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  Subjects -> GEOGRAPHY (Total: 493 journals)
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Geography and Natural Resources
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.288
Number of Followers: 10  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1875-3728 - ISSN (Online) 1875-371X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Microplastics in the Snow Cover of Urban Landscapes: A Case Study of
           Barnaul

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      Abstract: This article presents the results of a study of the spatial distribution of microplastic (MP) pollution of urban snow cover conducted on the territory of the Barnaul urban agglomeration. The algorithm of the study involves the following sequential steps: snow sampling, the identification of MP particles, a calculation of the total particle abundance in the sample, and a concentration assessment. In total, 49 snow samples from various parts of the city were taken for the study in the first decade of March 2021. They were stored in 3-L glass containers. MP particles were detected using a scanning electron microscope. MPs are found in all snow samples in concentrations from 27 to 595 items/L, with an average concentration of 125 items/L. The city of Barnaul is located on three natural landscapes: uvals of the Ob Plateau, a dell formed by an ancient river runoff with a ribbon forest, and the Ob Valley. The maximum amount of MP particles is found in the snow cover of the Ob Plateau and the minimum is in the Ob Valley. The next stage involved assessing the level of MP pollution of the city across six functional zones. Assessment results show that the maximum average concentration of MP particles in Barnaul during the winter period is typical for urban green spaces (parks and squares) in all districts of the city. The possible reasons for that are the continuous accumulation of snow in such areas throughout the entire cold weather period and the so-called “comb-out” effect associated with the ability of plants to filter particles of dry atmospheric deposition. The snow cover of Barnaul is found to contain MP particles of all five main shapes: granule, foam, fragment, film, and fiber.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
       
  • Water Chemical Composition of the Selenga River in High Water Level Period

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      Abstract: The ecosystem of the lake Baikal is one of the oldest freshwater reservoirs on the planet, where the largest available reserves are concentrated. The purpose of this study is to study the chemical composition of the surface waters of the Selenga River and its main tributaries in high water level period. The flow of river water plays an important role in the overall balance of substances entering the lake, since it is the main element of the incoming part of the chemical balance of the lake. The Selenga River is the main tributary of Lake Baikal, in the basin of which, unlike other tributaries, a large number of industrial, agricultural, processing enterprises, settlements and cities are concentrated. This article presents the results of the analysis of samples of surface waters of the Selenga River and its main tributaries taken in 2018. In 2018, the flow of the Selenga River after a long low-water period was close to the average annual one, which caused a significant decrease in the concentrations of components, while the relative composition of the main ions remained stable in all periods. Our study shows that the chemical composition of the water of the Selenga River depends on the fluctuations in water content.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
       
  • Geographic Factors in the Sustainable Development of the Primorsky
           Settlements of Pacific Russia

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      Abstract: The formation and development of any individual settlement is influenced by a combination of interrelated, historical, socioeconomic, scientific, technological, and geographical factors. The latter include combinations of natural and climatic features, natural resource potentials of land and sea, features of the formation of a settlement network in areas, economic and geographical position, etc. The overall goal of the development of any settlement is to increase the level and quality of life of the population on the basis of sustainable socioeconomic development. To achieve sustainable development of the settlement, it is necessary to analyze the spatial and functional structure of the settlement at two levels: the settlement with its aquaterritorial environment and the mesoregion at the level of a subject of the Russian Federation. The features of geographical factors in the development of coastal settlements are highlighted, including their access to marine natural resources and maritime transport. A generalized assessment of the coastal settlements of Pacific Russia, their location in various natural-geographical and socioeconomic zones, the role of natural resource potential, and the size of economic centers and their specialization is given. Settlements (economic centers) located in the northern and southern zones of socioeconomic development of Pacific Russia are identified. The features of their economic structure according to types of economic activity, due to the presence of a combination of favorable and negative socioeconomic and geographical factors, are noted. In coastal settlements, the importance of creating special environmental protection organizations that are part of the regional system of environmental and resource monitoring is noted; this should ensure the high ecological quality of the marine environment adjacent to the settlement.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
       
  • Evaluation of the Impact of Emissions of Metal Compounds from Industrial
           Enterprises on the Oncological Morbidity of the Population of an Urbanized
           Area

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      Abstract: Emissions of metal compounds from industrial enterprises contribute to air pollution and may pose a risk to public health. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of emissions of metals and their compounds on incidences of cancer in the population of Sverdlovsk oblast. Using data from open sources, an ecological ranking of 57 municipalities is made. To assess the incidence of cancer, the following indicators are used: the number of the contingent registered with oncological diseases (persons), the dynamics of the prevalence of oncological diseases (per 100 000 people), the indicator of the proportion of patients registered with dispensaries for 5 years or more (%), the dynamics of mortality from oncological diseases (per 100 000 people) and the 1-year mortality of patients with oncological diseases (%) for 2020. Spearman’s correlation coefficients are calculated between cancer incidence rates, socioeconomic indicators of territorial development, the level of care for cancer patients, and emissions of substances with carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. The level of newly diagnosed oncological morbidity in 2020 was 17 935 people. A close correlation is found between the indicators of the number of the contingent registered with the dispensary for cancer and socioeconomic characteristics (r = 0.793–0.954, p < 0.01) and there is a relationship of medium strength with the level of healthcare. If existing levels of emissions are maintained, further aggravation of environmental problems in the study area associated with carcinogenic risks and a reduction in life expectancy of the population of the region is possible.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
       
  • Comparative-Cartographic Method of Rationing Pollutant Loads on Geosystems
           Using the Example of Fluorine

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      Abstract: The increase in the capacity of aluminum production enterprises poses a threat to environmental safety in a large area. This is especially true in the conditions of the steppes, where the loss of grassy vegetation is not visually traced due to its greater stability when compared to coniferous trees of the taiga zone. In this regard, there is a need for special comprehensive studies of the components of the natural environment and an assessment of their geochemical transformation. Based on the materials of long-term experimental landscape–geochemical studies on the territory exposed to dust and gas emissions from aluminum production plants in Khakassia, the group of the main pollutant elements of geosystems (F, Na, Al, and Ni) has been identified. For all analyzed indicators, including toxicity, fluorine is identified as a priority pollutant. Its forms of presence in natural conditions are established. The characteristics and indices of the total pollution of soluble and poorly soluble substances of snow water by chemical elements are given, which remain quite high at a distance of 5–10 km from the plants. The mapping method shows the territorial distribution of loads of the most active water-soluble form (F–), as well as the levels of its accumulation in soils over a 35-year period and the total content in the green plant mass. The degree of fluorine anomaly in soils and plants in relation to its background values has been established. In order to normalize the loads of the toxicant element, a comparative cartographic method was used, which made it possible to establish the criteria for soil pollution: permissible, critical, and unacceptable, as well as the corresponding loads of fluorine in soluble and slightly soluble form. The potential geoecological situation is assessed as high and dangerous.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
       
  • Economic and Geographical Problems in Interactions between Mongolia and
           Eastern Russia in Foreign Commodity Markets

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      Abstract: The high importance of exports of mineral raw materials for the economy of Mongolia and the weakening of its foreign trade interactions with Russia are revealed. It has been established that the value of Mongolian exports for a number of mineral raw materials exceeds Russian ones and has serious growth prospects. Using the example of coal and copper exports, the real prerequisites for the emergence of risks of competition between the exporters of Mongolia and the eastern regions of Russia for foreign markets of mineral raw materials in the near future are revealed. From an economic and geographical point of view, the strengths and weaknesses of the competitiveness of Mongolia and Russia in these markets are compared. The main disadvantage for Russia in comparison with Mongolia is its less advantageous transport and geographical position relative to the key Chinese sales market. The main ways to reduce the severity of competition between exporters of Mongolia and the eastern regions of Russia for external raw materials markets in the context of modern geopolitical challenges are proposed: a wide diversification of export deliveries of mineral raw materials to many countries around the world (primarily a reorientation to East, Southeast, and South Asia) and an increase in processing into semifinished products or finished products.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
       
  • Spatiotemporal Model of the Ecosystem of the Novosibirsk Reservoir

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      Abstract: The development of a space-time approach in modeling to display the spatial (including aquatic, in the case of reservoirs) differentiation of objects of study is important for geography. A model of the aquatic ecosystem has been created to assess the course of eutrophication, one of the main causes of the deterioration of the ecological state of inland and coastal waters. This simulation model makes it possible to analyze and predict long-term trends in the development of hydro biogeocenoses. The model reproduces the main intra-annual and intradaily changes in the ecosystems of reservoirs. The novelty of the study consists of its combination of methods for modeling structural and dynamic processes and cycles of transformation of biogeochemical elements in a spatially heterogeneous ecosystem of the reservoir. For this purpose, the Biogen simulation model is used, on the basis of which it was previously possible to reproduce the long-term trend of eutrophication of the Novosibirsk Reservoir. Changes in water quality under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors are analyzed and predicted using the example of 1981 data for the abovementioned reservoir. The significant excess of phytoplankton biomass in the deepwater zone with a fast current compared to the shallow lagoon in the central part of the reservoir, which is observed every year, is explained. The reason for the regular excess of phytoplankton biomass at depth compared to the surface layer near the dam of the Novosibirsk Reservoir in August is determined. The ecohydrological mechanism of these cases of unusual spatial distribution of phytoplankton is explained and evaluated. The reaction of the ecosystem to a possible change in the operation mode of the hydropower facility is predicted.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
       
  • Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change on the Hydrological Regime of
           the Amur River in the Lower Reaches

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      Abstract: The transformations of the water, channel, and ice regimes of the Amur River, caused by global climate warming in the region, have been considered. Based on an analysis of air temperature trends in the Amur lower reaches at meteorological stations with long series of observations, the rates of their changes are estimated based on an analysis of air temperature trends in the Institute of Water and Environmental Problems, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences. The air temperature in the Khabarovsk region has increased by 1.1°C over 100 years and by 0.56°C since the 1980s. It was revealed that, for more than a century of observation of the water regime of the Amur, there has been a clearly pronounced alternation of periods of high and low water content of the river, each of which has a duration of 12–17 years. It has been established that the probability of catastrophic floods related to dangerous hydrological phenomena during the period of high water content of the Amur is much higher than during the low water period. There is a steady upward trend in the amplitude of fluctuations in extreme water levels and an increase in the scale of floods in recent decades. The activation of channel processes and redistribution of water runoff between arms in the branched sections of the Amur River channel, the intensity of which is due to frequent large floods during periods of high water content, have been revealed. It has been shown that the impact of climate change is most clearly manifested in the ice regime in the lower reaches of the Amur. For all hydrological stations of the river, this section shows a later onset of fall ice phenomena and an earlier spring ice drift. The reduction in the duration of freeze-up for the period of 1991–2018 compared with the earlier period was 3–5 days.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
       
  • Long-Term Water Level Fluctuations in Terminal Lakes of Central Asia

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      Abstract: This paper discusses the formation of level regimes in lakes located in arid parts of Central Asia. Water resource formation specifics in the studied region include the presence of runoff formation and dispersal zones in river basins. When rivers leave mountainous areas, the dispersal of runoff occurs due to seepage losses from river channels and the remaining waters fill drainless depressions, thus forming enclosed or terminal lakes. Water levels in such lakes depend entirely on water content fluctuations in rivers, and their sizes fluctuate in a wide range, up to completely drying up. Factors determining the hydrological regimes of terminal lakes whose catchment basins are located in the Russian Federation, Mongolia, and the People’s Republic of China are examined. Approaches to the stochastic modeling of water balance components in lakes and probabilistic forecasts of their long-term water level fluctuations are presented. Using the examples of the Torey Lakes (the Russian Federation) and lakes located in the Heihe River basin (the People’s Republic of China), the level regime formation and its probabilistic forecasting are described, including situations involving severe anthropogenic impacts.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
       
  • Defining the Socio-Economic Impact and Gravitation Cluster Area of the
           State Ranked Strategical Central Cities That Play a Leading Role in
           Mongolia Development

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      Abstract: Sustainable Development Goal 11, titled “sustainable cities and communities” has a target (11a), which is Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning. In this sense, the city is a key factor in creating sustainable development. At a time when urbanization is accelerating with rapid population growth, the social and economic role of urban areas is likely to increase and urban boundaries are expanding. In order to accelerate the development of modern urban areas, the urban cluster method is widely used to plan and develop large cities and their satellite cities, villages and settlements together. The purpose of our study is to identify the socio-economic impact and gravitation cluster area of the State ranked Strategical Central cities (Darkhan, Khovd, Choibalsan, and Dalanzadgad) and to support the development of urban, semi-urban and rural areas in a coordinated manner. According to John Friedman, based on the theory that urban field have a radius of up to 100 km, a radius of 100 km was drawn from the four city centers, after which the real socio-economic impact-gravity framework was determined based on three main indicators: Reilly’s law of retail gravitation, road classification and ecological barriers. By correctly defining the scope of socio-economic impact of these State ranked Strategical Central cities, it is possible to increase the development of neighboring localities, indirectly affect the territory outside the cluster area, and become a large complex with health, education, culture and industrial hubs.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
       
  • Estimation of Urban Forest Pollution in Irkutsk According to the Level of
           Adsorption of PMx Particles by Scots Pine Needles

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      Abstract: Studies have been carried out in natural forests on the territory of a large industrial center of Eastern Siberia (the city of Irkutsk). On the selected eight test sites, the concentration of suspended particles in the atmospheric air was measured in the following size range: PM0.3, PM0.5, PM1.0, PM2.5, PM5.0, and PM10.0 and the AQI air quality index is calculated. Forest pollution is assessed by the degree of accumulation of particulate matter (PMx) in pine needles (Pinus sylvestris L.)—the main forest-forming species. Using scanning electron microscopy on the surface of the needles, the concentration, size, and chemical composition of PMx were determined. These particles were found to contain a high proportion of heavy metals. A direct correlation was found between the sum of 20 heavy metals (∑20 HM) adsorbed by needles, the content of PMx in the atmospheric air, and the AQI index (r = 0.52–0.85). It has been found that the adsorption of a solid aerosol results in the formation of metallized accumulations of PMx of different sizes, which actively penetrate into the tissues of the needles through the stomata and cuticle, exerting a toxic effect on the plant organism. It is shown that urban forests are a powerful factor in cleansing the air environment of the city; however, the currently observed significant pollution of the forests themselves requires the optimization of their condition.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
       
  • Interaction of Urban Traffic Network Structure and Carbon Emission
           Intensity: A Case Study in Shenzhen

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      Abstract: Facing global climate change, reducing carbon emissions from transportation has become an important part of building sustainable cities. Study shows that road is the main source of transport carbon emissions, accounting for 71.7% of the total transport carbon dioxide emissions. Therefore, from the perspective of road structure, the study of transport carbon emission efficiency is beneficial to understand the transport carbon emission. Taking Shenzhen as the research region, this paper establishes a high-resolution road traffic carbon emission inventory by modifying the COPERT model with the energy consumption factor parameters and explores the road structure using space syntax. We analyze the interaction between the road structure and road carbon emission. The results show that: the road carbon emission intensity of Shenzhen has the distribution characteristics of “the core is strong and the edge is weak”. Trunk roads connecting the city groups are the carbon emission intensity core; there was a significant negative correlation between road integration and road carbon emission intensity. However, there was a significant positive correlation between road accessibility and road transport carbon emission intensity. Enhancing the local integration and dispersing the demand pressure on the trunk roads are effective ways to reduce traffic carbon emissions in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
       
  • Assessment of Indicators of Solar and Wind Energy Potential of the
           Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

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      Abstract: The potential of renewable energy sources varies over time and significantly depends on natural, climatic, and regional characteristics. This article evaluates a wide group of indicators of the potential of wind and solar energy in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) at 47 points to determine the most promising areas for wind power plants (WPPs) and solar power plants (SPPs). The characterization of the wind energy potential is carried out in two stages. At the first stage, a preliminary analysis of the territory is conducted according to the measurements of weather stations for 2018–2020. On the territory of the republic, the average wind speed for this period ranges from 2.8 to 6.1 m/s at a height of 10 m. The greatest wind energy potential is typical for the northern regions. At the second stage, a full set of indicators of wind energy potential for the ten most promising areas is evaluated according to ground-based measurements for 2006–2020. The highest indicators of wind energy potential are typical for points located in close proximity to the coast: Anabar, Ust-Olenek, Stolb Island, and Ambarchik Bay. Most of the criteria and signs of high wind energy potential are met in these areas. The assessment of solar energy potential indicators was carried out for 47 sites based on estimates from the CERES SYN1deg satellite observation database for 1984–2020. To characterize the solar energy potential, three indicators were used: the annual flux of total solar radiation to a horizontal surface, the annual flux of total solar radiation on a surface inclined at an angle of latitude, and the utilization factor of the installed capacity of photovoltaic converters. The receipt of total solar radiation on a horizontal surface is from 784 to 1128 kWh/m2/year. The greatest solar energy potential is observed in the southeastern part of the republic.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
       
  • Sustainable Development of the Resource Potential of Wetlands in the
           Transboundary Territories of the Lower Amur Region

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      Abstract: This work is devoted to innovative ways to use the resource potential of wetlands in the transboundary territories of the Lower Amur region. Unlike the traditional large-scale production of consumer goods in the form of peat substrates and organic fertilizers, it is proposed to focus on high-tech aspects of processing rapidly renewable (liquid peat phase and sphagnum mosses) marsh resources. In the near future, this approach will make it possible to establish environmentally friendly production in the region not only of carbon nanotubes, which are in great demand on the market, but also of effective sorption materials, as well as therapeutic and therapeutic and prophylactic drugs for treating a wide range of diseases. At the same time, the proposed synthesis of carbon nanotubes from natural organic raw materials is more preferable from an ecological point of view than traditional cytotoxic methods of graphite cleavage. Special focus is given to the liquid phase of peat, which has amphiphilic properties. This feature of drainage marsh waters with dissolved carbon of humic substances allows them to be used in the production of a wide range of foaming and cosmetic products. Along with this, it is shown that, during the evaporation of the liquid phase of peat deposited on the surface of a number of materials, dendro-shaped fractal structures are formed, which, under the influence of a constant electric field, form carbon nanowires for microelectronics. This publication presents data from studies carried out over the past decade on the subject of grants from the government of Khabarovsk krai and the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) in accordance with research programs of the Institute of Water and Environmental Problems, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences. Research priorities are registered with 20 patents of the Russian Federation and tested at the main international innovation salons and exhibitions of the Republic of Korea, China, and Russia (Moscow, St. Petersburg).
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
       
  • Classification and Spatial Pattern of Mongolian Ethno-Cultural Tourism
           Resources in the Republic of Buryatia (Russia)

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      Abstract: The Mongolian culture is unique and attractive for its eco-friendly concept, and the Republic of Buryatia is a typical and representative region of this ethnic culture. Sustainable utilization of Mongolian ethno-cultural tourism resources has great significance on the promising and developing regional market of tourist services. In this study, Mongolian ethno-cultural tourism resources in the Republic of Buryatia were certified and classified in accordance with the Classification, Investigation and Evaluation of tourist resources of the Chinese National Standard GB/T 18972-2017. The spatial pattern of Mongolian ethno-cultural tourism resources in the CEZ BNT (Republic of Buryatia) was also revealed. The results showed that the Mongolian ethno-cultural tourism resources in Republic of Buryatia can be classified into 6 types and 23 subtypes, and the spatial distribution pattern is along the Lake Baikal and the main traffic lines. With the right approach to the organization and classification of ethno-cultural tourism resources, the cultural tourism industry can become the emerging power industry for the green sustainable development of the region and the country. The results will contribute to the protection and development of Mongolian ethno-cultural tourism resources, as well as promote the construction of the China–Mongolia–Russia economic corridor.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
       
  • Features of Interannual Dynamics of the Hydrochemical Parameters of Baikal
           Tributaries near the Village of Listvyanka

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      Abstract: Significant changes have been observed in the ecosystem of Lake Baikal in recent decades: there is a mass death of sponges and the development of algae atypical for the lake. In this regard, the study of small tributaries of Lake Baikal flowing in the areas of coastal settlements is of particular relevance. This article presents the results of a hydrochemical study of lake tributaries: the Krestovka River, the Kamenushka Stream, and the Malaya (M.) and Bol’shaya (B.) Cheremshanka streams flowing in the village of Listvyanka (one of the largest tourist areas of the lake). Interannual changes in the content of organic matter and biogenic elements and in mineralization are considered. The hydrochemical composition of tributaries in the modern period is compared with the results of a study from the 1950s. Changes in the relative composition of waters of the tributaries in 2015–2021 are shown. Factors of the formation of the chemical composition of the studied rivers are suggested. The impact of the anthropogenic factor on the formation of waters of the Kamenushka, M. Cheremshanka, and B. Cheremshanka streams is pointed out.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
       
  • Soil Temperature of Steppe Landscapes in the South of Eastern Siberia and
           Its Response to Climate Change

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      Abstract: Soil temperature is an important indicator of climate resources. It characterizes the contemporary functioning of steppe landscapes. The strongest wintery cooling of the entire 3.2-m-thick soil profile is typical for southern Transbaikalia, where seasonal freezing is deep (more than 3 m) and durable. Steppe soils in the south of the Central Siberian Plateau, where seasonal freezing depth varies from 1 to 2.6 m, cool more slightly. The summer warming of soils is almost uniform over the entire study area. Our analysis of the soil temperature amplitude has shown a wider range of its values in Transbaikalia as compared to the south of the Central Siberian Plateau. Amplitude decreases with depth. Its values testify to the smaller continentality of the soil climate in steppe landscapes at the edge of the Central Siberian Plateau relative to southern Transbaikalia. The soil temperature reaction to climate dynamics is analyzed in steps, where series of climate parameters (air temperature, total atmospheric precipitations, and soil temperature at a depth of 40 cm in January and July) are available at meteorological stations for the period of 1985–2020. Means, trends, and correlations of these parameters are calculated. A summer rise in soil temperature following the increase in air temperature is observed at all stations in recent decades. The trend values at some of the meteorological stations reach 0.7–1.5°С per 10-year period. Correlations between the dynamics of summer soil temperatures at the specified meteorological stations are rather high (0.5–0.8). The tendencies and dynamics of winter temperatures are more variable. The nonuniform snow cover of the area contributes to factors affecting the winter temperature regime.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
       
  • Effect of Drainage on Spatio-Temporal Variation in Water Chemistry of the
           Great Vasyugan Mire

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      Abstract: This study assesses spatio-temporal changes in the content of macrocomponents and organic substances in waters of the drained part of the Great Vasyugan Mire in taiga zone of Western Siberia. Studies have shown that the drained area of the Great Vasyugan Mire is characterized by increased concentrations of all components in the chemical composition of its waters compared to the pristine area, with significant differences in the content of Са2+, Mg2+, Fetotal, \({\text{NH}}_{4}^{ + }\) , Cl–, K+, Na+, Cl–, CO2, and DOC in the waters observed only between individual sampling sites. Cluster analysis confirmed the differences in the chemical composition of waters of the drained and pristine areas of the Great Vasyugan Mire by dividing them into two clusters, with the exception of samples taken in lagg. Due to the overgrowth of ditches, the mire is currently in the process of self-restoration, which results in minimal differences between the chemical compositions of waters of the drained and pristine areas of the Great Vasyugan Mire. It is noted that the chemical composition of waters can vary significantly across the mire area, depending largely on the site’s location relative to water paths and drainage ditches. Factor analysis reveals that the conditions of the formation of the chemical composition of waters also vary across the territory, depending on hydrology and thermal regime of the mire, which are transformed due to drainage and the pyrogenic factor; this results in increased mire water levels contributing to increases in concentrations of Са2+, Mg2+, Feto-tal, \({\text{NH}}_{4}^{ + }\) , K+, Na+, \({\text{HCO}}_{3}^{ - }\) , and \({\text{NO}}_{3}^{ - }\) in the waters and their transport out of the mire, which significantly impacts the quality of river waters.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
       
  • Peculiarities of the Ionic Flow of the Amur River near Khabarovsk in 2013

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      Abstract: Results from studying the flow of major ions in the water of the Amur River near Khabarovsk for the maximum water discharge in 2013 are presented. The effect of the regulated Zeya and Bureya rivers on the hydrological and hydrochemical regime of the Middle Amur are considered. An uneven distribution of the sum of ions across the width of the river is noted, with the greatest differences observed during the winter low-water period and the fewest differences occurring during the spring high-water period. It was found that, at the crest of the historical flood, the differences in the distribution of the sum of ions across the width of the Amur did not exceed 26 mg/L, and the maximum value in the middle of the river (up to 82.8 mg/L) was higher than during the 1998, 2002, 2009, and 2019 floods. The yearly largest sum of ions (132 mg/L) was recorded as a result of the removal of dissolved matter from the flooded farmland and urbanized areas in December at the beginning of freeze-up. The priority influence of the Sungari River on the temporal and spatial variability in ion concentrations in the water of the Amur River has been shown. An estimate was made of the ionic flow during the winter low-water period, spring flooding, and historical flooding, the decline of which in September was accompanied by the greatest removal of salts (6 644 000 t). Hydrocarbonate and sulfate ions; the calcium ion; and, to a lesser extent, the potassium ion and chloride ion made the main contribution to the formation of the ionic flow. The maximum share of the ionic flow of anthropogenic genesis (sulfates and chlorides) is observed in May during spring flood, when snowmelt dominates in the Amur water runoff, as well as of the hydrocarbonate ion and sodium ion in December, when salts are exported from moisture-saturated soils.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Relief and Landscapes of the Amut Depression (Northeastern Cisbaikalia)

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      Abstract: A generalized description of a modern geomorphologic structure—the landscapes of the Amut Depression as one of the elements of the rift system of northeastern Cisbaikalia—is given for the first time. The main features in the relief formation of the depression are outlined and the principal factors are determined. This study has revealed the predomination of fluvial, lacustrine, and cryogenic processes in the modern morphogenesis of the depression. Special attention is paid to the study of lakes. Modern methods of bathymetric surveys are used to determine the main parameters of the basins of the major lakes in the depression: Amut, Malan-Zurkhen, Balan-Tamur, and Churikto. It has been revealed that ancient glaciers and tectonic movements were involved in the formation and configuration of the lake basins. The current shape of the shore zone depends on the geological structure, in which a special role is played by thermoabrasion and thermodenudation. Since the study area is assigned to the Dzherginskii State Nature Reserve with its principal mission to preserve natural systems, landscape investigations have been performed. The medium-scale map of the depression and surrounding mountains is based on the concept of geosystems by Academician V.B. Sochava and compiled with the use of classical methods of studying the plant cover complemented by images taken by an unmanned flying vehicle and data from remote sensing of the Earth. The salient features of the modern status of landscapes in the study area are highlighted. The main role in the structure of the landscapes is played by mountain–taiga and mountain–depression larch geosystems with mature moss–lichen cover. At higher hypsometric levels, a greater area is occupied by subshrub–lichen sparse larch communities.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
 
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