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Geography and Natural Resources
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.288
Number of Followers: 8  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1875-3728 - ISSN (Online) 1875-371X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • The Ecological Status of Soils of Ust’-Ilimsk (Irkutsk Oblast)

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      Abstract: Abstract—Experimental investigations were made into the basicity–acidity indices (pH) and soil biochemical activity (SBA) in the industrial city of Ust’-Ilimsk in conditions of Eastern Siberia. A cartographic representation of the distribution of values of integral indicators of soils in the city is presented for the first time. The significance of the method of mapping urban soils that are experiencing urbanization and technogenesis is emphasized. The investigation was made by using the express method of determining the soil biochemical activity. In addition to this indicator, pH conditions of soils were identified. The study encompassed the main functional zones of two parts of Ust’-Ilimsk: the Old Town (Levoberezhie) and the New Town (Pravoberezhie). The neutral and weakly alkaline soils are of widespread occurrence on the territory. The pH values vary from 7.4 to 7.8; in the control soils, they vary from 6.3 to 6.9. A significant area of the city (43.9%) is occupied by weakly alkaline soils. The level of soil biochemical activity permitted us to categorize the soils as active and very active. The proportion of very active soils makes up 32.9% of the total territory of the city. This indicates a trend of ecological regression, namely a loss of a biogenic element, nitrogen. The study revealed trends of a weak but positive dependence of SBA on pH. The coefficients of approximation are positive and vary, according to the zones of the city, from 0.2 to 0.5. The absolute and relative distribution of the areas with pH and SBA values is shown. A comparative analysis of data revealed a difference of the Ust’-Ilimsk soils from the soils in other cities of the Angara region.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372821040120
       
  • The Patterns of Seasonality of the Suspended Sediment Load along the
           Braided Channel of the Lena River

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      Abstract: The features of the suspended sediment load along the 200-km braided channel of the Lena River from the city of Pokrovsk to the Aldan River mouth (upstream of the Aldan braiding) are described in detail (30-m resolution) based on water-sediment concentration modeling, using the collection of Landsat images for the period of 1992–2018. It is shown that large anabranching river reaches correspond to changes of the system of sediment transport and accumulation, manifesting themselves as the predominance of the occurrences of positive (increase) or negative (decrease) ΔS0 values (where ΔS0 stands for suspended sediment-concentration budget). The conditions of a longitudinal decrease in suspended-sediment concentration along the braided reach of the Lena River are characterized by high water discharges (>20 000 m3/s) and are associated with sediment accumulation in riffles and floodplain areas. It has been revealed that a significant role in the longitudinal decrease in water-sediment concentration is played by lateral floodplain branches, which accumulate a part of the incoming suspended sediments and exert a dilution effect on the sediment flow downstream of the confluence with the main channel. Cases of a longitudinal increase in the water-suspended sediment concentration are typical for lower water flow rates (<20 000 m3/s) and are related to increased bank thermal erosion in summer and erosion of riffles during a low-water period. A combination of the grid of suspended-sediment concentration, velocities, and channel depths with a 30 × 30-m resolution (more than 20 000 cells) for low-water conditions revealed a dependence of the local suspended-sediment concentration on the transporting capacity of the flow, which was determined for particular verticals. A correspondence between the regime of certain reaches in different phases of water regime is observed. It indicates the mutual influence of the directedness of mass exchange and channel morphology. The transformation of distribution systems of suspended sediments may be interpreted as one of the self-regulation mechanisms in the channel system. Complex systems of sediment flow distribution along the channel of a large river reflect the opposite directions of erosion-accumulation processes caused by bends in the longitudinal profile.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372821040041
       
  • The Bottom Relief Features of the Basins of Lake Baikal

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      Abstract: — Based on analyzing bathymetric material obtained in different years by using high-precision geophysical equipment featuring multi-beam echo sounders, the main bottom relief features of the South, Middle, and North basins of the Baikal depression have been considered. It has been established that ridge-ravine forms and canyon valleys are well developed on the underwater slope of all depressions. The valleys of the canyons of the Middle and South basins reach their maximum maturity, which is associated with a longer history of the evolution of these basins. The canyon valleys are highly sinuous there, which is associated with the peculiarities of the underlying substrate and fault tectonics. The canyons of the western side of the Baikal depression are predominantly tectogenic in origin, are short, and show a significant steepness of the longitudinal profile; their valleys are mostly rectilinear. The underwater slope along the eastern coast of the North basin and its abyssal surface are complicated by a set of glacial landforms: moraine swells and fan cones formed by turbidite flows during interglacial periods. On the coast, they are continued by very extended swells of lateral and stadial moraines. Tectogenic scarps are widespread in the lower parts of the underwater slopes and usually run parallel to the coastline. It has been established that the flat-convex surfaces of the deltas, which sometimes reach the abyssal surface of the lake, are a very characteristic form of the sloping relief of the South basin. Numerous outcrops of Miocene–Pliocene limnic sediments on the eastern coast of the Middle basin, and the nature of their spatial arrangement suggests that the sedimentary strata of the underwater slope of this basin may be of the same age and be genetically homogeneous with terrestrial strata, which are Miocene–Pliocene in age. Similar deposits of the Tankhoi field on the southern coast of the depression also extend far into the water area of the lake, which supports the existing points of view about the similar history of the development of the South and Middle basins.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372821040090
       
  • Transformation of Irrigated Lands in Regions of Russia during the
           Postsoviet Period

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      Abstract: This paper examines the transformation of irrigated lands in regions of Russia over the course of a long period. In 1990–2018, the area of irrigated lands decreased nationwide from 6.2 to 4.7 million ha. In some constituent entities of the Russian Federation, the area of irrigated lands decreased by 4–14 times; while in two of them, it increased by 35‒40%. In 2018, 735 000 ha (16%) of irrigated lands were not used in agriculture, primarily due to soil salinization and waterlogging; back in 1990, the share of unused lands was only 3.7%. It is concluded that agricultural use of idle irrigated lands should be resumed as soon as possible to enhance food security and increase exports of foods and agricultural raw materials. The ongoing transformations in the structure of irrigated agricultural lands in Russia are not that perceptible at the federal level; however, in some regions, they are quite noticeable. The share of forage crops in irrigated crop rotation systems should be increased to enhance soil fertility and boost the production of forage and livestock products. A steady deterioration trend in the ameliorative condition of irrigated lands has been observed in the country in recent decades. An especially unfavorable situation is noted in the Northwestern Federal District. The area of lands that require capital improvements to raise the technical level of their irrigation systems has increased dramatically. The area of actually watered irrigated lands has decreased from 4.9 million ha in 1990 to 1.4 million ha in 2016. Concurrently, high-efficiency drip irrigation systems are rapidly developing. Domestic manufacturers and joint ventures should boost the production of drip irrigation systems in Russian regions. This study presents data that indicate a revival in the production of domestic sprinkling equipment that is not inferior to foreign counterparts and costs much less.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372821040053
       
  • The Landscape Structure of the Gede–Pangrango Stratovolcano (West
           Java, Indonesia)

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      Abstract: Abstract—The structure of the Gede–Pangrango Stratovolcano, the highest volcano on Java Island, has been analyzed. Based on landscape mapping and the field observations, geographical data reflecting the spatial structure, relationships, interaction, and distribution characteristics of different-ranked ecosystems have been obtained. The influence of the equatorial climate, volcanism, altitudinal zonation, and anthropogenic impact on the formation of the structure of the volcanic landscape are shown. It was established that an increase in the altitude on the slopes of Gede–Pangrango Volcano resulted in an increase in the areas of subclasses of the steep and vertical slopes, as well as in an increase in the slopes of moderate steepness. At the same time, the share of subclasses of plume slopes, gentle slopes, and valley bottoms has decreased. These are almost absent in the summit belt of the volcano. In this case, the composition of vegetation formations becomes simpler and floristic elements of higher latitudes appear, due to a decrease in the average daily temperatures. At present, the anthropogenic factor has a significant impact on the landscapes of the volcano. As a result of the plowing of land and the construction of roads and settlements, the natural complexes of gentle slopes and their aprons have been strongly transformed. The slopes of moderate steepness are less affected by the anthropogenic impact. The subclasses of the steep and sheer slopes, as well as of valley bottoms, have mostly preserved their natural features. The anthropogenic disturbance of ecosystems decreases with an increase in altitude, which is due to a decrease in heat supply as well as to an increase in volcanic influence and intensification of erosion processes. This makes agricultural activity, the construction of roads, and the location of settlements difficult, and on steep slopes, even impossible. The reserve status of the territories in the middle and upper altitudinal belts of the volcano is favorable for the preservation of natural landscapes.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S187537282104003X
       
  • The Response of Glaciers to Global Warming in the Mountains of Eastern
           Siberia, Mongolia, and Northwest China

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      Abstract: Abstract—The use of diverse, multi-temporal satellite space information has become the main approach in investigating the current status of mountain glaciers. We have accumulated large archives of satellite images of snow–glacial systems on Earth with different spatial resolutions over the past 50 years. Together with the previously created topographic maps displaying glaciers, glacier catalogs, special maps, and atlases of ice and snow, they provide data to determine changes in areas, lengths, volumes, and altitudes of glaciers during the current climate warming. In 1986, the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS) was founded to monitor glacier fluctuations in different regions of the Earth. However, the number of observation sites is limited. The Global Ground Glacier Observing Network mainly includes those glaciers where we previously conducted ground-based studies of glacier front fluctuations, mass balance measurements, measurements of meteorological parameters, ice flow velocities, and ablation features. To identify regional differences, different altitude and plan locations, the influence of permafrost, and the background landscape environment requires that data on a larger number of glaciers be analyzed. Therefore, groups of researchers from Irkutsk and Beijing began to study the dynamics of glaciers in the inland regions of Eurasia within the framework of international projects. Several glaciers were selected in the mountains of the south of Eastern Siberia, the Mongolian Altai, and the eastern part of the Tien Shan. We recorded current glacier fronts and their elevations. The lengths and areas of glaciers in the early 1970s and early 2000s and their current state were determined. In recent decades, some connections between the dynamics of glaciers and changes in meteorological parameters have been revealed.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372821040132
       
  • Earth Insolation and Tendencies of the Variation of Alpine Ice Resources

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      Abstract: On the basis of high-precision astronomical ephemeris with a high spatial and temporal resolution, the insolation of the Earth at the upper boundary of the atmosphere was calculated for the period from 3000 BC to 2999 AD. The differences from the earlier calculations of insolation are associated with the initial astronomical data and new calculation algorithms. In our calculations of insolation, the time interval of 5999 years and the entire surface of the Earth have been covered in detail. The Earth is not identified with a sphere, but is approximated by an ellipsoid. Previously, calculations of high-frequency variations in insolation were performed for individual parallels (in space), and in time for four or five separate points of the year (equinoxes, solstices and, sometimes, points with a geocentric longitude of 120 degrees). We have calculated insolation for the surface of latitudinal zones at 1° latitude and time intervals equal to 1/360 of the duration of a tropical year (approximately a day). Correlation analysis of the total mass balance of alpine glaciers (for the period from the balance years 1948/1949 to 2009/2010) with summer and winter insolation and summer, winter and annual insolation contrast of the northern hemisphere, which in a summarized forms (by regions of heat source and sink) reflects long-term changes in the meridional insolation gradient. It has been determined that the long-term variability in the total mass balance of alpine glaciers on average (for glaciers covered by balance observations) is accounted for by the trend at 94.3%. The trend to a reduction of alpine glaciers by an average of 90.6% is determined by the annual insolation contrast, which reflects an increase in the meridional heat transfer, as determined by an increase in the meridional contrast of radiant energy (on the Earth’s surface, excluding the atmosphere). Based on the close correlations determined by using a regression model, a forecast of the total mass balance of glaciers up to 2050 AD was made, which indicates a catastrophic development of the degradation of the modern glaciation of the Alps.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372821040065
       
  • Historical and Geographical Features of Settlement and Ethnic Composition
           of the Population of Barguzin Cisbaikalia (19th–20th Centuries)

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      Abstract: The formation features in the ethnic structure and settlements of Barguzin Cisbaikalia across the territory of the modern Barguzinskii and Kurumkanskii districts of the Republic of Buryatia are considered. On the basis of archival sources and field research material, the impact of socio-administrative transformations, methods of economic activity, and the characteristics of the natural environment on the placement of the newcomers and old-time population are revealed. The adaptive features of local communities are shown, which led to sustainability of the traditions of nature management and everyday interethnic contacts. The nature of the settlement of the territory and the formation of a network of settlements in different historical periods had its own characteristics and, at the same time, was largely determined by the degree of the preservation of the complex of nature management traditional for the ethnos: agricultural-commercial, animal husbandry-commercial, hunting-commercial and fishing nature management with a number of transitional options that formed in the course of constant interaction of ethnic groups in the region. It was found that stability and continuity in the organization of the human habitat were characteristic for the study area and the peoples inhabiting it. The distribution of settlements, as well as temporary and permanent camps in different historical periods reflected the state of the ethnocultural landscape and determined the location of its functional zones and areas, as well as contributing to the formation of the identity of the local population.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372821040144
       
  • Temporal Variation in Land Use and Land Cover in Gujrat (Pakistan) from
           1985 to 2015

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      Abstract: The fundamental changes in the land use and condition of the land in Gujrat (Punjab province, Pakistan), which have occurred over the past several decades, have been studied. They have a long history and represent an important factor in global changes in urban landscape. An attempt was made to determine the spatio-temporal changes in land use and land areas caused by anthropogenic activities. The study was carried out on the basis of multi-temporal satellite images (for 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2015) of the US Geological Survey, obtained from various Landsat satellites. Satellite image processing was carried out in the ERDAS Imagine 2014 and ArcGIS 10.3.1 programs. As a result, four maps were compiled that reflect the spatial and temporal dynamics of land. They are divided into five types: vegetation cover, bare soil, sand, water bodies and built-up areas. The results of the study indicate a significant decrease in the area of vegetation cover: from 85.1% in 1985 to 79.6% by 2015. There was also a significant increase in the built-up area, from 0.7 to 4.0% over a 30-year period. It has been established that unplanned changes in land use have an extremely negative impact on the ecological situation as well as on the human habitat. It has been concluded that it is necessary to conduct a reasonable policy aimed at correcting unplanned urbanization and the demographic situation in the province under consideration.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372821040107
       
  • The Current Territorial Differentiation of the Industry of Irkutsk Oblast

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      Abstract: This article discusses recent changes in the development of industrial production in Irkutsk oblast from 2010 to 2019. Industry is the basic component in the economic complex; it provides about half of the region’s gross added value and is characterized by a multi-sectoral structure formed primarily on the basis of using natural resources and cheap electricity. It is pointed out that in the last decade, a significant change in the structure of industry has led to a structural simplification of its sectoral composition with a significant shift toward the raw materials sector. Cities remain the leading centers of concentration of the manufacturing industry. The grouping of municipalities according to the level of industrial development was carried out according to the available statistical data: the calculated share of the employed in industry and the volume of shipped products of large and medium-sized organizations. On the basis of their ratio, groups of regions with intensive development of the extractive industries, primarily the oil and gas sector, as well as territories in which the industrial profile was formed in Soviet times but underwent transformations under the influence of changes in the market, were identified. A group of regions with very low industrial development has been identified, in which economic activities are mainly related to agriculture, logging, transport, and tourism. It is shown that some of the municipalities have changed their position in the groups when compared to 2010. The rest of the composition is relatively stable. It was found that in the first and fourth groups a change in priority in the development of types of economic activity occurred, whereas the second and third groups show a change in their proportions. Large business contributes to the extremely uneven distribution of investments across the oblast in the implementation of investment projects.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372821040077
       
  • Landscape and Ecological Analysis of the Recreationally Developed Coastal
           Area of the Village of Bolshoe Goloustnoe (South Baikal)

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      Abstract: To analyze the recreational development of the coast of Lake Baikal, a map of the contemporary landscape structure on a key site (Goloustnoe coast) has been compiled; based on this map, the main factors of natural attractiveness for the development of the tourism industry have been identified. Considering the economic and geographical patterns of the region combined with its landscape and recreational potential, historically formed and preferred types of recreation activities have been determined. With a view to reveal environmental problems, the main directions for recreational activities have been identified that have the greatest negative impact on the functioning of landscape complexes in the area. It has been pointed out that a low level of ecological culture of vacationers is frequently the chief cause of an intensification of adverse events. Therefore, the risk of crisis situations is borne not only by tourists, but also by the operation of recreational infrastructure facilities. Geoimages obtained by processing images taken with a drone helped to identify centers of greatest environmental stress, as well as present quantitative parameters characterizing the extent of the negative impact. Having considered the high degree of sensitivity of landscape complexes to anthropogenic impact, ecotourism-oriented leisure activities have been proposed that can not only reduce the burden on the part of recreational activities, but also increase the level of environmental morality. Besides, the authors have provided the examples of recreational facilities, already existing on the Goloustnoe coast of Lake Baikal and methods of their management, guaranteeing environmental stability, which is necessary in the implementation of measures aimed at sustainable development of the Baikal territory.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372821040156
       
  • The Vegetation of the Subalpine–Taiga Complex and Gold Accumulation by
           Larch Forests of Eastern Sayan

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      Abstract: This article summarizes the material from geobotanical and biogeochemical studies into the vegetation of the Irkut River valley in the spurs of the Kitoi Goletzes of the Eastern Sayan Mountains. An analysis is made of the features in spatial structure and the floristic and phytocenotic diversity of vegetation of cryo-steppe open woodland, taiga larch forests and meadow-bog complexes in the high-mountain valley of the Irkut River. It was found that the landscapes of the subalpine cold forest–steppe represented by a combination of sparse herbaceous (ptylagrostis-cobresia, fescue) larch forests, shrub groups with the involvement of Spiraea alpina, Betula rotundifolia, and Dasiphora fruticosa, and communities of cryophytic steppes typically occur at altitudes of 2000 m above sea level. The latter constitute the original element of the forest–steppe, which is often dominated by the endemic fescue Festuca komaroviis. The dominant taiga vegetation is dominated by larch forests. Larch forests are dominant in the composition of prevailing taiga vegetation. These are mainly lingonberry–rhododendron–lichen larch forests and larch forests with lingonberry moss–lichen communities. The communities of subalpine larch forests of the Il’chir tract showed anomalies in the gold contents in samples of fruticose lichens, that is, reindeer lichen. The gold content in lichen samples varies from 0.1 to 0.8, and in some places it reaches 1–3 g/t. In general, in the Sayan alpine landscapes, gold–sulfide vein zones are known to occur in rocks of the Paleozoic volcanogenic–terrigenous formation and at its contact with the carbonate formation. Along the slope, gentle watershed ridges overgrown with taiga larch forests are interspersed with narrow hollows of cryogenic subsidence with the occurrence of boggy willow forests, sedge–cobresia, and ptyagrostis meadows with Dasiphora fruticosa. Only at the foothills, on bedrock terraces with outcrops of rocks of the Paleozoic carbonate formation, communities of the cobresia–fescue alpine steppe are formed.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372821040119
       
  • The Environmental Consequences of a Major Landslide on the Shore of the
           Bureya Reservoir

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      Abstract: This study discusses the environmental consequences of a major landslide that occurred on the shore of the Bureya reservoir in December 2018, for the first time in the winter period; it was the largest such phenomenon in Russia over the last decade. Toxic organic substances present in water and aufeis in the landslide impact zone and after the collapse of the dam composed of rocks were analyzed. A comparative analysis of aromatic compounds contained in water in the vicinity of the landslide body prior to and after blasting operations and in the newly-built artificial canal was performed using gas chromatography. Predominant organic components present in the water included a number of toxic substances (e.g., methanol and methylated benzene derivatives); after the drainage of the water through the landslide body, concentrations of these substances increased. Many volatile organic substances have a natural origin and could be contained in the pore space of rocks. After the blasting operations, the content of hexane and isopropyl benzene in the water of the artificial canal increased. It has been established that rock grinding caused by the landslide and by the blasting operations significantly affected the composition of volatile organic substances. Rock watering, thawing, and freezing; decomposition of plant residues; and transformations of detonation products of explosives initiate various biogeochemical processes in the pore space; aromatic compounds formed as a result of such processes pose environmental risks to the reservoir ecosystem.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372821040089
       
  • A Geographic Approach to Water Sciences

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      Abstract: — This work considers Water Science as one single bloc. It has been proved that geography as the only science that studies the complete nature–economy–population system within its disciplines can serve as a basis for improving integral and sectoral methodology. Five main functions of water have been identified, such as, vital, energy-producing, environment-forming, water-area, and civilizational. Five major problems have been revealed, which result from using water bodies and water resources: depletion of water resources, leading to a quantitative water shortage; contamination of water bodies, leading to their qualitative degradation; changes in the water regime and water balance of terrestrial landscapes and water bodies due to anthropogenic activities that lead to disruption of the circulation of moisture, climate change, and changes in aquatic biogeocenoses; problems that arise from cross-sectoral trade-offs, as well as from uneven spatial distribution of water resources, different rates and stages of economic growth and levels of socio-economic development; and hazardous natural phenomena and disasters. The gaps are examined that emerge in the absence of geographic thinking in surface-water hydrology, including the case of determining the maximum (peak) discharge in the catastrophic flood in the summer of 2019 on the Iya River in the city of Tulun and an unsatisfactory governmental attempt to maintain the level of Lake Baikal within a one-meter level. An analysis is performed of the geographic direction in the Water Sciences. The paper reports the results of the studies of the Siberian landscape-hydrological school, whose landmark issue is associated with the book by A.N. Antipov and L.M. Korytny Geographic Aspects of Hydrological Research: Case Study of the River Systems of the Southern Minusinsk Depression published 40 years ago. The experimental-landscape, geosystem-regional (basin), indicational, cartographic, classification, and organizational and coordinating directions were defined as the principals for this school. The study proposes the main ways for solving the problems of strengthening the geographic approach to the Water Sciences.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372821030100
       
  • The Effects of Climate Change on the Hydrological Regime of Northern
           Rivers in Krasnoyarsk Krai

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      Abstract: The annual runoff dynamics of the studied regional watercourses, as well as the air temperature and precipitation trends, were analyzed in the spatial and temporal aspects to identify the regional and local characteristics of the hydrological regime of rivers in the cryolithozone of Krasnoyarsk krai. Nine river basins located in three landscape zones (forest–tundra, northern taiga, and middle taiga) were selected as test sites. A hydrological and meteorological database was produced using archive materials provided by the Central Siberian Administration for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, including long-time river runoff data collected at hydrological stations and air temperature and precipitation data collected at meteorological stations in the studied region. The database was used to develop models that describe the annual river runoff formation in dependence to climatic factors and to analyze the spatiotemporal characteristics of the river runoff formation. It was found that the landscape differentiation of the area affects the spatial distribution of climatic parameters and, accordingly, hydrological regime characteristics. Regression equations describing relationships between river runoff on the one hand and air temperature and precipitation on the other hand were produced for all studied catchment basins. It is established that precipitation and air temperature during the warm period affect the average annual runoff most significantly, while liquid precipitation and air temperature in winter months largely determine the winter low-water runoff. Analysis of linear trends in average annual air temperatures and precipitations shows a steady increase in air temperature since the mid-1950s; while precipitation trends not only differ significantly in absolute values, but are of different signs. Analysis of the annual and minimum winter runoff dynamics in different observation periods performed for the studied rivers shows that most of them demonstrate upward annual runoff trends varying from 0.57 to 4.76 mm/yr. The winter runoff has increased from 0.09 to 1.42 mm/yr. This indicates an overall upward river runoff trend in the studied region. The established multidirectionality of the river runoff and precipitation trends indicates that thawing of perennially frozen grounds caused by the increase in air temperature is becoming an increasingly significant river runoff formation factor in the cryolithozone.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372821030070
       
  • Overtourism at Baikal: Problems and Ways of Addressing Them

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      Abstract: This article examines the socio-economic causes and consequences of a high load on tourist destinations (overtourism) in the Baikal Natural Territory (BNT). An economic analysis is made of the existing tourist flows. The areas of conflict of the interests of tourist business, the local population, authorities of different levels and investors have been identified. This study summarizes the results of field investigations made in a number of districts of Buryatia in order to develop the strategy of sustainable ecologically balanced development of the territory. The technique of informal interviews was used to identify and compare the opinions of different categories of people on the reasons behind the conflict of the interests in the BNT and the methods of settling them. Estimates of the economic benefits from the flow of unorganized tourists in the Baikal region of Buryatia by the method of travel costs have been obtained. It is shown that the policy of restriction on economic activities in the BNT and reliance on mass tourism lead to the degradation of the nature in Baikal and do not solve the problems of financial self-sufficiency of the territory. The mass nature of the tourist flow stifles the possibility for full-fledged communication with wildlife and for an educational and comfortable recreation provided that the recreational load on the territory is observed. In addition, super-tourism territories are vulnerable to emergencies (such as epidemics).
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372821030033
       
  • Some Results and Prospects of Landscape Mapping of Russia

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      Abstract: Landscape maps of Russia at various scales, including individual cartographic products, maps in scientific papers, and comprehensive scientific-reference atlases, as well as digital spatial data on landscapes, have been inventoried. A review of data sources for landscape-cartographic studies in the area of contemporary Russia from 1959 until now and the results of searching for landscape maps on the Internet are given. Taking the difficulties in searching for analog and digital landscape maps and sets of spatial data on landscapes in libraries, bibliographic publications, and databases into consideration, it is proposed to create a metadata base and provide free access to it on the Landscapes of Russia geoportal. It is aimed at disseminating existing Russian and foreign data sources and integrating geosciences data based on geoportal technologies and web mapping tools. The current status of landscape mapping of land and aquatic areas of Russia (Far East; southern Eastern Siberia; Altai; North Caucasus; and the north, northwest, and center of European Russia) is illustrated by some regional case studies (totaling approximately 60 names), which differ in the available cartographic data. The prospects of future landscape mapping include a further improvement of methods and technologies to obtain remote sensing data, as well as the identification of emergent properties of geosystems. The principles of compilation of landscape maps and of the structure of their analysis are formulated with regard for the system properties of the research object (a special subject of landscape science, which is not limited only to the synthesis of information from geology, geomorphology, pedology, botany, etc.), and for practical needs of nature management.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372821030112
       
  • Spatial Planning as a Tool of Marine and Coastal Nature Management in
           Krasnodar Krai

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      Abstract: Abstract—To solve the problems of ensuring the sustainable development of coastal ecosocioeconomic systems and adjacent marine areas marine spatial planning (MSP) tools are used as one of the approaches to territorial planning. This paper assesses the possibilities of using the MSP tools to improve the efficiency of joint activities of economic entities and minimize environmental risks of environmental management. As a territorial object, the coastal zone of Krasnodar Krai as a coastal subject of the Russian Federation is examined and the ecological and economic state of the territory is analyzed. Based on analyzing the international and Russian practice, the principles and stages of the MSP process are considered, as well as the opportunities and prospects for using the MSP principles for Krasnodar Krai, including in terms of the necessary legal base. It is shown that due to the geographical, economic, and ecological features of Krasnodar Krai and to the lack of the federal and regional legal system in the field of strategic planning of coastal ecosocioeconomic systems and adjacent marine areas, implementation of MSP tools can be the missing link in the decision-making process for the development of regional maritime activities. An analysis of the experience from using the MSP tools for Krasnodar Krai shows that sustainable development of the coastal territories and the adjacent waters areas depends primarily on monitoring maritime activities and the environment to prevent degradation of the ecosocioeconomic situation. Requirements for the use of elements of the MSP tools for Krasnodar Krai have been developed, which should be aimed at providing recommendations for effective decision making to administrative bodies and economic entities in specific maritime sectors of natural resource management.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372821030082
       
  • Some Features of Meteorological Parameters and their Contribution to the
           Dispersion of Anthropogenic Impurities in the Russian Arctic Sector: A
           Case Study of Part of West Svalbard Island

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      Abstract: Abstract—This article is devoted to the study of the contribution of meteorological parameters to the dispersion of anthropogenic impurities of the surface air layer of the atmosphere within a part of West Svalbard Island (using the settlement of Barentsburg as an example). The Svalbard archipelago has an important scientific significance from the perspective of the uniqueness of its natural and climatic conditions. It is found that the main factors that affect the environment of the island include coal mining and an intensification of tourist flows. Therefore, one of the most important problems of the western part of the archipelago is air pollution, which has been increasing recently where the natural and climatic conditions have a significant role by determining the conditions of accumulation or dispersion of pollutants. In spite of the scientific experience gained in Russia and the results from investigating the interactions between the climatic (meteorological) conditions and the level of air pollution, the territory of the Svalbard archipelago was not included on the list of areas to be studied. In this regard, the present study is focused for the first time on identifying the features of the contribution of meteorological parameters to the accumulation or dispersion of anthropogenic impurities in the Russian Arctic sector of the archipelago (the settlement of Barentsburg). Drawing on the experience of previous scientific efforts, it is suggested that data from the system of observations taken eight times per day without averaging by using the direct intensity of events, dictate the need to develop a new mathematical formula. Furthermore, it is necessary to complement the procedure of assessing the self-purification capacity of the atmosphere by expanding it to two or three stages and include the synoptic and geographical features of the terrain on the list of parameters to be studied. The inclusion of the meteorological features of the dispersion of anthropogenic impurities in the Arctic zone has scientific novelty and relevance in the context of a further industrial development of this zone.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372821030045
       
  • Modeling of the Suspended Matter Balance in the Selenga River Delta Using
           Remote Sensing Data

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      Abstract: This paper describes a methodology developed for assessing the distribution of suspended sediment and metal fluxes along the Selenga delta channels and their accumulation by aquatic vegetation, based on the interpretation of Landsat-5, -7 and -8 and Sentinel-2/MSI satellite images, with clarification according to field data collected in 2011–2016. The methodology has great potential for application, because it allows to obtain quantitative characteristics of suspended sediment and metals balances based only on satellite images and data on discharges of suspended matter and metals at a delta apex. Calculation of the sediment budget allowed us to obtain the first quantitative data on the relationship of erosion-accumulation processes with water discharges in the Selenga River delta: for water discharges larger than 1500 m3/s, a steady predominance of sediment accumulation in the delta was observed. For smaller discharges there are cases of a longitudinal increase in the suspended sediment flux related with the backwater from Lake Baikal and channel erosion in the delta. On average, approximately 30% of the suspended sediment flux accumulates in the delta. Using the example of July 24, 2014, it was shown that 43% of the investigated metals flux (Mg, Al, Ti, Tl) accumulated in the delta. In the accumulation of metals, the channel and floodplain components account for 73 and 23%, respectively; and 3% is due to aquatic vegetation.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372821030124
       
 
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