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  Subjects -> GEOGRAPHY (Total: 493 journals)
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History of Geo- and Space Sciences
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2190-5010 - ISSN (Online) 2190-5029
Published by Copernicus Publications Homepage  [54 journals]
  • HMS Challenger and SMS Gazelle – their 19th century voyages compared

    • Abstract: HMS Challenger and SMS Gazelle – their 19th century voyages compared
      William John Gould
      Hist. Geo Space. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hgss-2022-7,2022
      Preprint under review for HGSS (discussion: open, 0 comments)
      The paper compares the historical context, organisation, personnel, conduct and scientific innovation of the voyages of HMS Challenger (1872–6) and SMS Gazelle (1874–6). Though the expeditions were in many regards similar, that of Challenger became famous and is regarded as marking the start of global marine science while the Gazelle voyage remains almost unknown. Why' A surprising factor may be what we now know as “Health and Safety” issues.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Jun 2022 17:39:32 +020
      DOI: 10.5194/hgss-2022-72022

       
  • Atmospheric electricity at Lerwick Geophysical Observatory

    • Abstract: Atmospheric electricity at Lerwick Geophysical Observatory
      R. Giles Harrison and John C. Riddick
      Hist. Geo Space. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hgss-2022-6,2022
      Preprint under review for HGSS (discussion: open, 1 comment)
      Lerwick Observatory in Shetland has recently celebrated its centenary. Measurements of atmospheric electricity where made at the site between 1925 and 1985. Instruments and equipment used for this are discussed and the value of the measurements obtained assessed. A major aspect of the atmospheric electricity work was explaining the dramatic changes which followed the nuclear weapons tests period. Although less well known, there are strong parallels with the discovery of the ozone hole.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2022 14:32:01 +020
      DOI: 10.5194/hgss-2022-62022

       
  • Intellectually gifted but inherently fragile – society's view of female
           scientists as experienced by seismologist Inge Lehmann up to 1930

    • Abstract: Intellectually gifted but inherently fragile – society's view of female scientists as experienced by seismologist Inge Lehmann up to 1930
      Lif Lund Jacobsen
      Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 13, 83–92, https://doi.org/10.5194/hgss-13-83-2022, 2022
      The road to success for Danish seismologist Inge Lehmann (1888–1993) – known for her 1936 discovery of the Earth's inner core – was difficult and full of challenges. While she herself refused to accept any notion of gender difference ascribed, society at large was less open-minded. Using newly discovered, unpublished historical documents, this article examines to what degree her gender played a decisive role in her graduate and postgraduate experiences.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 May 2022 16:17:32 +020
      DOI: 10.5194/hgss-13-83-2022 2022

       
  • History of the Tromsø ionosphere heating facility

    • Abstract: History of the Tromsø ionosphere heating facility
      Michael T. Rietveld and Peter Stubbe
      Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 13, 71–82, https://doi.org/10.5194/hgss-13-71-2022, 2022
      We present the history of how and why a high-power radio wave transmitter facility with large antenna arrays was built in northern Norway in the 1970s with the aim of injecting radio waves into the auroral ionosphere. The facility has conducted fundamental research on plasmas, by heating electrons and exciting plasma waves in the ionosphere; the effects of these experiments have been measured using a host of other instruments, such as incoherent scatter radars, radio receivers, and cameras.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:28:25 +020
      DOI: 10.5194/hgss-13-71-2022 2022

       
  • History of Kakioka Magnetic Observatory

    • Abstract: History of Kakioka Magnetic Observatory
      Ikuko Fujii and Shingo Nagamachi
      Hist. Geo Space. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hgss-2022-5,2022
      Preprint under review for HGSS (discussion: open, 0 comments)
      Kakioka Magnetic Observatory (KMO) has been monitoring the geomagnetic field and geoelectric field at Kakioka, Japan since 1913. It has promoted a variety of observations and research activity. In 1972, KMO developed Kakioka Automatic Standard Magnetometer (KASMMER) system, which enabled to provide the geomagnetic field data of the highest quality. Today, KMO operates a network of observatories in Japan and maintains the observations with the longest history in East Asia.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:28:25 +020
      DOI: 10.5194/hgss-2022-52022

       
  • A Review of Different Mascon Approaches for Regional Gravity Field
           Modelling since 1968

    • Abstract: A Review of Different Mascon Approaches for Regional Gravity Field Modelling since 1968
      Markus Antoni
      Hist. Geo Space. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hgss-2022-4,2022
      Preprint under review for HGSS (discussion: open, 0 comments)
      The term mascon either refers to the fact of a significant gravity anomaly within a celestial body, or to a modelling of these gravitational anomalies by localizing base functions. The localizing base functions which are labelled as mascons include point masses or surface elements based on the simple layer representation. In case of surface elements, the surface density is constant per mascon and each localizing base function is a two-dimensional step function on the sphere.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2022 00:28:25 +020
      DOI: 10.5194/hgss-2022-42022

       
  • Cyclicity in Earth sciences, quo vadis' Essay on cycle concepts in
           geological thinking and their historical influence on stratigraphic
           practices

    • Abstract: Cyclicity in Earth sciences, quo vadis' Essay on cycle concepts in geological thinking and their historical influence on stratigraphic practices
      Daniel Galvão Carnier Fragoso, Matheus Kuchenbecker, Antonio Jorge Campos Magalhães, Claiton Marlon Dos Santos Scherer, Guilherme Pederneiras Raja Gabaglia, and André Strasser
      Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 13, 39–69, https://doi.org/10.5194/hgss-13-39-2022, 2022
      For a long time, human beings have lived with the idea of cycles, as attested by many ancient traditions. This perception led our way of observing and interpreting the most diverse types of phenomena. In the Earth sciences, cyclicity has crucial epistemological value. It offers simple solutions for cause and consequence analysis in time and space. The intention here is to review how such ideas emerged in the geosciences, supporting current stratigraphic principles and practices.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Apr 2022 13:18:38 +020
      DOI: 10.5194/hgss-13-39-2022 2022

       
  • Pioneers of the ice age models: a brief history from Agassiz to
           Milankovitch

    • Abstract: Pioneers of the ice age models: a brief history from Agassiz to Milankovitch
      M. Efe Ateş
      Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 13, 23–37, https://doi.org/10.5194/hgss-13-23-2022, 2022
      In this article, I trace the history of the models of ice ages during the period between the nineteenth and twentieth century. Some previous versions of ice age models were briefly discussed. I present a bird’s-eye view of the scientific collaboration in developing a model and of the reasons behind the success of the Milankovitch model as well.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 13:18:38 +020
      DOI: 10.5194/hgss-13-23-2022 2022

       
  • History of EISCAT – Part 5: Operation and development of the system
           during the first 2 decades

    • Abstract: History of EISCAT – Part 5: Operation and development of the system during the first 2 decades
      Gudmund Wannberg
      Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 13, 1–21, https://doi.org/10.5194/hgss-13-1-2022, 2022
      EISCAT, the European Incoherent SCATter system, was an advanced research radar system established in northern Scandinavia in the mid-1970s for studies of the aurora and the earth's plasma environment. This paper describes the operation, development, problems and successes of the system during its first 2 decades, as recalled by its former deputy director.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jan 2022 09:29:25 +010
      DOI: 10.5194/hgss-13-1-2022 2022

       
  • The international tephra research group ‘Commission on
           Tephrochronology’ and its activities – the first 60 years

    • Abstract: The international tephra research group ‘Commission on Tephrochronology’ and its activities – the first 60 years
      David J. Lowe, Peter M. Abbott, Takehiko Suzuki, and Britta J. L. Jensen
      Hist. Geo Space. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hgss-2021-22,2021
      Preprint under review for HGSS (discussion: open, 0 comments)
      The Commission on Tephrochronology, formed in 1961, comprises global researchers who characterize, map, and date tephra (volcanic ash) layers and use them stratigraphically as linking and dating tools in geological, palaeoenvironmental, and archaeological research. We review the commission’s history – its growth, leadership, and activities for 60 yrs that include hosting specialist meetings, symposia, and workshops, developing new analytical and dating methods and protocols, and supporting ECRs.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Dec 2021 07:08:40 +010
      DOI: 10.5194/hgss-2021-222021

       
  • The bicentenary of Georg Hartung, a German pioneer geologist, explorer,
           and illustrator

    • Abstract: The bicentenary of Georg Hartung, a German pioneer geologist, explorer, and illustrator
      Carlos A. Góis-Marques, Miguel Menezes de Sequeira, and José Madeira
      Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 12, 217–223, https://doi.org/10.5194/hgss-12-217-2021, 2021
      We present a tribute to Georg Friedrich Karl Hartung (1821–1891), a German geologist, on his 200th birthday. He was influenced by eminent 19th century scientific personalities and pioneered geological observations and sampling in the Azores, Madeira, and Canary Islands volcanic archipelagos. Later in his life, he travelled to the USA and explored Scandinavia. His work in Macaronesia is deemed classic, and many have been enriched by his detailed geological illustrations.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Nov 2021 13:48:21 +010
      DOI: 10.5194/hgss-12-217-2021 2021

       
  • Scientific journeys to one of the oldest copper cementation sites in
           Central Europe (Smolník, Slovakia)

    • Abstract: Scientific journeys to one of the oldest copper cementation sites in Central Europe (Smolník, Slovakia)
      Pavel Hronček, Bohuslava Gregorová, Dana Tometzová, and Miloš Jesenský
      Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 12, 179–196, https://doi.org/10.5194/hgss-12-179-2021, 2021
      The study brings the first comprehensively processed historical–geographical work dealing with one of the oldest places of commercial copper production using cementation in Europe – Smolník (Upper Hungary; present day Slovakia). Its relevance lies not only in professional circles but also for the needs of the general public (e.g. mining tourism). The study contributes to the preservation of a forgotten and unknown mining heritage in one of the most important mining towns in former Upper Hungary.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Oct 2021 08:57:19 +020
      DOI: 10.5194/hgss-12-179-2021 2021

       
  • On the high scientific quality of early research on strain and deformation
           fabrics (1835–1908)

    • Abstract: On the high scientific quality of early research on strain and deformation fabrics (1835–1908)
      Pablo J. Torres Carbonell
      Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 12, 197–216, https://doi.org/10.5194/hgss-12-197-2021, 2021
      Research on rock strain done during part of the 19th century has a level of scientific quality that is not usually acknowledged. The objective of this paper is to put these older papers in perspective, highlighting the careful field observations of these early researchers, the focus they made on the study of deformed objects, and how they gave birth to the fundamental equations and basic concepts that we use today to calculate rock strain.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Oct 2021 08:57:19 +020
      DOI: 10.5194/hgss-12-197-2021 2021

       
  • Tradition of geodetic instruments production in the Czech Republic

    • Abstract: Tradition of geodetic instruments production in the Czech Republic
      Pavel Hánek and Pavel Hánek Sr.
      Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 12, 171–178, https://doi.org/10.5194/hgss-12-171-2021, 2021
      The Ministry of Culture of the Czech Republic has been running the National Cultural Identity programme. There is a rich history of surveying in Bohemia and the tradition of production of surveying instruments. That is why we won a project focused on devices used in Bohemia from the 16th to the end of the 20th century. To date, more than 200 instruments from 32 European manufacturers have been documented. Information about the instruments will be available at www.surveyinginstruments.org.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Oct 2021 12:20:54 +020
      DOI: 10.5194/hgss-12-171-2021 2021

       
  • Eduard Heis, an early pioneer in meteor research

    • Abstract: Eduard Heis, an early pioneer in meteor research
      Ulrich Sperberg
      Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 12, 163–170, https://doi.org/10.5194/hgss-12-163-2021, 2021
      At the beginning of the 19th century, meteor observations were not well established. One of its pioneers, who observed meteors on a regular basis, was Eduard Heis in Münster, Germany. We summarise the life of this scientist. Besides his main task of teaching mathematics in Aachen and Münster, he observed atmospheric phenomena and variable stars with exceptional perseverance. We focus on his contributions to meteor astronomy, with which he predated the work of Schiaparelli by 30 years.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Sep 2021 12:20:54 +020
      DOI: 10.5194/hgss-12-163-2021 2021

       
  • Early history of sudden commencement investigation and some newly
           discovered historical facts

    • Abstract: Early history of sudden commencement investigation and some newly discovered historical facts
      Yasuharu Sano and Hiroshi Nagano
      Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 12, 131–162, https://doi.org/10.5194/hgss-12-131-2021, 2021
      This paper studies the early history of geomagnetism (i.e., history before World War II). At that time, the problem of whether the start time of a magnetic storm was simultaneous or not all over the world was discussed. International and domestic research activities of Aikitu Tanakadate, a Japanese geoscientist, were studied by investigating his personal letters concerning with this problem. We will present a hypothesis on the first discoverer of this problem.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Sep 2021 12:20:54 +020
      DOI: 10.5194/hgss-12-131-2021 2021

       
  • The Geophysical Observatory in Sodankylä, Finland – past and
           present

    • Abstract: The Geophysical Observatory in Sodankylä, Finland – past and present
      Tilmann Bösinger
      Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 12, 115–130, https://doi.org/10.5194/hgss-12-115-2021, 2021
      This paper is a paraphrased summary of the book published in Finnish on the 100th anniversary of the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory in 2013 (edited by Heikki Nevanlinna, 2017). The history of the Geophysical Observatory in Sodankylä (SGO) is described by the personalities who have run it and have shaped the observatory. Thereafter, we describe the history from a technical point of view, i.e., what the measurements were and which instruments were primarily used at the observatory.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Aug 2021 12:20:54 +020
      DOI: 10.5194/hgss-12-115-2021 2021

       
  • The Great Comet of 1577: a Palestinian observation

    • Abstract: The Great Comet of 1577: a Palestinian observation
      Sam M. Silverman and Eran Limor
      Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 12, 111–114, https://doi.org/10.5194/hgss-12-111-2021, 2021
      In this text we examine the historical and cultural context of the Great Comet of 1577 from the perspective of Chaim Vital, who recorded his observation of the comet on the evening of 10 November 1577. This observation includes a description of a possible aurora, by noting the presence of a chasm in the sky. This kind of description is common in Western medieval accounts. In his Book of Visions, Vital only noted the event without interpretation, likely due to comets being considered ill omens.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Jun 2021 12:20:54 +020
      DOI: 10.5194/hgss-12-111-2021 2021

       
  • History of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN)-I:
           pre-SuperDARN developments in high frequency radar technology for
           ionospheric research and selected scientific results

    • Abstract: History of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN)-I: pre-SuperDARN developments in high frequency radar technology for ionospheric research and selected scientific results
      Raymond A. Greenwald
      Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 12, 77–93, https://doi.org/10.5194/hgss-12-77-2021, 2021
      Part I of this history describes the motivations for developing radars in the high frequency (HF) band to study plasma density irregularities in the F region of the auroral zone and polar cap ionospheres. French and Swedish scientists were the first to use HF frequencies to study the Doppler velocities of HF radar backscatter from F-region plasma density irregularities over northern Sweden. These observations encouraged the author of this paper to pursue similar measurements over northeastern Alaska, and this eventually led to the construction of a large HF-phased-array radar at Goose Bay, Labrador, Canada. This radar utilized frequencies from 8–20 MHz and could be electronically steered over 16 beam directions, covering a 52∘ azimuth sector. Subsequently, similar radars were constructed at Schefferville, Quebec, and Halley Station, Antarctica. Observations with these radars showed that F-region backscatter often exhibited Doppler velocities that were significantly above and below the ion-acoustic velocity. This distinguished HF Doppler measurements from prior measurements of E-region irregularities that were obtained with radars operating at very high frequency (VHF) and ultra-high frequency (UHF). Results obtained with these early HF radars are also presented. They include comparisons of Doppler velocities observed with HF radars and incoherent scatter radars, comparisons of plasma convection patterns observed simultaneously in conjugate hemispheres, and the response of these patterns to changes in the interplanetary magnetic field, transient velocity enhancements in the dayside cusp, preferred frequencies for geomagnetic pulsations, and observations of medium-scale atmospheric gravity waves with HF radars.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 May 2021 12:20:54 +020
      DOI: 10.5194/hgss-12-77-2021 2021

       
  • Book review: From Crust to Core – A Chronicle of Deep Carbon Science
           by Simon Mitton

    • Abstract: Book review: From Crust to Core – A Chronicle of Deep Carbon Science by Simon Mitton
      Mohamed Ali Bouhifd
      Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 12, 95–96, https://doi.org/10.5194/hgss-12-95-2021, 2021

      PubDate: Tue, 11 May 2021 12:20:54 +020
      DOI: 10.5194/hgss-12-95-2021 2021

       
 
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