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  Subjects -> GEOGRAPHY (Total: 493 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted by number of followers
Geophysical Research Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 184)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Space Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 160)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Atmospheres     Partially Free   (Followers: 149)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Planets     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 143)
Remote Sensing of Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Earth Surface     Partially Free   (Followers: 60)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans     Partially Free   (Followers: 60)
Progress in Human Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Solid Earth     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
International Journal of Geographical Information Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
GIScience & Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
Journal of Water and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Reviews of Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Annals of the American Association of Geographers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Applied Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Climate and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Urban Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Biogeosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Annals of GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Coastal Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Cartography and Geographic Information Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
GPS Solutions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of the Middle East and Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Dialogues in Human Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Urban Research & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Imago Mundi: The International Journal for the History of Cartography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT)     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of the American Planning Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Geography Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cartographica : The International Journal for Geographic Information and Geovisualization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Professional Geographer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Africa Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Crossings : Journal of Migration & Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
The Geographical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Geology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Tectonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Geographic Information System     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Progress in Physical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Indigenous Policy Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Geographical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Geographical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Geosciences Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Geographical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Soil Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
GeoJournal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Human Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Geography and Natural Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
European Spatial Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cartographic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions (AMTD)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Iberian and Latin American Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Physical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Natural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Middle East Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Borderlands Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Geographical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Urban History Review / Revue d'histoire urbaine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Latin American Geography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
California Italian Studies Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Geo-spatial Information Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Nordic Journal of Migration Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Maps     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Social Geography Discussions (SGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
GeoInformatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Northern Scotland     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Asia Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Geographer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ocean Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Canadian Geographer/le Geographe Canadien     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Creativity Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Australian Antarctic Magazine     Free   (Followers: 5)
Focus on Geography     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Geographer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Australian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Map & Geography Libraries     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Transmodernity : Journal of Peripheral Cultural Production of the Luso-Hispanic World     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Latinoamérica. Revista de estudios Latinoamericanos     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geografiska Annaler, Series A : Physical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Genre & histoire     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sedimentary Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Southeastern Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Limnological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Interaction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Western Archives     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Économie rurale     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Social Dynamics: A journal of African studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
New Zealand Journal of Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Burma Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
South Asian Diaspora     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
All Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Lithosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Polar Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
History of Geo- and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pastoralism : Research, Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Standort - Zeitschrift für angewandte Geographie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Norois     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geodesy and Cartography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mineralogia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Regions and Cohesion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Polar Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Southeastern Geographer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BioRisk     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift - Norwegian Journal of Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Scottish Geographical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Études rurales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Polar Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Newfoundland and Labrador Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Regional Science Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Provincial China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geographical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cahiers franco-canadiens de l'Ouest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The South Asianist     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Reflets : revue d'intervention sociale et communautaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Maine Policy Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Geografía Norte Grande     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoforum Perspektiv     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios Geográficos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
PRISM : A Journal of Regional Engagement     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Norteamérica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Amerika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
L'Année du Maghreb     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Les Cahiers d'Outre-Mer     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Southwest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revue archéologique du Centre de la France     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Terrestrial Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Méditerranée     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal de la Société des Océanistes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geochronometria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South African Geographical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Terrae Incognitae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Bahamian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études internationales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Recherches sociographiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physio-Géo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
GEOMATICA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
PSC Discussion Papers Series     Open Access  
Anales de Geografía de la Universidad Complutense     Open Access  
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal  
Revista Geográfica de América Central     Open Access  
Multiciencias     Open Access  
Investigaciones Geográficas (Esp)     Open Access  
Sociedade & Natureza     Open Access  
Región y Sociedad     Open Access  
Migración y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Migraciones Internacionales     Open Access  
Investigaciones Geográficas     Open Access  
Frontera Norte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural     Open Access  
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access  
Territoire en Mouvement     Open Access  
Quaestiones Geographicae     Open Access  
Limes. Cultural Regionalistics     Open Access  
Preview     Hybrid Journal  
Cuadernos de Geografía : Revista Colombiana de Geografía     Open Access  
Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai, Geologia     Open Access  
Recherches amérindiennes au Québec     Full-text available via subscription  
Rabaska : revue d'ethnologie de l'Amérique française     Full-text available via subscription  
Port Acadie : revue interdisciplinaire en études acadiennes / Port Acadie: An Interdisciplinary Review in Acadian Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Études/Inuit/Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Aurora Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista de la Asociacion Geologica Argentina     Open Access  
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access  
Journal of Alpine Research : Revue de géographie alpine     Open Access  
Géocarrefour     Open Access  
Confins     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Progress in Physical Geography
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.373
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 13  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0309-1333 - ISSN (Online) 1477-0296
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Multifaceted characteristics of aridity changes and causal mechanisms in
           Chinese drylands

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ying Hu, Fangli Wei, Bojie Fu, Shuai Wang, Lanhui Wang, Yongzhe Chen
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The water cycle is accelerating in the context of global warming. However, how the multifaceted characteristics of aridity, particularly atmospheric, hydrological, and ecological drying, change and interact with each other are largely unknown. A gap we bridged was discovering the causal relationships underlying the atmosphere-hydrosphere-biosphere nexus from the nonlinear dynamic system perspective based on convergent cross mapping (CCM). Dryland area in China has expanded since 1982, while the vegetation greenness indicated by leaf area index has been increasing during the same period. The results showed that the causality among atmospheric, hydrological, and ecological drying in different subtypes of drylands was different. In arid and semi-arid regions: vegetation changes were mainly driven by soil moisture (SM) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and VPD regulated SM. In hyper-arid and dry sub-humid areas: VPD dominated vegetation changes. VPD increases did not contribute to SM loss under the intense water stress in hyper-arid regions, as the soil water supply cannot meet the atmospheric water demand. In dry sub-humid areas, human disturbances have attenuated the dependence of vegetation changes on SM variability. This research pioneers complex nonlinear dynamic analyses on the multifaceted characteristics of ecosystems, which can deepen our understanding of atmosphere-vegetation-soil interactions in drylands and guide the sustainable management of dryland ecosystems in China and elsewhere.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-10-03T11:33:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221129867
       
  • Articulation of the cross-boundary effects of China’s ecological
           conservation redline program: A perspective on the ecological security
           network and ecological radiation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Fujun Du, Jiangbo Gao, Liyuan Zuo, Yuan Jiang
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      China’s Ecological Conservation Redline (ECR) program ensures the coordination and sustainability of natural and economic development while maintaining regional ecological security. Current research focuses on the ecosystem services within ECR areas but ignores cross-boundary ecological flow and the interactions between the internal and external ecological effects of ECR areas. In addition, the ecological background has spatial continuity that is not limited by boundaries, and the radiation effect areas extending beyond ECR areas have not been quantified. In this study, the Beijing ECR areas and ecological security network were integrated in order to connect the ecological process and landscape pattern to the ECR through the circulation path of ecological corridors, and cross-boundary effects between patches were examined. The field spread model was used to quantify the radiation influence range of ECR areas. Additionally, 972.46 km of ecological corridors were identified in Beijing, and abundant corridors effectively linked the ECR areas and maintained the material cycle. In the surrounding areas, ecological corridors were spread radially, with a total length of 941.85 km, promoting cross-boundary ecological flow between the ECR and surrounding source areas. This study used 25 ecological nodes to constitute the cross-boundary ecological security network system. The total radiation area based on the ECR source was 9572.16 km2. These results provide support for the radiation effect of ECR and cross-boundary ecological flows and suggest a useful model for sustainable ecological development and cross-boundary management.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-09-30T01:15:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221129788
       
  • Progress report: Drought and water management in ancient Maya society

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Tripti Bhattacharya, Samantha Krause, Dan Penny, David Wahl
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Paleoclimate research in the Maya region of Mesoamerica provides compelling evidence of drought during key periods of cultural transition in Maya society. These include the transition from the Preclassic to the Classic, and from Classic to the Postclassic. Previous research emphasized a causal relationship between drought and cultural change, or so-called “collapse” in the Maya region. Recent advances in the range and precision of climate-sensitive proxies and the development of new archives have enabled quantitative reconstructions of past hydroclimate, as well as providing evidence of high impact, short-duration events, such as tropical cyclones. Simultaneously, archaeological research has unearthed widespread evidence of technologies used by the Maya to exert control over water resources in urban, rural, and agricultural settings. Evidence suggests that many of these water features were in use for multiple generations, possibly centuries, and many were constructed during the Terminal Preclassic and Terminal Classic periods. We suggest that, given the availability of new archaeological and paleoclimate records, these data can be combined to identify the full complexity of Maya adaptation to hydroclimate variability to emphasize adaptation and resilience to both water scarcity and over-abundance (e.g., flooding). Such syntheses, which can offer lessons for present-day efforts to grapple with regional climate change, will benefit from additional studies in data-poor zones of the Maya region, as well as public archiving of paleoclimate and archaeological data.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-09-27T12:58:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221129784
       
  • Anthropogenic contaminants in glacial environments II: Release and
           downstream consequences

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      Authors: Dylan B Beard, Caroline C Clason, Sally Rangecroft, Ewa Poniecka, Kim J Ward, Will H Blake
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Anthropogenic contamination has been detected in glacial and proglacial environments around the globe. Through mechanisms of secondary release, these contaminants are finding their way into glacial hydrological systems and downstream environments, with potential to impact hundreds of millions of people who rely on glacial meltwater for water, food and energy security worldwide. The first part of our progress report outlined the sources and accumulation mechanisms of contaminants in glacial environments (Part I: Inputs and accumulation). Here we assess processes of contaminant release, pathways to downstream environments, and socio-environmental consequences. We reflect on the potential impacts these contaminants could have for human, ecosystem, and environmental health, as well as framing glacial contaminants within the context of the water-food-energy nexus. Improved understanding of these processes and impacts, while crucially embedding local knowledge, will help to develop key policy and mitigation strategies to address future risk of contaminant release from glaciers.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-09-26T12:32:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221127342
       
  • Corrigendum to A review of spatial statistical approaches to modeling
           water quality

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T11:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221127595
       
  • Geodiversity inclusiveness in biodiversity assessment

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      Authors: Jake RA Crisp, Joanna C Ellison, Andrew Fischer, Jia SD Tan
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Biodiversity assessment is constitutive in establishing conservation priorities and outcomes, and geodiversity complements species richness as a surrogate in the absence of species data, improves statistical modelling and can facilitate prediction of species distribution and abundance. Yet, geodiversity is frequently excluded, and biodiversity prioritised in conservation endeavours such as ecosystem-based management. Therefore, combined geodiversity and biodiversity assessment approaches present practical benefits to conservation such as improved collaboration between biologists and geoscientists, efficacious indicators of conservation value, and abatement of biodiversity partialities and wider inclusion of geodiversity in conservation literature. This study scientometrically analysed 240 biodiversity assessment publications to investigate geodiversity inclusiveness, methodological trends, geographic trends, environment-type trends and future directions in biodiversity assessment methods. Results showed these species richness articles frequently included geodiversity-relevant terms such as hydrological, soil, geological and geomorphological components, but the all-encompassing ‘geodiversity’ term was absent entirely. Geographic trends showed many potential economic, social, cultural and political factors influencing geodiversity inclusiveness in biodiversity assessment. For example, Australia’s relatively resource exploitative approach to geology and early involvement in the inception of the geodiversity concept could explain the high frequency of geological-related terms in Australian biodiversity assessments. Methodological trends showed dominance by field-based biodiversity assessments such as trapping methods, followed transects, quadrats, net methods and observations. Given the specific sample size of literature analysed, inferences from this study relate only to biodiversity assessment methods and not biodiversity discourse in its entirety. Subsequent research could investigate specific factors, such as social, economic or political, and their influence on geodiversity inclusiveness in biodiversity assessment methods.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-09-04T05:25:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221122292
       
  • Ecosystem services dynamics towards SDGs in the belt and road Initiative
           cities

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Wenze Yue, Jinhui Xiong, Yong Liu, Haoxuan Xia
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In the unprecedented global changes, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have become a common beacon for all countries’ development worldwide. Systemic analysis of the ecosystem services (ESs) changes during rapid urbanization can provide helpful information for ecosystem management toward the 2030 SDGs. However, existing research seldom focuses on simulating future scenarios of SDG-oriented urbanization and associated ESs changes. We proposed three 2030 SDGs-related urbanization scenarios: the baseline development scenario (BDS), ecological protection scenario (EPS), and rapid urbanization scenario (RUS). We further evaluated the three ESs component changes and synergies, including habitat quality (HQ), carbon storage (CS), and water yield (WY) till 2030, using the cases of 67 capital cities in the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) Region. Results reveal that most cities will face ESs loss from 2020 to 2030. EPS can effectively alleviate the ESs loss and assist the ESs increment. The correlations between ESs components vary in the degree among the three scenarios. HQ and CS have a robust synergetic relationship in most cities. The correlations between CS and WY, and HQ and WY are mostly synergetic except for a few western Asian cities. The EPS can stabilize the ecosystem structure and facilitate SDG-oriented development. The findings help achieve sustainable urbanization by conserving ESs guided by the SDGs.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-08-27T03:51:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221118364
       
  • A review of spatial statistical approaches to modeling water quality

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Junjie Chen, Heejun Chang
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Wildfire has increased in severity and frequency with climate change and human activities in recent years, threatening water-related ecosystem services. Forested watersheds are at risk of impacts of wildfires that alter land cover, and hydrological processes, and influence drinking water quality and aquatic habitat. To date, most research on post-fire hydrologic effects has focused on water quantity, while stream temperature and turbidity received less attention. In this study, we reviewed 62 articles to examine wildfire drivers and processes associated with turbidity and stream temperature behavior through a geographic lens in the context of ecosystem services. Our goals were to (1) evaluate drivers of post-fire changes in turbidity and stream temperature; (2) examine mechanisms and processes responsible for spatial and temporal variabilities of changes; and (3) address scale-dependent knowledge gaps to recommend future research directions. Positive correlations between turbidity changes following wildfire were heavily influenced by fire severity, forest diversity, and landscape alterations by human activities such as salvage logging. Stream temperature increases result from loss of riparian canopy cover and decreased shading, but they were highly site-specific and dependent on topographic variations. We attribute variabilities in our findings to climate variability and heavy disparity across spatial and temporal scales when assessing the direction and magnitude of post-fire impacts. Future research should incorporate more long-term rigorous monitoring efforts and spatiotemporally explicit models to better represent the complex post-fire hydrologic system that influences water quality.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-08-23T01:51:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221118363
       
  • A power-law relation of surface roughness and ages of alluvial fans in a
           hyperarid environment: A case study in the Dead Sea area

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Qiang Su, Junjie Ren, Xianyan Wang, Oubo Liang
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Despite recent advances in mapping and dating alluvial fans, due to the availability of high-resolution remote sensing data and Quaternary dating techniques, quantifying surface features in remote sensing data remains a challenge. Surface roughness is a time-dependent feature under stable conditions, which indicates the relative age of alluvial fans in a hyperarid environment. Although surface roughness can be quantitatively inferred from remote sensing data, determining surface roughness in a uniform index remains a complex problem. Here, we used the normalized backscatter intensity (NBI) from high-resolution ALOS PALSAR data to quantify alluvial fan surface roughness, which is further used to quantitatively map alluvial fans. We established a robust power-law relation between the NBI value (R) and the in-situ age (T) as measured with independently dated alluvial fans. Based on the R-T relation, it can be further to apply the R measurement to T estimates as old as ∼540 ka with an average uncertainty of ∼25% on a regional scale. The NBI value, independent of atmospheric conditions and sensitive to surface roughness variability, is an effective criterion for quickly distinguishing alluvial fans and performing age estimation. We propose that insolation weathering is an important physical weathering pattern in the Dead Sea area, which mainly controls the surface roughness in this hyperarid region.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-08-17T12:02:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221118641
       
  • A discussion on the plausible role of ice streams in carving Martian
           outflow channels: Revisiting the earliest hypothesis by Lucchitta et al.
           (1981)

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      Authors: Lydia Sam, Anshuman Bhardwaj, Saeideh Gharehchahi
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Linear, incised and usually an order of magnitude wider than the Martian valleys, the Martian outflow channels are scoured ground commonly displaying streamlined remnants of the pre-existing terrain. A recent study used an unprecedented dataset of the Martian valley networks to propose that most of the valley networks are a result of combined surface and subglacial runoff. This also prompts to revisit One of the earliest hypotheses that the ancient ice streams might have carved the Martian outflow channels. With an exceptional focus on Mars exploration planned during the next decades, it is important to assess the regional-scale geomorphic processes to better target the future landing and sample return missions.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-07-19T05:41:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221116343
       
  • Progress of studies on satellite-based terrestrial vegetation production
           models in China

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Wenping Yuan, Shangrong Lin, Xiaoyuan Wang
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Vegetation production is an important variable in terrestrial ecosystems, playing crucial roles in sustaining carbon balance, reducing atmospheric CO2 concentration, and mitigating global climate change. Satellite-based models, which benefit from spatially and temporally continuous remote sensing observations of vegetation growth conditions, are widely used for quantifying regional and global vegetation production. Satellite-based vegetation production models were initially simple statistical models, but later, process-based light use efficiency models were developed. The latest models are based on the relationship between solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and vegetation production. An increasing number of satellite-based studies are being conducted by Chinese scientists, who are developing and implementing plant production models, particularly by self-developing a number of light consumption efficiency models and establishing a long-term worldwide dataset of vegetation production. Furthermore, Chinese scientists have investigated the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation using diverse models, significantly improving our understanding of terrestrial functions and structures. However, current models and estimation techniques need further improvement, and Chinese scientists had the opportunity to improve model capability and our understanding of vegetation production patterns and their regulating elements.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-07-15T11:13:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221114864
       
  • Distinct response of high-latitude ecosystem and high-altitude alpine
           ecosystem to temperature and precipitation dynamics: A meta-analysis of
           experimental manipulation studies

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      Authors: Prakash Bhattarai, Bishnu Timilsina, Rabindra Parajuli, Yao Chen, Jie Gao, Yangjian Zhang
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Cold biome ecosystems, extensively distributed on our planet, are highly sensitive to global changes. Fluctuations caused by climate change would inevitably affect the ecosystems’ structure and functions. However, the linkage between cold biome ecosystems and global changes demonstrates high spatial heterogeneity, especially between high-latitude ecosystems (HL) and high-altitude alpine ecosystems (HA). A comparative analysis of their response patterns would provide deeper insight into the underlying mechanisms at play. We used meta-analysis to synthesize ecosystems’ response to warming and altered precipitation performed in HL and HA. Warming and enhanced precipitation increases ecosystem biomass and carbon fluxes in HL and HA. Warming significantly stimulates aboveground biomass (AGB), root biomass (RB), total biomass (TB), aboveground net primary productivity, gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), soil respiration (SR), and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) in HL and HA. Similarly, AGB, GEP, and NEP increase significantly with enhanced precipitation. Respondent of ecosystem carbon storage and fluxes in HL and HA showed diverse results to warming treatment. Warming increases AGB and RB in HA while RB remains unaltered in HL. GEP and ER exhibit a positive response to warming in HL but an insignificant response in HA. In general, HL is sensitive to warming, and HA is sensitive to precipitation. The differential responses of HL and HA to climate change imply specific ecosystem traits and particular environmental constraining factors. Future cold biome ecosystem studies should further consider specific conditions like microtopography, soil moisture, and local climate unique to high-latitude and high-altitude ecosystems.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-07-14T05:35:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221114866
       
  • Quantifying alpha, beta and gamma geodiversity

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      Authors: Helena Tukiainen, Tuija Maliniemi, Janne Alahuhta, Jan Hjort, Marja Lindholm, Henriikka Salminen, Henna Snåre, Maija Toivanen, Annika Vilmi, Jani Heino
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Geodiversity is an emerging, multi-faceted concept in Earth and environmental sciences. Knowledge on geo-diversity is crucial for understanding functions of natural systems and in guiding sustainable development. Despite the critical nature of geodiversity information, data acquisition and analytical methods have lagged behind the conceptual developments in biosciences. Thus, we propose that geodiversity research could adopt the framework of alpha, beta and gamma concepts widely used in biodiversity research. Especially, geodiversity research would benefit from widening its scope from the evaluation of individual sites towards more holistic geodiversity assessments, where between-site geodiversity is also considered. In this article, we explore the alpha, beta and gamma concepts and how they can be applied in a geodiversity framework. In addition, we scrutinize the statistical methodology related to alpha, beta and gamma geodiversity evaluations, with a special focus on distance metrics for measuring beta geodiversity. As an overview of the process, and to give practical guidelines for the application of the proposed methodology, we present a case study from a UNESCO Global Geopark area. Thus, this study not only develops the geodiversity concept, but also paves the way for simultaneous understanding of both geodiversity and biodiversity within a unified conceptual approach.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-07-14T01:42:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221114714
       
  • Assessing the effectiveness of alternative landslide partitioning in
           machine learning methods for landslide prediction in the complex Himalayan
           terrain

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      Authors: Muhammad Tayyib Riaz, Muhammad Basharat, Maria Teresa Brunetti
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Several devastating landslides have occurred in the NW Himalayas, which has prompted several researchers to strive for improvement in landslide susceptibility modelling (LSM) methodologies. This research analyzes the effectiveness of alternative landslide partitioning techniques on LSM in the landslide-prone district, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan. We developed a landslide inventory of 961 landslides and then traditionally divided it into training (672; 70%) and testing (289; 30%) samples. These training samples (672) are processed by the Average Nearest Neighbour Index (ANNI) method to estimate the spatial pattern of landslides in nature. The results provide an ANNI ratio of 0.672 confirming that the landslides distribution pattern is cluster in the complex Himalayan terrain of Muzaffarabad. Among 672, the majority of landslides (529; 79%) depict cluster behaviour, while 189 landslides (21%) depict random behaviour. To evaluate the effectiveness of landslide cluster samples in prediction, five machine learning algorithms (MLAs), that is, K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), Naïve Bayes (NB), Random Forest (RF), Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) and Logistic Regression (LR) using proposed cluster (529) and traditional (672) random training samples along with 17 geo-environmental factors are executed. However, testing samples (289; 30%) separated at the initial stage remained the same to check the model’s effectiveness. The areas under the curve (AUC-ROC), sensitivity, specificity, Kappa index and accuracy (ACC) have been used to evaluate the MLA’s performances. An alternative partitioning technique (cluster) shows the highest predictive power with AUC-ROC values ranging from 0.96 to 0.86, Kappa index ranges from 0.76 to 0.60 and ACC ranges from 0.90 to 0.83. Conversely, the random partitioning approach performs less well with AUC-ROC values ranging from 0.95 to 0.83, Kappa index ranges from 0.70 to 0.49 and ACC ranges from 0.87 to 0.80. In comparison, the RF cluster sampling-based model outperforms the other models and their counterparts. The RF model achieved the highest accuracy (0.902), highest AUC (0.962) and highest Kappa index (0.755) followed by XGboost having ACC (0.885), AUC (0.95) and Kappa index (0.724) employing proposed cluster training samples. However, traditional random training samples yield comparatively low ACC of RF (0.868) and XGboost (0.862). These results confirm that cluster training sampling performs well in obtaining reliable and precise LSMs for complex Himalayan terrain. Although random landslide partitioning for training datasets is seldom utilized in LSM, this study highlights that cluster partitioning for landslide training datasets might be a realistic and reliable approach.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-07-12T02:36:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221113660
       
  • Fragility curves for road embankments exposed to adjacent debris flow

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      Authors: Natalia Nieto, Alondra Chamorro, Tomás Echaveguren, Cristián Escauriaza
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Studies of recent decades have shown thousands of kilometers of transportation networks that have presented damage or failure from different types of flows, causing important traffic disruptions. Debris flows running adjacent (or in parallel) to river channels often explain the structural damage to road embankments caused by slope erosion. The probability of expected structural damage caused by a natural hazard may be modeled using fragility curves, which have been developed for transportation infrastructures like bridges and roads exposed to debris flows and are used in risk assessment. There are even fragility curves available to estimate the fragility of road embankments exposed to perpendicular debris flows. However, currently no model is available to estimate the road damage probability of embankments exposed to adjacent debris flows despite their important effects on traffic. This paper aimed to develop fragility curves for road embankments exposed to adjacent debris flows, considering mechanisms of exposed slopes subject to erosion and subsequent embankment instability. Models were calibrated considering flow characteristics in straight and bend channels including three damage states in terms of road traffic capacity loss. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to model potential damage, obtaining fragility curves for two types of roads. Curves were fit to log-normal distributions with a 99.5% confidence level. The analysis demonstrated that the geometric characteristics of road embankments explain their fragility, wherein lower heights and platform widths result in more probable expected damage. The analytical model developed confirmed that the erosive process intensifies in bend zones of channels, resulting in higher damage probability.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-07-11T07:20:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221111444
       
  • Classics revisited/from the archive Mayan Urbanism: Impact on a Tropical
           Karst Environment

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      Authors: Mark Brenner
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Deevey et al.’s (1979) Mayan Urbanism: Impact on a Tropical Karst Environment combined paleo-demographic data from the Lowland Maya region, obtained from archaeological survey and test-pitting, with paleolimnological data derived from local lakes, to evaluate the environmental impacts of long-term, ancient Maya agro-engineering activities in the region. The interdisciplinary approach to studying human-environment interactions was novel at the time and paved the way for many subsequent hybrid Earth Science/Archaeology projects in the Maya area.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T08:04:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221112360
       
  • The development and disintegration of a Classic Maya center and its
           climate context

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      Authors: KM Prufer, AE Thompson, AD Wickert, DJ Kennett
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Research in Southern Belize has produced a 1000-year record of coupled human and environmental relationships at the ancient Maya city Uxbenká. Located at the southeastern margin of the Maya Lowlands, this region has excellent agricultural land and some of the highest rainfall in the Maya region. Uxbenká was the founding political center in southern Belize after 100 BCE. After 850 years, Uxbenká experienced a long geopolitical disintegration ending in depopulation as part of broad regional collapse. We use kernel density and summed probability distributions of 167 high-precision AMS 14C dates to reconstruct relative changes in population and investments in the built environment throughout the growth and decline of the polity. Those data are compared to an annually resolved speleothem paleoclimate record from Yok Balum cave, located less than 3 km from Uxbenká’s civic ceremonial core. With no Classic Period wetland fields or evidence for large-scale landscape investments in agricultural intensification, food production would have been rainfall dependent as was water availability for household use. Using a 30 m SRTM DEM, we compute flow accumulation and the upvalley extents of river networks while varying the input precipitation to reflect hypothesized changes in paleorainfall over time. Our data suggest that Uxbenká experienced rapid growth following a severe drought at 200 CE, as well as cycles of growth and contraction until just after 750 CE. We find that geopolitical disintegration in southern Belize was already underway when a severe drought began at 830 CE. That six-decade drought likely contributed to the abandonment of Uxbenká and limited geopolitical reorganization.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-07-05T04:39:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221112359
       
  • Spatial analysis guiding decision making in environmental conservation:
           Systematic conservation planning and ecosystem services

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      Authors: Ulises Rodrigo Magdalena, Gabriel Barros Gonçalves de Souza, Raul Reis Amorim
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Achieving conservation targets for sustainable development has been one of society’s greatest challenges. In this context, environmental conservation approaches such as Systematic Conservation Planning (SCP) and ecosystem services (ES) have become increasingly popular as feasible solutions for the allocation, delimitation, and management of protected areas. These approaches, often used to drive public policies based on payment for environmental services, have highlighted the intrinsic relationships between the paradigms of geography and spatial analysis (SA), as they rely on space-time processes and multidisciplinary concepts for the analysis of the biophysical, social, and economic variables. In this context, this manuscript aimed to outline the relevance of SA as a geographic perspective for the progress of environmental conservation. The arguments were here aligned in the following steps: (i) concepts around protected areas and the factors that impact them; (ii) environmental conservation approaches used to allocate and delimit protected areas, and their respective features, limitations, and related definitions; and (iii) correlations between SA and the use of ES and SCP (paradigms, advances, and contributions). As major findings, it was indicated that the SCP and ES work in a space-time dimension to measure and describe patterns of abstract phenomena using spatial analysis techniques. Moreover, we identified that conceptual mismatches and the absence of a common language to environmental conservation approaches reduces the expressive participation of geography that has its focus on determination the abstract features of observed objects or phenomena. It is important, however, that its paradigms become an essential methodological component in environmental approaches to the quantification and delimitation of the elements and natural processes.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-07-02T09:25:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221112409
       
  • Acoustic methods in physical geography: Applications and future
           development

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      Authors: David Dunkerley
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Sound is produced by many geomorphic and hydrological processes, such as rockfalls and landslides, ocean waves, fluvial flood flows and collisions among moving bedload clasts. In these and other areas of study, acoustic methods have found useful application to detect and quantify the operation of important landscape processes. In some, such as the recording of river discharge, the occurrence of rare events such as exfoliation or the presence and movement of dust devils (willy-willies), the use of acoustic methods is still in a relatively early stage of development and testing. The use of acoustic methods in the recording of rainfall occurrence and intensity is also developing and has the capacity to yield data with higher temporal resolution than can be achieved using conventional rain gauges. Novel acoustic methods include the analysis of the sound recorded by security cameras, which potentially form a vast network of observing stations. The frequencies of sound generated by land-surface processes include audible sound, ultrasound and infrasound at frequencies below the human hearing range. All appear to provide opportunities for further development of useful research tools and methodologies.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-07-02T03:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221111480
       
  • Limited impacts of global warming on rockfall activity at low elevations:
           Insights from two calcareous cliffs from the French Prealps

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      Authors: Robin Mainieri, Nicolas Eckert, Christophe Corona, Jerome Lopez-Saez, Markus Stoffel, Franck Bourrier
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In mountainous regions, global warming will likely affect the frequency and magnitude of geomorphic processes. This is also the case for rockfall, one of the most common mass movements on steep slopes. Rainfall, snowmelt, or freeze-thaw cycles are the main drivers of rockfall activity, rockfall hazards are thus generally thought to become more relevant in a context of climate change. At high elevations, unequivocal relationships have been found between increased rockfall activity, permafrost thawing and global warming. By contrast, below the permafrost limit, studies are scarcer. They mostly rely on short or incomplete rockfall records, and have so far failed to identify climatically induced trends in rockfall records. Here, using a dendrogeomorphic approach, we develop two continuous 60-year long chronologies of rockfall activity in the Vercors and Diois massifs (French Alps); both sites are located clearly below the permafrost limit. Uncertainties related to the decreasing number of trees available back in time were quantified based on a detailed mapping of trees covering the slope across time. Significant multiple regression models with reconstructed rockfalls as predictors and local changes in climatic conditions since 1959 extracted from the SAFRAN reanalysis dataset as predictants were fitted to investigate the potential impacts of global warming on rockfall activity at both sites. In the Vercors massif, the strong increase in reconstructed rockfall can be ascribed to the recolonization of the forest stand and the over-representation of young trees; changes that are observed should not therefore be ascribed to climatic fluctuations. In the Diois massif, we identify annual precipitation totals and mean temperatures as statistically significant drivers of rockfall activity but no significant increasing trend was identified in the reconstruction. All in all, despite the stringency of our approach, we cannot therefore confirm that rockfall hazard will increase as a result of global warming at our sites.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-29T04:35:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221107624
       
  • Book Review

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      Authors: Thomas Cuckston
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T07:50:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221109546
       
  • Identification of driving forces for windbreak and sand fixation services
           in semiarid and arid areas: A case of Inner Mongolia, China

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      Authors: Lihan Cui, Zhen Shen, Yuexin Liu, Chaoyue Yu, Qingling Lu, Zhonghao Zhang, Yang Gao, Tiantian Nie
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Soil wind erosion is a global problem that leads to increasingly serious regional land degradation, where the need for windbreak and sand fixation services (WSFS) is substantial. Inner Mongolia plays an important role in global semiarid and arid areas and the severe land degradation resulting from soil wind erosion warrants an urgent solution. However, the mechanism of influence of various driving factors on windbreak and sand fixation services is still not fully studied. In this paper, the revised wind erosion equation (RWEQ) model was used to synthesize the monthly spatiotemporal dynamics of soil wind erosion modulus (SWEM) and WSFS in Inner Mongolia from January 2000 to February 2020 from a semi-monthly scale. The influencing factors of WSFS were examined from both natural and anthropogenic aspects. Results show that over the past 20 years, the average SWEM in Inner Mongolia was 118.06 t ha−1 yr−1, the areas with severe wind erosion were mainly concentrated in the desert areas in the southwest of Inner Mongolia, and the forests in the northeast suffered less soil wind erosion. Meanwhile, the average WSFS was 181.11 × 108 t yr−1, with the high-value areas mainly located in major deserts, sandy land, and the area bordering Mongolia in the north and the low-value areas mainly located in the densely forested northeast and the Gobi Desert in the northwest. Both SWEM and WSFS showed a clear downward trend and a certain periodicity over the past 20 years. WSFS showed two peaks a year (April and October). Among the natural factors, precipitation and NDVI showed a significant correlation with WSFS and were identified as the main driving factors of WSFS, whereas temperature had no significant correlation. Among the anthropogenic factors, farming and animal husbandry intensity and GDP showed a positive correlation with WSFS, whereas population showed a negative correlation. These four types of factors were identified as socio-economic factors that drive WSFS. Meanwhile, WSFS did not show any significant correlation with the administrative area. Land use change contributed to a large proportion of WSFS change, thereby suggesting that the intensity of human activities is another central driver of WSFS.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T01:22:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221105403
       
  • The continental and regional synoptic background favorable for hailstorms
           occurrence in North-Eastern Romania

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      Authors: Lucian Sfîcă, Vasilică Istrate, Robert Hrițac, Ovidiu Machidon
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The current study aims to portray the specific weather patterns associated with hail falls in north-eastern Romania. This was done using multiple hail records data covering a long period of time (1981–2020). COST733 software enabled us to assess objectively the atmospheric circulation classification types for the middle troposphere (500 hPa) and also for the ground level (sea level pressure) over the study region. Based on these, we have identified 5 major weather patterns (MPs) which explain up to 85% of the recorded hail events over the region. In terms of wind vector direction and speed, driving the hailstorm cells, these MPs are represented by two main groups of synoptic patterns. The first one is characterized by weak advective patterns (cut-off lows, north-easterly anticyclonic flow), while the second one is characterized by strong advective patterns (westerly, south-westerly, and north-westerly atmospheric flows). Further, these major patterns are split into 16 combined circulation types (CCTs), as indicated by the atmospheric circulation at the ground level. Our analysis showed that in May and June hailstorms are determined especially by weak advective patterns over north-eastern Romania, while from June to August the strong advective patterns are more common for these extreme weather events. The atmospheric environment associated with these synoptic conditions, as indicated by instability parameters, is also described using a series of atmospheric parameters: sea pressure level, 500 hPa geopotential field, 700 hPa wind vector, and precipitation amount at the continental scale. This analysis indicates that hail occurs in a regional atmospheric environment characterized by a MUCAPE>500 J/kg and high wind shear in the lower troposphere. The results obtained are meant to become a useful tool in regional hail forecast.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T07:02:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221100819
       
  • Intra-gully mapping of the largest documented gully network in South
           Africa using UAV photogrammetry: Implications for restoration strategies

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      Authors: Jay le Roux, Lefa Morake, Bennie van der Waal, Ryan Leigh Anderson, David William Hedding
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Gully erosion can reach alarming dimensions, and in several cases contributes significantly to soil loss and sediment yield in catchments. The studied example is one of the largest known gully networks in the world (its surface area is approximately 0.5 million m2 and volume 5 million m3), more than twice as large compared to the largest gullies described in peer-reviewed literature. To improve gully management strategies, it is not only critical to understand the factors that lead to erosion, but also to identify the extent of in-channel erosional and depositional features. Few studies consider in-channel patterns of erosion and deposition within gully systems. This study utilises a fixed-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry to create a high resolution orthomosaic and Digital Surface Model (DSM) to determine the position and spatial extent of erosional and depositional features within a large gully network in South Africa. Formation of such a large gully in relation to a relatively small drainage area is unusual but can be explained by the presence of dispersive soils and regional landscape incision. Longitudinal and cross-sectional profiles indicate that the gully network consists of three channel types (i.e. V-shaped, U-shaped and trapezoidal), each with a unique combination of erosional and depositional features. This study demonstrates the value of identifying and mapping of intra-gully features to better understand sediment transfer within the gully network to implement appropriate restoration strategies, which in this instance should focus on depositional zones to enhance channel decoupling.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T01:12:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221101057
       
  • Impact of the Mediterranean oscillation on total lightning activity

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      Authors: Fernando de Pablo Dávila, Luís J Rivas Soriano, Ángel González-Zamora
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      For the first time, the relationship between total (cloud-to-ground and intracloud) lightning activity and the Mediterranean Oscillation (MO) is addressed in this work. Data from optical transient detector (OTD) and lightning imaging sensor (LIS) were used to calculate the total flash density, and the MO was described using the Mediterranean Oscillation index (MOi). The study intended to analyse the monthly values of the variables, for the 19-year period from October 1995 to February 2015 and for the region between 31.25 N and 46.25 N, and between 3.75 W and 38.75 E (the Mediterranean Sea and bordering land areas). Moreover, the study was carried out for the whole year and a comparative analysis was also conducted with the results obtained for the cold periods (October to March) and warm periods (April to September), both for the positive and negative phases of the MOi. The results revealed that the lightning activity in the annual and cold periods was clearly similar, and the maximum values tended to concentrate over southern Italy and the central part of the Mediterranean Sea, while in the warm period lightning was scattered over the whole study area. When analysing the data from the cold period for the positive phase, significant negative correlations were observed in the west and central area. On the contrary, for the warm period, the significant negative correlation values tend to be concentrated in the eastern limit of the studied territory. During the negative phase of the MOi, most of the studied area showed significant positive correlation values during the cold period, whereas only a small area with negative correlation tended to concentrate on the eastern boundary during the warm period. The results are explained in terms of the circulation dynamics and temperature changes recorded for the MO.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T09:52:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221101149
       
  • Declining honey production and beekeeper adaptation to climate change in
           Chile

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      Authors: Martina Gajardo-Rojas, Ariel A. Muñoz, Jonathan Barichivich, Karin Klock-Barría, Eugenia M Gayo, Francisco E Fontúrbel, Matías Olea, Christine M Lucas, Camilo Veas
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Drought severity has pervasive impacts on honey production via direct impacts on water resources and nectar availability. The current mega-drought in Chile has impacts on water resources and forest vigor, particularly in the Mediterranean and Temperate regions where honey production is concentrated. While honey production plays an important role in the local rural economy and providing pollination services to other agricultural activities, studies of the long-term impacts of the mega-drought on honey production are scarce. Here, we evaluate the impact of climate variability on historical changes in honey production in the Mediterranean (32°S–37°S) and Temperate (37°S–41°S) regions of Chile, using annual honey production records of beekeepers together with national records of honey exports. We also used questionnaires and interviews to evaluate beekeeper perceptions regarding the effects of climate change on honey production and adaptation practices in both regions. Results indicated a declining trend in honey production and exports in the last decade, largely related to changes in precipitation and temperature in both regions. Declines in honey production affected 82% of beekeepers, 80% of whom had employed adaptive measures, and 74% considered that these measures were effective. The drier, warmer Mediterranean region showed more severe declines in precipitation and honey production, which beekeepers reported as a main contributing factor to transhumance from the Mediterranean to the Temperate region. This is the first study to show the effects of drought on honey production in Chile, providing a foundation for future climate change adaptation strategies within apiculture.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T11:17:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221093757
       
  • Permafrost, thermal conditions and vegetation patterns since the mid-20th
           century: A remote sensing approach applied to Jotunheimen, Norway

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      Authors: Helen Hallang, Sietse O Los, John F Hiemstra
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Northern high-alpine regions are currently experiencing rapid warming, which often results in the degradation of sub-surface permafrost and the upslope advancement of vegetation. The present study combines remotely sensed MODIS Land Surface Temperatures (LSTs) and the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) with observed air temperatures to model the thermal and vegetational dynamics in NE Jotunheimen (Norway) for the period 1957–2019. An altitudinal transect on the north-facing slope of Galdhøpiggen was used for ground truthing. Results indicate a substantial warming trend since the late 1950s, accompanied by increased NDVI. The spatial and temporal patterns of observed change were not uniform. Winter surface temperatures increased most rapidly, by 2.4–2.8°C at mid- and low altitudes (600–1500 m a.s.l.). The highest increases in NDVI (by ∼0.1) were detected during the growing season (April–September) and over the mid-range altitudes (1050–1500 m a.s.l.), that is, above the tree line on Galdhøpiggen. We attribute this to increased shrubification at these altitudes. Our results confirm that the surface temperatures near the previously estimated lower altitudinal limit of permafrost (∼1450 m a.s.l.) have continued to increase during the past decade, likely facilitating further permafrost degradation. Finally, we demonstrate that mapping remotely sensed mean growing season LSTs below 0°C can be used to identify areas suitable for continuous sub-surface permafrost, and mean June–September LSTs above 7°C can detect areas suitable for tree (Betula pubescens) growth in NE Jotunheimen.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T05:26:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221093756
       
  • Impacts of floods on Colombo during two decades: Looking back and thinking
           forward

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      Authors: Harsha D Dahanayake, Deepthi Wickramasinghe
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This research contributes to the current debate on linking flood events and developmental pressure in urban areas. Colombo District has faced frequent flood events during the last two decades which disrupted the socio-economic and environmental setup. Colombo district is the economic hub and the administrative capital of Sri Lanka and it is the area with highest population density in the country. It has experienced rapid urbanization and Land Use Land Cover Changes (LULC) during recent past. The new infrastructure project developments, expansion of impervious spaces, disturbances to the drainage systems have increased the occurrence of floods. This study was carried out to identify areas with the highest flood damage and attempted to find out any the link between population and land use changes with flood impacts from 1999 to 2018. We used Satellite images, Remote Sensing Techniques and Weighted Overlay method in Geographical Information System to detect the LULC change and the flood vulnerability together with population and disaster related data. The results show that north and western parts of Colombo district were mostly affected by floods. The areas with high flood vulnerability have increased by 1.29% while moderately vulnerable areas have increased by 3.76%, and low vulnerable areas have decreased by 5.04%. The total settlements in Colombo district have increased by 20.08% and have had significant increase by 29.60% in the areas with high flood impacts. The results of the present study highlight the threat of unsustainable urban expansion on floods and call for prompt management action for resilience.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T05:27:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221097794
       
  • Spatiotemporal variation in human settlements and their interaction with
           living environments in Neolithic and Bronze Age China

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      Authors: Guanghui Dong, Yongxiu Lu, Shanjia Zhang, Xiaozhong Huang, Minmin Ma
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      It is evident that the origin, development, and expansion of agriculture and animal husbandry during the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods across Eurasia facilitated the increase of the world population and emergence of ancient civilizations, as well as altering human livelihoods, especially in East Asia. However, different areas of China have different histories in terms of the development of agriculture and of extensive human settlement during that period, and the spatial differences in human–environment interaction are not yet well understood. Here, we review up-to-date results of radiocarbon dating, archaeobotanical, and zooarchaeological analysis from Neolithic and Bronze Age sites in China, along with high-resolution paleoclimatic records, to explore the spatiotemporal variation of human settlement and its relationship to the development of agriculture and to climate change in different areas during the period 10,000–2200 BP. The results suggest that human settlement intensities in the northern East Asia Monsoon Region and south China were relatively low during 10,000–6500 BP, with a small peak during ∼8000–7500 BP, and evidently increased since ∼6500 BP, whereas farming groups began to settle intensively on the Tibetan Plateau and the inland arid region since ∼5200 BP and ∼4000 BP, respectively. The spatiotemporal variation in the intensification of human settlement in China during the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods was primarily induced by agricultural intensification and expansion across prehistoric Eurasia; climate change may have influenced the hydrothermal and vegetation conditions for crop cultivation and livestock production. The asynchronous intensive human settlements in different areas of China resulted in spatial differences in the impact of activities by human on the environments surrounding them during 10,000–2200 BP, shedding light on the evolution of the human–land relationship in China during the Neolithic and Bronze periods.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T05:02:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221087992
       
  • Prediction of winter wheat yield at county level in China using ensemble
           learning

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      Authors: Yuefan Zhang, Lunche Wang, Xinxin Chen, Yuting Liu, Shaoqiang Wang, Lizhe Wang
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Since increasing food demand and continuous reduction of available farmland, reliable and near-real-time wheat yield forecasts are essential to ensure regional and global food supplies. Although the crop model has been widely used in yield estimation, its applicability in large-scale yield prediction is limited due to the large amount of data required for parameterization. We took the main winter wheat growing areas in China and developed an ensemble learning framework based on seven machine learning algorithms, such as extreme gradient boosting, random forest, and support vector regression. The model used satellite vegetation index time series, climate, soil properties, and elevation data to provide county-level winter wheat yield forecasts from 2001 to 2015. The results showed that the ensemble explained 86% of the yield variability, which outperformed all base learners. By calculating the correlation between the prediction results of the base learners, we believed that the prediction performance of ensemble learning still has the potential for improvement. Soil properties and elevation data effectively improved the performance of the model because they contained information about yield prediction that could not be fully captured by vegetation index and climate data. As the growing season went on, the unique contribution of increasing climate data to yield forecasts was always more than that of vegetation index, especially in the early growing season. Furthermore, we evaluated the model’s ability to perform within-season prediction, and the model achieved satisfactory prediction accuracy 2 months before harvest (R2 = 0.85, RMSE = 480 kg/ha, MAPE = 7.52%). The framework of yield forecast established in this research can be applied to other crop varieties and regions and provide stakeholders with sufficiently accurate yield predictions.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T03:39:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221088018
       
  • Large scale rocky desertification reversal in South China karst

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      Authors: Yuemin Yue, Xiangkun Qi, Kelin Wang, Chujie Liao, Xiaowei Tong, Martin Brandt, Bo Liu
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The karst area in southwest China is, in recent decades, one of the world’s regions with the fastest vegetation growth and increase in aboveground biomass. The improvement in the ecological conditions within this region can, to a large extent, be attributed to ecological protection projects. However, it remains unclear whether the observed increase in vegetation cover could mitigate rocky desertification at large scale. In this study, we utilized information from large field campaigns in the years 2005, 2011, and 2016, supported by satellite imagery interpretation and statistics on ecological protection projects, to explore the impact of restoration efforts on rocky desertification mitigation and vegetation resilience/resistance. The results show that restoration efforts caused a net decrease of 26.14% in areas affected by rocky desertification from 2005 to 2016. The larger the restoration efforts, the stronger the decrease in rocky desertification areas, and also the vulnerability of landscapes towards desertification; the probability of rocky desertification occurring decreased almost linearly with increased restoration efforts. In addition, both vegetation resilience and resistance against climate variations increased with restoration efforts. Restoration efforts were mainly responsible for the recovery of the ecosystem, showing that human impact is the main driver for the reversal of rocky desertification. Our study provides scientific evidence on rocky desertification control being an important step towards a sustainable development of the landscapes of Southwest China.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T05:10:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221083111
       
  • Estimation of recent peat accumulation with tree saplings

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      Authors: Juan Antonio Ballesteros-Cánovas, Johannes Edvardsson, Christophe Corona, Jonas Mažeika, Markus Stoffel
      First page: 515
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this paper is to develop an approach to estimate peat accumulation rates (PAR) over recent decades based on the age and burial depths of roots from pine sapling and to use the newly developed approach to estimate spatial variations of PAR. To this end, we sampled 120 pine saplings growing in three plots at Rėkyva peatland in Lithuania and accounted for the microtopography around each specimen. In the lab, all saplings were cut into 1-cm segments, sanded and analysed. The counting of annual rings allowed dating the germination of each sapling with a yearly resolution and thus also enabled estimation of peat accumulation. The latter was derived by measuring the distance from the original root collar at germination to the ground level (or peat surface) at the time of sampling. The large number of samples selected from three plots also enabled determination of spatial variations in PAR. We obtain averaged PAR values of 1.6 ± 0.72 cm yr−1 across the three plots and over the last decades, but also observe strong spatial heterogeneity in PAR resulting from differences in local hydrology and vegetation. To validate the results, we compared tree-ring derived PAR with radiocarbon-based (14C) estimates at one of the plots. The results are consistent between the two approaches with PAR estimated to 0.8 and 0.79 cm yr−1, respectively, over the last 20 years. We conclude that PAR can be assessed accurately with tree-ring approaches and that they have clear advantages over radiocarbon dating for shorter timescales as they can be replicated more easily. For longer timescales and larger depths (> 15 cm), however, 14C dating remains the preferred approach.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T08:21:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211073786
       
  • Predicting the supply–demand of ecosystem services in the Yangtze River
           Middle Reaches Urban Agglomeration

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      Authors: Xin Dai, Lunche Wang, Liu Yang, Shaoqiang Wang, Yang Li, Lizhe Wang
      First page: 530
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Ecosystem service (ES) supply and demand assessment is essential for understanding the inner relationships between ecosystems and humans and is useful when formulating future ecological policies. This study analyses the spatial and temporal variations in key ESs in the Yangtze River Middle Reaches Urban Agglomeration to understand the relationship with human demand. First, the InVEST model is used to quantify the spatial and temporal changes in the key ESs from 2000 to 2019, and a supply–demand index is used to explore the supply–demand relationship at the county scale. Second, ES bundle is applied to analyse the relationships among ESs in different supply–demand balance areas. Finally, different ecological protection scenarios are proposed to simulate the supply–demand relationship in 2040. The results show that (1) the impacts of ecological factors on the ES supply are greater than socioeconomic factors, especially the precipitation and distance from the Yangtze River. (2) Regions of supply–demand imbalance are mainly concentrated in provincial centres and the surrounding cities, especially in the Wuhan city circle. (3) Each ES in regions of balanced supply and demand is well-balanced, and ESs in regions of supply-demand imbalance are dominated by one service. (4) Among the simulated scenarios, the climate regulation protection scenario in 2040 yields the optimal supply–demand result. This study can contribute to future management decision-making regarding the balance between the supply and demand of ecosystem services.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T01:27:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221074490
       
  • Inland wetlands in Africa: A review of their typologies and ecosystem
           services

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      Authors: Emmah Mandishona, Jasper Knight
      First page: 547
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Wetlands, as one of the most productive natural ecosystems globally, have important roles in Earth system functioning through supporting biodiversity, storing carbon, recharging groundwater and removing pollutants. They are also critical locations for providing ecosystem and environmental services and thus supporting human livelihoods, especially in Africa where inland wetlands are extensively used for agriculture and as water sources. Despite this, the Ramsar Convention classifications do not wholly describe the physical nature and properties of African inland wetlands, or the varied and interconnected ways in which different ecosystem and environmental services are manifested in them. This review critically discusses the different types and definitions of inland wetlands in Africa with particular reference to dambos, based on wetland geomorphological, hydrological and ecological properties, and then considers the entangled nature of their ecosystem services and the benefits provided to local communities. Considering these services in a more integrated way – and not as a tick-box exercise as per the Ramsar Convention – allows for a better understanding of human–environment relations in wetlands, with implications for wetland sustainability and more effective management practices.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T11:37:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221075328
       
  • Recent geomorphological changes in the Paraiba do Sul delta, South America
           East Coast

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      Authors: André Souza et al., Luca Lämmle, Archimedes P Filho, Carlo Donadio
      First page: 566
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The Paraiba do Sul River delta, a South America east coast system, presents deposits recording complex sedimentary dynamics in the deltaic plain during the Little Ice Age (LIA). The use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, sediment grain-size characterization, and morpho-chronological analysis showed that from ∼450 to 100years (LIA period), both in lower to upper deltaic plain, remodeling occurred in conjunction with the coastline regression. The freshwater and sediment influx increases due to the moisture enhancements during the LIA resulted in the intensification of the fluvial dynamic, channel downcutting on the marine terrace, and sedimentary environments remodeling. Further, the base-level changes occasioned by the coastline regression strengthen the geomorphological dynamics associated with the recent changes in the Paraiba do Sul delta. Currently, the coastal erosion problem found in the area seems to reflect the coupling between climate dynamic (rainfall rates decrease) and multiple-scale anthropic intervention. Results show a high sensitivity of humid tropical deltaic systems to short-time climate events, further contribute to broadening discussions on the complexity of this delta system’s morphosedimentary evolution during the Late Holocene.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T06:28:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221077614
       
  • Tracking the methodological evolution of climate change projections for UK
           river flows

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      Authors: Wilson CH Chan, Theodore G Shepherd, Katie Facer-Childs, Geoff Darch, Nigel W Arnell
      First page: 589
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Much research has been carried out on the possible impacts of climate change for UK river flows. Catchment and national-scale studies since the early 1990s are here categorized into four modelling approaches: “top-down” GCM (Global Climate Model)-driven and probabilistic approaches and “bottom-up” stylised and scenario-neutral approaches. Early studies followed a stylised approach with a small number of model experiments focused on system sensitivity. GCM-driven approaches dominate since the mid-1990s and are scenario-led and “top-down”, but which incur the cascade of uncertainty which results in a large amount of information that may not be conducive to decision-making. The emergence of probabilistic projections aims to incorporate probabilistic information in navigating climate model uncertainty but remained “top-down” with challenges over its practical use for water resources planning. The scenario-neutral approach has clear roots in the early stylised approach with the aim to explore plausible futures beyond climate model projections and system sensitivity. A synthesis of studies employing each approach shows that the magnitude and sign of change in different hydrological variables remain uncertain between different regions of the UK. Comparison between studies is difficult due to their methodological differences and consequently different choices along the impact modelling chain, and with a notable geographic bias in catchment selection in southeast England. Major limitations for each approach include barriers to decision-making from wide uncertainty ranges, limited consideration of high-impact outcomes, and challenges in their application in water resources planning. These challenges represent priorities for future research using new “hybrid” approaches to produce complementary information to “top down” projections within a more “bottom-up” framework. Exploratory modelling, robust decision-making and storylines are examples of new approaches that have emerged. Key to the emerging approaches identified is a need to combine different modelling approaches to tackle different sources of uncertainty according to the intended aims of individual applications.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-04T08:08:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221079201
       
  • Evolution of lake water volume in global closed basins since the Last
           Glacial Maximum and its implication for future projection

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      Authors: Yuxin Zhang, Yu Li
      First page: 613
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Mostly concurring with arid and semi-arid regions, closed basins are faced with water scarcity, prominent imbalance between water resource supply and demand, and ecological degradation. Spatial-temporal patterns of water resource change in closed basins have received increasing attention in recent years, but it is still unclear whether there is a connection between the present patterns and those under the millennial-scale natural state. According to lake records, lake models and paleoclimate simulations, we provided a preliminary impression of water volume changes in the long history of different closed basins, which clarified the linkages and differences between the past and present water volume changes. We also evaluated possible water volume changes in the near future. We found that there has been a declining trend of water volume in closed basins of mid-latitude since the Last Glacial Maximum in general, whereas there has been a rising trend of water volume in closed basins of low-latitude over the same period. Over the last few decades, the declining trend of water storage in Western North America, Sahara and Arabia and Central Eurasia possibly has inherited the decreased water volume conditions across the millennial-scale under the natural state, while the increasing water storage in Great Rift Valley and Southern Africa and the decreasing water storage in Dry Andes and Patagonia may be temporary. The assessment of near future water volume changes from a paleoclimatological perspective indicates that the water volume in parts of Western North America, northern Dry Andes, northern Sahara, and southwestern Central Eurasia will continue to decline, while in parts of southern Sahara, southern Great Rift Valley, southeastern Central Eurasia, and eastern Australia it will continue to rise.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T04:20:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221079776
       
  • Anthropogenic contaminants in glacial environments I: Inputs and
           accumulation

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      Authors: Dylan B Beard, Caroline C Clason, Sally Rangecroft, Ewa Poniecka, Kim J Ward, Will H Blake
      First page: 630
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Historically, glaciers have been seen as pristine environments. However, recent research has shown that glaciers can accumulate and store contaminants over long timescales, through processes such as atmospheric deposition, sedimentation, glacial hydrology and mass movements. Studies have identified numerous anthropogenically derived contaminants within the global cryosphere, including the six we focus on here: fallout radionuclides; microplastics; persistent organic pollutants; potentially toxic elements; black carbon and nitrate-based contaminants. These contaminants are relatively well-studied in other environments; however, their dynamics and role in glaciated systems is still poorly understood. Therefore, it is important to assess and quantify contaminant levels within the cryosphere, so that current and future threats can be fully understood and mitigated. In this first progress report (Part I: Inputs and accumulation), we review the current state of knowledge of six of the most common anthropogenic contaminants found in the cryosphere, and consider their sources, transportation, accumulation and concentration within glacial systems. A second progress report (Part II: Release and downstream consequences) will outline how these contaminants leave glacial systems and the consequences that this release can have for communities and ecosystems reliant on glacial meltwater.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T02:05:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221107376
       
  • The origins of modern urban climate science: reflections on ‘A numerical
           model of the urban heat island’

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      Authors: Gerald Mills, Iain D Stewart, Dev Niyogi
      First page: 649
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Modern urban climatology is a part of boundary-layer climatology with a focus on the urban effects on the atmosphere. The best known of these effects is the urban heat island (UHI), which has been a subject of study for more than 200 years and may be categorised into air, surface and substrate types. Progress on this topic has occurred in various phases associated with theoretical developments, improvements in technology (instruments and computing) and study design, to isolate the causative drivers. The history of the field can be categorised into response-based (descriptive) and process-based (analytic) periods associated with hypothesis generation and testing, respectively. Myrup’s paper on simulating the UHI, published in 1969, is at the forefront of this shift in approach and is the first application of numerical modelling to the topic. Its computational methods place the UHI within the context of the surface energy budget and the exchanges of energy, urban characteristics, and the substrate as well as overlying air. The paper is a classic that had considerable impact on the approach that geographical climatology took to examining the UHI; however, it is not without its limitations Careful reading of Myrup's work provides insights into how the field has evolved in the last 50 years. In particular the recurring issues associated with conceputalising the urban thermal effect and challenge of comparing models results with field observations. Remarkably, key urban climate questions on how to cool cities, how to plan cities for future climate, and the factors that impact UHI are still being studied, albeit with more sophisticated models. A numerical model of the urban heat island is part of a rich literature on the UHI that illustrates the development of the urban climate science that deserves to be read and cited.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T10:58:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221107212
       
  • Book Review: Most unimaginably strange: An eclectic companion to the
           landscape of Iceland

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      Authors: Allison Williams
      First page: 657
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-04T09:25:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333221106741
       
 
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