A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  Subjects -> GEOGRAPHY (Total: 493 journals)
The end of the list has been reached or no journals were found for your choice.
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.36
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1793-4311 - ISSN (Online) 1793-7116
Published by World Scientific Homepage  [120 journals]
  • Experimental Study on Dynamic Modulus and Damping Ratio of Rubber–Sand
           Mixtures Over a Wide Strain Range

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Qifei Liu, Haiyang Zhuang, Qi Wu, Kai Zhao, Guoxing Chen
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Volume 16, Issue 02, April 2022.
      This paper systematically investigates the dynamic behavior of sandy soils mixed with recycled tire rubber over a wide strain range in the order of 10[math]–10[math], using combined resonant column and cyclic triaxial tests for measurement of the shear modulus and damping ratio. The experiment integrates small-strain tests using a resonant column apparatus and large-strain tests using a cyclic triaxial apparatus. The results demonstrated that the addition of rubber particles significantly enhances the linear elastic properties of the host sandy soils and improves the critical shear strain from which the rubber–sand mixtures change from linear to nonlinear stress–strain behavior. The critical shear strain is therefore introduced as the function of rubber content (RC), to identify the influence of RC on the strain-dependent dynamic properties of the host sandy soils. Then, a well-calibrated prediction formula is applied in conjunction with the concept of binary packing material to describe the behavior of the host sandy soils with various RC. Remarkably, the obtained normalized shear modulus and damping ratio vs. shear strain relationships address the limitations of existing testing methods to simultaneously capture the soil dynamic properties at low-strain (stiffness) and the large-strain (energy dissipation) regimes. The model constants can be simply determined through a unique set of explicit expressions which incorporate some basic index properties of the host sand and recycled tire rubber. In this regard, the proposed procedure provides a significant advantage in the evaluation of strain-dependent dynamic properties of rubber–sand mixtures in practice.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431121400066
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 02 (2022)
       
  • Spectral Analysis of Subduction Zone Earthquakes for Coastal Stations and
           Applications to Stochastic Finite-Fault Simulation Method

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Su Chen, Lei Fu, Zhijun Dai, Shiyang Chen, Xiaojun Li
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Volume 16, Issue 02, April 2022.
      Accelerograms of 58 subduction zone earthquakes recorded by 25 K-NET coastal stations located in Sagami Bay and its adjacent regions were used to analyze the spectral properties of the source, propagation path, and site effects by using the generalized inversion technique. The inverted [math] values vary from 1.7[math]MPa to 17.4[math]MPa, with an average value of 4.89[math]MPa and a standard deviation of [math]. Although the depths of the selected earthquakes are confined to 30 km, which is similar to those of the crustal earthquakes, this study obtains an average [math] which coincides with the plate-boundary earthquakes rather than the crustal earthquakes. It implies that the stress condition of the plate-boundary region varies from the inland crust. The obtained [math] is similar to the previous studies. The [math] of the selected stations varies from 0.0479[math]s to 0.0904[math]s, indicating high-frequency attenuation for the coastal area. The inverted site response shows the systematic tendency for different site classes. The amplification levels of class A sites fluctuate around one between 1[math]Hz and 10[math]Hz. Class B sites indicate peak amplification at the resonant frequency distributed between 3[math]Hz and 10[math]Hz. Most of the Classes D and E sites have peak amplification below about 4[math]Hz. Using the inversion results as the input parameters of the stochastic finite-fault method, an [math] subduction zone earthquake was simulated. The resulting response spectra corresponded to the observations and confirmed that the inverted parameters are reasonable.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-03-30T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431121400030
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 02 (2022)
       
  • Seismic Performance Evaluation Method of Underground Frame Structures
           Considering the Vertical Seismic Capacity of Structural Components

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Chunyu Wu, Dechun Lu, Chao Ma, Xiuli Du
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Volume 16, Issue 02, April 2022.
      The seismic performance of large underground structures can be evaluated from two perspectives, namely the horizontal interlaminar deformation and the vertical loading-carrying capacity. The current seismic analysis methods focus on the horizontal seismic performance with the interlaminar drift ratio as the evaluation index. It is difficult to fully reflect the vertical failure characteristics of the overall structure. This paper aims to develop an evaluation method to comprehensively evaluate the seismic performance of underground frame structures. The quantitative evaluation indexes, i.e. the vertical loading-carrying risk factor of columns and the vertical deflection risk factor of slabs, were defined to evaluate the seismic performance of underground frame structures. Then, the seismic performance evaluation method was established and the evaluation processes were described. Seismic response analysis of an underground frame structure with different spans on the upper and lower stories was conducted, and the seismic performance of the structural components and overall structure was quantitatively evaluated by using the proposed evaluation method. The seismic response laws of columns and slabs were analyzed and the potential failure mode of the structure was clarified. Furthermore, the failure mechanism of the structure was explained in detail. Numerical results presented that the proposed evaluation method can effectively identify the seismic-induced weak components and failure modes of underground frame structures, and thus has guiding significance for the seismic design of the underground frame structures.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-03-30T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431121400042
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 02 (2022)
       
  • Multidirectional Linear Site Response Analysis by Applying the SBSR
           Technique to KiK-net Data

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yang Shi, Hong-Jun He, Yu Miao
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Volume 16, Issue 02, April 2022.
      Numerous works have highlighted the importance of the site response analysis of vertical ground motion in the earthquake engineering field. However, most studies have focused on nonlinear site response analysis. Hence, the knowledge of the linear site response analysis of vertical ground motion is inadequate. In this study, we perform multidirectional linear site response analysis by applying the surface-to-borehole spectral ratio (SBSR) technique to the Kiban–Kyoshin strong-motion observation network (KiK-net) seismic data. We find the hyperbolic relationships between multiple natural frequencies and the corresponding fundamental frequency. We propose empirical formulas, which can reduce the error in the multiple natural frequencies estimated by a single-layer model. Moreover, a brief investigation is conducted to provide an extra evidence for a previous correction method to the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) technique. The results of this study provide the empirical tools and can be utilized as a reference for the multidirectional linear site response analysis based on seismic observations.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-03-30T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431121400054
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 02 (2022)
       
  • Two-Dimensional Fast Multipole Indirect Boundary Element Method-Based
           Solution to P-Wave Scattering by a Mountain with Large-Scale Random Cracks
           in an Elastic Half-Space

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Zhong-Xian Liu, Zhen-En Huang, Lei Huang, Jun Sun, Jian-Mei Du
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Volume 16, Issue 02, April 2022.
      In this study, the fast multipole indirect boundary element method (FM-IBEM) was adopted for solving the scattering problem of incident P-waves using a two-dimensional (2D) mountain terrain with large-scale random cracks. By adopting the FM-IBEM, this study resolves the bottleneck of the conventional boundary element method (BEM) for computing complex multi-degree-of-freedom models, and for the first time quantitatively analyzes the seismic wave scattering problem of large-scale narrow mountain cracks. After verifying the calculation accuracy, the horizontal and vertical displacement amplitudes of the mountain surface and its adjacent surface were accurately calculated. The results suggest the following: (1) Cracks significantly amplify the displacement amplitude of the mountain surface. The amplification mostly depends on the number of cracks and on the frequency of the incident P-wave. Compared with homogeneous mountains (no cracks), under the most unfavorable circumstances, the horizontal displacement is amplified more than 9.5-fold, while the vertical displacement is amplified more than 6.5-fold. (2) When the wave field passes through the crack area, a large amount of energy is trapped. Moreover, this energy is highly concentrated, which amplifies the local ground motion more than 7-fold. (3) The ground motion generated by the P-wave scattering by a mountain with large-scale random cracks exhibits a significant spatial difference. (4) The resonance of multi-order modes can emerge owing to large-scale random cracks. Compared with homogeneous mountains, the ground motion caused by the P-wave scattering by mountains with large-scale random cracks is much more severe in many cases. This phenomenon must be considered in practical seismic engineering applications.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-03-30T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431121400078
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 02 (2022)
       
  • Study on Further Improvement of Anti-tsunami Ability of a New Type Bridge
           Pier

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Wanli Yang, Hailin Hou, Quanlong Zhu, Junling Liu, Fuhai Li, Lingyuan Zhou
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      Compared with circular, square and diamond piers, the N60 pier proposed in our previous study has been numerically proven to be effective in reducing tsunami force. The relatively stronger vortices behind the N60 pier are responsible for the not-small-enough tsunami force on the N60 pier. The asymmetry in shape makes the N60 pier fail to reduce flood force because flood propagates in the opposite direction of tsunami bore. A series of new type piers named [math] are proposed to further improve the anti-tsunami ability of the N60 by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method among which the N60-60 pier is proven to be most effective in reducing tsunami force, and its tsunami force mitigation mechanism is analyzed numerically. Further, the physical experiments were conducted to validate the N60 pier and the new type pier N60-60. Results show that compared with circular, square and diamond piers, the N60 pier is indeed capable of reducing tsunami force, and compared with the N60 pier, the new type N60-60 pier is capable of further reducing tsunami force. The order of magnitudes of tsunami forces on piers is: N60-60 [math] N60 [math] circular [math] diamond [math] square.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122500063
       
  • Numerical Modeling of Generation of Landslide Tsunamis: A Review

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Cheng-Hsien Lee, Peter H.-Y. Lo, Huabin Shi, Zhenhua Huang
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      Depth-integrated wave models are widely used for simulating large-scale propagation of landslide tsunamis, with the generation of tsunami being simulated separately by various generation models to provide the required initial conditions. For a given problem, the selection of a proper tsunami generation model is an important aspect for tsunami hazard analysis. The generation of tsunamis by submarine or subaerial landslides is a transient multiphase process which involves important fine-scale physics. Depth-integrated generation models, while relatively easy to use, cannot simulate these fine-scale physics. Depth-resolved generation models can overcome the shortcomings of depth-integrated generation models but are computationally demanding. This paper first reviews existing depth-integrated generation models to show the need for depth-resolved generation models. Four classes of depth-resolved generation models are reviewed: computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models, approaches coupling CFD and discrete element method, multiphase flow models, and meshless particle models. Multiphase flow models, which are relatively new, can consider complex interactions between landslide materials and its surrounding fluids. Meshless particle models are appealing for simulating landslide tsunamis because of their convenience to deal with the violent motion of the water surface and ability to run on graphics processing units. The main strengths, weaknesses, and future research directions of the reviewed models are briefly discussed. The literature reviewed, which is by no means complete, aims to provide researchers updated and practical guidelines on numerical modeling techniques for simulating the generation process of landslide tsunamis.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122410019
       
  • Seismic Active Pressure on an Inclined Retaining Wall with Surcharge on a
           Submerged Backfill

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Godas Srikar, Satyendra Mittal
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      Seismic design of retaining wall supporting submerged retaining wall requires precise estimation of lateral earth pressure considering realistic parameters that constitute hydro-dynamic pressure, frequency inputs and other dynamic properties. The purpose of this study is to establish a closed-form solution for seismic lateral earth pressure acting on a retaining wall with submerged backfill with surcharge. The proposed method includes the dynamic nature by considering time-period, the frequency of the seismic wave, dynamic soil properties. Boundary conditions in the backfill are satisfied due to the propagation of the seismic wave. This study considers amplified seismic waves to estimate inertial forces due to critical soil mass and surcharge. The excess pore pressure generated during the seismic action is also considered in this study. The obtained formulation shows the significant effect of frequency content, damping resistance offered by backfill soil, amplification of seismic wave on seismic earth pressure. The seismic earth pressure obtained from this study is observed to be in a close agreement with centrifuge test results and analytical studies from the literature. This study definitely addresses the lateral pressure distribution on the retaining wall with backfill submergence and surcharge on the surface.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122500075
       
  • Modeling the Evolution and Runup of Breaking Solitary and Solitary-Like
           Waves on Straight and Composite Slopes

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yun-Ta Wu
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      Understanding the runup and inundation of long waves on coasts is of great importance for coastal community as flooding hazards are closely related to safety issues. For many years, solitary and solitary-like waves are frequently considered as a surrogate of extremely long waves for estimating runup and inundation. Since scaling issues are of concern when extending to real-world conditions, large-scale experiments for solitary waves on uniform beaches are reviewed and additional experiments for solitary waves on composite slopes are performed in this study. As such, those experimental data obtained from large-scale physical modeling can be used to validate numerical models and then to extend the range of parameters in terms of wave conditions and slope geometries which cannot be straightforwardly achieved in large-scale experimental works. Considering the computational efficiency, an open-source non-hydrostatic wave-flow model SWASH is used herein. Detailed model-data comparisons in terms of free surface elevation time series and maximum runup heights are carried out for long waves running up and down on beaches with different slope gradients to ensure the accuracy of the SWASH model for such applications. Finally, a simple method for estimating maximum shoreline excursion for solitary waves on a particularly designed composite slope is provided.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122410032
       
  • Effect of Mainshock–Aftershock Excitations on Seismic Energy Dissipation
           Mechanism of RC Frames

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: F. Soleiman Meigooni, M. Tehranizadeh
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      Four RC moment frames (RCMFs) with 4–20 stories are designed, modeled, and subjected to IDA procedures by considering various levels of prior damage caused by mainshock (MS). The collapse of the structures is then identified by gradual scale-up of the aftershock until dynamic instability is observed. The percentage of the energies dissipated by various parts of the structures and via different modes is next studied at three states during the collapse-inducing excitation. These states include the final residual state, the maximum drift state, and the maximum kinetic energy state. While an almost constant contribution of around 30% is provided by the inherent damping of the nodal masses, the share of beams’ hysteretic energy varies between 10% in the low-rise shear-dominated frame and 30% in the high-rise flexure-dominated RCMFs. The contribution of the columns’ hysteresis also changes in a reverse manner so that the sum of ratios provided by the beams and columns hysteresis is kept constant and equal to around 70%. The prior damage caused by the MS also leads to changes in the contribution of various elements and stories due to the deterioration MS induces to the strength of the members.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122500129
       
  • Proposing a Set of Far-Field Records for Time History Analysis in Tehran
           City and Comparison with FEMA-P695 Set Records

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: M. Hassani Sokhtesaraei, M. Ghassemieh, S. R. Mirghaderi
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this paper is to prepare a list of appropriate far-field records for the purpose of time history analysis and structural design assessment in Tehran. Accordingly, the study focused on considering all parameters affecting the choice of accelerogram pair for Tehran. For this purpose, a total of 1000 accelerogram pairs of the earthquakes that occurred in Iran during 1978–2010 were studied in terms of the parameters affecting the choice of appropriate accelerogram pair for Tehran, including distance to the epicenter, magnitude, frequency content, earthquake mechanism, soil properties, and configuration of ground layers. An important objective followed by preparing such a list was to appropriately match it to susceptibility and performance levels set in local design standards. For this purpose, seismic, statistical, and analytic studies were performed, finally ending up with a list of appropriate accelerogram pairs for time history analysis and design assessment in Tehran. In this research, to provide a proper understanding of the proposed list’s applied demands on the region’s structures, numerical and statistical studies and comparisons with the FEMA-P695 list have been done.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122500178
       
  • Site-specific Investigations of the Earthquake Activities and Hazards for
           Some Caves in Thailand

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Santi Pailoplee, Sakonvan Chawchai, Parisa Nimnate
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      The seismicity for 35 natural caves in Thailand was investigated probabilistically in order to provide information on their potential earthquake situation. All values representing the earthquake activities within a 300-km radius and the seismic hazard level at each cave were clarified. Seismotectonically, 28 of the 35 caves are situated within previously proposed seismic source zones and most of the seismogenic faults nearby each cave is presently still active, as determined by seismicity and paleoseismological evidence. For the present-day seismicity, the Pla cave in northwest Thailand (situated 0.3[math]km from the Mae Hong Son-Tak fault) showed a comparatively high [math]-value (4.16) suggesting a high entire seismicity rate, but a relatively high [math]-value of 0.82. With respect to the [math]-value, which inversely represents the accumulated seismotectonic stress, the caves at Pha Puang, Lom-Wang, Naresuan and Fha Mue Daeng in the Central-North regions had a comparatively low [math]-value ([math]), indicating a high accumulated stress. Based on the recognized earthquake sources and the utilized strong ground-motion attenuation model, the seismic hazard analyses revealed that the caves at Daowadeung, Phra Thart and Lawa in Western Thailand were in the highest seismic hazard areas. This new study contributes to important information for geotourism (e.g. mitigation planning) and selecting/prioritizing speleoseismological investigation sites.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122500099
       
  • Earthquake Activities along the Sagaing Fault Zone, Central Myanmar:
           Implications for Fault Segmentation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Santi Pailoplee, Parisa Nimnate
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the three terms related to the seismic activities of the Sagaing Fault Zone (SFZ), central Myanmar, of the possible maximum magnitude, return period, and probability of exceedance (POE) of an earthquake of given magnitude were evaluated and mapped using an improved earthquake catalog (free of duplicate records, foreshocks, aftershocks and recording artifacts) and implementation of a statistical approach. As a result, the SFZ was separated into five segments with different seismicity levels. The highest hazard level was found for the segment between Myitkyina–Northern Mandalay, with a likely generation of an Mw 6.4–7.2 earthquake in the next 50 years. For the Naypyidaw–Bago segment, the hazard levels were in the comparatively medium range with a magnitude 6.0–7.0 Mw earthquake return period of 20–50 and 100–200 years, respectively. The Offshore Andaman Sea segment of the SFZ was defined to have the lower hazard, with only a 10% or lower POE of a 7.0 Mw earthquake within the next 50 years. Therefore, effective mitigation plans should be prepared for this area and in particular for the region nearby to the Myitkyina–Northern Mandalay segment as the highest earthquake-prone area.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122500130
       
  • Seismic Ground Motion Amplification in a 3D Sedimentary Basin: Source
           Mechanism and Intensity Measures

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Rajesh Parla, Surendra Nadh Somala
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      Ground motion amplification has been observed in most earthquakes triggered near the sediment-filled basins such as 2015 Nepal and 1999 Chi–Chi events. Many numerical studies pointed out the effect of various parameters such as material properties and geometric features of the basin on ground motion amplification but the effect of the complete range of source mechanism parameters needs to be addressed. This paper presents the effect of source mechanism parameters, such as strike, dip, rake angle of fault and moment magnitude ([math] on amplification of ground motion intensity measures (IMs) due to sediment-filled basins. It is found out that the maximum spectral amplification, when subjected to the source of lateral strike mechanism, is 45, whereas for thrust fault mechanism, it is 30. Within the lateral strike mechanism, if the dip angle is increased from 0∘ to 90∘, the spectral amplification increases from 10 to 30 times. The results also suggested that it is important to consider detailed focal parameters to study basin amplification. The amplification of IMs in the basin is more sensitive to variation of dip angle than the other source parameters and the magnitude of earthquake has an insignificant role in basin amplification.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122500087
       
  • Strong Motion Models for Duration and Arias Intensity for Strong Motion
           Records in Chile

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: S. Céspedes, R. Boroschek, R. O. Ruiz
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      Chile presents a high seismicity and very particular characteristics due to its subductive environment and high convergence rate of the interacting plates. In this paper, ground motion models (GMM) for Arias Intensity and strong ground motion duration are developed based on recently compiled Chilean earthquakes records. The Chilean derived GMM are later compared with global and subduction models. For the duration case, two definitions are considered: significant duration and bracketed duration. Care is taken to consider newly define rupture areas for the major earthquake in the catalog, which allows to redefine the distances to be used in the analysis. The strong motion records are processed using robust techniques and standardized procedures. The model parameters are selected using a Bayesian updating method. This allows to estimate the parameters as well as their corresponding uncertainties recognizing the variability of the coefficients and of the selected model. The derived ground motion predictive model associated is validated through a residual analysis and probability distributions, obtained from the adjustment method. Additionally, for the bracketed duration analysis, a classification method based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used, with the aim to incorporate the records with duration of zero seconds. The comparison of the resultant model with the existing ones allows to confirm the differences that the tectonic Chilean environment produces, characterized mainly by a high relative convergence rate between plates and interplate thrust earthquakes with high magnitudes.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122500105
       
  • Bond Slip in Reinforced Concrete Beam–Column Joints — A Semi-Empirical
           Implicit Modeling and Possible Influence of Design Standard Compliance

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Dhiman Basu, Mohit Lakhani
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      Bond slip in RC beam–column joints may affect the seismic response or performance assessment of structures considerably. Explicit macroscopic models that satisfy the joint kinematics can be incorporated within a frame model to numerically account for the effect of bond slip. Seismic performance assessment of buildings generally rules out the explicit modeling owing to the associated computational cost. Simplified implicit models are instead preferred owing to the ease of implementation in a commercial finite element (FE) provided the model parameters are calibrated experimentally. Extrapolation of the calibration is generally not valid in other cases with different geometry, sizes and even loading protocols. Most commercial software do not offer the features to explicitly modeling the bond slip. Numerical modeling of bond slip is proposed in this paper that can be conveniently implemented in a commercial software such as Seismostruct. Unlike the prior art, the slip parameter can be extracted using a semiempirical approach preceded by the generation of a numerical database. The proposed framework is also validated against the experimental results of one exterior and one interior beam–column joints. Sample illustration on an example building designed against the same seismic hazard level but following the recommendations per IS 13920, ACI 318 and EC8 is considered for monotonic (without bond slip) and cyclic (with bond slip) pushover analyses. Consideration of bond slip initiates early yielding and results in reduction of secant stiffness at the onset of yielding. The extent of influence depends on the compliance of design standards. For example, relatively higher percentage of reinforcement when designed per IS 13920 (as compared to ACI 318 and EC8) leads to a somewhat lower slip parameter resulting in lesser yield displacement and reduction of secant stiffness at the onset of yielding.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122500117
       
  • Seismic Response Mitigation of Extra-Large LNG Storage Tanks

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: S. H. Kharde, D. P. Soni
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      The paper investigates the effectiveness of a smart base-isolation system for seismic response mitigation of extra-large liquified natural gas (LNG) storage tanks. The mathematical model of the base-isolated LNG tank with smart dampers, the magneto-rheological (MR) dampers, is presented. The governing equations of motion of the smart system are derived and solved by the classical transition matrix method in the time domain. The linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control scheme is employed to command MR dampers. The LNG tank system is analyzed under six artificial accelerograms, compatible with operational basis earthquake (OBE) and safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) response spectrum, generated using a method of a random set of phase angles with amplitudes obtained from power spectral density function. A time-delay compensation procedure based on the Taylor series expansion is applied to reduce the deterioration of control performance due to time delay. To investigate the effectiveness of smart base-isolation, the responses are compared with the fixed-base tank, base-isolated tank, and tank with passive MR damper. The results show that the smart base-isolation is effective in reducing the seismic response of extra-large LNG tanks, especially the displacement at the isolation level without much altering other responses. The passive MR damper is also found effective and showed fail-safe behavior even under the failure of the control algorithm. Moreover, the application of time-delay compensation using the Taylor series increased the performance and overall efficiency of the LNG tank system.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122500142
       
  • Hybrid Broadband Ground Motion Simulation for 2015 Mw 7.9 Nepal Earthquake

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: K. P. Sreejaya, S. T. G. Raghukanth
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      The present study aims at simulating broadband ground motions in the epicentral region of the 2015[math]Mw 7.9 Nepal event, using hybrid broadband technique. The spectral element method is used to simulate the low-frequency ground motion. The three-dimensional material property variation and the basin geometry at the Kathmandu basin are incorporated in the spectral element model. High frequency synthetics are simulated using scattering Green’s function approach by consistently using the source and medium model of low frequency simulation. The simulated Low Frequency (LF) (0–0.3[math]Hz) results are combined with high-frequency scatterograms to generate broadband ground motions (0–10[math]Hz). The scattering parameters for broadband ground motion simulation are estimated from the recorded data of Nepal mainshock. These parameters are used further for simulating the ground motions over a grid of stations at 2[math]km [math] 2[math]km spacing at the epicentral region. The simulated results are shown as peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity, and spectral acceleration contours plots. The maximum PGA in the horizontal and vertical directions are 0.35[math]g and 0.32[math]g in the epicentral region. Also, the acceleration time histories and corresponding response spectra are presented for some of the selected cities in the region where no records are available. These simulated outcomes are used for analyzing the validity of Indian seismic codal provisions at the near-field of large Himalayan earthquakes. The results show the significant underestimation of near-field hazard by the codal provisions at the Himalayan region.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122500154
       
  • Automated Model Construction of Urban Structures with Limited Digital Data

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Hideyuki O-tani, Kahori Iiyama, Shuhei Takaya, Masaaki Yabe
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      A key functionality of Integrated Earthquake Simulation which carries out regional earthquake simulations is automated model construction that builds a set of analysis models for different numerical analysis methods, using a variety of data which cover city and urban areas. In this study, we present the current state of the automated model construction for structures. Its unique feature is the ability to restore the configuration and estimate the structural properties for a target structure using a set of limited digital data. Engineering information such as design codes and regulations of the structure is systematically used to make up for the lack of the digital data. Explanation is made about the developed methodology and algorithms of the automated model construction for two kinds of structures: residential buildings and road bridges.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-05-14T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122400048
       
  • Modeling Seismic-Soil-Pile Interaction (SSPI) Problems for Large Pile
           Groups

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ben Zhao, Jiahui Ho, Subhadeep Banerjee, Siang-Huat Goh, Fook-Hou Lee
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents a critical review of the current challenges in analyzing large, realistic pile groups in soft clay soil under earthquake shaking. The review focuses on three main essentials of numerical analyses, namely soil behavior and constitutive model, pile and pile-soil interface modeling and computational framework.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-05-14T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S179343112240005X
       
  • An Experimental Study of Characteristics of Solitary-Wave-Induced Scour
           Around a Pile Breakwater with a Discussion on Effects of the Distance
           Between Piles

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Conghao Xu, Zhenhua Huang
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      Understanding tsunami-induced scour at a pile breakwater is important for the foundation safety of this type of coastal defense structures. A series of wave-flume tests were performed for [math], with [math] being the gap size and [math] the pile diameter, to study the characteristics of the solitary-wave-induced local scour around a pile breakwater, including the scour-hole depth, scour-hole length, deposition sandbar height and the scoured volume. It was found that the jet flow through the gaps between piles caused the local scour around individual piles. A more or less two-dimensional deposition sandbar was found on the down-wave side of the pile breakwater in the later stage of the scour process. A new empirical equation was introduced to approximate the evolution of the depth of the scour hole induced by a series of solitary waves. The equation was verified by existing data reported in the literature for [math] and the new data reported in this study. Effects of the distance between piles on the characteristics of the local scour were discussed by comparing the results for [math] and 0.39. The comparison showed that the scour-hole depth and height of the sandbar for [math] were all noticeably larger than the corresponding values for [math].
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122400024
       
  • On Computational Costs for Monte Carlo Regional-Scale Simulation for
           Reliable Estimate of City and Urban Area Earthquake Disaster

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Takamasa Iryo, Kahori Iiyama, Maddegedara Lalith, Muneo Hori
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      Regional-scale simulation in high spatial and temporal resolutions is being developed for a more reliable estimate of earthquake disasters in city and urban areas. Monte Carlo simulation is used to account for various uncertainties in analysis models. Since one regional-scale simulation needs a large amount of computation, it is important to estimate computational costs for the Monte Carlo simulation. In this paper, we first clarify uncertainties involved in the simulation of ground motion, structural seismic response, traffic flow, and economic recoveries. We then evaluate computational costs that are required for the reliable estimate using Tokyo Metropolis Earthquake as an example. The reliability of the Monte Carlo regional-scale simulation is discussed, considering the future trends of digital information about city and urban areas and monetized computational cost as well as the uncertainty of an earthquake scenario which is input to the regional-scale earthquake simulation.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-04-30T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122400036
       
  • Numerical Investigation of the Attenuation of Tsunami-like Waves by a
           Vegetated, Sloped Beach

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: W. Y. Sun, K. Qu, S. Kraatz, G. Y. Lan, C. B. Jiang
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      Tsunamis, such as the 2004 Indian and 2011 Japan tsunamis, routinely cause severe damage along coasts. Coastal vegetation serves as an excellent, naturally occurring protection from tsunamis. However, prior studies focusing on the wave attenuation by vegetation assumed that solitary waves would adequately represent the major aspects of tsunamis. However, there are substantial differences between solitary tsunami waves with regards to their wave profiles and how it evolves with time. This study aims to improve our understanding of the wave-vegetation interactions by employing a more realistic wave profile (tsunami-like instead of solitary). This work uses measurements obtained during the 2011 Japan tsunami to parameterize the observed tsunami-like wave profile, which is then used to investigate the wave-vegetation interaction on a sloped beach, using a nonhydrostatic wave (NHWAVE) model. The work investigates the efficiency of vegetated sloped beach in mitigating the maximum run-up height and total wave energy as function of wave height, water depth, vegetation width, vegetation density and wave model (solitary vs. tsunami-like). Results show that a vegetated sloped beach is effective in reducing the wave energy of both kinds of waves. However, when a solitary wave is used, the vegetation patch is shown to be relatively better at attenuating wave energy and in reducing maximum run-up heights. The findings indicate that the solitary wave model overestimates protections afforded by coastal vegetation, and that it underestimates maximum run-up heights. The findings drawn from this study further broaden our understanding on the wave attenuation of tsunami surges and waves by a vegetated sloped beach.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S179343112140008X
       
  • Interactions Between Dongsha Atoll and Mw 9 Tsunamis and their Impacts in
           South China Sea Region

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jinghua Wang, Philip L.-F. Liu
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      Tsunamis induced by megathrust in the Manila subduction zone impose alarming threats to the coastal cities in the northern South China Sea (SCS), and risk assessment of tsunami hazards in this region becomes demanding. One distinguishable geographic feature in this region is Dongsha Atoll, which is situated between the tsunami source zone and the China coastline. This study discusses the role of the Dongsha Atoll in modifying the tsunami impacts through numerical simulations of a group of synthetic tsunami events with [math]. Three types of representations for the Atoll in the numerical simulations are employed, specifically (i) the real topo-bathymetry of the Atoll is fully resolved (Model-1), (ii) the Atoll is removed (Model-2), and (iii) the Atoll is artificially represented by a cylinder (Model-3). The results show that without the Dongsha Atoll presence (Model-2), the tsunamis can induce a substantial increment of water level behind the Atoll and in the vicinity of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in China. While the results obtained by realistically modeling the Atoll (Model-1) show that a large amount of tsunami wave energy/momentum can be entrapped by the lagoon and slowly radiated to the ocean. The interactions between the tsunamis and the Atoll will lead to severe flooding on the Dongsha Island on the west bank of the Atoll. However, the peak water levels behind the Atoll and at the selected mainland coastal sites are reduced, indicating that the Dongsha Atoll can offer some degree of protection for the region in its behind. Meanwhile, a slightly smaller reduction of tsunami heights is reported in the simulations with the Atoll being represented by a cylinder (Model-3), implying that the reduction effects are sensitive to the representations of the Atoll. Therefore, the full model of the topo-bathymetry of the Dongsha Atoll is recommended for future tsunami risk assessments for both Dongsha Atoll and the mainland in the SCS region.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122400012
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 34.239.167.149
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-