a promising oilseed crop that has increased worldwide attention because of its agronomic characteristics and potential uses. From an agricultural point of view, this plant can grow in different environments, providing a good yield with low input requirements. In addition, camelina seeds contain a high percentage of oil (36–47%) and protein (24–31%), making them interesting for food or energy industries. Nevertheless, its cultivation is not widespread in Europe, particularly in Spain. In the present context of global change and the search for new sustainable crops, we are conducting two pilot projects aiming to confirm that camelina is a good option for oilseed crops in semi-arid climates (especially in central Spain, Madrid) and to find new profitable varieties for farmers. To reach our objective we have used nine new varieties, recently developed, to characterize and compare their seed oil content, and their seed and straw chemical composition. Finally, with our preliminary results, we determine which varieties present better properties to be used in future agricultural research or breeding programs. These results are part of a larger study that we are carrying out.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020328
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 329: Local Observations of Climate Change and
           Adaptation Responses: A Case Study in the Mountain Region of
           Burundi–Rwanda

    • Authors: Nkurunziza, Intwarinkase Mutaganzwa, Ndayitwayeko, Nkengurutse, Kaplin, Teixidor Toneu, Zafra-Calvo, Cuni-Sanchez
      First page: 329
      Abstract: Mountain regions and their communities are particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts. However, little is known on the impacts observed and adaptation responses used in Burundi’s mountain region and if these are different to those reported in the contiguous mountain region of Rwanda. This paper aims to fill in these knowledge gaps. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 300 smallholder farmers, 150 in northern Burundi and 150 in southern Rwanda. Farmers in both countries reported negative impacts on crops, animals, and human health, with small differences between countries driven by the main cultivated crops. More adaptation strategies were used in Burundi than in Rwanda, and more farmers in Burundi were using multiple strategies. In both countries, farmers’ wealth affected farmers’ adaptation responses and their food security. Notably, for all wealth groups (poor, average, rich), food security was lower in Rwanda than in Burundi. We relate our findings to current agricultural intensification policies in both countries and argue for the greater involvement of local farmers in adaptation planning using, for example, science-with-society approaches.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020329
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 330: An Integrated Approach to Constructing
           Ecological Security Pattern in an Urbanization and Agricultural
           Intensification Area in Northeast China

    • Authors: Fengjie Gao, Wei Yang, Si Zhang, Xiaohui Xin, Jun Zhou, Guoming Du
      First page: 330
      Abstract: Ecological security pattern (ESP) can bridge the paradox between ecological conservation and socioeconomic development. Although various methods have been applied to establish ESP successfully, improving its scientificity and reliability for regional sustainability are still great challenges. Taking Harbin administrative region as the study area, this paper integrated the merits of the function-oriented method (assessing the importance of ecological services using the InVEST model) and the structure-oriented method (extracting the connectivity of landscapes based on the MSPA model) to improve the identification of ecological sources more scientifically. Night light data were used to modify the natural resistance surface to reveal the real natural and human disturbance for ES loss during species migration and ecological flows. Then, the ESP was established by combining the ecological nodes after extracting and grading the ecological corridors. The results showed that the individual ES performed with a high spatial heterogeneity and was highly correlated with land use patterns. The extremely important and slightly important were the dominant level types in the study area, and the proportion of extremely important declined greatly from 44.78% in 1980 to 30.14% in 2020. Core was the main landscape type with a proportion of 57.13% and mainly distributed in the Lesser Khingan Mountains and Zhangguangcai Mountains. More than 700 ecological corridors were extracted according to the MCR model and the important ecological corridors were selected based on the gravity model, with 86 ecological nodes obtained from the intersection points of ecological corridors. An ESP of “two zones, two barriers, one axis and one belt” was proposed, and relevant protection measures were put out for the sustainable development in the study area. The findings indicated that imposing ESP could form a stable secure frame for social economic development and ecological protection, avoiding irrational land use modes and excessive dispersion of landscapes. This study could provide valuable references for land use planning and the formulation of related ecological protection policies and regional sustainable development strategies.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020330
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 331: Assessing Preferences for Cultural Ecosystem
           Services in the English Countryside Using Q Methodology

    • Authors: Marie Hubatova, James McGinlay, David J. Parsons, Joe Morris, Anil R. Graves
      First page: 331
      Abstract: Cultural Ecosystem Services (CES) are difficult to assess due to the subjective and diverse way in which they are experienced. This can make it difficult to apply CES research to enhance human experience of nature. This study applies Q methodology to group people according to their preferences for CES. The Q methodology survey was carried out with 47 local residents and tourists in Wiltshire, in South West England. Four groups of respondents were identified drawing value from nature through: (1) spiritual benefits and mental well-being (Group 1—Inspired by nature); (2) nature and biodiversity conservation (Group 1—Conserving nature); (3) cultural heritage in multifunctional landscapes (Group 3—Countryside mix); and (4) opportunities for outdoor activities (Group 4—Outdoor pursuits). All four groups stated that benefits from nature were enhanced by actually visiting the countryside, through a better understanding of nature itself, and through a range of sensory experiences. They particularly identified relaxation opportunities as a very important CES benefit. These findings, and the demonstrated use of the Q methodology, could support local planning and landscape management in order to provide accessible and functional landscapes that can provide a range of different CES benefits to people.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020331
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 332: Industrial Spatio-Temporal Distribution of
           High-Speed Rail Station Area from the Accommodation Facilities
           Perspective: A Multi-City Comparison

    • Authors: Bingjie Niu, Ping Yin, Pengxia Shen
      First page: 332
      Abstract: As a new engine of urban development, the high-speed rail (HSR) station area is an emerging location where the service industry is concentrated. This study aims to reflect the development of accommodation facilities in transport hub areas through the spatial distribution and agglomeration characteristics of the lodging industry in HSR station areas. HSR stations in Beijing, Tianjin, Nanjing, Jinan, Kunshan, and Xuzhou are selected. The Geodetector model is applied to analyze the pertinent driving factors. The findings indicate that: (1) The smaller the population size of the city, the closer the high agglomeration area of the accommodation industry in the HSR station area is to the HSR station. (2) The longer the HSR station is open, the stronger the agglomeration intensity of the accommodation industry is. (3) At HSR stations in various cities, the driving factors affecting the accommodation industry are heterogeneous. The interaction between the factors has a synergistic enhancement effect.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020332
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 333: The Role of Brownfields and Their Revitalisation
           for the Functional Connectivity of the Urban Tree System in a Regrowing
           City

    • Authors: Manuel Wolff, Dagmar Haase, Jörg Priess, Tobias Leander Hoffmann
      First page: 333
      Abstract: The connectivity of green infrastructure facilitating the movement of organisms is the key to strengthening biodiversity in cities. Brownfields are a valuable land resource, with their revitalisation as a Nature Based Solution high on the policy agenda. In supporting cities which simultaneously aim for densification and the maintenance or further development of greenery, this paper develops a model for identifying and prioritising the role of revitalised and prevailing brownfields for the connectivity of green infrastructure using the example of Leipzig, Germany. Comparing metrics between land use categories, brownfields have a central role as stepping stones, with a value of 13%, while revitalised brownfields substantially contribute to global connectivity, with a value of 87% being equally important, for example, with Leipzig’s central parks. This paper’s spatial-explicit network approach provides a complementary planning tool for prioritising brownfields and the added value of their renaturing by identifying (a) strategic functional corridors formed by brownfields, (b) the connectivity relevance and exposure of individual brownfields, and (c) how renatured brownfields would strengthen existing corridors and form alternative paths. This paper presents an approach using freely available software tools and high-resolution canopy data as a proxy for functional connectivity which serves as a standardised and comparable ex-ante evaluation of NBS strategies being implemented in other cities.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020333
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 334: Impacts of Floods on Agriculture-Dependent
           Livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Assessment from Multiple
           Geo-Ecological Zones

    • Authors: Roland Azibo Balgah, Kester Azibo Ngwa, Gertrud Rosa Buchenrieder, Jude Ndzifon Kimengsi
      First page: 334
      Abstract: Surging extreme events, particularly floods, have stimulated growing research on their epidemiology, management, and effects on livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), especially for agriculture-dependent households. Unfortunately, the topical literature is still characterized by independent, isolated cases, with limited relevance to understanding common flood effects across geographical space and time. We bridge this knowledge gap by analyzing the effects of multiple cases of flash, coastal and riverine-cum-pluvial (‘complex’) floods on agriculture-dependent livelihoods in three (Sudano Sahelian, Coastal and Western Highlands) geo-ecological zones in Cameroon. The analysis makes use of a sample of 2134 flood victims (1000 of them in the Sudano-Sahelian, 242 in the Coastal, and 892 in the Western Highlands zones) of 26 independent community floods: 11 in the Sudano-Sahelian, 3 in the Coastal, and 12 in the Western Highlands zone. Irrespective of flood type and geo-ecology, agriculture-dependent livelihoods were gravely impaired. However, the impacts on livelihoods and public goods (such as road or communication systems) significantly varied in the different geo-ecological zones. The study concludes with the need to include context-specificity in the flood impact assessment equation, while identifying common effects, as is the case with agriculture in this study. We emphasize the need to up-scale and comparatively analyze flood effects across space and time to better inform flood management policies across SSA.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020334
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 335: Towards Rural Resilience: Assessing Future
           Spatial Urban Expansion and Population Growth in Quito as a Measure of
           Resilience

    • Authors: René Ulloa-Espíndola, Jenny Cuyo-Cuyo, Elisa Lalama-Noboa
      First page: 335
      Abstract: The urban and rural areas of the Metropolitan District of Quito (DMQ) have experienced an aggressive urbanization process in the last two decades, which in many cases has changed the most appropriate land use as determined by the local government. This problem is exacerbated by poor land use planning in a city that is growing in an uncontrolled and disorderly manner toward rural areas, as well as by the accelerated growth of rural localities. This article contributes and analyzes: (1) the geographic projections of the next 50 years for urban settlements and buildings in the rural areas of the DMQ using geographic artificial intelligence techniques (cellular automata); (2) a composite index of resilience (CIR) is constructed for each rural parish of the DMQ, adapted to the characteristics and conditions of the territory for which five dimensions with equal weights, the ecological footprint, and the size of each parish were considered; finally, (3) the change in CIR is determined based on the projections of spatial urban expansion and population growth for the next 50 years. According to the results, urbanization definitely has a negative impact on CIR, although it was found that in parishes with declining population growth CIR increases.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020335
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 336: Caring for Blue-Green Solutions (BGS) in
           Everyday Life: An Investigation of Recreational Use, Neighborhood
           Preferences and Willingness to Pay in Augustenborg, Malmö

    • Authors: Misagh Mottaghi, Jonas Nordström, Salar Haghighatafshar, Karin Jönsson, Mattias Kärrholm, Catharina Sternudd
      First page: 336
      Abstract: In this article, we explore the production of socio-cultural values around blue-green solutions (BGS) through the perspective of care. We explore how values and preferences are formed through the complexity of everyday life engagements in a BGS environment. The data come from a questionnaire answered by 328 households in the neighborhood of Augustenborg in Malmö, Sweden. The questionnaire collects detailed information about inhabitants’ possible recreational use (through Likert scale questions) and willingness to pay (WTP) (estimated through contingent valuation). The study evaluates if and how people care to use, care to live with, and care to pay for BGS. The result shows that people in Augustenborg relate in different and sometimes contradictory ways to BGS. A well-used BGS environment does not per se make the environment successful or result in people preferring a BGS environment in the future. Building awareness about BGS seems to increase the willingness to pay, whereas recreational use seems to decrease it. The study reveals a landscape of care that is constantly being formed and transformed. This suggests that both planning and research needs to focus more on the relation between BGS and social use over time.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020336
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 337: A Bibliometric Analysis of Urban Ecosystem
           Services: Structure, Evolution, and Prospects

    • Authors: Qilong Shao, Li Peng, Yichan Liu, Yongchang Li
      First page: 337
      Abstract: Urban areas are human–environmental systems that rely heavily on ecosystems for long-term sustainability, and ecosystems and their components are essential to city life. Previous reviews have drawn a range of conclusions relevant to the future analysis and implementation of ecological and facility assessments. Overall, however, there is still a need to develop more systematic methods to comprehensively assess and evaluate urban ecosystem services (UES) in a temporal dimension for use in both historical monitoring studies and prospective research. Using CiteSpace, this study assessed the history and current state of UES research from multiple angles, as well as identified research structures and emerging trends in this field. The main findings are as follows: (i) The study of UES can be divided into three distinct but interconnected stages: preparation, rise, and prosperity. There are substantial prospects for UES research to develop worldwide collaborative networks, since it is increasingly expanding from domains focused on ecological or environmental science to those that draw from a wider range of disciplines. (ii) UES has evolved slowly from large-scale research to more focused, smaller-scale studies. Research on the subject of UES focuses primarily on two primary areas: land-use change and the development of green infrastructure. (iii) Sustainability in cities is currently a hot issue, and an important area of this study is the role that urban ecosystem services plays in ensuring residents' health and happiness.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020337
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 338: The Effect of Peasants Differentiation on
           Peasants’ Willingness and Behavior Transformation of Land Transfer:
           Evidence from Sichuan Province, China

    • Authors: Zhixing Ma, Ruiping Ran, Dingde Xu
      First page: 338
      Abstract: Based on the survey data of 540 peasants in Sichuan Province, the probit and unordered multi-classification logistic model regression models were used to explore peasants’ differentiation on the transformation of willingness and behavior of land transfer and to provide a theoretical and empirical basis for promoting land intensification and large-scale management. The results show the following: (1) There is a significant negative correlation between the intention and behavior of part-time peasants, multiple occupations peasants, and non-agricultural peasants. (2) Part-time peasants and non-agricultural peasants promoted the change in willingness and behavior of land transfer out; part-time peasants, multiple occupations peasants, and non-agricultural peasants all promoted the willingness and behavior transformation of land transfer in. (3) The heterogeneity analysis results show that different household heads ages, the proportion of labor force in the total population of the household, and the terrain of cultivated land significantly impact peasants’ willingness and behavior of land transfer. Peasants’ non-agricultural differentiation is an important way to promote the rapid development of land transfer. The government should strengthen skills training and guidance services, broaden the channels for peasants to increase income, optimize the market environment of land transfer, and improve the social security system related to land transfer in order to promote the industrialization and large-scale development of agriculture.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020338
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 339: Multifunctional Evolution and Allocation
           Optimization of Rural Residential Land in China

    • Authors: Yanbo Qu, Meijing Wu, Lingyun Zhan, Ran Shang
      First page: 339
      Abstract: The rural residential land functions are the comprehensive embodiment of the storage quantity and structural organization of the rural man–land system. Mastering the evolution rule and allocation situation is the basis of effective rural land management and targeted poverty alleviation activities. Based on the theoretical understanding of rural residential multifunction, this paper identifies five functional types and characteristic elements uses a variety of methods to calculate to reveal the spatio-temporal differentiation and allocation and discusses the process mechanism and spatial pattern of function optimization. According to the results, during the sample period, the multifunctional index of rural residential land in China was ranked from large to small as residential function (RF), living function (LF), service function (SF), production function (PF) and ecological function (EF), and the growth rate was ranked from large to small as ecological function (EF), production function (PF), residential function (RF), living function (LF) and service function (SF), and the comprehensive function index increased by more than 50%. The distribution characteristics of all the functional indexes were basically the same. The regional performance was east > central > northeast > west, and the range of each functional index in terms of the interprovincial performance decreased; however, the convergence degree increased, and the number of provinces with comparative advantages in terms of the various functions expanded to more than 50%. The living, ecological, and comprehensive functions increased, while the residential, production, and service functions decreased. The continuous deprivation of the functions and their deprivation in many provinces are problems. This study can provide decision support for promoting the normalization and standardization of superior rural functions.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020339
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 340: Spatiotemporal Change Analysis and Prediction of
           the Great Yellow River Region (GYRR) Land Cover and the Relationship
           Analysis with Mountain Hazards

    • Authors: Chunliu Gao, Deqiang Cheng, Javed Iqbal, Shunyu Yao
      First page: 340
      Abstract: The study of land use / land cover (LULC) changes plays an important guiding role in regional ecological protection and sustainable development policy formulation. Especially, the simulation study of the future scenarios may provide a hypothetical prospect which could help to determine the rationality of current and future development policies. In order to support the ecological protection and high-quality development strategy of the Yellow River Basin proposed by the Chinese government, the Great Yellow River Region (GYRR) is taken as the research area. The multi-period land cover data are used to carry out the analysis of land cover changes. The MOLUSCE (Modules for Land Use Change Simulations) plugin of QGIS software is used to carry out a land cover simulation and prediction study for 2030 on a large regional scale. Finally, the land cover status in the mountainous areas of the GYRR is analyzed thoroughly. The results show a decrease in agricultural land and increase in forest land during the past 25 years from 1995 to 2020, and that this trend would continue to 2030. The landscape pattern index analysis indicates that the land cover in the GYRR has become more and more abundant, and the degree of fragmentation has become higher and higher, while landscape patches were more evenly distributed in the GYRR until 2020. On the other hand, the landscape pattern would tend to achieve a certain degree of stability in 2030. The decrease in farmland and the increase in forest land illustrate the efforts made by the GYRR residents and governments in improving the ecological environment under the policy of returning farmland to forests and grasslands. On the other hand, although the residential areas in the mountainous areas are far away from the mountain hazard historical points because of consideration during construction with the help of the development of disaster prevention and mitigation over the years, there could be problem of rapid and haphazard urbanization. It is worth mentioning here that the harmonious and sustainable development of people and land in the GYRR mountainous areas still requires a large amount of effort.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020340
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 341: Remote Sensing and Invasive Plants in Coastal
           Ecosystems: What We Know So Far and Future Prospects

    • Authors: Priscila Villalobos Perna, Mirko Di Febbraro, Maria Laura Carranza, Flavio Marzialetti, Michele Innangi
      First page: 341
      Abstract: Coastal environments are highly threatened by invasive alien plants (IAP), and Remote Sensing (RS) may offer a sound support for IAP detection and mapping. There is still a need for an overview of the progress and extent of RS applications on invaded coasts that can help the development of better RS procedures to support IAP management. We conducted a systematic literature review of 68 research papers implementing, recommending, or discussing RS tools for IAP mapping in coastal environments, published from 2000 to 2021. According to this review, most research was done in China and USA, with Sporobolus (17.3%) being the better studied genus. The number of studies increased at an accelerated rate from 2015 onwards, coinciding with the transition from RS for IAP detection to RS for invasion modeling. The most used platforms in the 2000s were aircraft, with satellites that increased from 2005 and unmanned aerial vehicles after 2014. Frequentist inference was the most adopted classification approach in the 2000s, as machine learning increased after 2009. RS applications vary with coastal ecosystem types and across countries. RS has a huge potential to further improve IAP monitoring. The extension of RS to all coasts of the world requires advanced applications that bring together current and future Earth observation data.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020341
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 342: Reimagining the Development of Downtown Cahokia
           Using Remote Sensing Visualizations from the Western Edge of the Grand
           Plaza

    • Authors: J. Grant Stauffer, Seth B. Grooms, Lorraine W. Hu, Joy Mersmann, Tristram R. Kidder, Edward R. Henry
      First page: 342
      Abstract: The distribution of mounds, plazas, and defensive palisades associated with Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site (CMSHS) defines the core urban environment of Eastern North America’s first American Indian city. The large mounds surrounding Cahokia’s centrally located Grand Plaza, including the palisades that enclose them, are referred to as Downtown Cahokia. In this portion of the site, archaeologists have identified material culture (e.g., ceramics), earthen fills to level the plaza, and several earthen mound constructions. These findings suggest an occupational history for the area that occurred over the 9th–14th centuries CE, with the emergence of plaza delineation and earthwork construction beginning in the early 11th century CE. In sum, Downtown Cahokia and its Grand Plaza are considered by archaeologists to be a vibrant space characterized by ongoing American Indian transformations to an early metropolitan landscape. We conducted magnetometer and electromagnetic induction surveys at the western edge of the Grand Plaza. When compared with the LiDAR-derived visualizations we generated from this portion of the site, our aerial and terrestrial remote sensing data offered new information on the nature and sequence of monument construction in Downtown Cahokia, as well as architectural changes in domestic and special-use structures. These multi-scalar and complementary remote sensing datasets allowed us, without excavating, to trace important sequences of change in Downtown Cahokia’s history.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020342
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 343: Asynchronous Transformation of Cropping Patterns
           from 5800–2200 cal BP on the Southern Loess Plateau, China

    • Authors: Liu Yang, Yishi Yang, Shanjia Zhang, Haiming Li, Huihui Cao, Yifu Cui, Fengwen Liu, Minmin Ma
      First page: 343
      Abstract: Archaeobotanical studies have largely illuminated spatiotemporal differences in agricultural development across the Loess Plateau. However, the particularities of local agricultural development have not been adequately studied for complex geographical, environmental, and prehistoric contexts. Here, new archaeobotanical data and radiocarbon dating results from 27 Neolithic and Bronze Age sites in Baoji are reported. Combining these data with published archaeobotanical datasets, this study explores shifts (and underlying driving factors) in cropping patterns from the late Neolithic to Bronze Age on the southern Loess Plateau (SLP). Regional geographic, environmental, and climatic factors produced mixed millet-rice agricultural systems in the Guanzhong Plain (GZP) and western Henan Province (WHN) and foxtail and broomcorn millet dry-farming systems in the Upper Weihe River (UWR) from 5800–4500 cal BP. Wheat and barley were added to the agricultural systems of the UWR as auxiliary crops after ~4000 cal BP, while cropping patterns remained largely unchanged in GZP and WHN from 4500–3500 cal BP. Cultural exchanges and technological innovations may have influenced the formation of different agricultural patterns across the three regions (i.e., GZP, WHN, and UWR) from 4500–3500 cal BP. From 3500–2200 cal BP, wheat and barley became increasingly important crops on the SLP, although their importance varied spatially, and rice was rarely cultivated. Spatiotemporal variation in cropping patterns was driven by altered survival pressures associated with climate deterioration and population growth from 3500–2200 cal BP. This process was reinforced by internal social developments, as well as interactions with close northern neighbors, in the Shang-Zhou period.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020343
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 344: The Method of Segmenting the Early Warning
           Thresholds Based on Fisher Optimal Segmentation

    • Authors: Xiangyu Li, Tianjie Lei, Jing Qin, Jiabao Wang, Weiwei Wang, Baoyin Liu, Dongpan Chen, Guansheng Qian, Li Zhang, Jingxuan Lu
      First page: 344
      Abstract: Most slope collapse accidents are indicated by certain signs before their occurrence, and unnecessary losses can be avoided by predicting slope deformation. However, the early warning signs of slope deformation are often misjudged. It is necessary to establish a method to determine the appropriate early warning signs in sliding thresholds. Here, to better understand the impact of different scales on the early warning signs of sliding thresholds, we used the Fisher optimal segmentation method to establish the early warning signs of a sliding threshold model based on deformation speed and deformation acceleration at different spatial scales. Our results indicated that the accuracy of the early warning signs of sliding thresholds at the surface scale was the highest. Among them, the early warning thresholds of the blue, yellow, orange, and red level on a small scale were 369.31 mm, 428.96 mm, 448.41 mm, and 923.7 mm, respectively. The evaluation accuracy of disaster non-occurrence and occurrence was 93.25% and 92.41%, respectively. The early warning thresholds of the blue, yellow, orange, and red level on a large scale were 980.11 mm, 1038.16 mm, 2164.63 mm, and 9492.75 mm, respectively. The evaluation accuracy of disaster non-occurrence and occurrence was 97.22% and 97.44%, respectively. Therefore, it is necessary to choose deformation at the surface scale with a large scale as the sliding threshold. Our results effectively solve the problem of misjudgment of the early warning signs of slope collapse, which is of great significance for ensuring the safe operation of water conservation projects and improving the slope deformation warning capability.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020344
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 345: Verification of Immersive Virtual Reality as a
           Streetscape Evaluation Method in Urban Residential Areas

    • Authors: Jaewon Han, Sugie Lee
      First page: 345
      Abstract: In this paper, we verified the applicability of immersive VR technology to street-level residential landscape evaluation. We used GSV images taken from pedestrian paths in residential areas of Seoul and selected evaluation images through random sampling. Then, we conducted web-based and VR-based residential streetscape evaluation experiments with those landscape images. The VR-based streetscape evaluation results differed significantly from the web-based streetscape evaluation results. Our multi-level ordered logistic analysis confirmed that the VR-based streetscape evaluation method had better explanatory power than the web-based streetscape evaluation method. In the immersive VR-based streetscape evaluation index, the naturalness, beauty, and safety indicators had particularly high explanatory power. This study concluded that the VR-based streetscape evaluation method over the web-based method is more suitable for evaluating street scenes experienced in daily life. In addition, the innovative methodological approaches, including big data, virtual reality, and visual experiences, will also provide new insights for the planning and management of sustainable landscapes.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020345
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 346: Temporal and Spatial Changes of Habitat Quality
           and Their Potential Driving Factors in Southwest China

    • Authors: Tao Li, Rui Bao, Ling Li, Mingfang Tang, Hongbing Deng
      First page: 346
      Abstract: Climate change and human activities have considerably changed the spatial patterns and functional elements of regional habitats. Understanding spatiotemporal changes in habitat quality (HQ) and their potential driving factors is essential for maintaining ecosystem health and protecting biodiversity. To explore the effect of physical and human factors on HQ changes in Southwest China, we firstly analyzed the land-use change intensity (LCI). We then evaluated spatiotemporal changes in HQ based on the InVEST model and explored the spatial heterogeneity of the main driving factors of HQ changes based on a geographical detector and a geographical weighted regression model. The results showed that LCI had obvious spatiotemporal differences, and LCI from low-quality habitat to high-quality habitat (LCI1) was significantly higher than that from high-quality habitat to low-quality habitat (LCI2). The HQ improved steadily in Southwest China in 1990–2015, showing a trend of low–high–low from southeast to northwest. Moreover, there were twelve factors, including aboveground biomass, ecological land area ratio, population density, slope, etc., which had a significant impact on the spatial differences in HQ, and the effects of different factors on HQ had observable spatial heterogeneity. The effect of LCI2 on the spatial difference of HQ was greater than that of LCI1. These results suggested that the current ecosystem protection and management policy had a positive effect on improving HQ. Our study provides an important decision-making reference for sustainable land development and utilization and regional ecological protection and restoration.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020346
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 347: Characteristics of Soil Moisture Variation in
           Agroforestry in Karst Region

    • Authors: Zehui Wang, Kangning Xiong, Chenxu Wu, Ding Luo, Jie Xiao, Chuhong Shen
      First page: 347
      Abstract: The special above-ground and underground dual structure in the karst area makes the capacity of surface water storage in this area poor. In water-limited ecosystems, soil moisture is the key to the survival of plants. Influenced by rainfall and soil texture, soil moisture variation characteristics of different vegetation types are different in slope land. Many researchers use rainfall simulation experiments to study the influence of soil water movement processes under rainfall patterns, but there are few studies under natural conditions. In this paper, wood trees, peach trees, flue-cured tobacco, and grassland were planted at the buffer zone boundary of Shibing, a World Heritage site, along different elevations in the depression of the research site. Peach trees and flue-cured tobacco were the main cash crops in the area. The soil layers of 0–0.15 m, 0.15–0.30 m, 0.30–0.45 m, 0.45–0.60 m, and 0.60–0.75 m were taken as research objects. Rainfall and soil moisture were monitored every ten minutes to study the variation of soil moisture of vegetation types under different rainfall patterns. Through the analysis of soil physicochemical properties and vegetation types, it was found that soil moisture changes were different in different land types. In general, shallow soil moisture (0~0.30 m) was more active in the wet season (CV > 10%) but tended to be stable in the dry season. The rainy season rainfall had the greatest influence on soil moisture change. The response level of soil moisture to rainfall of all vegetation types was grassland > peach trees > flue-cured tobacco. These results can provide ecological and economic suggestions for karst areas with large population distribution in China, so as to reduce the impact of rock desertification on this area.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020347
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 348: Neopragmatic Reflections on Coastal Land Loss
           and Climate Change in Louisiana in Light of Popper’s Theory of Three
           Worlds

    • Authors: Olaf Kühne, Lara Koegst
      First page: 348
      Abstract: This paper addresses the social resonances to the complex causes, effects, and feedback of land loss in southern Louisiana, particularly with respect to the region’s vulnerability to the impacts of anthropogenic climate change, especially against the backdrop of the consequences and side effects of the resident petrochemical industry. Using empirical findings from an online discussion about coastal land loss and talks to people in Louisiana, the different perceptions of coastal land loss of affected and not-affected people become apparent. As a result of the high complexity of the topic, a meta-theoretical framing by neopragmatism, as well as an analytical framing based on Popper’s theory of three worlds, is provided.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020348
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 349: Monitoring and Effect Evaluation of an
           Ecological Restoration Project Using Multi-Source Remote Sensing: A Case
           Study of Wuliangsuhai Watershed in China

    • Authors: Xiang Jia, Zhengxu Jin, Xiaoli Mei, Dong Wang, Ruoning Zhu, Xiaoxia Zhang, Zherui Huang, Caixia Li, Xiaoli Zhang
      First page: 349
      Abstract: Quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of ecological restoration provides timely feedback on restoration efforts, and helps to accurately understand the extent of restoration, while providing scientific support for optimizing restoration programs. In recent decades, the Wuliangsuhai watershed in China’s Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region has been affected by anthropogenic activities, resulting in an increasingly unbalanced ecological environment. In order to curb environmental degradation, the local government implemented the “mountain, water, forest, field, lake and grass ecological protection and restoration project of the Wuliangsuhai watershed” from 2018 to 2020. The project has been completed and there is an urgent need for remote sensing monitoring to aid in performance evaluation. We took the ecological protection and restoration area of the Wuliangsuhai watershed in China as the research object, applied multi-source remote sensing imagery and auxiliary data such as meteorology and geographic basic data, extracted information of each evaluation index before and after the implementation of this project, and used the entropy value method to determine the index weights to comprehensively evaluate the ecological restoration effect. The results showed that after the implementation of the ecological restoration project, the vegetation coverage was further improved, the effectiveness of desert management was obvious, soil and water conservation capacity was strengthened, the ecosystem became more stable, and the areas with good environment were mostly located in the central and eastern parts. A total of 37.86% of the areas had obvious ecological restoration effects, and all indicators were further improved. Among the main treatment areas, the restoration effect of the Wuliangsuhai water ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation area was the best. The restoration effect will be further accentuated over time. This study provides a scientific reference for the further management of the ecological environment in the watershed and can provide a reference for the evaluation of the ecological restoration effect in similar areas in the future.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020349
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 350: Factors Influencing the Spatiotemporal Changes
           of Permafrost in Northeast China from 1982 to 2020

    • Authors: Dongyu Yang, Daqing Zhan, Miao Li, Shuying Zang
      First page: 350
      Abstract: Permafrost in northeast China, which is at the southern edge of the high-latitude permafrost belt in Eurasia, is extremely sensitive to climate warming. However, the distribution of permafrost in the region in recent years has been poorly studied, and there is a lack of understanding of the relative importance of environmental factors affecting the region. Based on observed ground surface temperature (GST) data, this study quantifies changes in the permafrost area in northeast China from 1982 to 2020 using a surface frost number model, and the influencing factors are identified based on dominance analysis and spatial correlation analysis. The results suggest that the permafrost in northeast China during the observation period underwent degradation with a degradation rate of 0.33 × 104 km2/a. In addition, the permafrost degradation also exhibited altitudinal and latitudinal zonality. Permafrost degradation under typical grassland, deciduous forest, and savannah cover was more significant than that under evergreen forest, mixed forest, and shrubbery cover. As revealed by the dominance analysis results, the annual average snow cover, annual average snow depth and annual average normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) had the largest contributions to the variance of the permafrost area in northeast China, accounting for 88.3% of the total variance contribution of the six influencing factors. The spatial correlation results reveal that areas with a significantly increased NDVI and significantly reduced snow depth and snow cover were coincident with areas with significantly degraded permafrost. Hence, the snow cover, snow depth, and NDVI were found to have the greatest influence on the permafrost distribution in northeast China. The results of this study evidently increase the understanding of the changing permafrost in northeast China, providing important knowledge about permafrost for researchers and the related community.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020350
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 351: Opportunities for Adaptation to Climate Change
           of Extensively Grazed Pastures in the Central Apennines (Italy)

    • Authors: Edoardo Bellini, Raphael Martin, Giovanni Argenti, Nicolina Staglianò, Sergi Costafreda-Aumedes, Camilla Dibari, Marco Moriondo, Gianni Bellocchi
      First page: 351
      Abstract: Future climate change is expected to significantly alter the growth of vegetation in grassland systems, in terms of length of the growing season, forage production, and climate-altering gas emissions. The main objective of this work was, therefore, to simulate the future impacts of foreseen climate change in the context of two pastoral systems in the central Italian Apennines and test different adaptation strategies to cope with these changes. The PaSim simulation model was, therefore, used for this purpose. After calibration by comparison with observed data of aboveground biomass (AGB) and leaf area index (LAI), simulations were able to produce various future outputs, such as length of growing season, AGB, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, for two time windows (i.e., 2011–2040 and 2041–2070) using 14 global climate models (GCMs) for the generation of future climate data, according to RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios under business-as-usual management (BaU). As a result of increasing temperatures, the fertilizing effect of CO2, and a similar trend in water content between present and future, simulations showed a lengthening of the season (i.e., mean increase: +8.5 and 14 days under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively, for the period 2011–2040, +19 and 31.5 days under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively, for the period 2041–2070) and a rise in forage production (i.e., mean biomass peak increase of the two test sites under BaU: +53.7% and 62.75% for RCP4.5. and RCP8.5, respectively, in the 2011–2040 period, +115.3% and 176.9% in RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 in 2041–2070, respectively,). Subsequently, three different alternative management strategies were tested: a 20% rise in animal stocking rate (+20 GI), a 15% increase in grazing length (+15 GL), and a combination of these two management factors (+20 GI×15 GL). Simulation results on alternative management strategies suggest that the favorable conditions for forage production could support the increase in animal stocking rate and grazing length of alternative management strategies (i.e., +20 GI, +15 GL, +20 GI×15 GL). Under future projections, net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and nitrogen oxide (N2O) emissions decreased, whereas methane (CH4) rose. The simulated GHG future changes varied in magnitude according to the different adaptation strategies tested. The development and assessment of adaptation strategies for extensive pastures of the Central Apennines provide a basis for appropriate agricultural policy and optimal land management in response to the ongoing climate change.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020351
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 352: Restoring Degraded Landscapes through An
           Integrated Approach Using Geospatial Technologies in the Context of the
           Humanitarian Crisis in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh

    • Authors: Jalal, Mahamud, Arif, Ritu, Kumar, Ahmed, Kabir, Rana, Huda, DeGaetano, Agnew, Ghosh, Mushtaq, Martín-Ortega, Vollrath, Finegold, Franceschini, d'Annunzio, Jonckheere, Henry
      First page: 352
      Abstract: The influx of nearly a million refugees from Myanmar's Rakhine state to Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, in August 2017 put significant pressure on the regional landscape leading to land degradation due to biomass removal to provide shelter and fuel energy and posed critical challenges for both host and displaced population. This article emphasizes geospatial applications at different stages of addressing land degradation in Cox’s Bazar. A wide range of data and methods were used to delineate land tenure, estimate wood fuel demand and supply, assess land degradation, evaluate land restoration suitability, and monitor restoration activities. The quantitative and spatially explicit information from these geospatial assessments integrated with the technical guidelines for sustainable land management and an adaptive management strategy was critical in enabling a collaborative, multi-disciplinary and evidence-based approach to successfully restoring degraded landscapes in a displacement setting.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020352
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 353: Simulation of Urban Areas Exposed to Hazardous
           Flash Flooding Scenarios in Hail City

    • Authors: Omar Hamdy, Mohamed Hssan Hassan Abdelhafez, Mabrouk Touahmia, Mohammed Alshenaifi, Emad Noaime, Khaled Elkhayat, Mohammed Alghaseb, Ayman Ragab
      First page: 353
      Abstract: According to the United Nations (UN), an additional 1.35 billion people will live in cities by 2030. Well-planned measures are essential for reducing the risk of flash floods. Flash floods typically inflict more damage in densely populated areas. The province of Hail encompasses 120,000 square kilometers, or approximately 6% of the total land area of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Due to its innate physiographic and geologic character, Hail city is susceptible to a wide variety of geo-environmental risks such as sand drifts, flash floods, and rock falls. The aim of this work is to evaluate the rate of urban sprawl in the Hail region using remote sensing data and to identify urban areas that would be affected by simulated worst-case flash floods. From 1984 to 2022, the global urbanization rate increased from 467 to 713% in the Hail region. This is a very high rate of expansion, which means that the number of urban areas exposed to the highest level of flood risk is rising every year. With Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA), a wide range of hydrologic scenarios can be simulated. The data sources for the soil type, infiltration, and initial moisture were utilized to create the coverage and index maps. To generate virtual floods, we ran the GSSHA model within the Watershed Modeling System (WMS) program to create the hazard map for flash flooding. This model provides a suitable method based on open access data and remote data that can help planners in developing countries to create the risk analysis for flash flooding.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020353
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 354: State of Brownfields in the Northern Bohemia,
           Saxony and Lower Silesian Regions and Prospects for Regeneration by
           Utilization of the Phytotechnology with the Second Generation Crops

    • Authors: Robert Ato Newton, Valentina Pidlisnyuk, Eliška Wildová, Ludmila Nováková, Josef Trögl
      First page: 354
      Abstract: The need to achieve the sustainability goals and to reduce the continuous exploitation of the limited urban areas increases requests for the regeneration of brownfields. The current study aims to review the state of brownfields in the Northern Czech Region and neighboring German (Saxony) and Polish (Silesian) Regions which share a common geological background and environmental problems. The peculiarities of the brownfield’s properties related to the term, classification, legislative framework, access to available data, degree of contamination, and remediation methods were the focus of this review. It was established that the state with brownfield identification and transformation is better in the Czech Republic, followed by Germany, with lower awareness in Poland. The relevant examples of successful brownfield revitalization and the importance of educational components were introduced. A prospective application of the phytotechnology with the second-generation crops for the remediation of brownfields was discussed. The utilization of Miscanthus spp. for marginal lands with low contamination can provide an economic return by having biomass converted into energy or bioproducts and the utilization of the accompanied waste as carbon-rich biochar which can indeed support phytoremediation, enhance plants’ growth and serve as a medium for carbon sequestration. The next steps in the research have to concentrate on comparison of the rehabilitation methods introduced for the targeted regions with the global approach in brownfield redevelopment along with the practical ensuring the phytotechnology potential at the selected brownfields.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020354
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 355: Interactions between Climate and Land Cover
           Change over West Africa

    • Authors: Eric Mensah Mortey, Thompson Annor, Joël Arnault, Maman Maarouhi Inoussa, Saïdou Madougou, Harald Kunstmann, Emmanuel Kwesi Nyantakyi
      First page: 355
      Abstract: Climate–land interaction over West Africa has often been assessed using climate simulations, although the model-based approach suffers from the limitations of climate models for the region. In this paper, an alternative method based on the analysis of historical land cover data and standardized climatic indices is used to investigate climate–land interactions, in order to establish climatic conditions and their corresponding land cover area changes. The annual variation in land cover area changes and climatic changes are first estimated separately and then linked using various spatiotemporal scales. The results show that incidences of land cover change result from abrupt changes in climatic conditions. Interannual changes of −1.0–1.0 °C, 0–1.5 °C, and −0.5–0.5 °C, and up to ±50 mm changes in precipitation and climatic water balance, lead to 45,039–52,133 km2, 20,935–22,127 km2, and approximately 32,000 km2 changes, respectively, while a ±0.5 °C and ±20 mm change represents normal climate conditions with changes below 20,000 km2. Conversely, conversions of cropland, forest, grassland, and shrubland are the main land cover change types affecting the climate. The results offer a basis for the re-evaluation of land cover change and climate information used in regional climate models simulating land–climate interactions over West Africa.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020355
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 356: Contrasting Response of Mountain
           Plant-Pollinator Network to Fragmented Semi-Natural Grasslands

    • Authors: Francesca Della Rocca, Arianna Tagliani, Pietro Milanesi, Matteo Barcella, Silvia Paola Assini
      First page: 356
      Abstract: The majority of the world's plants rely on animal pollinators for reproduction, making pollination a key ecosystem service for the maintenance of natural and cultivated plant communities. Mutual interactions between plants and pollinators, also called “plant-pollinator networks”, are becoming increasingly vulnerable due to the intensification of anthropogenic land use and climate change. Thus, due to the rapid decline of semi-natural grasslands in the Northern Apennines (Italy), we aimed at understanding how the fragmentation of these habitats, the spatial distribution, and the amount of semi- and natural areas surrounding them, could affect species diversity and plant-pollinator networks. Specifically, in the Northern Apennines, we monitored semi-natural grasslands belonging to the EU habitat type 6510 to evaluate the effect of fragmentation on plant and pollinator richness and on the plant-pollinator network. We carried out generalized linear models considering three taxonomical and six network descriptors as response variables and the combinations of grasslands size and isolation, as well as 10 other factors describing landscape composition as explanatory variables. We found a well-structured plant-pollinator network, characterized by a high diversity of both plants and pollinators, with mutual relations marginally specialized, highly affected by habitat fragmentation and the land use of surrounding grasslands. Moreover, large and neighboring patches increased pollinator richness and improved the overall network structure while the occurrence of meadows and shrubs around fragmented patches was important to ensure the continuity of floristic resources. Finally, extensive croplands and agricultural settlements significantly reduced plant and pollinator diversity, favoring generalist (probably invasive) species, which however increased the strength and stability of the network.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020356
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 357: Credit Constraint, Interlinked Insurance and
           Credit Contract and Farmers’ Adoption of Innovative Seeds-Field
           Experiment of the Loess Plateau

    • Authors: Leshan Yu, Yan Song, Haixia Wu, Hengtong Shi
      First page: 357
      Abstract: The interlinked insurance and credit contract is an emerging model of agricultural insurance in China. However, the development of interlinked insurance and credit contract and farmers’ demands for it are poorly understood. Based on the wheat farmers on the Loess Plateau in China, a field experiment is employed to obtain dynamic choice data from 415 farmers. We empirically analyzed the inhibitory effect of credit constraint on farmers’ adoption behavior of innovative seeds and also explored the heterogeneity of farmers’ innovative seeds adoption due to the availability of interlinked insurance and credit contract. The results illustrate that credit constraint can hinder farmers’ innovative seeds adoption significantly, and interlinked insurance and credit contracts can encourage farmers to adopt innovative seeds effectively by dispersing natural risks and alleviating credit rationing. Further, constrained by low education levels in China’s rural areas, providing interlinked insurance and credit contract to farmers is not beneficial to enhance farmers’ innovative seeds adoption. In addition, farmers who are relatively poor may underestimate the benefits of innovative seeds at the beginning of planting, making their adoption behavior have some delayed effect. This research provides a new perspective for promoting the spread of innovative technology in rural areas.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020357
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 358: What Are the Relationships between Public
           Transit and Gentrification Progress' An Empirical Study in the New
           York–Northern New Jersey–Long Island Areas

    • Authors: Yefu Chen, Hao Xi, Junfeng Jiao
      First page: 358
      Abstract: Transit-oriented development has been a widely accepted tool among transportation planning practitioners; however, there are concerns about the risk of increasing residential property values leading to gentrification or displacements. Therefore, it is critical to provide precise investigations of the relationships between public transit and gentrification. Although numerous studies have explored this topic, few have discussed these relationships based on detailed measurements of gentrification from a regional perspective. This study aims to fill the research gap by measuring the gentrification subcategories through a hierarchical definition based on data in the New York–Northern New Jersey–Long Island areas and applying the transit desert concept as the measurement of transit services. Through multinomial logistic regression and machine-learning approaches, findings indicate that the rate of transit deserts in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods is higher than the others. In addition, the impacts of transit services are significant in gentrification but insignificant in super-gentrification. These findings can advance the knowledge of the role of the transit service in different gentrification progresses. Based on these findings, policymakers need to be careful when allocating public transit budgets and note the effects of these investments on neighborhoods with different socioeconomic statuses.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020358
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 359: Land Take and Landslide Hazard: Spatial
           Assessment and Policy Implications from a Study Concerning Sardinia

    • Authors: Federica Isola, Sabrina Lai, Federica Leone, Corrado Zoppi
      First page: 359
      Abstract: Land take and soil sealing imply land cover transitions that may possibly result in decreased capacity to resist landslides; hence, this study focuses on the relations between land-taking processes and landslide hazard by addressing the following research question: “To what extent do land-taking processes increase landslide hazard'” The impact of land take is assessed through a regression model which relates the level of landslide hazard to a set of land cover variables which include artificialized land; that is, land taken up through urbanization processes, and a set of covariates that represent land cover types grouped in accordance with the LEAC (land and ecosystem accounting) classification. This methodological approach is implemented into the spatial context of Sardinia, an insular Italian region, and shows that not only the amount of taken up artificialized land, but also other types of land covers, are likely to increase the magnitude of landslide hazard. A set of implications concerning planning policies related to land cover and land cover transitions are discussed in the concluding section, where policy recommendations are identified in order to mitigate the impacts of land cover transitions on landslide hazards.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020359
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 360: Pull and Push Drivers of Giant-Wave Spectators
           in Nazaré, Portugal: A Cultural Ecosystem Services Assessment Based
           on Geo-Tagged Photos

    • Authors: António Azevedo
      First page: 360
      Abstract: This paper maps the cultural ecosystem services (CES) of a well-known giant-wave hotspot located in Nazaré, Portugal. The paper adopts a qualitative approach combining an auto-ethnographic direct observation of a journey and the content analysis of photos and videos posted on the YouTube and Facebook pages of tourists and operators. A total of 44 geotagged photos from a sample of 6914 photos retrieved from Flickr allowed the classification and spatial distribution of several CES: (1) recreational—surf activities; (2) aesthetic—photography; (3) spiritual—dark tourism and risk recreation; (4) intangible heritage—maritime knowledge; (5) scientific—wave height forecast; (6) sense of place; and (7) social relations. The paper also proposes a theoretical framework that highlights the pull drivers (risk recreation, storm chasing, or spectacular death voyeurism) and the push drivers (e.g., marketing campaigns and wave forecasts alerts) that explain the behaviors of the big-wave spectators/chasers during the experience journey. Public decision-makers, destination marketing organizations, tourism operators, and business entrepreneurs must acknowledge the relevance of journey mapping in order to identify the moments of stress and the touchpoints associated with peak/positive experiences generated by these CES. This study confirms some push and pull factors assessed by previous studies.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020360
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 361: Exploring Accessibility and Its Impact in the
           Mountain City: A Typical Case Study of Nyingchi City, Tibet Autonomous
           Region, China

    • Authors: Qianqian Gong, Jiaming Li, Lingzhi Wu, Miner Zhu, Maoyu Luo, Jingyi Sun, Wenqing Fu, Renfeng Ma, Xianjun Liang
      First page: 361
      Abstract: The accessibility of mountain tourist attractions is a prerequisite to enhancing the attractiveness of tourist attractions and driving the well-being of local residential areas, which increases people’s prosperity and the sustainable development of tourist attractions, and achieves the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This paper focuses on the accessibility of typical mountainous areas in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, and uses the cost distance and OD distance methods under the guidance of core-edge theory to explore the changes of accessibility of traffic nodes, tourist attractions, and residents with the future enrichment of the traffic road network. The results show that: (1) The change in accessibility will highlight the location advantages of some tourist attractions, which can be prioritized in the context of similar tourist attractions; (2) Regional accessibility improvements require a combination of traffic modes to maximize impact; (3) Residents of different multi-core circles could choose various industrial development patterns based on the accessibility of tourist attractions and residential areas;(4) Group development according to the spatial location and accessibility of tourist attractions can facilitate the virtuous drive among tourist attractions, which achieves the goal of integrated tourism.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020361
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 362: Local and Landscape Factors Influence
           Plant-Pollinator Networks and Bee Foraging Behavior across an Urban
           Corridor

    • Authors: Gabriella L. Pardee, Kimberly M. Ballare, John L. Neff, Lauren Q. Do, DianaJoyce Ojeda, Elisa J. Bienenstock, Berry J. Brosi, Tony H. Grubesic, Jennifer A. Miller, Daoqin Tong, Shalene Jha
      First page: 362
      Abstract: Given widespread concerns over human-mediated bee declines in abundance and species richness, conservation efforts are increasingly focused on maintaining natural habitats to support bee diversity in otherwise resource-poor environments. However, natural habitat patches can vary in composition, impacting landscape-level heterogeneity and affecting plant-pollinator interactions. Plant-pollinator networks, especially those based on pollen loads, can provide valuable insight into mutualistic relationships, such as revealing the degree of pollination specialization in a community; yet, local and landscape drivers of these network indices remain understudied within urbanizing landscapes. Beyond networks, analyzing pollen collection can reveal key information about species-level pollen preferences, providing plant restoration information for urban ecosystems. Through bee collection, vegetation surveys, and pollen load identification across ~350 km of urban habitat, we studied the impact of local and landscape-level management on plant-pollinator networks. We also quantified pollinator preferences for plants within urban grasslands. Bees exhibited higher foraging specialization with increasing habitat heterogeneity and visited fewer flowering species (decreased generality) with increasing semi-natural habitat cover. We also found strong pollinator species-specific flower foraging preferences, particularly for Asteraceae plants. We posit that maintaining native forbs and supporting landscape-level natural habitat cover and heterogeneity can provide pollinators with critical food resources across urbanizing ecosystems.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020362
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 363: Is Land Expropriation to Keep Agricultural Use
           an Effective Strategy for the Conservation of an Urban Agricultural
           Heritage System' Evidence from China

    • Authors: Fei Zhao, Changqiao Zhu, Jia’en Zhang, Shiming Luo, Yueyi Feng, Huimin Xiang, Yichen Jiang, Xiali Lu, Yi Tian
      First page: 363
      Abstract: Urbanization is one of the major threats to the dynamic inheritance of the agricultural heritage system (AHS). The ability to achieve sustainable development in intra-urban areas is an essential proposition related to the innovation of AHS conservation principles. The Haizhu high bed-low ditch agroecosystem (HHBLDA), a China-Nationally Important Agricultural Heritage System site located at the center of Guangzhou City, is taken as an example in this study. The effect of implementing the Land Acquisition to Keep Agricultural Use (LAKAU) on intra-urban AHS conservation is assessed through literature collection and review, field survey, and in-depth interviews. The results show that the LAKAU was implemented because of a three-decades-long struggle between ecological conservation and urban sprawl. Because of the important functions of ecosystem services, the AHS can coexist with urban land use in the course of rapid urbanization. The LAKAU mode can ensure that the nature of farmland remains unchanged, which is an effective strategy for the conservation of an urban AHS. The resulting problems, such as high operating costs, insufficient agricultural outputs, and insufficient local farmers in the AHS site because of off-farm opportunities, should be addressed by establishing an effective self-sustaining mechanism. Realizing the compatibility of management concepts between the AHS and nature reserves, adapting to the changing role of farmers, and strengthening the acceptance of the AHS by urban managers should attract the attention of decision-makers.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020363
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 364: The Driving Role of 3D Geovisualization in the
           Reanimation of Local Collective Memory and Historical Sources for the
           Reconstitution of Rural Landscapes

    • Authors: Dimitris Goussios, Ioannis Faraslis
      First page: 364
      Abstract: The dynamics created by the process of territorial construction are partly based on the selective and functional incorporation of heritage. However, in rural areas, retrospection presents particular difficulties due to a lack of appropriate information. Τhis research proposes the implementation of a methodology that combines sources, methods, and tools where the extraction of timeless information is based on the use of 3D interactive representations incorporating the active participation of actors and their collective memory. The proposed methodology strives for the compatibility, objectivity, and synergy of information from various sources and historical periods. The scope of this research concerns the mapping of the route and landscapes that were explored and described by the traveller Leake 210 years ago in the Farsala-Almyros area in Thessaly (Greece). The results focus on the reconstruction of the spatial subsystems of land use and exploitation at the beginning of the 19th century. The analysis reveals a production system, organized to use the laws of nature in order to sustainably manage the relationship between humans, animals, and natural resources. At the same time, the comparison with the current space has revealed a serious degradation in the natural environment since then. Finally, this mixed methodology, by combining the “spatialization” of information, virtuality and interactivity, the transition in time and space, and, finally, the “territorialization” of information, forms the basis for the inclusion of the history of places in the modern process of constructing a territorial area.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020364
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 365: Active and Passive Carbon Fractions in
           Contrasting Cropping Systems, Tillage Practices, and Soil Types

    • Authors: S. Rakesh, Abhas Kumar Sinha, Deepranjan Sarkar, Diwali Roy, Divya Bodiga, Samaresh Sahoo, Prakash Kumar Jha, Pradeep Kumar Dubey, Amitava Rakshit
      First page: 365
      Abstract: The rate of change in the relative amount of active and passive carbon (AC and PC) due to the land management practices (cropping systems combined with tillage) may vary with soil types depending on their level of chemical and/or physical protection from the decomposition but has rarely been directly measured. We have quantified the C storage potentiality of different soil types, namely old alluvial Inceptisol of Malda and recent alluvial Entisol of Coochbehar in West Bengal (subtropical eastern India) under the influence of different cropping systems (rice-maize: RM and rice-wheat: RW) and tillage practices (zero-tillage: ZT and conventional tillage: CT). The key objective was to demonstrate the short-term impact of conservation agriculture (CA) on soil C dynamics over the conventional practice. Research revealed that after short-term CA, total organic carbon (TOC), AC, PC, and total nitrogen (TN) showed significant (p < 0.05) improvement under the RM cropping system over the RW. The highest TOC content under the RM cropping system was recorded in the sites of Malda over the Coochbehar sites. The ZT significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the TOC in the upper layers (0–5 and 5–10 cm) and the CT showed improvements in the lower depths (10–20 cm). We observed some irregular variations in the interactions of the cropping system and tillage with respect to different sites. However, the ZT performed better in improving C fractions under RM and RW as compared to CT. The TOC and TN stocks were maximum in the lower depth which was evident in both soil types. The TOC linearly regressed on TN accounted for 94.2% variability (R2 = 0.942) of the C accumulation in soil and vice-versa. The PC was in a significant relationship with TN (R2 = 0.943), but AC was moderately regressed (R2 = 0.851). Lower stratification ratio values in Coochbehar soils (sandy loam in texture) indicated higher profile distribution of AC and PC in the soil profile; while in the Inceptisol, accumulation of the C fractions on the soil surface due to heavy texture resulted in the higher stratification values. The novelty of this study is that old alluvial Inceptisol showed a comparatively greater amount of AC and PC storage capability in comparison with the new alluvial Entisol. Conclusively, our study demonstrated that the adoption of conservation agriculture (CA practice/ZT) in cropping systems with higher C biomass input would significantly enhance the AC and PC fractions; however, the amount of storage is highly governed by the soil type and climatic factors.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020365
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 366: Linking Flood Risk Mitigation and Food Security:
           An Analysis of Land-Use Change in the Metropolitan Area of Rome

    • Authors: Davide Marino, Margherita Palmieri, Angelo Marucci, Mariangela Soraci, Antonio Barone, Silvia Pili
      First page: 366
      Abstract: Land consumption and climate change have intensified natural disasters in urban areas. In response to these emergencies under the European 2030 Agenda, Sustainable Development Goals have been established to improve ecosystem protection and increase resilience and adaptation to natural disasters globally (Goal 13 “Climate action” and Goal 15 “Life on land”). In order to implement governance tools appropriately, it is necessary to know the relationships among the drivers, the changes in the state of urban ecosystems and agro-ecosystems, and the impact on the supply of goods and services at spatial and temporal scales. In this paper, Land-Use and Land-Cover Changes (LULCCs) in the metropolitan area of Rome have been investigated, with the purpose of detecting the synergistic variations in the supply of the flood mitigation and agricultural production ecosystem services (ES). The methodology is based on a GIS (Geographic Information System) analysis that identifies the transformation processes and permanencies related to land-cover. The variation in flood mitigation services was quantified through the use of the Urban Flood Risk Mitigation Model (UFRM) from the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs) suite, while the variation in agricultural production through productivity coefficients was associated with changes in land-uses. Finally, an analysis of LULC-induced synergies and trade-offs between the two services was performed. The results show a net negative change in ES supply, caused mainly by urbanization at the expense of agricultural land. This decrease in ES supply is not offset by other LULCC transitions. In addition, the analysis of synergies and trade-offs between flood mitigation ES and agricultural production ES (in arable land, orchards, vineyards, and olive groves) shows that the reduction of agricultural land negatively affects both ES. The innovative contribution of this paper lies in setting an integrated methodology that is able to investigate how LULCC influences both hydraulic safety and food security. Findings can be useful to support planning of enhancing the role of agriculture in metropolitan areas.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020366
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 367: Effect of Light Heterogeneity Caused by
           Photovoltaic Panels on the Plant–Soil–Microbial System in
           Solar Park

    • Authors: Cui Li, Jinxian Liu, Jiabing Bao, Tiehang Wu, Baofeng Chai
      First page: 367
      Abstract: The large-scale construction of photovoltaic (PV) panels causes heterogeneity in environmental factors, such as light, precipitation, and wind speed, which may lead to microhabitat climate changes that may affect ecosystems. In this study, plant–soil–microbial systems in shady and non-shady gaps of PV panels in a solar park in Northern China were investigated. The shading caused by the PV panels significantly affected the alpha diversity of plant and fungal communities (p < 0.05). The compositions of plant and soil microbial (bacteria, fungi, and protists) communities were significantly different between shady and non-shady areas (p < 0.05), and the beta diversity of the plant community was significantly correlated with that of the soil microbial community (p < 0.05). Shading enhanced the complexity of microbial communities by strengthening the associations among soil microbes. Photosynthetically active radiation was the main driving factor in the assembly of aboveground and belowground communities on a small scale, and it indirectly shaped the microbial community through its effects on the plant community. This study highlights the important effects of light on microbial community formation and on the relationships among communities in plant–soil–microbial systems. Thus, the effects of solar park establishment on degraded ecosystems should be considered.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020367
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 368: Neighborhood Spatio-Temporal Impacts of SDG 8.9:
           

    • Authors: Gangwei Cai, Baoping Zou, Xiaoting Chi, Xincheng He, Yuang Guo, Wen Jiang, Qian Wu, Yujin Zhang, Yanna Zhou
      First page: 368
      Abstract: Rural arts events (triennials/festivals) are mainly aimed at local and regional revitalization. This exhibition-driven tourism (unlike traditional festivals, conferences, and exhibitions) has existed for more than 20 years in Japan. The curators of exhibition-driven tourism hope that these events can promote the economy and stop population decline as a result of the aging population. Therefore, this paper attempts to evaluate the effects of urban and rural arts event tourism in local and neighborhood areas in Niigata, Japan from the perspective of SDG 8.9. The Echigo-Tsumari Art Triennial and Water and Land Niigata Art Festival were chosen as case studies. Panel data (1997–2019) concerning tourists, income, and population in Niigata were evaluated using multiple empirical methods with descriptive correlation statistics (simple linear regression (SLR) and one-way ANOVA) and spatial analysis (Moran’s I). Through multiple-method analysis, the positive impacts of urban and rural arts event tourism in local and neighborhood areas in relation to Sustainable Development Goal 8.9 were evaluated. The findings presented herein have meaningful implications for tourism academia and the industry in general.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020368
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 369: Socioeconomic Effects of Good Governance
           Practices in Urban Land Management: The Case of Lega Tafo Lega Dadi and
           Gelan Towns

    • Authors: Fraol Udessa, Dagnachew Adugna, Liku Workalemahu
      First page: 369
      Abstract: This study’s objective is to assess the socioeconomic effects of good governance practices in urban land management in two particular Ethiopian towns. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were employed to achieve this objective. Questionnaires, interviews, and focus group discussions were used to collect data, and the collected data were analyzed descriptively. According to the study’s findings, the poor were hit particularly hard by weak governance in urban land management, since they could not afford to bribe authorities to acquire services or legal protection. Development was hampered by poor governance and corruption in the management of urban land, which raised business risks, decreased investment incentives, and restricted access to financing in the towns. Communities bribed officials to remove limits on land-use planning and to influence the decision to stop the implementation of environmental protection rules. Due to their unregistered land, the majority of suburban inhabitants did not pay property taxes. Similarly, since paying property taxes was seen as a necessary step in towns’ regularization process, informal settlers were prohibited from doing so. As a result, residents in urban areas began to construct homes without registering their land and land rights. As a result, after being delimited to the towns, more landowners in peri-urban regions utilized their property for residential purposes and unlawful transactions, while fewer were using it for agricultural purposes. Consequently, due to poor governance in urban land management, land-related socioeconomic development was unable to be fostered.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020369
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 370: Socio-Cultural Recovery of the Border in
           Nicosia: Buffer Fringe Festival over Its Boundaries

    • Authors: Huriye Gürdallı, Sevil Bulanık
      First page: 370
      Abstract: The reproduction of space along the border in post-conflict divided cities is an important issue in relation to urban resilience. Nicosia, widely known as the last divided capital city in Europe, is the capital city of Turkish Cypriots in the north and Greek Cypriots in the south. The Buffer Zone was formalized in 1974 as an emergency measure against inter-communal clashes. Further, the walled city of Nicosia was bisected, and thus urban and social unity became a relic of the past. In addition, the city center became the edge of the two bisected halves. The Nicosia Master Plan (NMP) was initiated by professionals on both sides. Moreover, it was in the first planning attempt that Nicosia was considered as a whole. The NMP was the first self-reliant quest that was developed for the purpose of finding a solution that could operate without having to wait for a political consensus. The Ledra Palace crossing opened in 2003 as the first opening on the border that ran across the United Nations (UN)-controlled Buffer Zone in Nicosia. Such a crossing possessed a symbolic meaning; the two communities feel as if they are socially united, and it encouraged NGOs and artists to step forward and allow the border to be perceived not as a boundary but as a shared space. The Buffer Fringe Festival is one of the recent cultural organizations that was held along the divide of Nicosia and it is also the festival scrutinized in this paper. This festival was designed to explore the boundary as a phenomenon experienced in daily life; furthermore, discussions were had regarding how the Buffer Fringe actors and artists perceived the festival as a peace-making tool. Together with visual and verbal records, the analysis conducted in this paper is based on qualitative data within a theoretical framework concerning body–space connections. In this paper, the aim is to emphasize how festivals can function beyond the limits of borders, provide an arena for connecting people, and exemplifies how one can interpret the spatial transformation of a space within the context of post-conflict divided cities.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020370
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 371: Research on the Interactive Relationship of
           Spatial Expansion between Estuarine and Coastal Port Cities

    • Authors: Zeyang Li, Weixin Luan, Zhenchao Zhang, Min Su
      First page: 371
      Abstract: In both developed and developing countries, port-city relationships have always attracted much attention. However, in the port–city interface, views differ as to whether the port drives the city or vice versa. The combination of remote sensing data and geospatial big data (point of interest) has provided a favorable solution. Taking the typical estuarine and coastal port cities in China’s coastal zone as an example, this study examines the following contents based on the port–city interface: the formation age of urban built-up areas and port areas on both sides of the port–city boundary; interaction between port and urban built-up areas; and the distribution of urban functional areas outside the port. Results show that the degree of spatial integration in estuarine port cities is higher than that of coastal port cities and that in the past 30 years, the expansion of ports has led to the expansion of cities. This expansion is port- and sea-oriented, and the expansion direction of the port city is consistent. On the port–city interface, the estuarine and coastal port cities form different urban regional structure modes. Aside from enriching literature on the port–city relationship, this study provides a reference for the spatial planning and transformation of ports and cities in the future.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020371
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 372: A GIS-Based Typological Interpretation of
           Cultivated Land Loss: A Spatiotemporal Analysis of Tai’an Prefecture
           in the North China Plain

    • Authors: Daquan Huang, Yu Chen, Tao Liu, Ming Liu
      First page: 372
      Abstract: Loss of cultivated land has become a global issue that is especially critical in populous and rapidly urbanizing countries. However, knowledge in this field in general and its spatiality in particular have long been restrained in developing countries for the lack of accurate and reliable data. This study addresses this issue from a typological perspective by distinguishing the patterns and determinants of the conversion of cultivated land to nonagricultural use, nongrain use, and ecological land use. By using land use survey data from 2009 to 2019, and taking villages as the research units, the cultivated land loss in an ordinary prefecture, Tai’an, in the North China Plain was investigated from its temporal–spatial patterns, destination uses, and various driving factors. GIS methods such as spatial visualization, overlay analysis, and hotspot analysis were used to depict the geography of cultivated land loss in total and by cause. Multiple linear regression models were then developed to explore the roles of natural, locational, economic, social, and policy factors in predicting the overall and three types of cultivated land loss. The results show that (1) the cultivated land area in Tai’an Prefecture decreased by 1338.3 km2 over the decade, which was 32.4% of that in 2009. Ecological use, rather than the widely blamed urban expansion, was the dominant reason, accounting for 55.6% of the total loss of cultivated land. (2) The hotspot areas of cultivated land loss were mainly distributed in the northeastern mountainous area and villages around cities and county seats in the southwest. The hotspot areas of nongrain and ecological conversion were mainly located around the central city, whereas those of nonagricultural conversion were the most extensive around county centers. (3) The factors were found to have heterogeneous effects on the three types of cultivated land loss. For example, land transfer is conducive to large-scale farming and is thus associated with a lower probability of nonagricultural conversion of cultivated land. However, it often facilitates ecological conversion of cultivated land. (4) The basic farmland protection policy was proven to be effective in preventing all three types of cultivated land loss. The above results indicate the great heterogeneity among the three types of cultivated land loss in their geography and determinants, demonstrating the necessity and significance of the typological perspective adopted to interpreting cultivated land loss in urbanizing and transitional societies. To some extent, only by reasonably distinguishing, spatially analyzing, and fully understanding the different types, various causes, and internal structure of cultivated land loss can we formulate more targeted and effective policies of cultivated land protection.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020372
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 373: Effects of Land Transfer on Farmer
           Households’ Straw Resource Utilization in Rural Western China

    • Authors: Fengwan Zhang, Wenfeng Zhou, Jia He, Chen Qing, Dingde Xu
      First page: 373
      Abstract: With the continuous emphasis of the country on the construction of ecological civilization, promoting the utilization of straw resources has become an important measure to achieve green agricultural development. Based on the survey data of 540 households in Sichuan Province and under the guidance of the theory of planned behavior, this paper constructed the IV-Probit model to explore the impact of land transfer on the straw resource utilization of households. The results show that: (1) land transfer in and land transfer out can significantly promote the utilization of straw resources by farmers. (2) Heterogeneity analysis showed that land transfer in had a positive effect on crop straw utilization of the new generation and large-scale farmers. (3) Land transfer in can promote the utilization of straw resources by improving farmers’ economic cognition and efficacy cognition; land transfer out can promote the utilization of straw resources by improving farmers’ efficacy cognition. Accordingly, the government should improve the land transfer market, increase technology propaganda, and create an excellent policy environment to promote farmers’ participation in straw resource utilization.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020373
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 374: Contributions of Social Media to the
           Recognition, Assessment, Conservation, and Communication of Spanish
           Post-Industrial Landscapes

    • Authors: Ángeles Layuno Rosas, Jorge Magaz-Molina
      First page: 374
      Abstract: The paper aims to draft how phenomena such as abandonment, territorial disarticulation, environmental pollution, socioeconomic imbalances, and heritage consideration issues that surround landscapes where industrial activity has ceased are reflected on social media in Spain. The research focuses on the most popular social media platforms in Spain: Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter. A manual sample strategy was conducted to ensure an individualized approach to user-generated content. Sampling was carried out separately for three aspects: (1) keywords at a general level, (2) terms used to define industrial landscapes, and (3) recognition of significant industrial landscapes related to governmental facilities built in the 20th century, wherein we take into account three potential profile types: (i) individuals; (ii) NGOs/associations and/or public administrations; and (iii) academics. The results show that social media platforms are widely used as tools to disseminate information about industrial landscapes, but the contributions of each platform are uneven and incomplete in relation to the reality of post-industrial landscapes. However, it is worth recognizing the added value that their possible interaction brings as a reference for current civic debates. How social media contributes toward mitigating the difficulties of recognition, comprehension, and protection of post-industrial landscapes is emphasized in our conclusions.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020374
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 375: The Social Sustainability of the
           Infrastructures: A Case Study in the Liguria Region

    • Authors: Paolo Rosasco, Leopoldo Sdino
      First page: 375
      Abstract: One of the indicators that measures the economic development of a territory is its infrastructural endowment (road, rail, etc.). The presence of roads, railways, and airports are essential elements in creating the optimal conditions for the establishment or development of productive activities and economic growth; and also to generate benefits. However, the presence of infrastructure can have strong impacts on the environment and the living conditions of the population and infrastructure can be subject to actions related to contrast and opposition. Therefore, in parallel with the economic and environmental sustainability assessment, it is essential to decide whether or not to build new infrastructure. In addition, social sustainability is also pursued on the basis of an assessment that takes into account various aspects that relate the work to the population, also in order to identify the most satisfactory design solution. Alongside the adopted methodology, the assessment must be identified suitable criteria which are capable of taking into account the various impacts generated by the infrastructure, not only of an economic and environmental type, but also social and attributed relative importance (or weight) that is congruous with the correct balance of the three aspects of sustainability. This contribution deals with the identification of criteria for assessing the social sustainability of infrastructure projects, by taking as reference the 24 infrastructure projects in the planning and construction phase in the Liguria Region that make use of the Regional Law n. 39/2007 on the “Regional Strategic Intervention Programs—P.R.I.S.” (Regional Strategic Intervention Programs); which guarantees citizens affected by the infrastructure. In this research work, the selection is performed through the involvement of local stakeholders as well as the subjects and institutions that operate within the decision-making process of a work (designers, technicians from public administrations). The selected criteria are then weighted through the pairwise comparison method used in the multi-criteria technique of ThomasSaaty—Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The goal is to identify the useful criteria for assessing social sustainability and the weights attributed by the various parties involved in the decision-making process by citizens directly or indirectly affected by the infrastructure.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020375
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 376: Landscape Design Outdoor–Indoor VR
           Environments User Experience

    • Authors: Saorin, Carbonell-Carrera, Jaeger, Díaz
      First page: 376
      Abstract: Virtual reality (VR) helps to visualize the spatial relationships between the different elements of the landscape in landscape architecture, allowing the user to feel the designed environment and navigate through it interactively. VR can be used to navigate spaces designed both indoors (inside a building) and outdoors (landscape). In the present research, the perception of the 3D environment during navigation was compared between indoor and outdoor virtual reality environments. The value of the user experience was measured with the Questionnaire on User eXperience in Immersive Virtual Environments, analyzing the presence, engagement, immersion, flow, skill, emotion, usability, technology adoption, judgment and experience consequence subscales. In overall self-reported user experience, results showed that the perception of the environment during navigation was higher in open VR environments than in closed ones. Regarding subscales, the existence of obstacles limits the freedom of movement, which causes a lesser sense of presence. A more fluid VR navigation also generates positive effects on the flow subscale. In outdoor environments, lighting generates shadows, which help in spatial perception and orientation tasks during navigation, which facilitates and increases the perception of immersion. In closed environments, light plays a less important role during navigation.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020376
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 377: Planning and Designing Natural and Urban
           Environments with an Adaptive Visualization Framework: The Case of Pazhou
           Island, Guangzhou, Pearl River Delta

    • Authors: Adam Tomkins, Eckart Lange
      First page: 377
      Abstract: In the planning and design of natural and urban environments, visualization plays an increasingly important role. It has become a core component of communication and dissemination within the various formats of project representation, environmental assessment, workshops, and stakeholder involvement in general. However, as a practical technology, the outputs of our visualizations are, too often, regarded as a static product rather than as a living and evolving tool in and of itself, often due to the inherent restrictions present in both the analog and digital technologies used in data curation and visualization creation. In this paper, we argue that with the increasing complexity and usability of digital technologies, we are now capable of bringing a heightened level of interactive dynamism to planning and design, improving the communicative power of landscape visualization. We introduce a theoretical adaptive visualization (AV) framework, designed to support project meetings and stakeholder interactions with iterative planning and design elements. To demonstrate the merits of the framework, we develop an augmented reality application following AV principles; we discuss the novel design interactions afforded by integrating alongside traditional analog and digital data sources, in an interactive and dynamic application. This is highlighted by a case study from the Pearl River Delta region, with a focus on planning and design for flood risk mitigation.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020377
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 378: Revisiting Vegetation Gradient Analysis and the
           Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis for the Interpretation of Riverine
           Geomorphic Patterns

    • Authors: Tommaso Sitzia, Simone Iacopino, Edoardo Alterio, Francesco Comiti, Nicola Surian, Luca Mao, Mario Aristide Lenzi, Thomas Campagnaro, Lorenzo Picco
      First page: 378
      Abstract: Human effects on the water economy of the river systems are currently well documented at the worldwide scale, impacting a range of ecosystem services. In this perspective article, we discuss the findings of recent papers that under different intensities of human disturbance have coupled the analyses of riverine geomorphological and plant community patterns. The discussion is carried out within the historical framework of past and current methods of sampling and analysing the river geomorphology and the plant communities along cross-sectional profiles. The research has been conducted along three major gravel-bed rivers of the south-eastern Italian Alps: Brenta, Piave, and Tagliamento. The collated and summarised results here demonstrate the existence of a strong relationship between the woody species variance that can be explained by geomorphologic patterns and human disturbance intensity. The less disturbed river has an intermediate value of species variance that can be explained by geomorphology, the intermediate-disturbed river has the highest value, and the highly disturbed river has the lowest value. Then, we proposed an interpretation key and an adaptation of the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, which reads as: “in rivers, the greatest influence of geomorphic properties on vegetation occurs in the moderate or middle ranges of a human disturbance gradient”. We argue that the “influence of the geomorphic properties on vegetation” is assessed through the species constrained variance through an ordination analysis, such as that which is explained here. The most recent collection techniques based on field survey and remote sensing are making it increasingly easy and accurate to study of the trends of geomorphic and plant community variables throughout time and space. Thus, we encourage that researchers should check whether and how our observation is conserved through different groups of taxa and intensities of natural and human disturbance.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020378
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 379: An Unsupervised Burned Area Mapping Approach
           Using Sentinel-2 Images

    • Authors: Michail Sismanis, Rizos-Theodoros Chadoulis, Ioannis Manakos, Anastasios Drosou
      First page: 379
      Abstract: The frequency and severity of large, destructive fires have increased in the recent past, with extended impacts on the landscape, the human population, and ecosystems. Earth observations provide a means for the frequent, wide coverage and accurate monitoring of fire impacts. This study describes an unsupervised approach for the mapping of burned areas from Sentinel-2 satellite imagery, which is based on multispectral thresholding, and introduces an adaptive thresholding method. It takes into account the localized variability of the spectral responses in a two-phase approach. The first phase detects areas that are burned with a high probability, while the second phase adaptively adjusts this preliminary mapping by expanding and refining its boundaries. The resulting classification contains two main classes of interest: burned and unburned. The latter is further classified into four (4) fire impact severity classes, according to the Copernicus Emergency Management Service (CEMS) and the NASA United States Geological Survey (USGS)’s widely acknowledged nomenclature examples. Three distinct wildfire events are assessed, which occurred during the summers of 2020 and 2021 in Greece and Portugal. The classification accuracy is calculated by juxtaposing the classification outputs to burned area validation maps created through the photointerpretation of very high-resolution (VHR) satellite imagery. The corresponding CEMS On-Demand Mapping products are also juxtaposed against the validation maps for comparison purposes. The accuracy assessment showcases that the unsupervised approach closely follows the capacity provided by the CEMS maps (e.g., the kappa coefficient—k—of the proposed unsupervised approach is 0.91, 0.83 and 0.83 for the events processed, while the CEMS products achieve a k of 0.94, 0.93 and 0.8, respectively). The proposed approach considers the variability of the affected areas’ spectral response; thus, it generalizes well to different areas, e.g., areas characterized by different land cover types. It seems to offer an effective means of mapping the wildfire-induced changes, which can be further incorporated and used by forest fire management services and further decision support systems complementary to the CEMS maps.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020379
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 380: Energy-Saving Potential in Planning Urban
           Functional Areas: The Case of Bialystok (Poland)

    • Authors: Kęstutis Zaleckis, Bartosz Czarnecki
      First page: 380
      Abstract: Mobility is one of the basic needs for modern people. The transport system is one of the largest consumers of energy. The largest dimension of mobility activity is concentrated in metropolitan areas, which also shows energy consumption by transport. The research looked at the potential for improving the energy efficiency of a functional and spatial structure, using the example of a medium-sized city and its functional area. The study refers to the idea of the pervasiveness of spatial structure and to the criteria of New Urbanism, as a multifunctional and sustainable urban form. The gravity fields concept was also used. This article presents simulation modeling that has made it possible to model the potential for optimizing an urbanized area towards a reduction in energy consumption in the mobility sphere and to compare the scale of the potential in this respect of its segments in relation to the movement relationships of the destinations (residence, services, workplaces, and leisure). Results show the greatest energy-saving potential located in the peripheral areas with longer distances from centers and the worst equipment of services and infrastructure. The analytic model presented in the article, based on the concept of pervasiveness, could be used for the evaluation of the multifunctionality and sustainability of urban structures.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020380
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 381: Impact of Governance Structure of Rural
           Collective Economic Organizations on Trading Efficiency of Collective
           Construction Land of China

    • Authors: Meie Deng, Anlu Zhang, Wei Luo, Canwei Hu, Meng Huang, Congxi Cheng
      First page: 381
      Abstract: In order to enable urban economic development, the use of the right value and asset value of rural collective construction land (RCCL) is increasingly becoming apparent and this market is experiencing rapid development. However, the arrangement of the governance structure of rural shareholding cooperatives (RSCs) can seriously affect the efficiency of collective construction land market transactions, since the governance of RSCs is related to the interests of farmers. Protecting the rights and interests of farmers while improving the governance efficiency of RSCs is a considerable challenge worldwide. To better deal with this challenge, this study used a field survey in Nanhai District, Guangdong Province, China, to estimate how the governance structure of RSCs affect the efficiency of RCCL market transactions. Tobit models were constructed, and the results show that (1) most of the governance functions of RSCs were not separate from the administrative management of the village committees, which leads to low efficiency of RSCs’ governance; (2) leaders of rural collective economic organizations played a key role in governance efficiency; (3) from the perspective of collective land property rights, most village shareholders did not have decision-making power or supervisory authority in the RCCL transfers because they could not complete access to transaction information. Furthermore, most villagers felt that the amount of income distributed was unreasonable, and the rights and interests of farmers and village shareholders were not guaranteed by the RSCs. Therefore, we suggest that the Chinese authorities should strengthen their current efforts to construct a more open and fair governance structure of the RSCs and thus improve their market transaction efficiency. Our work provides some insights into ways to improve the governance structure and market transaction efficiency of RSCs, which can further contribute to the development of the RCCL market in other areas of China and worldwide.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020381
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 382: Residential Adoption of Best Landscape
           Management Practices: Effects of Outreach to Reduce Non-Point Source
           Pollution

    • Authors: Lillian Hayden, Lorence R. Oki, Darren Haver, Tamara Majcherek, Karey Windbiel-Rojas, Mary L. Cadenasso
      First page: 382
      Abstract: Urban waterways degradation due to runoff from residential areas can be reduced by adopting best management practices (BMPs) for irrigation, fertilizer, and pesticide use. Although stormwater runoff from urban areas has been studied extensively, we focus on single-family residential land use specifically. Outreach to individual households may have a measurable impact since decisions are being made here. We surveyed households to evaluate the effectiveness of education and outreach campaigns on self-reported use of water and chemicals and evaluated whether self-reported behaviors were reflected in the quality and quantity of water draining from the study areas before and after outreach efforts. Our research was conducted in California, which has a Mediterranean climate with distinct wet and dry periods. Runoff from residential landscapes during the dry season enters waterways undiluted by rainwater, making this runoff particularly detrimental to receiving waters. No significant differences in behavior and BMP adoption from before and after the education and outreach campaign was found. These results are not atypical and may be explained by several factors including the population approach to the survey, lag times between outreach and measurable effects, and the need for a critical threshold of adoption to be met for effects to be measurable.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020382
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 383: The Use of biochar in the Remediation of Pb, Cd,
           and Cu-Contaminated Soils. The Impact of biochar Feedstock and Preparation
           Conditions on Its Remediation Capacity

    • Authors: Theodora Bousdra, Sotiria G. Papadimou, Evangelia E. Golia
      First page: 383
      Abstract: Soil constitutes an important part of terrestrial ecosystems, prone to be adversely impacted by human activities. During the last decades, several methods have been developed aiming at its remediation, including the use of biochar as a soil amendment. In the present work, we have assessed the reduction of Pb, Cd, and Cu soil concentrations as a function of the mixing ratio of biochar added to soil, as well as the source of biochar employed. Furthermore, we have investigated the effects of biochar addition relating to the chemical forms of heavy metals (HMs) related to their bioavailability and mobility. The concentrations of HMs were determined by the BCR (European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure before and after biochar addition to the soils. Five types of biochar were used, obtained as by-products of sugarcane bagasse (Β), bamboo (ΒΒ), rice straw (RSB), garden waste (GB), and paulownia (PB) treatment, respectively. Biochar derived from sugarcane (B) reduced the availability of metals, as it decreased their concentration in the acid extractable fraction, by 40.5, 66.6, and 50% for Pb, Cd, and Cu, respectively. In addition, (B) application increased the residual fraction of Cu and Pb by 9% and 24.8%, respectively. Biochar derived from garden residues (GB) and paulownia plant (PB) dramatically increased the residual fraction of Cd over 97%, minimizing its availability. Sugarcane-derived biochar appeared to significantly increase Cu and Pb residual fraction concentrations and decrease available Cd concentration. Similar changes are caused by the types of biochar in the following order: biochar from sugarcane > paulownia > garden wastes > bamboo > rice straw. The redistribution of HM concentrations causes a significant improvement of environmental quality in polluted soils, as it limits the mobility and availability of toxic metals to the soil ecosystem. The use of biochar is a low-cost and eco-friendly method for the remediation of contaminated with HMs soils in the framework of a circular economy.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020383
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 384: Use of Satellite Images to Determine the
           Temperature of Urban Surfaces for Landscape Management Purposes, Case
           Study Bratislava (Slovak Republic)

    • Authors: Martin Šalkovič, Eva Pauditšová
      First page: 384
      Abstract: This contribution deals with the use of data obtained from Landsat 8 satellite imaging to identify surface temperature variability in the example of the city of Bratislava, with an emphasis on identifying hotspots outside the built-up area, for example, on agricultural land—locations which are part of the European Network of Protected Areas. Surface temperature variability is presented in two time periods, on the daytime image taken on 26 July 2021 and on the nighttime image from 28 June 2021. Surface temperature is projected in a profile cut of the area. It vertically illustrates the temperatures of individual types of surfaces. Surfaces are classified by Urban Atlas classes. Areas reflecting the spatial distribution of the residential development in the city of Bratislava have been identified by satellite images in the studied area, and they represent a phenomenon of the urban heat island. Such areas were also identified outside the built-up area, in agricultural areas. The results of our research show that it is important to deal with UHI outside the built-up areas of cities and to orient the attention the territory planning and also to the proposal of measures for the management of these areas. Especially if these areas also include territories of the European system of protected areas, as it is in the case of Bratislava city (e.g., SPA029 Sysľovské polia). The results of reducing the impacts of climate change in cities concern not only the residents. In spatial planning, it is also necessary to address the management of non-built-up areas—localities with a quasi-natural character (e.g., areas with diverse vegetation cover). In order to recognize UHI within residential areas, it is essential to identify areas with significant differences between daytime and nighttime surface temperatures. Large differences between night and daytime surface temperatures can be seen in areas outside the built-up area in Bratislava on arable land where the difference is up to 8.0 °C (in the continuous housing class where the proportion of impermeable surfaces is higher than 80% with a temperature difference of 7.6 °C). Identification of overheated surfaces in the territory makes an important basis for modification of the landscape management and management of nature protection areas. It is important to propose measures related to the reduction in the negative impacts of climate change on the landscape and biodiversity.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020384
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 385: Vulnerability Analysis of the Cultural Heritage
           Sites—The Roman Edifice with Mosaic, Constanța, Romania

    • Authors: Andreea Andra-Topârceanu, Mihaela Verga, Mihaiu Eugen Mafteiu, Marius-Daniel Andra, Marian Marin, Radu-Daniel Pintilii, Giampietro Mazza, Donatella Carboni
      First page: 385
      Abstract: Heritage monuments are religious, historical, strategic, or civil edifices and could be deteriorated or even damaged due to their exposure to natural and anthropogenic hazards. The Roman Edifice with Mosaic (II-IV A.D.), the largest civil edifice (2040 m2) in Eastern Europe, is an ancient civil edifice built on the steep cliff in the western part of the Black Sea, Constanța, Romania, and is exposed to geomorphological and hydrogeological processes, which are affected by degradation. The main objective of this paper is to assess the current state of this ancient historical site in relation to environmental instability and offer scientific support for the rehabilitation process through interdisciplinary and non-destructive methods. Geophysical methods had been applied to comparatively analyze the spatial variations and flows of groundwater around the Roman Edifice with Mosaic in 2008 and 2019. Geomorphological hazards had already been inventoried and mapped. The results emphasize the state of degradation of the Roman mosaic pavement and ancient walls, mainly through high variations in the deposits’ moisture due to poor maintenance, which caused suffosion, and slip processes, bringing the mosaic into a high vulnerability range. The vulnerability map of the Roman Edifice with Mosaic environment is a necessary tool for continuously improving risk management because it clearly emphasizes the sectors that still have hazards.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020385
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 386: Living on the Edge—Mismatches and
           Expectations in a Changing Landscape

    • Authors: Sofia Morgado
      First page: 386
      Abstract: This paper deals with the confrontation between the forms of urbanisation of Lisbon, Portugal, that extends its fringes over the Alcântara Valley. This same Valley—topography and hydrography—plays as determinants of the occupation that will assume distinct narratives. This gradual process is explained through three narratives about (1) the urbanisation of the margin driven by industrialisation and the construction of a stigmatised periphery, (2) the imposition of large capacity infrastructures far beyond what is local, (3) the system of open spaces and landscape projects and the urban brink that the valley claims. The debate focuses on the answers that the urban and landscape project, necessarily going through urban planning and its practical and theoretical scopes, i.e., Urbanism and urban planning thinking, especially in a broad present seeking to discuss both sides of the coin: on the one hand, an urban rehabilitation with public space for all, on the other hand, a qualified and central space that attracts real estate investment that may bring effects contrary to those expected. The article seeks to contribute (1) to a broader perception of the superimposition of processes that transformed the Alcântara Valley, (2) to a fuller dissemination of the urbanistic experiences in the city of Lisbon since this city is still vastly underrepresented in the international (primarily Anglo-Saxon) literature, (3) to deepen the debate between urban rehabilitation, urban regeneration, consequences and opportunities practiced is still trying to cope with.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020386
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 387: On the Role of Natural and Induced Landscape
           Heterogeneity for the Support of Pollinators: A Green Infrastructure
           Perspective Applied in a Peri-Urban System

    • Authors: Capotorti, Valeri, Giannini, Minorenti, Piarulli, Audisio
      First page: 387
      Abstract: Pollinators are key ecosystem components and their conservation represents a critical target for both nature and human health. In a world of increasing urbanisation, cities and peri-urban areas have to be active players in addressing this target, and in-depth knowledge of the effects of the urbanisation gradient and related landscape features on pollinators has to be acquired. Accordingly, an experimental study on the relationships between bee communities and natural vs. human-induced environmental heterogeneity has been carried out in a transitional peri-urban landscape of the Metropolitan area of Rome (Italy). A multi-step procedure was adopted, arranged into plant and bee communities field sampling, detailed mapping of actual and potential ecosystems, and combined processing and modelling of the respective results. The potential contribution of experimental findings to the deployment of a pollinator-friendly Green Infrastructure (GI) has been then explored, with statistical correlations between bee diversity and landscape metrics adopted for defining conservation and restoration actions and a multi-criteria analysis adopted for site prioritisation in the study area. Such a planned GI could represent an effective solution for enhancing resilience and resistance of peri-urban landscapes against land take and agricultural intensification, as local expressions of global biodiversity loss drivers.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020387
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 388: The Soils of Early Farmers and Their Neighbors
           in the Southern Buh Catchment (Ukraine): Micromorphology and
           Archaeological Context

    • Authors: Dmytro Kiosak, Zhanna Matviishyna
      First page: 388
      Abstract: The problems regarding hunter-gatherer/early farmer interactions are quite an important topic in southeast European archaeology. According to the available data, the two economic subsistence systems have coexisted for some 2000 years during the 6th–4th millennia cal BC (Telegin 1985; Lillie et al., 2001). In some areas, hunter-gatherer and early farmer sites are located just a few kilometers apart. The Southern Buh River valley has yielded evidence of Linear Pottery culture, early Trypillia and Trypillia B1 Neolithic settlements as well as hunter-gatherer sites with pottery attributable to the so-called sub-Neolithic or para-Neolithic (Haskevych et al., 2019; Kiosak et al., 2021). Trial-trenches have been opened within some of these sites, which have been radiocarbon-dated from Bern University laboratory (LARA). Soil samples for micromorphological analysis have been collected from these sites to interpret their paleogenetic formation. The soil development is attested since, at least, the beginning of the 5th mill BC, followed by the developed of chernozem soils, which was interrupted by an erosional episode in the end of 5th millennium BC. The available data show that the soils of early farmers arable as are the present day ones. The early farmers were able to exploit relatively heavy soils to cultivate wheat and barley as early as 5250–5050 cal BC. In contrast, the sites of ceramic hunter-gatherers were often located on the soils which formed under wet conditions along seasonally flooded riverbanks, which were almost unsuitable for agricultural practices.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020388
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 389: Natural Resources Conflicts on Borderlands by
           the Five Spheres of Earth System

    • Authors: Hansol Lee, Jeongeun Son, Suyeon Min, Haeun Lee, Mi Sun Park
      First page: 389
      Abstract: Border regions face challenges managing natural resources, which include forests, wildlife, air, and rivers. This study aims to provide an overview of research on various natural resource conflicts and cooperation in borderlands worldwide, considering the five spheres of the Earth system, namely the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and anthroposphere. The type, scope, and place of natural resource conflicts in the borderlands were examined and key findings for clarifying the conflicts, cooperation, and geographical characteristics were derived using a systematic review methodology. The results indicate that over the last two decades, the conflicts over the hydrosphere are the most dominant. In the following order, conflicts over the biosphere have been frequently dealt with in transboundary areas. In Africa, dams (the anthroposphere) related to the hydrosphere especially influence and cause conflicts as well as cooperation for benefit-sharing among riparian countries. In North America, governance along the transboundary areas has been developed. “In Asia, several neighboring countries are linked through various types of associations ranging from multilateral organizations to sub-national administrations in order to effectively manage the long and wide-ranging natural resources that exist beyond the borders of the countries”. In Europe, numerous protected areas related to the biosphere have been designated. Therefore, this research helps better understand transboundary conflicts based on natural resources and could contribute to designing natural resource management strategies or models in borderlands.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/land12020389
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2023)
       
 
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