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  Subjects -> GEOGRAPHY (Total: 493 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted by number of followers
Geophysical Research Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 185)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Space Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 160)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Atmospheres     Partially Free   (Followers: 149)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Planets     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 145)
Remote Sensing of Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Earth Surface     Partially Free   (Followers: 60)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans     Partially Free   (Followers: 60)
Progress in Human Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Solid Earth     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
International Journal of Geographical Information Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
GIScience & Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
Journal of Water and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Reviews of Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Annals of the American Association of Geographers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Applied Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Climate and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Urban Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Biogeosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Annals of GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Coastal Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Cartography and Geographic Information Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
GPS Solutions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of the Middle East and Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Dialogues in Human Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Urban Research & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Imago Mundi: The International Journal for the History of Cartography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT)     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of the American Planning Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Geography Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cartographica : The International Journal for Geographic Information and Geovisualization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Professional Geographer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Africa Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Crossings : Journal of Migration & Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
The Geographical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Geology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Tectonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Geographic Information System     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Progress in Physical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Indigenous Policy Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Geographical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Geographical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Geosciences Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Geographical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Soil Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
GeoJournal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Human Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Geography and Natural Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
European Spatial Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cartographic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions (AMTD)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Iberian and Latin American Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Physical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Natural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Middle East Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Borderlands Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Geographical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Urban History Review / Revue d'histoire urbaine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Latin American Geography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
California Italian Studies Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Geo-spatial Information Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Nordic Journal of Migration Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Maps     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Social Geography Discussions (SGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
GeoInformatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Northern Scotland     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Asia Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Geographer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ocean Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Canadian Geographer/le Geographe Canadien     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Creativity Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Australian Antarctic Magazine     Free   (Followers: 5)
Focus on Geography     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Geographer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Australian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Map & Geography Libraries     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Transmodernity : Journal of Peripheral Cultural Production of the Luso-Hispanic World     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Latinoamérica. Revista de estudios Latinoamericanos     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geografiska Annaler, Series A : Physical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Genre & histoire     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sedimentary Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Southeastern Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Limnological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Interaction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Western Archives     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Économie rurale     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Social Dynamics: A journal of African studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
New Zealand Journal of Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Burma Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
South Asian Diaspora     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
All Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Lithosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Polar Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
History of Geo- and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pastoralism : Research, Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Standort - Zeitschrift für angewandte Geographie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Norois     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geodesy and Cartography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mineralogia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Regions and Cohesion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Polar Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Southeastern Geographer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BioRisk     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift - Norwegian Journal of Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Scottish Geographical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Études rurales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Polar Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Newfoundland and Labrador Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Regional Science Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Provincial China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geographical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cahiers franco-canadiens de l'Ouest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The South Asianist     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Reflets : revue d'intervention sociale et communautaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Maine Policy Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Geografía Norte Grande     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoforum Perspektiv     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios Geográficos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
PRISM : A Journal of Regional Engagement     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Norteamérica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Amerika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
L'Année du Maghreb     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Les Cahiers d'Outre-Mer     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Southwest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revue archéologique du Centre de la France     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Terrestrial Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Méditerranée     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal de la Société des Océanistes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geochronometria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South African Geographical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Terrae Incognitae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Bahamian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études internationales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Recherches sociographiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physio-Géo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
GEOMATICA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
PSC Discussion Papers Series     Open Access  
Anales de Geografía de la Universidad Complutense     Open Access  
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal  
Revista Geográfica de América Central     Open Access  
Multiciencias     Open Access  
Investigaciones Geográficas (Esp)     Open Access  
Sociedade & Natureza     Open Access  
Región y Sociedad     Open Access  
Migración y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Migraciones Internacionales     Open Access  
Investigaciones Geográficas     Open Access  
Frontera Norte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural     Open Access  
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access  
Territoire en Mouvement     Open Access  
Quaestiones Geographicae     Open Access  
Limes. Cultural Regionalistics     Open Access  
Preview     Hybrid Journal  
Cuadernos de Geografía : Revista Colombiana de Geografía     Open Access  
Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai, Geologia     Open Access  
Recherches amérindiennes au Québec     Full-text available via subscription  
Rabaska : revue d'ethnologie de l'Amérique française     Full-text available via subscription  
Port Acadie : revue interdisciplinaire en études acadiennes / Port Acadie: An Interdisciplinary Review in Acadian Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Études/Inuit/Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Aurora Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista de la Asociacion Geologica Argentina     Open Access  
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access  
Journal of Alpine Research : Revue de géographie alpine     Open Access  
Géocarrefour     Open Access  
Confins     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
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Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.36
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1793-4311 - ISSN (Online) 1793-7116
Published by World Scientific Homepage  [120 journals]
  • Effect of Mainshock–Aftershock Excitations on Seismic Energy Dissipation
           Mechanism of RC Frames

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: F. Soleiman Meigooni, M. Tehranizadeh
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Volume 16, Issue 05, October 2022.
      Four RC moment frames (RCMFs) with 4–20 stories are designed, modeled, and subjected to IDA procedures by considering various levels of prior damage caused by mainshock (MS). The collapse of the structures is then identified by gradual scale-up of the aftershock until dynamic instability is observed. The percentage of the energies dissipated by various parts of the structures and via different modes is next studied at three states during the collapse-inducing excitation. These states include the final residual state, the maximum drift state, and the maximum kinetic energy state. While an almost constant contribution of around 30% is provided by the inherent damping of the nodal masses, the share of beams’ hysteretic energy varies between 10% in the low-rise shear-dominated frame and 30% in the high-rise flexure-dominated RCMFs. The contribution of the columns’ hysteresis also changes in a reverse manner so that the sum of ratios provided by the beams and columns hysteresis is kept constant and equal to around 70%. The prior damage caused by the MS also leads to changes in the contribution of various elements and stories due to the deterioration MS induces to the strength of the members.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122500129
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 05 (2022)
       
  • Earthquake Activities along the Sagaing Fault Zone, Central Myanmar:
           Implications for Fault Segmentation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Santi Pailoplee, Parisa Nimnate
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Volume 16, Issue 05, October 2022.
      In this study, the three terms related to the seismic activities of the Sagaing Fault Zone (SFZ), central Myanmar, of the possible maximum magnitude, return period, and probability of exceedance (POE) of an earthquake of given magnitude were evaluated and mapped using an improved earthquake catalog (free of duplicate records, foreshocks, aftershocks and recording artifacts) and implementation of a statistical approach. As a result, the SFZ was separated into five segments with different seismicity levels. The highest hazard level was found for the segment between Myitkyina–Northern Mandalay, with a likely generation of an Mw 6.4–7.2 earthquake in the next 50 years. For the Naypyidaw–Bago segment, the hazard levels were in the comparatively medium range with a magnitude 6.0–7.0 Mw earthquake return period of 20–50 and 100–200 years, respectively. The Offshore Andaman Sea segment of the SFZ was defined to have the lower hazard, with only a 10% or lower POE of a 7.0 Mw earthquake within the next 50 years. Therefore, effective mitigation plans should be prepared for this area and in particular for the region nearby to the Myitkyina–Northern Mandalay segment as the highest earthquake-prone area.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122500130
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 05 (2022)
       
  • Bond Slip in Reinforced Concrete Beam–Column Joints — A Semi-Empirical
           Implicit Modeling and Possible Influence of Design Standard Compliance

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Dhiman Basu, Mohit Lakhani
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Volume 16, Issue 05, October 2022.
      Bond slip in RC beam–column joints may affect the seismic response or performance assessment of structures considerably. Explicit macroscopic models that satisfy the joint kinematics can be incorporated within a frame model to numerically account for the effect of bond slip. Seismic performance assessment of buildings generally rules out the explicit modeling owing to the associated computational cost. Simplified implicit models are instead preferred owing to the ease of implementation in a commercial finite element (FE) provided the model parameters are calibrated experimentally. Extrapolation of the calibration is generally not valid in other cases with different geometry, sizes and even loading protocols. Most commercial software do not offer the features to explicitly modeling the bond slip. Numerical modeling of bond slip is proposed in this paper that can be conveniently implemented in a commercial software such as Seismostruct. Unlike the prior art, the slip parameter can be extracted using a semiempirical approach preceded by the generation of a numerical database. The proposed framework is also validated against the experimental results of one exterior and one interior beam–column joints. Sample illustration on an example building designed against the same seismic hazard level but following the recommendations per IS 13920, ACI 318 and EC8 is considered for monotonic (without bond slip) and cyclic (with bond slip) pushover analyses. Consideration of bond slip initiates early yielding and results in reduction of secant stiffness at the onset of yielding. The extent of influence depends on the compliance of design standards. For example, relatively higher percentage of reinforcement when designed per IS 13920 (as compared to ACI 318 and EC8) leads to a somewhat lower slip parameter resulting in lesser yield displacement and reduction of secant stiffness at the onset of yielding.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122500117
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 05 (2022)
       
  • Seismic Response Mitigation of Extra-Large LNG Storage Tanks

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      Authors: S. H. Kharde, D. P. Soni
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Volume 16, Issue 05, October 2022.
      The paper investigates the effectiveness of a smart base-isolation system for seismic response mitigation of extra-large liquified natural gas (LNG) storage tanks. The mathematical model of the base-isolated LNG tank with smart dampers, the magneto-rheological (MR) dampers, is presented. The governing equations of motion of the smart system are derived and solved by the classical transition matrix method in the time domain. The linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control scheme is employed to command MR dampers. The LNG tank system is analyzed under six artificial accelerograms, compatible with operational basis earthquake (OBE) and safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) response spectrum, generated using a method of a random set of phase angles with amplitudes obtained from power spectral density function. A time-delay compensation procedure based on the Taylor series expansion is applied to reduce the deterioration of control performance due to time delay. To investigate the effectiveness of smart base-isolation, the responses are compared with the fixed-base tank, base-isolated tank, and tank with passive MR damper. The results show that the smart base-isolation is effective in reducing the seismic response of extra-large LNG tanks, especially the displacement at the isolation level without much altering other responses. The passive MR damper is also found effective and showed fail-safe behavior even under the failure of the control algorithm. Moreover, the application of time-delay compensation using the Taylor series increased the performance and overall efficiency of the LNG tank system.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122500142
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 05 (2022)
       
  • Hybrid Broadband Ground Motion Simulation for 2015 Mw 7.9 Nepal Earthquake

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      Authors: K. P. Sreejaya, S. T. G. Raghukanth
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Volume 16, Issue 05, October 2022.
      The present study aims at simulating broadband ground motions in the epicentral region of the 2015[math]Mw 7.9 Nepal event, using hybrid broadband technique. The spectral element method is used to simulate the low-frequency ground motion. The three-dimensional material property variation and the basin geometry at the Kathmandu basin are incorporated in the spectral element model. High frequency synthetics are simulated using scattering Green’s function approach by consistently using the source and medium model of low frequency simulation. The simulated Low Frequency (LF) (0–0.3[math]Hz) results are combined with high-frequency scatterograms to generate broadband ground motions (0–10[math]Hz). The scattering parameters for broadband ground motion simulation are estimated from the recorded data of Nepal mainshock. These parameters are used further for simulating the ground motions over a grid of stations at 2[math]km [math] 2[math]km spacing at the epicentral region. The simulated results are shown as peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity, and spectral acceleration contours plots. The maximum PGA in the horizontal and vertical directions are 0.35[math]g and 0.32[math]g in the epicentral region. Also, the acceleration time histories and corresponding response spectra are presented for some of the selected cities in the region where no records are available. These simulated outcomes are used for analyzing the validity of Indian seismic codal provisions at the near-field of large Himalayan earthquakes. The results show the significant underestimation of near-field hazard by the codal provisions at the Himalayan region.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122500154
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 05 (2022)
       
  • Boulder Transportation on the Flat Bed by Dam Break

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      Authors: Jing-Hua Lin, Yi-Wei Chang, Guan-Yu Chen
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      Large coral boulders are usually deposited in coastal regions due to high-energy inundation events, such as tsunamis or storms. The study on physical mechanisms is an important issue in hydrodynamics and sedimentology. In this study, the dam break induced the transportation, and the initial movements of a boulder are simulated on a flatbed in a laboratory experiment using a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) and image analysis. The scaled-down modeled boulder made the three-dimensional reconstruction rebuild the shape and surface texture of a realistic boulder. The MEMS integrated with the modeled boulder autonomously measures the signals and numerically calculates corresponding postures and transportation in three submerged conditions of the modeled boulder in the hydrodynamic experiment. Experimental results show that the boulder transportation process is a typical two-dimensional general planar motion, which includes sliding along the transported direction and swaying around the [math]-axis. Rolling and saltation are not dominant modes in the experiment. The results show that a complete transportation includes a variable speed movement in the initial motion, acceleration–deceleration to the uniform motion, and boulder stopping in the destination. The transported velocities of the modeled boulder are smaller than wave celerities. The maximum/minimum velocities and displacements occur in the partially and fully submerged conditions, respectively. The adjustment of the boulder’s posture is completed in the initial motion, and then the boulder almost keeps the same posture to move forward to the end. Moreover, the boulder is not driven when the nondimensional water depth is close to the critical condition.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122410020
       
  • Modeling of the Initial Stage of Wave Generation by a Suddenly Rising or
           Falling Seabed

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      Authors: Chih-Hua Chang
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, a three-dimensional entirely nonlinear model was used for simulating the wave generation problem caused by seabed movement. This study focuses on the waveform of the initial stage of wave generation. The numerical model was verified by comparing the simulated results with existing experimental results. Satisfactory results of the waveforms and flow fields were obtained. The simulations of the free surface disturbances and flow field velocities caused by the sudden rising or falling of a circular cylinder with the dimensionless radius ([math]) and height ([math]) normalized by still-water depth are discussed. We considered the combinations of [math]–10 and [math]–0.3. For the moving cylinder with a moderate height (e.g. [math] and [math]) and [math], it is found that the water-surface shape is closer to the shape of the terrain. The central water level ([math]) varying with time is also focused herein. For the rising cylinder, when [math], the maximum [math] is always less than its corresponding [math] for any [math]. For the falling cylinder, if [math] is larger than five times the still water depth, then the maximum [math] will exceed its corresponding [math]. This result provides a further understanding of the basic phenomenon of the initial waves caused by the movement of the seabed topography.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-08-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122410056
       
  • Estimation and Application of Strength and Stiffness Reduction Factors of
           Liquefiable Soil

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jui-Ching Chou, Ming-Yen Chiang, Ciao-Rou Tang
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      The reduction of soil strength and stiffness caused by soil liquefaction is an important issue in designing pile or shallow foundations on liquefiable soils. In practice, strength and stiffness reduction is considered via a reduction factor ([math]) approach in seismic design. Different sets of values of [math] are available according to the factor of safety against liquefaction ([math]) of the liquefiable soil; these values are usually calculated using simplified liquefaction analysis procedures. Each set of [math] is calibrated and constructed for specific simplified liquefaction analysis procedures or soil conditions. Thus, engineers have difficulty in selecting [math] when using a simplified liquefaction analysis procedure without a corresponding set of [math]. In this study, values of [math] for simplified liquefaction analysis procedures commonly used in Taiwan are obtained using a single element test via FLAC program and UBCSAND model. In addition, a novel application of [math] is introduced to improve the usability of the simplified numerical procedure used to predict the liquefaction-induced settlement of a shallow foundation. Simulation results show that the simplified numerical procedure with [math] approach yields a convincing and conservative result.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-08-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122500208
       
  • Influences of Wall Configurations on Earthquake Behavior of Cantilever
           Retaining Walls Considering Soil-Structure Interaction Effects

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      Authors: Kasif Furkan Ozturk, Tufan Cakir, Onur Araz
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      Cantilever walls are frequently and necessarily built not only in earthquake prone regions but also on different foundation subsoils with various physical and mechanical characteristics. The response of these structures is a complicated soil-structure interaction (SSI) problem, in which the relative stiffness between the soil and structure is of critical importance. In addition to different soil conditions and earthquake motions, the wall configurations have an important role in the cantilever retaining wall design. Thus, the major objective of this work is to investigate the effects of various configurations on seismic response of the cantilever retaining walls considering SSI. Accordingly, the seismic response of the interaction systems is revealed using the 3D finite element models (FEM) in time domain, assuming linearly elastic behavior for the wall, and elastoplastic behavior for backfill and foundation soil. Viscous absorbent boundaries are employed to both simulate radiation scenario and avoid undesirable wave reflections generated by soil lateral boundaries. Backfill-wall interfaces are modeled using the unidirectional interface elements with nonlinear force-deflection abilities. The interaction systems are analyzed considering three different cantilever wall configurations (inverted T-type, L-type, and the wall with a base key), four different ground motion records, and four different subsoil systems. Nonlinear seismic analyses are carried out to visit how considering the variation of these parameters influences the wall behavior. The results from parametric studies show that the wall configuration, SSI effects and ground motions are remarkably influential on seismic responses of the cantilever walls such as the stresses and horizontal displacements.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-08-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S179343112250021X
       
  • Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment of Offshore Wave Heights for
           Southern Region of Pingtung County in Southern Taiwan

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      Authors: Yen-Lung Chen, Yu-Hsiu Shen, Han-Lun Wu, Shih-Chun Hsiao
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      This study applies the unit tsunami method and probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis to investigate the tsunami hazard for the southern region of Pingtung County in southern Taiwan. The FUNWAVE-TVD model is used to calculate the aleatory and epistemic uncertainties. The aleatory uncertainty is analyzed using a comparison of simulated and observed maximum tsunami wave heights and the epistemic uncertainty is evaluated using a scenario caused by earthquakes in the Manila and Ryukyu subduction zones according to probabilistic seismic hazard analysis in Taiwan using Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee Level 3 methodology. A unit tsunami method database is established for the Manila and Ryukyu subduction zones and used to carry out a probability-based offshore tsunami wave height simulation for the southern region of Pingtung County. A hazard map for tsunamis caused by earthquakes in the Manila and Ryukyu subduction zones is also derived.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122410044
       
  • Derivation, Validation, and Numerical Implementation of a Two-Dimensional
           Boulder Transport Formulation by Coastal Waves

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      Authors: Masashi Watanabe, Takumi Yoshii, Volker Roeber, Kazuhisa Goto, Fumihiko Imamura
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      Numerical computations for boulder transport have become a state-of-the-art tool for hindcasting the hydraulic processes associated with past storm wave and tsunami events. Since most previously developed two-dimensional formulations cater to boulders with symmetric outlines, they can consequently reproduce the transport distance and the velocity of boulders of cubic shape or similar structured geometries reasonably well. However, the formulations exhibit limitations when applied to rectangular- and flat-shaped boulders. The presently available formulations have difficulties reproducing the variations of frictional drag force due to the changes of the boulders’ contact time with the ground. We have developed an extended boulder transport formulation and derived a new empirical roughness coefficient by considering the shape of boulders that accounts for the changes of the boulders’ contact time with the ground. In comparison to other existing transport formulations, the present method provides superior accuracy of block velocity and transport distance in most cases — especially for boulders of rectangular geometry. Even by neglecting the full three-dimensional processes, numerical computations extended with the proposed boulder transport formulation can help explaining historic wave regimes, which were responsible for the transport of a variety of coastal boulders reported around the world.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S179343112250018X
       
  • Creation of Tsunami Evacuation Time Map for the Mentawai Islands,
           Indonesia

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      Authors: Yusuke Ono, Rusnardi Rahmat Putra
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      The Mentawai Islands are located offshore of West Sumatra, Indonesia, and are likely to be hit by a large-scale tsunami in the future. In this study, maps showing tsunami evacuation times (ETs) along the road on the Mentawai Islands were developed to mitigate tsunami impact. We define the tsunami ET as the time required for an evacuee to move to a safe location through the road network from the tsunami inundation area. The safe locations were determined using a digital elevation model and the assumed tsunami inundation heights. The closest safe place for each location on the road network was determined using the shortest path search algorithm for the graph network. First, areas with high tsunami risk on the islands were identified using the obtained ET maps. Second, the appropriateness of the evacuation approach in the Matobe village on Sipora Island was evaluated based on the ET maps. Finally, population exposures to the different ET levels were estimated to quantify the potential risk of loss of life to a tsunami disaster in the Mentawai Islands. This study contributes to the tsunami disaster preparation of residents of the Mentawai Islands.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122500191
       
  • Numerical Modeling of Generation of Landslide Tsunamis: A Review

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      Authors: Cheng-Hsien Lee, Peter H.-Y. Lo, Huabin Shi, Zhenhua Huang
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      Depth-integrated wave models are widely used for simulating large-scale propagation of landslide tsunamis, with the generation of tsunami being simulated separately by various generation models to provide the required initial conditions. For a given problem, the selection of a proper tsunami generation model is an important aspect for tsunami hazard analysis. The generation of tsunamis by submarine or subaerial landslides is a transient multiphase process which involves important fine-scale physics. Depth-integrated generation models, while relatively easy to use, cannot simulate these fine-scale physics. Depth-resolved generation models can overcome the shortcomings of depth-integrated generation models but are computationally demanding. This paper first reviews existing depth-integrated generation models to show the need for depth-resolved generation models. Four classes of depth-resolved generation models are reviewed: computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models, approaches coupling CFD and discrete element method, multiphase flow models, and meshless particle models. Multiphase flow models, which are relatively new, can consider complex interactions between landslide materials and its surrounding fluids. Meshless particle models are appealing for simulating landslide tsunamis because of their convenience to deal with the violent motion of the water surface and ability to run on graphics processing units. The main strengths, weaknesses, and future research directions of the reviewed models are briefly discussed. The literature reviewed, which is by no means complete, aims to provide researchers updated and practical guidelines on numerical modeling techniques for simulating the generation process of landslide tsunamis.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122410019
       
  • Modeling the Evolution and Runup of Breaking Solitary and Solitary-Like
           Waves on Straight and Composite Slopes

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      Authors: Yun-Ta Wu
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      Understanding the runup and inundation of long waves on coasts is of great importance for coastal community as flooding hazards are closely related to safety issues. For many years, solitary and solitary-like waves are frequently considered as a surrogate of extremely long waves for estimating runup and inundation. Since scaling issues are of concern when extending to real-world conditions, large-scale experiments for solitary waves on uniform beaches are reviewed and additional experiments for solitary waves on composite slopes are performed in this study. As such, those experimental data obtained from large-scale physical modeling can be used to validate numerical models and then to extend the range of parameters in terms of wave conditions and slope geometries which cannot be straightforwardly achieved in large-scale experimental works. Considering the computational efficiency, an open-source non-hydrostatic wave-flow model SWASH is used herein. Detailed model-data comparisons in terms of free surface elevation time series and maximum runup heights are carried out for long waves running up and down on beaches with different slope gradients to ensure the accuracy of the SWASH model for such applications. Finally, a simple method for estimating maximum shoreline excursion for solitary waves on a particularly designed composite slope is provided.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122410032
       
  • Proposing a Set of Far-Field Records for Time History Analysis in Tehran
           City and Comparison with FEMA-P695 Set Records

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      Authors: M. Hassani Sokhtesaraei, M. Ghassemieh, S. R. Mirghaderi
      Abstract: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this paper is to prepare a list of appropriate far-field records for the purpose of time history analysis and structural design assessment in Tehran. Accordingly, the study focused on considering all parameters affecting the choice of accelerogram pair for Tehran. For this purpose, a total of 1000 accelerogram pairs of the earthquakes that occurred in Iran during 1978–2010 were studied in terms of the parameters affecting the choice of appropriate accelerogram pair for Tehran, including distance to the epicenter, magnitude, frequency content, earthquake mechanism, soil properties, and configuration of ground layers. An important objective followed by preparing such a list was to appropriately match it to susceptibility and performance levels set in local design standards. For this purpose, seismic, statistical, and analytic studies were performed, finally ending up with a list of appropriate accelerogram pairs for time history analysis and design assessment in Tehran. In this research, to provide a proper understanding of the proposed list’s applied demands on the region’s structures, numerical and statistical studies and comparisons with the FEMA-P695 list have been done.
      Citation: Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S1793431122500178
       
 
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