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  Subjects -> GEOGRAPHY (Total: 493 journals)
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ISSN (Print) 2082-2103 - ISSN (Online) 2081-6383
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [389 journals]
  • Effects of Geomorphological Processes and Phytoclimate Conditions Change
           on Forest Vegetation in the Pomeranian Bay Coastal Zone (Wolin National
           Park, West Pomerania)

    • Abstract: The functioning of plant associations, including forest associations, in the coastal cliff edge zone of the Pomeranian Bay in the Wolin National Park (WNP) is determined by short-term factors related to the dynamics of erosion and denudation processes and long-term phytoclimatic conditions' changes. The study presents a temporary analysis of the occurrence of sea abrasion and water and aeolian erosion, based on the applied hydrometeorological threshold values. The influence of changes in phytoclimatic conditions on the development and productivity of coastal forests with the dominant species of Fagus sylvatica was also presented. Assessments of spatial susceptibility to erosion of the cliff coast and the existing plant associations were also carried out in conditions of the risk of coast erosion. It was found that 55% of the cliff edge zone of the Pomeranian Bay of the WNP and the forest associations (mainly Luzulo pilosae-Fagetum) occurring there are in the zone of particular risk of increased erosion and denudation processes. In addition, unfavourable trends in changes in phytoclimatic conditions in the 21st century were found, which reflect climate changes unfavourable to the development of beech forests on Wolin Island.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Feb 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cartography and Analysis of the Urban Growth, Case Study: Inter-Communal
           Grouping of Batna, Algeria

    • Abstract: This paper focuses on the analysis of the urban macroform in terms of urban compactness and dispersion (urban sprawl) in the inter-communal grouping of Batna, which is composed of four adjacent interconnected communal districts: Batna, Tazoult, Oued Chaaba and Fesdis. First, the urban macroform is examined by mapping the urban areas that are characterised by morphological changes over a period of 36 years utilising remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) through satellite images taken from Landsat TM and ETM +, Sentinel 2 (1984, 1996, 2008 and 2020). Next, the Shannon entropy method is utilised to determine compactness or dispersion of urban growth over time. In addition, a fractal analysis based on the box-counting method is used to assess the complexity and to explain the morphological reality of the macroform through urban changes. In order to predict the future change scenarios and spatial distributions of land use and land cover in the coming years the hybrid cellular automata (CA) – Markov method is used. The results of the remote sensing, Shannon entropy values and fractal indices demonstrate that Batna inter-municipal grouping has experienced moderate urban development according to the observed urban sprawl between 1984 and 2020. These data are helpful in the urban planning and to provide decision-making tools.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Feb 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Role of Geomorphosites in the Local Economy Development of the
           Carpathian and Sub-Carpathian Area of Vrancea County, Romania

    • Abstract: The development of geotourism already represents an element that must be taken into consideration by the Administrative Territorial Units (ATUs) in order to obtain a sustainable economy. This study was divided into three main stages. In the first part of the study, an assessment of geomorphosites from the Carpathian and Sub-Carpathian area of Vrancea County was done, resulting in the ranking of geomorphosites. The second stage focussed on an analysis of the local economies in the studied area at the level of each ATU and four-digit Classification of National Economic Activities (NACE) code for a period of 19 years (2000–2018) using four economic indicators to determine the share of the tourism sector in the economy of each ATU. The data was used to generate trend matrices and relevant cartographic materials about the contribution of tourism to each ATU's local economy in the analysed area. The last stage consisted in drawing a parallel between the concentration of geomorphosites in the analysed area, the score obtained by them in the evaluation and the tourism sector's share trend in local economies. This study shows how the ATUs with a positive share trend in the tourism sector of the economy are directly influenced by the presence of geomorphosites in their administrative territory or in their proximity. It also emphasises the significance of geomorphosites in increasing tourism complexity in the study area, as well as in the development of tourism and local economies.
      PubDate: Sat, 04 Feb 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Generative Adversarial Approach to Urban Areas’ NDVI Estimation: A Case
           Study of Łódź, Poland

    • Abstract: Generative adversarial networks (GAN) opened new possibilities for image processing and analysis. Inpainting, dataset augmentation using artificial samples, or increasing spatial resolution of aerial imagery are only a few notable examples of utilising GANs in remote sensing (RS). The normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) ground-truth labels were prepared by combining RGB and NIR orthophotos. The dataset was then utilised as input for a conditional generative adversarial network (cGAN) to perform an image-to-image translation. The main goal of the neural network was to generate an artificial NDVI image for each processed 256 px × 256 px patch using only information available in the panchromatic input. The network achieved a structural similarity index measure (SSIM) of 0.7569 ± 0.1083, a peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) of 26.6459 ± 3.6577 and a root-mean-square error (RSME) of 0.0504 ± 0.0193 on the test set, which should be considered high. The perceptual evaluation was performed to verify the method's usability when working with a real-life scenario. The research confirms that the structure and texture of the panchromatic aerial RS image contain sufficient information for NDVI estimation for various objects of urban space. Even though these results can highlight areas rich in vegetation and distinguish them from the urban background, there is still room for improvement regarding the accuracy of the estimated values. The research aims to explore the possibility of utilising GAN to enhance panchromatic images (PAN) with information related to vegetation. This opens exciting opportunities for historical RS imagery processing and analysis.
      PubDate: Sun, 29 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Analysis of Fire Hotspot Distribution in Kalimantan and its
           Relationship With Enso Phases

    • Abstract: Kalimantan experiences fire hazards almost every year, which threaten the largest tropical forest in Southeast Asia. Climatic conditions, such as increasing surface temperature and decreasing rainfall, become important especially when El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) occurs. Studies on fire are commonly conducted based on the climatic condition such as the dry or wet season, but those which focused on analysis of fire occurrences with the specific ENSO phases are still limited. This study aims to identify the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall, land surface temperature, and soil moisture and analyses the distribution of hotspots in Kalimantan from 2014 to 2020 during different ENSO phases. The data used are Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for hotspot analysis, Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) for rainfall analysis, MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) for surface temperature analysis and Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) for soil moisture analysis. The methods used were descriptive and spatial analyses based on each ENSO phase, which were then combined to analyse the temporal and spatial distribution of fire, rainfall, LST and soil moisture. The temporal distribution shows a positive relationship between ENSO, rainfall, LST, soil moisture and hotspots with a confidence level of 90% in the dry months of August–October. Fire occurred in most parts of West and Central Kalimantan, associated with low elevation, organic soil types and agricultural peatland. The average trend of increasing hotspots is 17.4% in the El Nino phase and decreasing hotspots by 84.7% in the La Nina phase during August–October in Kalimantan.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Tourism Development in the Borderlands of Romania: A Case Study of the
           Danube Gorge–Iron Gates

    • Abstract: Border areas are a real challenge for tourism development. Usually associated with the periphery from a socio-economic point of view, these areas often have natural potential and attractive landscapes that have been little transformed by human activity and numerous historical and cultural tourist attractions. Although these areas have considerable tourism potential, this is not sufficient for the sustainable development of tourism and the exploitation of this potential is strongly influenced by the degree of permeability of the border. This is the case of the Romanian-Serbian border, which overlaps the most spectacular sector of the Danube – the Iron Gates Gorge. The main aim of this article is to analyse the role of tourism in the development of border areas and how it functions in a particular territorial context: the Danube Gorge located at the border between Romania and Serbia. The Romanian-Serbian border currently functions as an external border of the European Union in a favourable historical and political context, given the tradition of good neighbourliness between the two entities, the states located on either side of the Danube. However, the communist period altered the prospects for tourism development in this region through a very drastic and controlled border regime, even though the area benefited from major investment projects, such as the dam and hydroelectric power station at Porțile de Fier, built in the 1970s in cooperation with the former Yugoslavia. An analysis of the statistical data on tourism development shows that tourist traffic is on the increase, although there is a contradiction between the upward trend in tourist flows and the backwardness of large-scale tourist infrastructure, with the dominant type of accommodation being small, flexible, and rural accommodation that does not require large investments. The results presented in this article can be summarised in the general conclusion that the development of tourism in the Danube Gorge–Iron Gates remains dependent on the political factor and the border regime, even though the region has a remarkable tourism potential.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Sources of Mapping used in Humanitarian Emergencies: The Case of Ebola

    • Abstract: The need to rapidly respond to health emergencies has generated various institutional initiatives to identify their location, through mapping. This study employs a qualitative-exploratory method, based on the daily monitoring of eight Ebola epidemics between 2013 and 2021, to make an assessment of the usefulness of maps created specifically for Ebola. The results show that at least 14 organisations produce maps in the face of emergencies and epidemics such as Ebola. Consequently, it has been possible to design a search plan to aid in the monitoring of emergencies and to design an Ebola map with data obtained from these organisations and the initiatives they promote, which confirms the usefulness of these data sources and maps.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • New Meanings of Computer-Based Entertainment and Communication among
           Students in Poland During the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Abstract: This article is an attempt at investigating new meanings and significance of computer-based entertainment during the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors explore how and to what extent students in Poland have been using electronics for entertainment during the global crisis, what emotions appeared and whether they were able and willing to engage in an auto-reflexive process. The article presents the results of the questionnaire interview designed for the purposes of this particular study. The authors chose to reveal the multi-facetedness of the theme in question, i.e. focus on the possibilities and the future that computer-based etertainment offers, leading to transformations both externally and internally.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Regional Green Transition: Cases of Polish and Russian Regions

    • Abstract: The green transition unfolding on a global scale is much less studied at the regional level, although its outcomes and management are strongly place-specific. This article presents a comparative study of green transition strategies in the Silesian Voivodeship (Poland) and the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug (KMAO) – Ugra (Russia), based on a qualitative content analysis of regional legislation and strategies. The regions share common specialisation in fossil fuel mining and have inherited some features of post-socialist economies. Research shows three common features of green transition policies in the studied regions. Firstly, much attention is paid to the dissemination of information about green transition and its benefits. Secondly, research on various green subjects and educational programmes for green market requirements are developed. Thirdly, it is planned for renewables to have a larger proportion in regional energy mixes. By mid-century, both regions are expected to reach climate neutrality, although by using different paths of development. Coal mines are planned to be closed down in the Silesian Voivodeship by 2050, while the KMAO – Ugra will retain its oil-mining specialisation but diversify it with hydrogen production.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Influence of Built Environment and Socio-Economic Factors on Commuting
           Energy Demand: A Path Analysis-Based Approach

    • Abstract: Transport is the second energy consumer sector after housing in Algeria. In this article, we explore the energy implication of commuting by considering a panel of socio-economic (SE) and built environment (BE) driving factors. The method is based on four steps: (i) The first step is to identify the main and potential drivers from the literature review and to propose a model that summarises the main assumptions that could explain the volume of commuting and the resulting energy consumption. (ii) In the second step, we designed and distributed 700 questionnaires in the municipality of Djelfa and retained 184 valid questionnaires in the final study sample. (iii) In the third step, we developed a method adapted to urban areas to quantify energy consumption as a function of the distance travelled, the type and density of occupation by means of transport and the type of fuel. (iv) The fourth step is to check the fit of the hypothetical model with a path analysis-based approach. The model developed identifies 15 factors, of which five have a direct impact and 10 have an indirect impact on the energy consumption of commuting. The model shows that building density and the age of the respondent can reduce the energy consumption of commuting by up to −15% and −12% respectively; whereas the number of cars by housing and the round-trip frequency could increase the energy consumption up to 38% and 27% respectively. Our results suggest a structuring role of the socio-economic characteristics of households in explaining the energy consumption of commuting.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • How the Analytical Hierarchical Process and Revitalisation Work Together:
           A Case Study of Poland

    • Abstract: Due to the multifaceted nature of the revitalisation process, its evaluation and monitoring, as well as possible comparisons, are complex and difficult to carry out. Evaluation of the revitalisation process currently poses a challenge for all municipalities. The article aims to compare the revitalisation process in the two Polish cities of Toruń and Bydgoszcz. The analysis was based on two financial perspectives: 2007–2015 and 2016–2023. The authors chose a multi-criteria analysis method based on the analytical hierarchical process (AHP) as the main research method. The results show that the Local Revitalisation Programme of the City of Toruń for the years 2007–2015 had the best impact on the revitalisation process. Using the AHP method, we could carry out a multidimensional evaluation of the revitalisation process. Moreover, it allowed us to combine different elements of the evaluation of the revitalisation process and transform them into one synthetic result, ranking each programme in a hierarchy. At the methodological level, the article presents a new approach to conduct research in socio-economic geography, using the tool of multi-criteria analysis derived from the disciplines of economics and management sciences. Until now, the AHP method has not been used in the analysis of the revitalisation process, which confirms the innovative character of the conducted research.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Challenges of Urban Garden Initiatives for Food Security in Kuala Lumpur,

    • Abstract: Sustainable urban farming is a strategy to improve food availability and food access, and to support food security for the urban population in Malaysia. However, the development of these activities has been affected by several constraints. This article aims to identify the challenges faced by urban farmers in Kuala Lumpur. The challenges of practicing urban gardening were categorised into five groups (technical, resource-related, economic, social and environmental factors). Data were collected via a questionnaire survey distributed to 106 urban farming practitioners from 17 urban gardens in Kuala Lumpur and were analysed using descriptive analysis by tabulating the frequency and percentage. The result showed that highly fluctuating weather, problems with access to available land and financial problems were the main challenges faced by urban farmers in Kuala Lumpur. Furthermore, difficulty in access to a financial institution, lack of commitment and the increased number of pests were also the problems faced by the urban garden. Availability of technical factors is the least issue in this study. Correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between the challenges of urban gardens and socio-demographics. The result showed that there was a weak correlation between technical factors of educational level (r = 0.225) and race (r = 0.210), respectively, as well as between race and social factor (r = 0.201), while there was a moderate correlation between age and environment factor (r = −0.410). There is a need for further work, and comprehensive research should be conducted to capture what actions can be taken to create a policy-making space for urban farmers.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment of Decentralised Composting of
           Bio-Waste: A Case Study of The Łódź Agglomeration (Poland)

    • Abstract: The study examines the concept of decentralised composting of bio-waste as an alternative approach to current waste management practices, using the Łódź Agglomeration (Poland) as an exemplary case study. Consequently, the aim of the presented research is to compare and discuss the sustainability of the functioning bio- waste management system (status quo) against an alternative solution based on decentralised composting. Combined application of process-based life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) was selected as the methodology to compare the sustainability framework for the waste management practices under analysis. The study has made it clear that decentralised composting of bio-waste offers broader environmental, economic and social benefits, albeit with the level of that benefit being very much correlated with the type of local government area (commune or in Polish gmina). Regardless of the impact category, rural and urban–rural gminas achieved the greatest savings, reaching >90%, and thus are seen to offer the greatest potential for decentralised composting to be put into effect, on the basis of household/backyard composting. In consequence, decentralised composting can constitute a fundamental form of bio-waste management in 20 out of the 28 gminas of the Łódź Agglomeration. The results obtained from the research facilitate the implementation and wider utilisation of decentralised composting, as an important element of the transition to a circular economy, where bio-waste is concerned.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Impacts of Land Use Change on Landscape Structure and Ecosystem Services
           at Local Scale: A Case Study in Central Portugal

    • Abstract: This study aims to evaluate land use and land cover (LULC) changes and associated impacts in the landscape structure and ecosystem services (ES) value in Lousã municipality, in Central Portugal. The results show that significant changes in LULC were recorded over the study period (1974–2018). Agricultural abandonment, expansion of woodland due to the promotion of the eucalyptus (EU) monoculture (chiefly Eucalyptus globulus), the invasion of exotic species (mainly Acacia dealbata) and the increase of built-up areas are the most significant changes that have shaped the landscapes of the study area. The analysis also revealed that the mean patch size has decreased whereas the number of patches increased. The results showed that although the EU and deciduous forest (DF) increased the ES value, the overall total ES value fell around 10% between 1974 and 2018, mainly due to the decrease in the supply of agricultural goods. Studies of this kind on local rural landscapes are vital when it comes to devising appropriate land management policies for the landscape level by considering the interaction between each element for sustainable development.
      PubDate: Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Increase in the Proportion of Impervious Surfaces and Changes in Air
           Temperature, Relative Humidity and Cloud Cover in Poland

    • Abstract: The aim of the study is to characterise the changes in the proportion of impervious surfaces (ISs) in Poland and their impact on changes in temperature, air humidity, and cloud cover. The results of satellite image classification from 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2020, as well as meteorological data from the period 1981–2020 for the warm half of the year, were used. An analysis was performed making it possible to compare the changes in the proportion of ISs in 3 decades, i.e. 1991–2000, 2001–2010 and 2011–2020. In Poland, in the years 1991–2020, the total area of ISs increased by approximately 30%. At the same time, statistically significant positive trends in maximum temperature are visible throughout Poland, ranging from 0.48°C per 10 years to >0.90°C per 10 years. Trends in the magnitude of low-level cloud cover are negative throughout Poland and range from −2.7% to −2.3% per 10 years. The frequency of stratiform clouds is decreasing, while that of mid-level Cirrus and Cumulus clouds is increasing. The results show a relationship between the increase in ISs in Polish cities and changes in meteorological elements in their area and in the immediate vicinity, which were most pronounced in the first decade of the 21st century.
      PubDate: Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Patterns in the Multiannual Course of Growing Season in Central Europe
           Since the End of the 19th Century

    • Abstract: The research identified patterns in the multiannual course of start and end dates, and length of growing season (GS) in Central Europe since the end of the 19th century in selected cities of Central Europe in the period 1893–2020. GS start in the analysed stations was characterised by high year-to-year variability, particularly in those located more southwards, i.e. in Prague and Vienna. A smaller variability occurred in GS end dates. The GS was subject to prolongation, although these changes in particular cities were uneven and had different causes. In Toruń and Potsdam, its increase was caused by a greater shift of the end date, and in the remaining stations, it was determined by its earlier start date. Two subperiods were distinguished that differ in terms of intensity of changes of the start and end dates, as well as the length of the GS. The intensification was observed recently.
      PubDate: Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Changes of the Surface Area of Morskie Oko and Wielki Staw in the Tatra

    • Abstract: This dissertation has presented the results of measurements regarding the surface area of Morskie Oko and Wielki Staw lakes performed throughout the period of 140-years with the use of various measurement technologies and analyses of cartographic resources. The research has clearly demonstrated that the obtained results are diverse, which could be influenced by various environmental factors and the time difference of surveys conducted at the analysed objects. Wielki Staw is currently the largest lake in the Polish Tatra Mountains. Its surface area in 2021 covered 33.44 ha. Thus, it appeared to be larger than Morskie Oko, the surface area of which is 1.51 ha. It was also concluded that the difference in the size of these two reservoirs might increase over time since Morskie Oko is situated in an environment that undergoes dynamic transformations and, consequently, has an impact on the evolution of this lake. Moreover, the area surrounding Morskie Oko is one of the most popular tourist locations within the Tatra National Park, which may intensify the anthropogenic impact on the course of, among others, the shoreline.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Vertical Variability of Night Sky Brightness in Urbanised Areas

    • Abstract: Excessive amounts of artificial light emitted into the lower atmosphere at night have already become an everyday feature of modern urban landscapes, and gradually also a phenomenon associated with areas located outside large human settlements. Urban islands of light have been the subject of targeted research conducted for several decades by scientists representing miscellaneous fields of science. In Toruń, regular research on the phenomenon of light smog has been carried out for several years at a number of sites located throughout the city. Recently, research has been started on the variability of the night sky brightness in a vertical gradient. To this end, repeatable measurements were made at specific altitudes at two locations in the city using a drone with an automatic light metre on board. The values of the night sky brightness thus obtained allowed us to determine its variability in the vertical gradient up to an altitude of 120 m, as well as to test the possibility of using drones in targeted studies of the light pollution phenomenon.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Geotourism Potential of Show Caves in Poland

    • Abstract: In the modern world, tourism is a very dynamically growing industry with significant impact on the economic prosperity of many regions or even countries. The paper presents the geotourism potential of the 12 show (commercial) caves in Poland before and during the current pandemic time. Survey results demonstrate that caves are major geotourist attractions. In 2019, they were visited by a total of almost 950,000 people. The attendance might have exceeded even a million if the popular Mroźna Cave in the Tatras had not been temporarily closed to visitors due to a rockfall in winter period 2018/2019. In 2020, all the show caves combined were visited by a more than 390,000 people, which amounted to about 41% of the total attendance recorded for 2019. The most visited cave proved to be Smocza Jama (Dragon's Den) in the centre of Kraków, which recorded almost 422,000 visitors in 2019. A preliminary assessment of the attractiveness of the caves as geosites is given. The most attractive caves as geosites were identified as: Bear Cave, Upper Wierzchowska Cave, and Bat Cave. It is possible to confidently assert that the celebration of the International Year of Caves and Karst (IYCK) in 2021–2022 will increase interest in caves and translate into a revival of cave tourism.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Causes and Course of Climate Change and Its Hydrological Consequences in
           the Greater Poland Region in 1951–2020

    • Abstract: The paper presents effects of changes in climatic elements in the Greater Poland region (Poland), their causes and consequences for shaping the water balance of this area, copying with the most severe water deficit in Poland. The study period covers 70 years (1951–2020). The research identified an abrupt and significant change in the climate of Greater Poland, which started between 1987 and 1989, concerning not only air temperature but also a wider spectrum of climatic elements. The change in the state of the climate, which covers the entire Atlantic-Eurasian circulation sector, results from a sudden change in the macro-circulation conditions in the middle troposphere (500 hPa). The reason for the change in the mid-tropospheric circulation is an equally abrupt and simultaneous change in the intensity of the ocean heat transport by the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (NA THC). Climate change observed in Greater Poland is manifested in an increase in sunshine duration (SD) and air temperature, a decrease in relative humidity, a change in the cloud structure, and an increase in the degree of sky coverage. The main, physical reason for an increase in air temperature is a rapid and strong increase in SD in the warm half-years, which began after 1988, and a significant increase in the frequency of positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phases in winters. The ongoing climate change entails various effects, among which the most important is considered to be hydrological consequences. The water balance of Greater Poland is becoming increasingly unfavourable, mainly as a result of a rapid increase in field evaporation.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
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