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  Subjects -> GEOGRAPHY (Total: 493 journals)
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ISSN (Print) 0103-1570 - ISSN (Online) 1982-4513
Published by SciELO Homepage  [688 journals]
  • Anthropic Action and the Eutrophization Process in the Paraíba do
           Meio River

    • Authors: Everson Oliveira Santos, Paulo Ricardo Petter Medeiros
      Abstract: The appropriation and use of a hydrographic basin by society is a historical process, necessary and, above all, a generator of environmental problems that greatly alter the quality of water. One of the problems related to water quality is eutrophication. Many aquatic ecosystems have suffered from this problem, which consists of large inputs of Phosphorus and Nitrogen introduced into the riverbed, for example, through domestic and/or industrial effluents. This context of change in water quality by human action triggers the significant growth of phytoplanktonic and phytobenthic organisms, thus causing an imbalance in the dynamics of the aquatic ecosystem, as well as damage to society. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the Trophic State of the Paraíba do Meio River and understand the unfolding and influences of society's relationship with the river and how this relationship has contributed to the eutrophication process. The materials and methods were based on: data acquisition of chemical and physical parameters from campaigns carried out monthly during the hydrological year of 2013; flow and precipitation data; adequate sanitary sewage data; laboratory analyses; determination of the Trophic State Index by the TRIX Model. It was evidenced that due to the varied anthropic activities that occurred in the hydrographic basin in question, with the significant introduction of nutrients such as Phosphorus and Nitrogen in the river bed, during the hydrological year of 2013, the Paraíba do Meio river presented different stages of eutrophication that range from mesotrophic to eutrophic.
      PubDate: 2023-01-09
      DOI: 10.14393/SN-v35-2023-66441
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Classification of precipitation anomalies in the Rio Grande do Sul in ENSO
           events in the 20th century

    • Authors: Pedro Teixeira Valente, Denilson Ribeiro Viana, Francisco Eliseu Aquino, Jefferson Cardia Simões
      Abstract: This study investigated the intensity and spatial distribution of precipitation anomalies in Rio Grande do Sul state (RS) during the 20th century by analyzing the influence of El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in its three phases. Reanalyzes from the University of Delaware (V5) were used. Precipitation anomalies were divided into three zones (Campaign, Plateau, Coast) to investigate possible differences in precipitation under ENSO influence. Alexandersson's Standard Normal Homogeneity Test was applied to verify possible structural breaks. Wavelets were used to rate the periodicity of precipitation anomalies into three phases. Anomalies that occurred in El Niño and La Niña phases were classified in contingency tables as weak, average, and strong to evaluate the qualitative behavior of these precipitation anomalies. It was found that precipitation anomalies presented a structural break in 1955 when the tendency to positive anomalies increased. From 1955, precipitation anomalies increased at least 0.5 standard deviation while the frequency of these anomalies decreased from 85 to 60 months. Peaks of positive anomalies in El Niño were higher than 200 mm. In neutral cases, anomalies intensified in 0.5 standard deviation since 1970. Negative anomalies did not show specific behavior in any ENSO phase. Contingency tables indicated that La Niña events did not present any visible influence pattern. It could intensify the episodes of positive and negative precipitation anomalies in at least 0.5 (-0.5) standard deviation. Therefore, La Niña events could increase or decrease the monthly anomaly but do not show any tendency to negative anomalies. Weak El Niños tends to contribute to negative precipitation anomalies while strong cases are associated with an average increase of 2 standard deviations in positive anomalies. It was concluded that the influence of ENSO in RS is stronger in El Niño than in La Niña. Still, both may induce negative and positive anomalies, depending on the intensity of each case. Wavelet analysis revealed that cycles that did not coincide with El Niño/La Niña showed an increase (decrease) of 0.5 (-0.5) standard deviation is positive (negative) anomalies. The increase of anomalies in neutral phases indicated that other climatic variability modes and the intensity of meteorological events decreased the 25 and 43 months cycles and increased the precipitation in RS.
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      DOI: 10.14393/SN-v35-2023-66073
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Spatial and temporal structure of Cerrado Conservation Units: combined
           heterogeneity for conservation

    • Authors: Sara Alves Santos, Luis Felipe Soares Cherem
      Abstract: Unidades de Conservação - UC (type of Brazilian protected area) corresponds to approximately 18% of the national continental area, resulting from the integration of pressures from organized civil society materialized in public policies, whose selection criteria and distribution have varied over time. By observing the location of these protected areas, issues related to their relevance and Cerrado heterogeneity representativeness are of considerable importance for the conservation of life, since they make it possible to understand this Biome’s current situation, perspectives, and challenges for its conservation. Therefore, the objective here is to evaluate the spatial distribution of UC in the Cerrado from the temporal evolution of new units’ creation, in administrative spheres and categories, with a period starting in 1949, the year of the first UC creation in the Cerrado, until the end of 2010. The methodological procedures adopted consisted of a bibliographic survey, secondary databases consultation and data processing in a GIS environment. The results show that the distribution of UC is not regular in either space or time. In addition, many units correspond to isolated fragments of vegetation, with no connection to other areas and/or are of smaller dimensions, making it difficult to maintain the ecosystems present in them. In the national scenario, the Cerrado stands out in relation to the number and area of protected ones, which reinforces its important role in Brazilian conservation policies.
      PubDate: 2022-12-13
      DOI: 10.14393/SN-v35-2023-65504
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Maputo, the divided city: fragmentation and (re)qualification

    • Authors: João Henrique Santana Stacciarini, Eguimar Felício Chaveiro, Helsio Amiro Motany de Albuquerque Azevedo
      Abstract: Maputo - the Mozambican capital - has expanded itself vertiginously in the midst of the late independence process (1975). Its population has been multiplied about twelve times during the decades from 1950 to 2020, reaching more than 1.1 million inhabitants. The political, commercial, and financial center of the country, the urban fabric of the capital is the stage for complex processes of economic growth and spatial segregation triggered in recent decades. The central region, known locally as the "cement city", concentrates on modern and widely diversified infrastructures. Squares and parks, luxury condos surrounded by modern offices, international standard hotels, shopping, and a set of pharaonic constructions - built at a cost of billions - set the landscape tone of progress induced and concentrated in favor of a small elite. However, beyond this "stronghold", around 92% of the population lives in the peripheral part of Maputo, popularly known as the "reed city". These, however, are located in very precarious housing, produced informally by the residents themselves, and subjected to the complete absence of infrastructure and public services. These issues contribute directly to the fact that Mozambique has the ninth-worst Human Development Index (HDI) on the planet. In this way, the present article - elaborated from fieldwork, interdisciplinary discussions and dialogues undertaken within the scope of an international scientific project between universities in Brazil and Mozambique - seeks to present and interpret the set of urban connections that make Maputo a fragmented and complex city, full of continuous socio-territorial transformations in which multiple clashes emerge linked to segregation, gentrification, real estate speculation, among others.
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.14393/SN-v35-2023-65951
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Identification of land use conflicts in Permanent Preservation Area in a
           Brazilian Amazon sub-basin

    • Authors: Aline Kraeski, Frederico Terra Almeida, Adilson Pacheco Souza, Tânia Maria Carvalho
      Abstract: The southern region of the Amazon stands out for the growing agricultural development and installation of large hydroelectric projects. Given this scenario, the objective of this study was to quantify the Áreas de Preservação Permanente (APPs), Permanent Preservation Areas, of the water bodies of the Teles Pires river basin according to the current legislation, checking whether there is conflict regarding the use and occupation of these areas, and then check for the occurrence of degradation and identify the environmental fragility of the area. Using the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI), the water bodies located in the study area were delineated and the APPs were delimited according to Law 12,651/2012. To identify the existence of conflicts within these areas, a map of land use and occupation was generated through Maximum Likelihood supervised classification, which was compared with the limits of the APPs, considering conflict areas whose land use is related to anthropic activities. Lastly, the potential and emerging fragility of the area were calculated, considering data of the slope, soil type and land cover/land use. The delimited APP comprised 3.96% of the total area of the basin and it showed a state of low degradation, with 83.83% of the area conserved under native vegetation cover and 15.93% showing conflicting type of use, with the occupation by pastures standing out, and among the APP categories mapped the headwaters were the most impacted. The spatialization of conflicts within the basin indicated that it has a very different conservation pattern, with the most critical areas concentrated in the center-east, where municipalities that have more than 40% of the APP occupied by anthropic activities are located. The north of the basin has areas with higher potential fragility, which is attenuated by the great soil protection.
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.14393/SN-v35-2023-65724
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The role of natural and anthropic factors in the variability of soil loss
           in the state of Goi├ís between 1985 and 2018

    • Authors: Lucas Espíndola Rosa, Luís Felipe Soares Cherem, Lionel Siamé
      Abstract: Soil loss depends on natural and anthropic factors with high spatial and temporal variability, and can be inferred by predictive models such as the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). In this sense, the objective of this work is to analyze the spatio-temporal distribution and variation of soil losses in the state of Goiás for the years 1985, 2000 and 2018, based on the application of RUSLE and using the drainage basin as a multiscale unit of analysis. The results generally show that there has been an increase in the average loss of soils in the state between the observed years, with the average in 1985 being 2.4 ton.ha-1.year-1, growing to 10.8 ton.ha-1.year-1 in 2000, and 11.56 ton.ha-1.year-1 in 2018. The hydrographic regions of Tocantins and Paraná presented the highest losses. In addition to the general control of the Cerrado conversion expansion, the state of Goiás presents two spatial soil loss patterns; one in which the control of natural factors predominates, being linked to morphogenetic aspects with a strong influence of the topographic factor; and the other being rain erosivity, spatialized in areas such as the “front” of Cuesta Caiapó, Serra Dourada and Serra dos Pireneus. When associated, these two factors define sensitive areas with the highest soil losses in the state of Goiás.
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.14393/SN-v35-2023-66034
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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