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  Subjects -> GEOGRAPHY (Total: 493 journals)
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Quaestiones Geographicae
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2082-2103 - ISSN (Online) 2081-6383
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [370 journals]
  • A Spatial Model of Forest Area in the Middle Ages Based on Historical,
           Archaeological and Geographic Data: A Case Study of 13th-Century Chełmno
           Land (North-Central Poland)

    • Abstract: The settlement established under German law in Chełmno Land in the 13th century, the resultant changes in the structure of agriculture and land cultivation techniques, and the growing demand on wood as timber, fuel and raw materials for crafts, all combined to contribute to the significant deforestation of the territory. The extent of this deforestation remains conjectural. The purpose in creating a model of forest area in 13th-century Chełmno Land was to attempt to reconstruct it and determine its size and, consequently, to verify hypotheses concerning the scale and the ultimate end of deforestation in the research area. The spatial model is based on published historical and archaeological data relating to selected components of the geographical environment that pertain to the forest area. A retrogressive method combined with Multi-Criterion Evaluation (MCE) was used to build a forest area model. The basic platform for collecting, analysing and visualising spatial data was the geographic information system (GIS). The presented estimates indicate that the forest area of Chełmno Land in the 13th century was larger than had previously been assumed, at about 20–25% of the entire territory.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • GIS-Based Land Cover Analysis and Prediction Based on Open-Source Software
           and Data

    • Abstract: The study aims at land cover prediction based on cellular automata and artificial neural network (CA-ANN) method implemented in the Methods Of Land Use Change Evaluation (MOLUSCE) tool. The Tricity region and the neighbouring counties of Gdański and Kartuzy were taken as the research areas, and coordination of information on the environment (CORINE Land Cover, CLC, CLMS 2022) data for 2006, 2012 and 2018 were used to analyse, simulate and predict land cover for 2024, the next reference year of the CORINE inventory. The results revealed an increase in artificial surfaces, with the highest value during the period 2006–2012 (86.56 km2). In total, during the period 2006–2018, the growth in urbanised area amounted to 95.37 km2. The 2024 prediction showed that artificial surfaces increased by 9.19 km2, resulting in a decline in agricultural land.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Storm Surges Versus Shore Erosion: 21 Years (2000–2020) of Observations
           on the Świna Gate Sandbar (Southern Baltic Coast)

    • Abstract: Based on observations spanning 21 years (2000–2020), the article studies the effects of storm surges on the shore of the Świna Gate Sandbar in the southern part of the Pomeranian Bay (southern Baltic Sea). Impacts of selected maximum storm surges in each year were assessed with respect to morphological data collected on the beach and the foredune. The data included parameters of beach-dune erosion as measured along a beach transect before and after each surge. Differences and trends in the shore erosion were related to the sea level (SL), duration of a storm surge [highest storm sea level (HSL) > 1 m], wind-wave sector and wave run-up. The relationships were explored using a simple correlation analysis. The most serious erosion was observed during the heaviest surges [HSL > 1.3 m above the mean sea level (AMSL)], with a wave run-up higher than 3.2 m AMSL. Such surges occurred at about 2-year intervals. The average SL during a surge was 1.2 m AMSL, with a run-up of 2.6 m AMSL. The beach and the lower part of the shore, below that level, were eroded each year. The heaviest surges resulted in an average 5.2 m and 7.0 m dune retreat on the high-beach-accumulative shore and on the low-beach-erosive shore, respectively. The dune was not eroded when the beach height exceeded the wave run-up. The heaviest surges eroded away 12–14 m3 of the beach sand volume. The shore erosion was found to be related to the storm surge duration, the maximum SL, the run-up and the beach height prior to the surge.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Precipitation Amounts Triggering Landslide Processes in the Western Part
           of the Nałęczów Plateau (Lublin Upland, Poland)

    • Abstract: This study covers the western part of Poland’s loess Nałęczów Plateau (Kazimierz Dolny, Zbędowice). Mass movements in the Lublin Upland occur during periods of increased precipitation or after a snowy and cold winter. To date, there are no comprehensive studies on active (precipitation, hydrology, vegetation, land use, anthropogenic factors) or passive factors (lithology, slope angle) causing such geohazards in this region. This area’s formations are characterised by high sensitivity to even small changes in moisture content; thus, their geotechnical parameters deteriorate as a result of precipitation or rising groundwater levels. The calculations in this study were chosen to determine the time necessary for ground response to external factors, in addition to determining the impact of these factors on decreases in the factor of safety (FS). Based on calculations in GeoStudio software, the impacts of rainfall totals and duration on slope failure, interpreted as an event where the FS falls below 1.0, were analysed. Accordingly, the threshold rainfall value was determined as the total rainfall at the time of slope failure. The study’s results indicate that loess covers are characterised by average water permeability, relatively high internal friction angles and low cohesion, which, combined with high slope inclination, favour landslide formation even when the slope is only partially saturated. The most unfavourable stability conditions occur at the beginning of spring, indicating that loess stability is significantly affected by snowmelt and precipitation at the beginning of the vegetation season, as well as the occurrence of episodic intense precipitation during the summer.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Demographic Analysis of the Makkah Province for the Purpose of Evaluating
           the Balance of the Urban System

    • Abstract: Reaching a well-adjusted population distribution is a major challenge for urban settlements. Various research works have been focusing on evaluating the demographic balance of urban systems worldwide. Regularities in population distribution among urban settlements have been noticed and confirmed by empirical studies in the contemporary era. These studies assert that both rank of a city in the demographic hierarchy and its population size are proportionally correlated in a balanced urban system. It has been proved that this correlation is established according to mathematical theories that have been scientifically identified and proved through in-depth research. This article aims to check the conformity of the population distribution of the Makkah Province to two main demographic, organisational theories. In this article, there will be an attempt to measure the variations, evaluate and assess the deviations, interpret the result thereof, and then compare the outcomes of the two methods applied on the Makkah Province.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Modelling the Obstacles to using Bicycle Sharing Systems in the Tehran
           Metropolis: A Structural Analysis

    • Abstract: The main objective of the current research is to identify and prioritise the obstacles to using bicycle sharing systems (BSSs) in the Tehran metropolis. The methodology of this research is analytical-descriptive and it aims to achieve applied goals. To do so, firstly the obstacles are identified through studying the theoretical and practical foundations of the issue and then by delving into factors associated with BSSs in the Tehran metropolis, extracting them through the content validity method. Then, the interrelations among the specified obstacles and their impact and effectiveness are determined through structural and MICMAC modelling. The data collection tool employed in the research assumes the forms of a survey and a face-to-face interview. According to the results, the following variables are among the ones associated with obstacles having the maximum impact on other obstacles: the financial problems and the disparity within the municipal management, culturalisation, educational shortage and negligence in using the participatory capacities of civilians. Before executing and taking any other strategy to overcome the obstacles, the forthcoming model supports Tehran metropolis municipal managers to identify the existent obstacles of the field in order to enable them to utilise a suitable approach as to lodging BSSs.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Regional Economic Integration and Its Impact on Income Distribution and
           the Poverty Level: The Case of the WAEMU Zone

    • Abstract: This study investigated the influence of regional economic integration (REI) on poverty reduction and the revenue distribution in the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) over the period 1994–2018. The second generation panel unit root tests and the Westerlund panel cointegration test were employed for preliminary analysis. The elasticities of the variables were investigated using the Pooled Mean Group (PMG) approach. The results showed that REI reduced income inequality and increased the poverty rate. Moreover, the causal relationship revealed the presence of a bidirectional relationship between REI and poverty. The feedback causal effect operated between REI and remittances, while unidirectional causality runs from REI to income inequality, from economic growth per capita to income inequality, from remittances to poverty, from the control of corruption to income inequality, and from remittances to economic growth. Consequently, the study recommends an easing of governmental regional integration restrictions and provision of subsidies that help to increase the volume of trade and financial development while reducing poverty in the union.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Do Motorisation Statistics Reflect the Real Geography of Car Ownership in

    • Abstract: The article aims to identify the shortcomings of the statistics describing the size and structure of passenger car parc in Poland, and to formulate the consequences of these limitations for geographical research. Analysed in detail, the shortcomings are divided into three groups: (1) ‘dead souls’, i.e. an overestimation of the number of vehicles which have not been on the road for a long time but remain on the register; (2) ‘cars with a grid’ (cars registered as trucks in which the cargo part is separated from passenger seats by a metal grid), i.e. an underestimation of the number of passenger cars and overestimation of the number of trucks related to the mass phenomenon of registering passenger cars as large goods vehicles (LGV-approved cars); and (3) company cars, i.e. an overestimation of the number of vehicles in cities where leasing companies and large enterprises owning those cars have their headquarters. The article determines the scale of car ownership overestimation in Poland and the areas where this overestimation is the highest, using districts (PL: powiaty) as basic spatial units. We conclude that the present motorisation statistics do not fully reflect the real geography of car ownership in Poland.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Research on Rural Entrepreneurship in Terms of the Literature: Definition
           Problems and Selected Research Issues

    • Abstract: Rural entrepreneurship has become an important research issue with great development potential in the face of intense socio-economic changes in rural areas. However, few significant studies cover this topic in Polish and foreign literature. In this article, the authors attempt to review and evaluate the current research on rural entrepreneurship emphasising the Polish literature and including geographical studies. The article describes and organises theoretical research achievements to date and offers a definition of rural entrepreneurship and the directions and prospects for further research.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Editorial

    • PubDate: Fri, 24 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Changes in Students’ Life at Selected Universities in Central and
           Eastern Europe during the First Stage of the Pandemic

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic affected not only global economy and society, but also particular institutions, including those of higher education. The aim of the paper is to determine changes in students’ life at selected universities in Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus. An online survey was applied, addressed to students of four universities in Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus (n=380). As a result of the pandemic, more than 46% of students declared worsening of their material situation. In comparison to the period before the pandemic, the respondents observed appearance or intensification of various psychosomatic symptoms, and a 12 percent point decrease in the assessment of their own health. The comparative analysis showed similarities between students’ life preferences, plans on university education, and differences in their material situation, health, and employment.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Uneven Peripheral Developments in Central and Eastern Europe: A Case Study
           of the Tirana City Region, Albania

    • Abstract: This paper traces residential and spatial urban transformations in Albania, one of the last post-socialist countries embracing neoliberalism. To do this, we employed a discourse analysis based on analogies of uneven urban peripheral developments in the regions of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), evaluating the impact of uneven (sub) urban development of settlements, with a particular emphasis on socio-economic aspects that need to be addressed in the process of extensive urban growth of the Tirana city region. Our empirical analysis reveals the inherent diversity of urban experiences across post-socialist countries in CEE with a particular reference to how the new post-socialist urban landscape in the Tirana city region produces geographically uneven socio-spatial development. Additionally, we highlight the dichotomy between the urban conditions of a ‘fortress landscape’ in the southern part of the capital of Tirana and its northern part of a new emerging small municipality lagging behind (in)formally with a new fringes identity. Our findings theoretically contribute to a post-socialist critique of urban studies due to urban theory’s neglect of post-socialist cities like Tirana.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • A Year of Spatio-Temporal Clusters of COVID-19 in Indonesia

    • Abstract: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in Indonesia began to appear on March 2, 2020 and led to a number of fatalities. Spatial analysis is important to study the spatio-temporal trend of COVID-19 cases and fatalities to get a better understanding of the spread as well as to mitigate it. However, such a comprehensive study at national level is not to be seen in Indonesia with limited health infrastructure. This study aims to analyse the spatio-temporal distribution and clusters of COVID-19 in Indonesia for a year period. COVID-19 cases, as well as the fatalities as a consequence of this disease, were collected from the government through publicly shared data. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to manage and analyse the data on demographics, cases, and fatalities. The case fatality rate (CFR) was produced based on the number of cases and deaths per province weekly. The spatio-temporal data of both cases and fatalities were generated from the data. Finally, K-means clustering was employed to classify the cluster of Indonesia based on the proportion of vulnerable age groups, cases, and CFR. The results show that most of the provinces in Indonesia are affected by COVID-19, but the fatalities are not distributed evenly throughout the country. Based on the K-means clustering, two provinces are classified as moderate, namely the Province of East Kalimantan and North Kalimantan. The Province of Jakarta is classified as high, because the vulnerable age group there is highly correlated with the number of cases and deaths.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Energy Consumption and Economic Growth Linkage: Global Evidence from
           Symmetric and Asymmetric Simulations

    • Abstract: The literature reveals that linear models do not accurately represent the asymmetric relationship between economic growth and energy consumption (EC). To fill this gap, we examined the asymmetric relationship between EC and economic growth in a non-linear panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) framework of 85 countries as a whole sample and of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS), the Next Eleven, Big Four in Western Europe, Asia-Pacific region, Group of Seven, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) and the Arab League as a sub-sample analysis from 1977 to 2014. A second generational unit root test has been applied to check the problem of cross-sectional dependency. Asymmetric co-integration was employed to analyse the co-integration between the variables of interest. Long-run and short-run estimates have been calculated using the non-linear panel ARDL method. Results indicate that positive shocks to energy use tend to have a growth-enhancing effect in ECO and the Next Eleven while in the rest of the regions, the effect is growth contraction. Moreover, economic recovery from a positive shock to energy use is the case in the Arab League, Asia-Pacific region, Group of Seven and in the whole sample. However, a negative shock to EC is observed in the Group of Seven, Asia Pacific region, Big Four in Western Europe and ECO, and the whole sample worsens the economic contraction. We can deduct from this study’s results that information on the asymmetric relationship between the subject variables is needed to design sound economic policy decisions across different economic regions.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Comprehensive Assessment of Meta-Analysis and Contingent Valuation
           Technique for Sustainable Management of Wetland of Middle Ganga Plain

    • Abstract: In this study, the functions and threats of Suraha Tal Wetland are identified by the stated preference method and weightage is given according to their rank. The objective of the study is to determine the total economic value of Suraha Tal Wetland. The direct value can be drawn from the market price and from a survey of the stakeholders. Suraha Tal Wetland is also famous for the presence of the Jai Prakash Narayan Birds Sanctuary, which makes it a biodiversity-enriched area. The indirect value has been drawn from a review of the literature on Suraha Tal Wetland and the relevance of this literature is justified through the comprehensive meta-analysis (CMA) software. The total valuation of the wetland has been calculated. The paper concludes with suggestions for a few management strategies for better wetland management.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Impact of the Tengiz Oil Field on the State of Land Cover

    • Abstract: The study of the transformation of natural complexes in areas with a developed infrastructure for oil subsurface use is a prerequisite condition for solving the environmental problems of oil-producing regions. Located in the territory of the Atyrau Region in Western Kazakhstan, the Tengiz oil field is one of the largest oil fields in the world. The field has been under intensive development for more than 40 years and is characterised by a large volume of anthropogenic load, which contributes to a significant transformation of the landscape complex. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dynamics of landscape changes in the territory of the Tengiz field and to assess its ecological condition. Based on the materials from many years of research, the features of the Tengiz field and the main technogenic sources affecting the landscape complex were identified. Several quantitative indicators characterising the anthropogenic load were calculated based on satellite images. On the basis of Landsat – 5 TM, 7 ETM+ and 8 OLI and Sentinel-2A (S2A) data, the vegetation index of land cover was calculated using normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI), demonstrating the dynamics of landscape changes in the period from 1990 to 2020. The obtained results show that the areas of some landscape components continue to deteriorate. For example, the area of open soil in 2020 decreased due to the withdrawal of these areas for industrial facilities, which increased by 2.2 times by 2020 due to intensive field development. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring and studying desert landscape complexes under active anthropogenic impact to ensure the sustainable development of territories.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Non-Medical risk assessment of COVID-19 in parts of Central and East Java,

    • Abstract: The impact of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic varies as each country has a different capacity to stop the virus transmission and apply social distancing. A densely populated country, such as Indonesia, tends to face challenges in implementing social distancing due to population characteristics. The Indonesian government focuses on the medical aspect as this virus is new and has been deadly with a high transmission rate. Meanwhile, the non-medical risk during the pandemic is still unclear. The main objective of this study is to assess the non-medical risk at the village level in two agglomeration cities of Central Java: Greater Surakarta and Surabaya. The methodologies use a risk index, derived from the risk reduction concept. The hazard refers to the death toll, while the vulnerability relates to parameters such as disaster, social and public facilities, health facilities, economics and demography. Further, the parameters were weighted based on expert judgement derived using analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The study found that the disaster aspect had the highest weight (0.38), followed by health facilities (0.31), economics (0.17), social-public facilities (0.11) and demography (0.04). The standard deviations of those parameters were relatively low, between 0.12 and 0.25. A low vulnerability index (0.05–0.36) was observed to be dominant in both study areas. There are 11 villages in Greater Surakarta and 30 villages in Greater Surabaya with high vulnerability index. Disaster-prone areas, low economic growth, lack of health facilities and aged demographic structure significantly added to this vulnerability. Further, a high-risk index (0.67–1.00) is observed in three villages in Greater Surabaya and one village in Greater Surakarta. These villages are relatively close to the city centre and have good accessibility. Furthermore, these four villages experienced the severest impact of the pandemic because the furniture and tourism sectors were their primary industries.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Interpretative Machine Learning as a Key in Recognizing the Variability of
           Lakes Trophy Patterns

    • Abstract: The paper presents an application of interpretative machine learning to identify groups of lakes not with similar features but with similar potential factors influencing the content of total phosphorus – Ptot. The method was developed on a sample of 60 lakes from North-Eastern Poland and used 25 external explanatory variables. Selected variables are stable over a long time, first group includes morphometric parameters of lakes and the second group encompass watershed geometry geology and land use. Our method involves building a regression model, creating an explainer, finding a set of mapping functions describing how each variable influences the outcome, and finally clustering objects by ’the influence’. The influence is a non-linear and non-parametric transformation of the explanatory variables into a form describing a given variable impact on the modeled feature. Such a transformation makes group data on the functional relations between the explanatory variables and the explained variable possible. The study reveals that there are five clusters where the concentration of Ptot is shaped similarly. We compared our method with other numerical analyses and showed that it provides new information on the catchment area and lake trophy relationship.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Analysis of the Velocity Changes of the Jakobshavn Glacier Based on SAR

    • Abstract: The study analyzes the changes in dynamics of the Jakobshavn Glacier in summer and winter in 2017 and 2021. Satellite radar observations and the available database were used for this. Moreover, the influence of the time baseline between SAR images on the quality of the results was also investigated. The velocities computed from Sentinel-1 images and the offset-tracking technique were compared with the MEaSUREs database information. The results showed that Jakobshavn Glacier accelerated in 2021 up to 39.0 m d−1. However, this value may be underestimated due to the resolution of Sentinel-1 data. The results therefore confirm the acceleration of the glacier melting process, which may be a result of the observed climate changes on our planet.
      PubDate: Sat, 19 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Hydrological Dry Periods versus Atmospheric Circulations in the Lower
           Vistula Basin (Poland) in 1954–2018

    • Abstract: The paper discusses the impact of atmospheric circulation on the occurrence of droughts. The research includes mean monthly discharges for 7 rivers in 1954–2018. Dry periods were determined with Standardised Streamflow Indices (SSI-12). Additionally, the circulation type calendar for Central Poland was used to determine the atmospheric circulation indices: western zonal (W), southern meridional (S) and cyclonicity (C). The analyses indicated a variation in the duration and intensity of droughts in the rivers. 2014–2017 was the driest period with the lowest SSI-12 for most rivers and the highest number of extremely dry months. The advection of air from the West and the South prevailed and anticyclonic synoptic situations dominated over the cyclonic types. Drought spells occurred at a dominance of anticyclonic circulation, with the inflow of air from the North and with increased western zonal circulation.
      PubDate: Sat, 19 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
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