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  Subjects -> GEOGRAPHY (Total: 493 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
40 [degrees] South     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
AAG Review of Books     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
AbeÁfrica : Revista da Associação Brasileira de Estudos Africanos     Open Access  
ACME : An International Journal for Critical Geographies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Universitatis Lodziensis : Folia Geographica Socio-Oeconomica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adam Academy : Journal of Social Sciences / Adam Akademi : Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cartography and GIScience of the ICA     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Africa Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
African Geographical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Afrika Focus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AGORA Magazine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía & Ambiente     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AGU Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
All Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Geographic Information System     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Human Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Amerika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Geografía de la Universidad Complutense     Open Access  
Anatoli     Open Access  
Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis / Studia de Cultura     Open Access  
Annals of GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Annals of the American Association of Geographers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Anuario     Open Access  
Applied Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ar@cne     Open Access  
Arctic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arctic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Area Development and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Asian Geographer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Geographical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ateneo Korean Studies Conference Proceedings     Open Access  
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT)     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions (AMTD)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Aurora Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Antarctic Magazine     Free   (Followers: 5)
Australian Geographer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Bandung : Journal of the Global South     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Barn : Forskning om barn og barndom i Norden     Open Access  
Baru : Revista Brasileira de Assuntos Regionais e Urbanos     Open Access  
Belgeo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biblio3W : Revista Bibliográfica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Biogeographia : The Journal of Integrative Biogeography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BioRisk     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletim Campineiro de Geografia     Open Access  
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access  
Boletim Gaúcho de Geografia     Open Access  
Boletim Goiano de Geografia     Open Access  
Boletín de Estudios Geográficos     Open Access  
Boletín de la Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles     Open Access  
Brill Research Perspectives in Map History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège     Open Access  
Bulletin de l’association de géographes français     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Geography. Physical Geography Series     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of the Serbian Geographical Society     Open Access  
Caderno de Geografia     Open Access  
Cahiers Balkaniques     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cahiers Charlevoix : Études franco-ontariennes     Full-text available via subscription  
Cahiers franco-canadiens de l'Ouest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
California Italian Studies Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Soil Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Cardinalis     Open Access  
Carnets de géographes     Open Access  
Cartographic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cartographic Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cartographica : The International Journal for Geographic Information and Geovisualization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Cartography and Geographic Information Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Check List : The Journal of Biodiversity Data     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Climate and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Comparative Cultural Studies : European and Latin American Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Urban Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Confins     Open Access  
Conjuntura Austral : Journal of the Global South     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Coolabah     Open Access  
Creativity Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Critical Romani Studies     Open Access  
Crossings : Journal of Migration & Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Geografía : Revista Colombiana de Geografía     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Geografía de la Universitat de València     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica / Geographical Research Letters     Open Access  
Cuadernos Inter.c.a.mbio sobre Centroamérica y el Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dela     Open Access  
Dialogues in Human Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Didáctica Geográfica     Open Access  
DIE ERDE : Journal of the Geographical Society of Berlin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documenti Geografici     Open Access  
Documents d'Anàlisi Geogràfica     Open Access  
Doğu Coğrafya Dergisi : Eastern Geographical Review     Open Access  
DRd - Desenvolvimento Regional em debate     Open Access  
Earth System Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
East/West : Journal of Ukrainian Studies     Open Access  
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Economic and Regional Studies / Studia Ekonomiczne i Regionalne     Open Access  
Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Économie rurale     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecosystems and People     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Entorno Geográfico     Open Access  
Environment & Ecosystem Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Science : Atmospheres     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Science and Sustainable Development : International Journal Of Environmental Science & Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Environmental Smoke     Open Access  
Ería : Revista Cuatrimestral de Geografía     Open Access  
Espacio y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Espacios : Revista de |Geografía     Open Access  
Espaço & Economia : Revista Brasileira de Geografia Econômica     Open Access  
Espaço Aberto     Open Access  
Espaço e Cultura     Open Access  
Espaço e Tempo Midiáticos     Open Access  
Estudios Geográficos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios Socioterritoriales : Revista de Geografía     Open Access  
Ethnobiology Letters     Open Access  
Ethnoscientia : Brazilian Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnoecology     Open Access  
eTropic : electronic journal of studies in the tropics     Open Access  
Études internationales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Études rurales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Études/Inuit/Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
European Bulletin of Himalayan Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Spatial Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Evolutionary Human Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Fennia : International Journal of Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Finisterra : Revista Portuguesa de Geografia     Open Access  
Fire Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Florida Geographer     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Focus on Geography     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Forum Geografi     Open Access  
Frontera Norte     Open Access  
GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Genre & histoire     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geo : Geography and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Geo UERJ     Open Access  
Geo-Image     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geo-spatial Information Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
GeoArabia     Hybrid Journal  
Géocarrefour     Open Access  
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Geochronometria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoderma Regional : The International Journal for Regional Soil Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geodesy and Cartography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geoforum Perspektiv     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofronter     Open Access  
Geografares     Open Access  
Geografisk Tidsskrift-Danish Journal of Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geografiska Annaler, Series A : Physical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geographia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geographica Helvetica     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Geographical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Geographical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Geographical Journal of Nepal     Open Access  
Geographical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Geographical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Geographicalia     Open Access  
Géographie et cultures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geography and Natural Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Geography and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geography Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
GeoHumanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
GeoInformatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geoinformatics & Geostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Geoinformatics FCE CTU     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Geoingá : Revista do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia     Open Access  
GeoJournal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
GEOMATICA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
GEOmedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geopauta : Revista de Geografia da Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia     Open Access  
Geophysical Research Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 183)
Geoplanning : Journal of Geomatics and Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
GeoScape     Open Access  
Geosciences Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Geosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GEOUSP : Espaço e Tempo     Open Access  
Ghana Journal of Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
GIScience & Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
Global Challenges     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
GPS Solutions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Grafo Working Papers     Open Access  
HiN : Alexander von Humboldt im Netz. Internationale Zeitschrift für Humboldt-Studien     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Geography and Natural Resources
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.288
Number of Followers: 10  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1875-3728 - ISSN (Online) 1875-371X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Ecosystem Functions of the Atmosphere in the Sustainable Development of
           Urbanized Territories (a Case Study of the City of Ulan-Ude)

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      Abstract: We have analyzed the prerequisites for the sustainable development of urbanized territories related to the atmospheric air quality as determined by a combination of microclimatic differences and anthropogenic impact. The city of Ulan-Ude, located under conditions of valley–basin topography, is studied. The direct radiation on the slopes of the surrounding ridges is measured to clarify the microclimatic features of the city. Spatial differences in the formation of the ecological and climatic status of air near the summits, on the bottoms of the valleys of the Uda and Selenga rivers, and on slopes with many valleys of different orientations and level surfaces are revealed. It is found that the ecosystem functions of the atmosphere of valley–basin territories, limited by a natural and climatic ability to self-purify, require a lower anthropogenic load. It is shown that the decrease in emissions from stationary sources from 2010 to 2018 contributes to the positive dynamics of specific ecological and economic parameters (kg/1000 rubles). Specific total emissions (kg/person) become greater, and the atmospheric pollution index remains high and very high due to an increase in emissions from mobile sources and in the concentration of aggressive impurities. For better living conditions of the population and the sustainable development of Ulan-Ude, it is important to reduce emissions from stationary and mobile sources, i.e., improve fuel quality and the technical condition of vehicles and road infrastructure. It is also advisable to transfer existing green zones into protected areas.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • The Concept of Landscape in Russian Legislation

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      Abstract: It has been revealed that, despite the absence of a government landscape policy in Russia, the regulation of several spheres of economic activity includes requirements for the sustainable use of landscapes. The landscape concept is applied to manage resource-oriented types of activity in Russia. Environmental protection, as well as preserving Russian natural and cultural heritage, are the key activities. It is found that the use of approximately 40 types of landscapes classified under different criteria are regulated by Russian legislation. Only three of them are legally approved: landscape, natural landscape, and anthropogenic landscape. Federal legislation governs landscape management for almost all types of economic activities listed in this work. At the interregional and regional level, the focus is on the use of geosystems in tourism, agriculture, and natural and cultural heritage conservation, as well as environmental protection. At the local (municipal) level, the landscape concept is used to manage urban planning, zone settlements, classify lands, and assess their cadastral value. Integral geosystems (rather than individual natural and cultural-historical resources) are objects for management within the framework of the functioning and development of specially protected natural areas, as well as the protection of cultural heritage. The objectives of their use are mainly mentioned in strategic documents. It is pointed out that the number of features in the governmental regulation of geosystem use in Russia is related with several principles of landscape planning: a hierarchical nature (management of the geosystems at all levels, from federal to municipal), commitment to the ecological aspects of regional policy (landscape management is basically used for environmental protection), and reliance on the ecological framework of the territory (the establishment and management of specially protected natural areas for the conservation of unique and typical natural complexes which form a part of the ecological framework).
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Northern Dvina River: Long Periods of Increased and Decreased Water and
           Ionic Runoff in the 19th–21st Centuries

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      Abstract: This paper analyzes long-term time series of annual and seasonal water and ionic runoff of the Northern Dvina River measured near the village of Ust’-Pinega, where hydrological and hydrometric observations commenced in 1882 and 1947, respectively. Long increased and decreased-runoff phases have been distinguished and their main parameters determined. It is established that the difference between the increased and decreased-runoff phases in long-run annual average water runoff values is 17% for the annual runoff, 16% for the snow-melt flood runoff, 32% for the winter runoff, and 38% for the summer–autumn runoff. It is concluded that changes in the chemical runoff during the transition from a increased water runoff phase to a decreased water runoff phase are pronounced to a lesser extent. The greatest differences between the contrasting water runoff phases in ionic runoff are typical for the summer–autumn hydrological season and for the winter low-water season: during increased-runoff phases, the ionic runoff is 14–17 and 10–11% higher, respectively, compared to decreased-runoff phases. During snow-melt flood periods and on average for the year as a whole, the ionic runoff during increased water runoff phases is only 5–8% higher compared to decreased water runoff phases. The relative dynamic constancy of the hydrochemical load exerted by the Northern Dvina River on the White Sea, regardless of its water content fluctuations, is determined by an inverse relationship between the water flow and the concentration of chemicals. In addition, the anthropogenic impact on the ionic composition in the river catchment basin is insignificant, which makes it possible to maintain the established relationships despite ongoing climate change.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Landscape Structure as the Regulator of the Siberian Stone Pine Growth
           Dynamics in the Northern Taiga of Western Siberia

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      Abstract: This paper presents the results of studies aimed at identifying statistical relationships between the landscape structure and variability in Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica) increments in the permafrost–hillocky northern-taiga landscapes of Western Siberia (Nadym River basin). Dendrochronologies of Siberian stone pine growing on frost mounds of different types are compiled. Principal component analysis is applied to obtain independent variables that describe the site and landscape structure of the territory. Cores from 512 trees growing on 23 frost mounds are analyzed. The following methods are used: crossdating, dendrochronological standardization, and the elimination of monotonic trends for each tree. Results of the classification of Sentinel satellite images were used to calculate the proportions of lakes, forests, sparse forests, floating bogs, and flat–hillocky peat bogs, with the radius of the vicinity of a frost mound of 100‒2000 m. Correlation, dispersion, and regression analyses are used in the analysis of the dependence of the median increment on the characteristic of the mound site and landscape neighborhoods. It has been established that on high mounds the variability in increments is higher on tops than on slopes, whereas the situation is often reversed on low mounds. It is also found that the tops and slopes of the frost mounds respond differently to climatic fluctuations depending on the landscape structure and the height of the mound: the close proximity of lakes reduces the variability of phytoproductive functioning on the summit surfaces. It is revealed that the sensitivity of Siberian stone pine growth to temperature fluctuations increases with an increase in the diversity of the facies structure caused by the development of thermokarst subsidence and cryogenic cracks.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Interregional Interaction as a Strategic Basis for Tourism Recovery in the
           Far East

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      Abstract: The consequences of the crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) for tourism are briefly outlined, and government actions to revive this economic sector are considered. It is shown that the current crisis is the worst in the entire history of the industry. At the same time, crises open up additional opportunities; innovative solutions are used to meet customer requirements. The main trends of postcrisis measures in our country are highlighted. In Russia, the strategic basis for improving the recreation sector is strengthening domestic tourism; in this regard, regional strategies for development are of particular importance. This direction is declared in the industry program and in the Program for Development of the Far East until 2035, supported by measures and targets for the creation of a tourism cluster in each region of the Far East. It is shown that the socioeconomic program includes the regional Tourism subprogram for the first time. The prerequisites for its implementation are outlined, and the centers of tourist activity revitalization are presented. Taking into consideration the geographical position and size of the Far East, the formation of a cluster policy emphasizes the importance of developing interregional relations, which are currently poorly represented. Even the conditions of territories with advanced development that have preferential treatment for business are not used in establishing relations. A model of the federal tourism interregional scheme of territorial and spatial planning, with a focus on the creation of a comprehensive tourism plan of development, is proposed. The prerequisites, structure, content, and conditions of model formation are pointed out. The implementation of the tasks outlined in the scheme focuses on the integration of the common efforts of all market players in order to form a tourist region as an integral competitive unit.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Optimal Site Selection for Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants: A Case Study
           of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Azerbaijan

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      Abstract: — This study is concerned with optimally selecting sites for solar photovoltaic power plants, an important research objective because electrical energy generated by converting total solar irradiance on a horizontal surface of direct and diffuse components of photovoltaic (PV) cells of solar panels has a low power output; therefore, more efficient power generation can be achieved by identifying areas with a high power factor. Moreover, it is known that, due to the low efficiency of PV panels (14–18%) and the low intensity of total solar irradiance on a horizontal surface, achieving a certain satisfactory power level requires a large installation space. Additionally, due to the high cost of installing solar power plants, site selection must be based on a comprehensive systematic assessment of the region’s geographic factors. The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic was chosen for this case study because the irradiance level in the region is higher than in other regions of Azerbaijan (1220–1699 kW h/m2/year) and sunshine duration exceeds 2500 h per year. Since the installation of solar power plants in regions with high levels of total irradiance on a horizontal surface depends on technical, economic, and environmental criteria, descriptive criteria are used to determine optimal installation areas. Suitable installation sites for solar power plants are identified using an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) model based on multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods. The first phase of the study involves an analysis of seven site selection criteria: total solar irradiance on a horizontal surface; slope; land use; buffer distance between the areas with high annual solar power potential and residential areas; and proximity to substations, highways, and power lines. The second stage involves assessing the accessibility and suitability according to certain criteria using the Weighted Overlay tool in a Geographic Information System (GIS). This GIS tool was also used to determine the suitability level of the territories according to certain criteria. The conclusion reached as a result of the analysis is that 9.5% (510 km2) of the territory of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic is highly suitable, 12% (645 m2) has medium suitability, and 24% (1290 km2) corresponds to low suitability for the installation of solar power plants. The remaining 54.5% (2930 km2) of the region is unsuitable due to low irradiance levels; steep slopes; the presence of specially protected, residential, or agricultural areas; or poorly developed infrastructure. Optimal locations are found mainly the southern and eastern parts of the region.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Long-Term Soil Temperature Dynamics in Pyrogenically Transformed
           Geosystems of the Tunka Depression (Southwestern Baikalia)

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      Abstract: In order to identify the features in the dynamics of the soil temperature regime during the postfire reforestation of the subtaiga light-coniferous geosystems of the Tunka depression, a study of the demutation processes has been conducted in the pine forests of the Badary urochishche after the fires that occurred in 2010. As part of monitoring observations in 2011‒2020, the specificity of rehabilitation of understory trees, as well as of the shrub layer and live ground cover, was determined. The period of appearance of the first shoots of undergrowth was noted; the projective cover of species of all forest-growing layers was estimated. By comparing the dominant composition of secondary succession biocenoses with natural plant communities, indicators of the prospects for successful reforestation were identified. An analysis of 10-year-long observation data on the soil temperature regime from the surface to a depth of 3.2 m was carried out at the selected sites. Measurements were made year round in an automatic mode using atmospheric–soil measuring systems. The differences between the soil temperatures on the disturbed and natural sites, which vary over a year, were revealed. Open soils on the site affected by fire are warmer in the summer and colder in the winter. Snow cover, acting as a heat insulator on both sites, reduces the differences. However, with late snow onset, the contrasts increase. During the observation period, a decrease in microclimatic differences was observed with the regeneration of vegetation cover, which indicates the reforestation of the temperature regime in the pyrogenically disturbed area. The results obtained at this stage, as well as the continuation of monitoring, are applicable to the analysis of pyrogenic transformation of subtaiga light-coniferous geosystems in the south of Eastern Siberia and the forecast of post-fire reforestation of light-coniferous forests of the Tunka depression, taking into account regional specifics. The continuation of comprehensive monitoring will allow for a more detailed assessment of the regeneration of the landscape and climatic conditions of the territory in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Assessment of the Meteorological Factors of Fire Hazards for the Southern
           Ural Region

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      Abstract: Based on instrumental observation data from meteporological stations located in the Southern Urals, an integrated index of the fire hazard and an index of forest fire hazard have been calculated for the warm season (May‒September) from 1978 to 2020. The analysis was based on the daily values of surface air temperature, amount of precipitation, dew point deficit, average wind speed, moisture index, and number of days after the last rain. A correlation analysis between the critical values of the fire hazard indices and actual data on forest fires has been carried out; as a result, a close relationship has been revealed between the extreme values of the fire hazard indices and abnormally hot years. A general trend towards changes has been recorded for most of the meteorological stations with respect to the maximum values of the fire hazard indices. The fire hazard indices are compared with the results of space monitoring of wildfires from the Terra-MODIS satellite. An increase in the number of cases of dangerous meteorological conditions from 1995 to 2000 and a decrease in the number of days with the critical values of fire hazard indices from 2000 to 2005 have been revealed. Fire hazard indices differently reflect the set of meteorological conditions contributing to the occurrence of fires. Thus, unlike the integrated index of fire hazard, the index of forest fire hazard takes into account not only meteorological, but also environmental factors. The resulting values of the fire hazard indices have been structured in the form of a database that can be used in meteorological forecasts to assess and predict fire conditions based on weather conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Distribution of Metals in the Coastal Zone of Lake Onega Depending on the
           Shore Type

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      Abstract: —This article presents the results of a study performed in the coastal zone of Lake Onega and is devoted to the effect of coastal (abrasion in particular) processes and inflowing rivers on the quality of surface lake waters. We took 47 water samples from the surface and bottom horizons, 26 samples of bottom sediments, and 16 samples of shore-forming sediments to further determine metal concentrations in the east of the lake in the area of abrasive (the Andomа Mountain test site) and delta (Shal’skoe Onego test site) coasts in October 2019. The content of the following metals was analyzed: iron (total), manganese, aluminum, zinc, copper, nickel, chromium, lead, cobalt, and cadmium. Special attention was focused on determining dissolved forms of metals in the water and mobile forms in coastal and bottom sediments. The results showed that the concentrations of metals in the natural environment of the lake in general reflected the hydrochemical regularities typical for this area, with Mn, Fe, Cu, Pb, and Al exceeding the maximal permissible concentration up to 20 times. The collected array of geochemical data enabled us to perform a correlation analysis of the effect of coastal processes on the quality of near-shore waters of Lake Onega with respect to the metal content. The results showed different types of relationships between the content of metals in bottom sediments and water (from very weak to strong), which were statistically insignificant. There is a close correlation between the Al, Cu, and Pb contents in bottom sediments and in water in the area of Mount Andoma test site.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Protected Natural Areas of Siberia and Mongolia: A Comparative Analysis

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      Abstract: A large inland territory that includes Russian Siberia and Mongolia, as discussed in this article, has similarities in physical-geographical and socio-demographic parameters, as well as in the attitude to them as “resource colonies.” The Siberian and Mongolian components significantly differ politically, thus affecting the institutional and managerial characteristics and the formation of territorial nature conservation, which is implemented in the activities of specially protected natural areas. The article provides an analysis of the existing systems of protected areas in Siberia and Mongolia, as well as of their structure and legislative basis. The similarities and differences of the laws of Russia and Mongolia have been consistently considered: on land, on specially protected natural areas, and on territories of traditional nature management. The analysis of legislation revealed a difference between similar categories of protected areas and management features, as well as some aspects of law enforcement. Based on statistical information as of the beginning of 2021, summary tables of protected areas by category and by administrative units have been compiled. On the basis of databases collected by the authors and previously published thematic atlases, maps of protected areas have been compiled demonstrating their placement in Mongolia and Siberia. Despite the differences, a converging aspect was shown: the presence and planning of interstate transboundary protected natural areas. It has been concluded that the existing system of Mongolian protected areas is more effective. It is characterized by a greater representativeness of landscape diversity more evenly placement across administrative units of the country, developed in terms of areal indicators, more homogeneous in terms of representation of various categories of protected areas, and more peculiar due to the presence of transboundary protected areas between aimags. The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is a positive exception in the Russian part of the system.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Aesthetic Assessment of Landscapes at the Regional Level (a Case Study of
           the Central Ecological Zone of the Baikal Natural Territory)

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      Abstract: A method for the aesthetic assessment of coastal landscapes surrounded by mountains at the regional level is proposed. Assessing and mapping the aesthetic resources of the territory imply that scenic viewpoints and perceived landscape sceneries form an aesthetic system based on the geographical location. An aesthetic assessment has been made using georeferenced landscape photographs that were taken during field studies and from the Panoramio webservice database for 11 integrated indicators characterizing the perception conditions of sceneries and their structure. The landscape diversity of open and closed landscape scenes is analyzed on a differential basis. The landscape diversity of open and semiopen scenes is determined by the combination of the ruggedness of relief and contrast of vegetation cover, while the differentiation of closed forest landscape scenes with a near perspective is based on the characteristics of the elements and components of the enclosing natural landscape (composition and density of the forest stand; presence, abundance, and height of the shrub layer; and height and variety of the ground cover). Complex indicators were assessed using a three-dimensional model of the study area in Google Earth Pro based on thematic layers imported from the Quantum GIS project (satellite images, digital elevation model (DEM), landscape typological and forest inventory maps, a database of landscape photographs, etc.), taking into account the obscuring role of vegetation cover. Contours of the landscape typological map at the level of facies groups with a scale of 1 : 500 000 are used as mapping units. The score is assigned to the area from which the landscape is observed.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Water Quality in the Shallow Zone of Lake Baikal as Deduced from Sanitary
           and Microbiological Indicators

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      Abstract: A wide-scale investigation providing insight into the spatial and temporal distribution of sanitary and microbiological indicators of water quality has been undertaken in the shallow nearshore zone of Lake Baikal. Water samples were collected along the entire lake perimeter from 2012 to 2016 and in 2020 (total number, n = 450). A comparison of the abundance of fecal indicator bacteria in the bottom and surface waters at a total depth of 1 m showed that the concentration of sanitary indicator bacteria was generally higher in the surface water layers. The dynamics of water quality indicators (as determined from May to November at the monitoring stations in the villages of Listvyanka and Bol’shie Koty) did not reveal, according to statistical calculations, any substantial differences in the number of fecal indicator bacteria in most cases for different months of this study. The results of four circum-Baikal surveys at the same stations in June and September 2015 and 2016 also showed no notable differences in terms of the period of sampling. The concentration gradient of the fecal indicator bacteria 100 m from the water edge exhibited a consistent decrease of these microorganisms with distance from the shore towards deeper parts of the lake. An area of sampling was revealed in which the concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria considerably exceeded the regulatory standards (SanPiN 1.2.3685-21). The village of Khuzhir was such a site. In the shallow water at the villages of Sakhyurta and Kultuk, the concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria were on the verge of the maximum permissible concentration. These data provided evidence of constant and significant water pollution in the nearshore zone adjacent to settlements characterized largely by touristic activities (recreational activity is increased).
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Climate Relationships between Air Temperature and Water Temperatures in
           the Different Limnetic Zones of Lake Ladoga

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      Abstract: Based on an extensive database, it is shown that for different limnetic regions of Lake Ladoga a temperature hysteresis phenomenon occurs for the period of open water from May through November. The features of heating and cooling of both the water surface and the integral water column temperature in six different zones of the lake have been revealed, depending on the air temperature of the near-surface layer. The approximation of dependences between these parameters, the second- and third-degree polynomials, has shown that there are stable, meaningful relationships (p < 0.05) between them, with the determination coefficient of 0.8–0.9. Analytical dependencies allowed calculation of the increase in water temperature when the air temperature changes by one degree. On Lake Ladoga, a dependence of the rate of change in water surface temperature on air temperature is found. The biggest changes occur during the heating period. In August, with maximum air temperatures, the rate of increase in water surface temperature, especially in the deep-water area, exceeds the rate of increase in air temperature. Canadian limnologists obtained similar results on Lake Ontario. Two important periods have been distinguished when the lake cooled down: the first one occurs when the surface temperature has a constant value with the minimum spatial dispersion; the second one occurs when the entire water column of the lake has the same water temperature with minimum spatial dispersion. These periods and values of water and air temperatures can serve as climatic norms in climate studies. Climatic changes in air temperature will affect the increase in water temperature in different ways in different seasons and in different areas of a large lake.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372822010097
       
  • The Trends of the Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index
           (SPEI) in Turkey

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      Abstract: This paper examines drought trends in Turkey due to climate change. Therefore, forecasting of periods of drought, which is one of the major negative side effects of climate change, is urgent. The authors use data on drought indicators according to the SPEI (Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index) for the period from 1901 to 2015 obtained at intervals of 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. The data have been processed by several statistical tests: the Mann–Kendall test to determine the direction and significance of the trend, the Theil–Sen estimator to assess the trend slope coefficient, and the Pettitt test to determine the most probable year of change. The period under study is divided into two intervals (1901–1981 and 1982–2015), which are compared. The GIS program is used to isolate spatial characteristics from the results we obtained. It is concluded that Turkey is divided into two main zones of drought trends. The largest one allocated to the northern regions is characterized by an increase in moisture, and a decrease in moisture is observed in the southern regions. The trend towards dry periods was more significant until 1981, but the situation has changed since 1981 due to the trend towards excess moisture, except for southeastern Turkey, where a trend towards droughts persists.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372822010139
       
  • The Formation of the Species Structure of Plant Communities on the
           Northern Boundary of the Krasnoyarsk Forest–Steppe over the Last 6000
           Years

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      Abstract: The results of a paleobotanical (paleocarpological) layer-by-layer study of three peat sections located near the Pogorel’skii Bor experimental station operated by the Institute of Forest SB RAS (the interfluve of the Buzim and Sukhoi Buzim rivers) are presented. The study area is located in the transitional zone between subtaiga grassy small-leaved and coniferous forests and the Krasnoyarsk nonzonal forest–steppe. The climate of the region is extreme continental, moderately warm, and insufficiently humid. The objects of paleocarpological analysis were macrofossils (macro-residues of fossil plants (generative and vegetative parts of plants). Data from each section were used to construct carpograms (histograms showing the quantitative distribution of macro-residues in the identified fossil complexes, in accordance with the section stratigraphy). As a result of a comparative analysis of the species composition of paleocarpological complexes taking the data on radiocarbon 14C dating (nine dates) into account, the evolution of the vegetation cover of the territory of Pogorel’skii Bor was reconstructed by using hypsometric levels and seven time intervals, starting in the second half of the Atlantic period of the Blytt-Cernander chronological scheme of the Holocene. On this basis, digital maps of paleophytocenoses were compiled. Analysis of the formation of vegetation over the last 6000 years has shown that in the first half of the period the birch–larch forest–steppe with an alternation of shallow lakes prevailed on the territory. The onset of cooling and humidification (5000–3500 BP) contributed to the development of a subaiga forest-vegetation complex with the involvement of dark coniferous species. The subsequent warming (3500–3000 and 1300–800 BP) contributed to the return of forest–steppe and the development of steppe complexes. The leading tree species in the first half of the period were Siberian larch and birch, and, later, Scotch pine. A decrease in the role of larch, and an enhancement of the position of pine and steppe elements in forest phytocenoses during a later period (300 BP) were caused by climate change, as well as by the increased influence of the anthropogenic factor. The regional features of the paleoclimatic regime of Pogorel’skii Bor forest in the latest Holocene are highlighted.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372822010061
       
  • Synchronism of Variations in the Annual Runoff of the Largest Rivers in
           the Asian Part of Russia

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      Abstract: The synchronism and asynchrony of variations in the annual runoff for the 18 largest rivers (153 river pairs) in the Asian part of Russia have been assessed using a novel original technique. The technique is based on taking three groups of river water discharge (low-, average-, and high-water years) into account and on the numeric rating of the runoff in the years compared. The runoff of the rivers is assigned to a particular group of water discharge by using its long-term average annual value. The years in which the runoff was less than 0.95 of its long-term average annual value are assigned to the low-water years; when it is more than 1.05, they are added to the high-water years. The average-water years include the runoff values from the 0.95–1.05 interval of the long-term average annual value. The runoff in the low-, average- and high-water years is identified by numbers 1, 2, and 3, respectively. A comparison of water discharges is made for all 153 pairs of river basins over the correlative observation periods under investigation. The years of identical water discharge (1–1, 2–2, 3–3) are assigned the number 1; the years with opposite water discharge (1–3, 3–1) are characterized by the number –1, and the years of similar water discharge (1–2, 2–1, 2–3, 3–2) are identified by the number 0.5. For each pair of rivers, the numeric sum expressed in fractions of the total period of observation is calculated, which is the parameter of synchronism (asynchrony) of runoff variations. For 18 pairs of the river basins, the values of the synchronism parameter are equal to or more than 0.5. For these pairs of the rivers, it is determined that the average contributions of the low-, high- and average-water years to synchronism are 45.1, 36.3, and 10.7%, respectively. The years of adjacent discharges increase the synchronism parameter by 29.2%, while the years with opposite discharges decrease synchronism by 21.3%. The synchronism is also assessed by using the correlation method.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372822010024
       
  • Assessment of the Features of the Economic and Geographic Position of
           Towns in the Southern Region of Kyrgyzstan

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      Abstract: —The necessity of developing measures for the regional development of Kyrgyzstan, increasing the economic potential, and improving the infrastructure for industrial and social purposes is shown. In this regard, the development and revival of the economies of towns, including small ones, are considered as a priority direction in the implementation of these goals. It was revealed that the small towns of the country, due to the diversity of historical formation, economic-geographic location (EGP), and socioeconomic values, differ from each other. Their main problems are the lack of economic assets, the scarcity of the city budget, remoteness from large centers, unemployment, and a decrease in living standards. The necessity of a comprehensive study of the potential and development prospects of small towns has been substantiated; a thorough analysis of their economic and geographic position is considered as the most important. As a result, the individual features of these towns were revealed. For this purpose, a study was made of the economic and geographic positions of small towns in the southern region of Kyrgyzstan concerning their status regarding transport, industrial, agricultural assessment, recreational, market and innovation relations. The results showed that the towns in the region range from 3.8 (Kochkor-Ata) to 2.3 points (Sulukta) according to the degree of EGP by components. To generalize these series, the towns were combined into three groups: those with the most advantageous economic and geographic location; those with a favorable economic and geographic location; and towns with a relatively favorable economic and geographic position. It was shown that the degree of profitability of the economic and geographic position of small towns in the region does not have a territorial sequence, i.e., it is not determined by the “center–periphery” pattern. The study enabled the determination of the general potential for the development of the urban economy, planning the construction of infrastructure facilities, and revival of the industrial sector of the economy as a city-forming factor.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372822010103
       
  • Tritium in Natural Water of the Lena River Basin

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      Abstract: The long-term dynamics of tritium content in atmospheric precipitation and in surface and ground water of the Lena River basin is characterized on the basis of new data obtained in 2019 and 2020 and historical information. The relationship between the tritium content and the concentration of dissolved chemicals is analyzed. In 2019 and 2020, during the periods of winter and summer low water, 44 water samples were taken from the Lena River, its large, medium, and small nonfreezing tributaries, intrapermafrost and subpermafrost groundwater, snow cover, and liquid precipitation. Data on tritium concentrations in the upper and middle Lena River and its tributaries are given for the first time. The element content in samples from river water, snow cover, and rain corresponds to its long-term descending curve. The tritium concentration in river waters during the winter low-water period is smaller than in the summer period, when its content in the rivers approaches its values in atmospheric precipitation. This testifies to the contribution of groundwater to river recharge in spite of the wide spread permafrost. Statistically significant correlations of the tritium content with the redox potential and the contents of bicarbonate, lithium, and sodium ions, total dissolved solids, and pH have been revealed.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372822010073
       
  • The Influence of the Resource Base on Innovation Development of
           Oil-Producing Regions of Russia

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      Abstract: —This article considers the decline trends in the structure and quality of the Russian oil-producing regions and systematizes the criteria for distinguishing the category of hard-to-recover oil reserves in the domestic literature. We investigate the characteristics of the resource base of hydrocarbons and their impact on the innovative development of the Russian oil-producing regions. The authors of this article have collected a unique data base necessary for a comprehensive study of resource regions, which includes information about total recoverable reserves, the share of small and very small deposits, the average size of the deposit, and degree of exploration are among the resource factors (the factors of the fluid property included the contribution from dense, sulphurous and viscous oil, and the oilfield factors involved water cut and the degree of depletion). Our analysis also included the factors of innovative regional development: the share of innovative goods in the volume of shipped products, the work done and services rendered, the share of technological innovation costs, and the share of internal research and development costs for the gross regional product. Thus, the hierarchical clustering method has been used to classify the oil and gas regions of Russia according to the quality, to the structure of the resource base, and to the level of innovative development. Calculations identified three clusters (groups of regions): one cluster included regions with a high degree of innovation and a high degree of hard-to-recover reserves, another cluster involved regions with a medium degree of innovation and a low degree of hard- to-recover reserves, and a third cluster included regions with a low degree of innovation and a moderate degree of hard-to-recover reserves. The current study confirmed the hypothesis that a low quality of the resource base of hydrocarbons in the Russian oil-producing regions stimulates innovative development. The results of the research indicate that the production of hard-to-recover oil has an extensive innovative component, which has a multiplicative effect on the related industries and economies of the regions as a whole.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1875372822010036
       
  • The Environmental Conditions in Irkutsk, Ulan-Ude, and Ulaanbaatar

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      Abstract: — Geoenvironmental studies of urban centers of the Baikal region are aimed at identifying the details of human impacts on the environment in this area in order to then find rational solutions to environmental problems of the region and improve the quality of life of its population. This article characterizes the environmental condition of the cities of Ulaanbaatar, Ulan-Ude, and Irkutsk and analyzes the relationship between socio-economic conditions and environmental problems of the territories. The data used in the study consists of statistical and archival materials, cartographic and literary works, and data from experimental observations. The urban centers of the Baikal region are characterized by different socio-economic conditions, but share some common features of modern agglomerations: an intense population concentration in capital cities, problems with utility lines, and increased environmental tension and discomfort. The analysis revealed a heavy environmental burden of the fuel and energy complex and motor transport. The environmental situation in the cities is also significantly influenced by factors, such as atmospheric circulation, the condition of natural waters, and the conditions for migration of chemical elements through the soil. An assessment of the level of human impact on components of the environment revealed extremely unfavorable conditions for self-purification of the atmosphere in Ulan-Ude and Ulaanbaatar, with the highest level of air pollution recorded in Ulaanbaatar. The highest level of soil pollution is observed in Irkutsk; it is due to large-scale industrial emissions and the fact that the soil of the territory has characteristics favorable for accumulation of pollutants. Ulaanbaatar is experiencing problems with the quality of water resources and the drinking water supply. Anthropogenic pressures on the environment of the cities create health risks for the population due to the entry of toxic pollutants into the air and into water bodies.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S187537282201005X
       
 
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