Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1464 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (686 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (117 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 116 of 116 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACSMs Health & Fitness Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACTIVE : Journal of Physical Education, Sport, Health and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ágora para la Educación Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education     Open Access  
American Journal of Sexuality Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Applied Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Arab Journal of Nutrition and Exercise     Open Access  
Arquivos em Movimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arrancada     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Child and Adolescent Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Childhood Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
eJRIEPS : Ejournal de la recherche sur l'intervention en éducation physique et sport     Open Access  
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Éthique & Santé     Full-text available via subscription  
Fat Studies : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Body Weight and Society     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Food Science and Human Wellness     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Sports and Active Living     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Gelanggang Pendidikan Jasmani Indonesia     Open Access  
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geron     Full-text available via subscription  
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Health Education Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Marketing Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Home Healthcare Now     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Movement Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesia Performance Journal     Open Access  
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
International Journal of Obesity Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Spa and Wellness     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sport, Exercise & Training Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Isokinetics and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of American College Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Athlete Development and Experience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Exercise & Organ Cross Talk     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Motor Learning and Development     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Activity and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Physical Activity and Hormones     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical Activity Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Physical Education and Human Movement     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sport and Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Sport Sciences and Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Kinesiology : International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Kinesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kinesiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Malaysian Journal of Movement, Health & Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Médecine & Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription  
Mental Health and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
MHSalud : Movimiento Humano y Salud     Open Access  
Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Obesity Research & Clinical Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Obesity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Obesity Science & Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Obesity Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pain Management in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
PALAESTRA : Adapted Sport, Physical Education, and Recreational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Physical Activity and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Preventing Chronic Disease     Free   (Followers: 3)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Quality in Sport     Open Access  
Race and Yoga     Open Access  
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBONE - Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBPFEX - Revista Brasileira de Prescrição e Fisiologia do Exercício     Open Access  
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Retos : Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deportes y Recreación     Open Access  
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Atividade Física & Saúde     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte : International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue phénEPS / PHEnex Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SIPATAHOENAN : South-East Asian Journal for Youth, Sports & Health Education     Open Access  
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Sport and Fitness Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Sport Science and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
SPORTIVE : Journal Of Physical Education, Sport and Recreation     Open Access  
Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sports Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strength & Conditioning Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Timisoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise     Open Access  
Yoga Mimamsa     Open Access   (Followers: 3)


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Frontiers in Sports and Active Living
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2624-9367
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • The “autonomy” of developing countries in the Olympic Movement:
           Assessing the fate of sports governance transplants in the Global
           South|Introduction|Methods|Results and discussion

    • Authors: Borja García, Henk Erik Meier
      Abstract: IntroductionThe International Olympic Committee (IOC) imposes very specific ideas on sports governance, more precisely on sports autonomy, on countries joining the Olympic Movement. Given that the idea of sports autonomy originated in the Global North, this article introduces the concept of governance transplants to evaluate the impact that being part of the Olympic Movement has on domestic sports governance in Global South developing countries. The article explores the extent to which the IOC is successful in implementing the norms and regulations on sports autonomy as a governance transplant at the national level in countries from the Global South that are part of the Olympic Movement.MethodsThe article employs a comparative qualitative case study research design that explores the relations of the IOC, National Olympic Committees (NOCs), and national governments in Botswana, Guatemala and Sri Lanka. Research relies on a mix of document analyses and expert semi-structured interviews conducted during field trips to those countries. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by means of thematic analysis. The analyses focus on domestic policies and contexts, formal and institutional compliance with sports autonomy, provision of public funding, and participation in national sport policy-making.Results and discussionFindings suggest that national structures and legacies have an impact on the way in which the autonomy of sport, as the governance transplant, is translated in those three countries. Although national governments enjoy some agency in “translating” governance transplants, results also suggest that misfits and tensions persist between governmental and sport stakeholders at the national and international level. Such misfits might force the IOC, as a private transnational regulator, to adopt a more pragmatic view on the enforcing of its governance transplants. The results are of relevance to existing discussions on global sports governance and debates as to whether the countries in the Global North might be able to impose their views and their governance transplants if the Global South gets a greater say in transnational sports governance.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01T00:00:00Z
  • Dispositional mindfulness and its relationship to exercise motivation and

    • Authors: Sarah Lynn, Medha Kumari Satyal, Alana J. Smith, Noor Tasnim, Daphne Gyamfi, Daniel F. English, Wendy A. Suzuki, Julia C. Basso
      Abstract: Mindfulness is the psychological state of staying attuned to the present moment, without ruminating on past or future events, and allowing thoughts, feelings, or sensations to arise without judgment or attachment. Previous work has shown that heightened dispositional mindfulness is associated with the awareness of the importance of exercise, exercise self-efficacy, exercise motivation, and self-reported exercise level. However, more methodologically rigorous studies are needed to understand the relationship between mindfulness and the psychological mechanisms related to exercise motivation, including the identification of why individuals are motivated to engage in exercise, the subjective experience of exercise, and the propensity for exercise dependence and addiction. In this cross-sectional investigation, we utilized the framework of the Self-Determination Theory to examine the hypothesis that heightened dispositional mindfulness (as measured by the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale) would be associated with increased levels of exercise motivation that were derived by higher levels of autonomous self-regulation. Individuals were recruited from urban areas who self-reported either low (exercising 2 or fewer times per week for 20 min or less; n = 78) or moderate (exercising 1 or 2 times per week for 20 min or more; n = 127) levels of exercise engagement. As hypothesized, heightened dispositional mindfulness was significantly associated with heightened levels of exercise self-determination as measured by the Behavioral Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire, with this effect being driven by negative associations with amotivation, external regulation, and introjected regulation. Additionally, we found that heightened dispositional mindfulness was associated with lower levels of psychological distress upon exercise and decreased exercise dependence/addiction. Overall, increased dispositional mindfulness may support a healthy relationship with exercise. These findings have implications for the utility of mindfulness interventions to support the regulation of exercise behaviors in service of enhancing exercise motivation and engagement.
      PubDate: 2022-11-29T00:00:00Z
  • Textile electromyography electrodes reveal differences in lower limb
           muscle activation during loaded squats when comparing fixed and free
           barbell movement paths|Introduction|Methods|Results|Discussion

    • Authors: Felicia Svensson, Ulrika Aasa, Andrew Strong
      Abstract: IntroductionTraditional recordings of muscle activation often involve time-consuming application of surface electrodes affixed to the skin in laboratory environments. The development of textile electromyography (EMG) electrodes now allows fast and unobtrusive assessment of muscle activation in ecologically valid environments. In this study, textile EMG shorts were used to assess whether performing squats with the barbell resting freely on the shoulders or using a Smith machine for a fixed barbell movement path is preferable for maximizing lower limb muscle activation.MethodsSixteen athletes performed free and fixed barbell squats in a gym with external loads equivalent to their body mass. Quadriceps, hamstrings and gluteus maximus activation was measured bilaterally with textile EMG electrodes embedded in shorts.ResultsMean quadriceps activation was greater for the free compared with the fixed movement path for the right (mean difference [MD] 14μV, p = 0.04, ηp2 = 0.28) and left leg (MD 15μV, p = 0.01, ηp2 = 0.39) over the entire squat and specifically during the first half of the eccentric phase for the left leg (MD 7μV, p = 0.04, d = 0.56), second half of the eccentric phase for both legs (right leg MD 21μV, p = 0.05, d = 0.54; left leg MD 23μV, p = 0.04, d = 0.52) and the first half of the concentric phase for both legs (right leg MD 24μV, p = 0.04, d = 0.56; left leg MD 15μV, p = 0.01, d = 0.72). Greater hamstrings activation for the free path was seen for the second half of the eccentric phase (left leg MD 4μV, p = 0.03, d = 0.58) and first half of the concentric phase (right leg MD 5μV, p = 0.02, d = 0.72). No significant differences were found for gluteus maximus.DiscussionTextile EMG electrodes embedded in shorts revealed that to maximize thigh muscle activity during loaded squats, a free barbell movement path is preferable to a fixed barbell movement path.
      PubDate: 2022-11-29T00:00:00Z
  • Optimal integration of kinematic and ball-flight information when
           perceiving the speed of a moving ball

    • Authors: Hiroki Nakamoto, Kazunobu Fukuhara, Taiga Torii, Ryota Takamido, David L. Mann
      Abstract: In order to intercept a moving target such as a baseball with high spatio-temporal accuracy, the perception of the target's movement speed is important for estimating when and where the target will arrive. However, it is unclear what sources of information are used by a batter to estimate ball speed and how those sources of information are integrated to facilitate successful interception. In this study, we examined the degree to which kinematic and ball-flight information are integrated when estimating ball speed in baseball batting. Thirteen university level baseball batters performed a ball-speed evaluation task in a virtual environment where they were required to determine which of two comparison baseball pitches (i.e., a reference and comparison stimuli) they perceived to be faster. The reference and comparison stimuli had the same physical ball speed, but with different pitching movement speeds in the comparison stimuli. The task was performed under slow (125 km/h) and fast (145 km/h) ball-speed conditions. Results revealed that the perceived ball-speed was influenced by the movement speed of the pitcher's motion, with the influence of the pitcher's motion more pronounced in the fast ball-speed condition when ball-flight information was presumably less reliable. Moreover, exploratory analyses suggested that the more skilled batters were increasingly likely to integrate the two sources of information according to their relative reliability when making judgements of ball speed. The results provide important insights into how skilled performers may make judgements of speed and time to contact, and further enhance our understanding of how the ability to make those judgements might improve when developing expertise in hitting.
      PubDate: 2022-11-29T00:00:00Z
  • Postcolonial control of Fiji soccer and the return of subjugated
           knowledges: From the 1970s to the 2010s

    • Authors: Kieran E. James, Henry D. Tuidraki, Sheikh Ali Tanzil
      Abstract: The primary aim of this article is to use Foucault's idea of subjugated knowledges to search out areas and viewpoints within Fiji soccer which are suppressed by the governing authorities. To fulfill this aim, we explore and assess, via ethnographic research, the racial and ethnic aspects of Fiji soccer, from the 1970s to the 2010s, and how cultural hegemony facilitates continued Fiji Indian control and dominance within the sport. Next, and although we note the positive dimension of Fiji Football Association's 2014 Veterans' Dinner, we suggest that some ex-Ba players were apparently discriminated against by, puzzlingly, not being invited. The regulator was also unaware of, or insensitive to, ex-players' transportation needs as some were poor or invalid. We then look at the cases of Sweats Soccer Club (SSC) and Nadi Legends Football Club (NLFC) to show how, in the face of the regulator's indifference to the financial plight of an Indigenous village club (SSC), the ex-Nadi players set up instead a self-help organization (NLFC) to assist and encourage ex-players going through hard times. The latter was a cross-ethnic group/cross-class collaboration between ex-officials and ex-players and was largely outside the regulator's sphere of interest or intent.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28T00:00:00Z
  • Evaluation of differences in the performance strategies of top and bottom
           basketball teams utilizing rank-sum ratio

    • Authors: Wenping Sun, ChenSoon Chee, LianYee Kok, FongPeng Lim, Shamsulariffin Samsudin
      Abstract: IntroductionThis study aimed to explore common characteristics among top basketball teams, differentiate attacking and defensive performance between top and bottom teams, and correlate attacking and defensive performance with final competition rankings during the 2019 Men's Basketball World Cup, as well as to determine the relationship between performance indicators and the attacking and defensive performance. In addition, the study aimed to determine the attacking and defensive level of the top and bottom eight teams and find their existing problems and shortcomings, to further improve their competitive basketball strength, and also provided valid and reliable information for coaches to conduct targeted training in the future.MethodsThe rank-sum ratio (RSR) was employed to evaluate the attack, defense, and overall attacking and defensive performance between the top and bottom teams during the 2019 Men's Basketball World Cup. Additionally, an independent sample T-test was conducted to test the difference in performance indicators of attack and defense between the top eight and bottom eight teams. Spearman Rho Correlation was conducted to determine the relationship between the attacking and defensive RSR value and the final competition ranking at the 0.05 confidence level. Pearson Correlation was employed to test the relationship between the performance indicators and the attacking and defensive RSR value at the 0.05 confidence level. According to Spearman and Pearson Correlation, the indicators which contributed most to the attacking and defensive performance, as well as the correlation between attack and defense and the final ranking, can thus be determined.ResultsThe results showed that the attacking performance of the top eight teams was far better than the bottom eight teams in terms of average points (p = 0.000), 2-point shoot percentage (p = 0.001), 3-point shoot percentage (p = 0.003), free throw percentage (p = 0.001), turnovers (p = 0.012), and assists (p = 0.000), and there was a significant difference (p < 0.05). However, second attack (p = 0.484), fast-break (p = 0.174), and offensive rebounds (p = 0.261) showed no significant difference between the two cohorts (P> 0.05), and the offensive rebounds of the bottom eight teams were better than the top eight teams. Additionally, there was a large gap between the top eight teams and the bottom eight teams in lost points (p = 0.001) and defensive rebounds (p = 0.000), with a very significant difference (p < 0.01). However, steals (p = 0.760), blocks (p = 0.166), and fouls (p = 0.686) had no significant difference between the two cohorts (P> 0.05). Additionally, there was a very significant difference between attack RSR (p = 0.000), defense RSR (p = 0.006), and the overall attack-defense RSR (p = 0.000) of the top eight and bottom eight teams (p < 0.01), and most top teams focused on developing both attack and defense and paid attention to improve the overall attacking and defensive ability. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between the overall attack-defense performance and assists (p = 0.832), rebounds (p = 0.762), turnovers (p = 0.702), 2-point shoot percentage (p = 0.704), defensive rebounds (p = 0.809), fast-break points (p = 0.577), blocks (p = 0.600), and free throw percentage (p = 0.575).ConclusionsThis study showed that the top basketball teams focused on developing both attack and defense, and have the common characteristics of strong attack and defense. Whether it was the attack, defense, or overall attacking and defensive ability, there was a significant relationship with the final ranking. Additionally, this study showed that there were very significant differences in both attacking and defensive abilities between the top eight and bottom eight teams, as well as highlighted their respective advantages and disadvantages in attacking and defensive indicators. Besides that, this study found that performance indicators such as assists, defensive rebounds, 2P%, turnovers, FT%, fast-breaks, and blocks were the main factors that distinguish the top and bottom teams, and they had a significant relationship with overall attacking and defensive performance. The above information allows coaches and players to learn the latest developments in competitive basketball, as well as their advantages and disadvantages, to help them organize targeted training in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25T00:00:00Z
  • Influence of negative stereotype on physical activity level among older
           adults during a training session

    • Authors: Maxime Deshayes, Angèle Palermo, Karim Korchi, Antony G. Philippe
      Abstract: The present research examined the effect of a negative stereotype induction on older adults' physical activity level, measured objectively and subjectively. Twenty older adults (18 women and two men; Mage = 67.4, SDage = 4.4) were assigned to a control condition, a neutral condition and a negative stereotype condition during three separate visits (i.e., within-subject design). In each physical activity session, participants performed the same training. Objective physical activity level was the time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity measured by accelerometry and subjective physical activity level was measured with the RPE-session method. Inactivity time was also objectively assessed. Results revealed no effect of the different conditions on objective physical activity level, but subjective physical activity level and inactivity time were lower in the neutral condition and in the negative stereotype condition compared to the control condition. It was suggested that when a negative stereotype is induced, participants perceived the task as less intense compared to the control condition, which result in less inactivity time, suggesting that the negative stereotype had a positive influence on physical activity. Another interesting result was that effects were similar in the negative stereotype condition and in the neutral condition, revealing that the neutral condition might not be a control condition. While these results are not in line with the stereotype threat literature, they echo previous recent studies also showing a positive effect of a negative stereotype induction, calling into question the stereotype threat theory.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25T00:00:00Z
  • Nudging digital physical activity breaks for home studying of university
           students—A randomized controlled trial during the COVID-19 pandemic with
           daily activity measures

    • Authors: Monika Teuber, Daniel Leyhr, Juliane Moll, Gorden Sudeck
      Abstract: University students are of particular public health interest because they are at high risk for physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors. In conjunction with the COVID-19 pandemic, sedentariness and physical inactivity were reinforced, as the pandemic led to an increase in home studying. Physical activity (PA) breaks have been identified as promoting factors for university students' physical and mental health. Therefore, the present study explored an approach to nudge students to take PA breaks at home while studying. The purpose was to test the effectiveness of digital nudging for PA breaks for 10 days using a randomized intervention design during the COVID-19 pandemic. It included an intervention group who received daily digital motivational prompts for PA break videos and a minimal intervention control group who got low-level access to PA break videos via a one-time link sent to the media library. Using a sample of university students in the southwest of Germany (n = 57), two-level binary logistic regression models were calculated to predict daily participation in PA breaks during the intervention period depending on the nudging intervention, as well as previous participation in PA breaks, the general PA level of the subjects before the intervention, the time spent on PA and on home studying in a day, the kind of day during the intervention (weekday vs. weekend), and the students' age. Results revealed that the digital nudging intervention did not show any significant effect on the likelihood to participate in PA breaks on a given day (0.69 ≤ β ≤ 0.75, p> 0.3). Instead, an individual-level effect revealed that the longer a student studied at home over the course of a day, the more likely he or she was to take a PA break (1.07 ≤ β ≤ 1.11, p < 0.001). Current findings show that individual characteristics such as daily time spent on home studying, which can change over the course of the intervention phase, are relevant considerations within nudging intervention in university setting. This provides initial insights especially for digital PA breaks for students during home studying.
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T00:00:00Z
  • Network analysis of associations between anthropometry, physical fitness,
           and sport-specific performance in young canoe sprint athletes: The role of
           age and sex|Introduction|Methods|Results|Discussion

    • Authors: Christian Saal, Helmi Chaabene, Norman Helm, Torsten Warnke, Olaf Prieske
      Abstract: IntroductionAnthropometric and physical fitness data can predict sport-specific performance (e.g., canoe sprint race time) in young athletes. Of note, inter-item correlations (i.e., multicollinearity) may exist between tests assessing similar physical qualities. However, multicollinearity among tests may change across age and/or sex due to age-/sex-specific non-linear development of test performances. Therefore, the present study aimed at analyzing inter-item correlations between anthropometric, physical fitness, and sport-specific performance data as a function of age and sex in young canoe sprint athletes.MethodsAnthropometric, physical fitness, and sport-specific performance data of 618 male and 297 female young canoe sprint athletes (discipline: male/female kayak, male canoe) were recorded during a national talent identification program between 1992 and 2019. For each discipline, a correlation matrix (i.e., network analysis) was calculated for age category (U13, U14, U15, U16) and sex including anthropometrics (e.g., standing body height, body mass), physical fitness (e.g., cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle power), and sport-specific performance (i.e., 250 and 2,000-m on-water canoe sprint time). Network plots were used to explore the correlation patterns by visual inspection. Further, trimmed means (μtrimmed) of inter-item Pearson's correlations coefficients were calculated for each discipline, age category, and sex. Effects of age and sex were analyzed using one-way ANOVAs.ResultsVisual inspection revealed consistent associations among anthropometric measures across age categories, irrespective of sex. Further, associations between physical fitness and sport-specific performance were lower with increasing age, particularly in males. In this sense, statistically significant differences for μtrimmed were observed in male canoeists (p < 0.01, ξ = 0.36) and male kayakers (p < 0.01, ξ = 0.38) with lower μtrimmed in older compared with younger athletes (i.e., ≥U15). For female kayakers, no statistically significant effect of age on μtrimmed was observed (p = 0.34, ξ = 0.14).DiscussionOur study revealed that inter-item correlation patterns (i.e., multicollinearity) of anthropometric, physical fitness, and sport-specific performance measures were lower in older (U15, U16) versus younger (U13, U14) male canoe sprint athletes but not in females. Thus, age and sex should be considered to identify predictors for sport-specific performance and design effective testing batteries for talent identification programs in canoe sprint athletes.
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T00:00:00Z
  • Fastball pitching performance only slightly decreases after mobility
           impediment of the pelvis and trunk—Do (catch-up) compensation strategies
           come into play'|Background|Aim|Methods|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: A. J. R. Leenen, Bart van Trigt, M. J. M. Hoozemans, H. E. J. Veeger
      Abstract: BackgroundBaseball pitching performance can be mechanically explained by the summation of speed principle and the principle of optimal coordination of partial momenta. Impeding optimal energy generation or transfer by or between the pelvis and trunk segments could provide valuable insight into possible compensation or catch-up mechanisms that may manifest themselves based on these principles.AimThe aim of the present study was to explore the effects of experimentally impeding the mobility of and between the pelvis and trunk segments (1) on ball speed and mechanical peak joint power, and (2) on mechanical peak load of the elbow and shoulder joints at maximal external rotation (MER) during fastball pitching.MethodsEleven elite baseball pitchers (mean age 17.4, SD 2.2 years; mean pitching experience 8.9, SD 3.0 years) were instructed to throw at least 15 fastballs as fast and accurately as possible under two conditions. One condition involved impeding the mobility of the pelvis and trunk segments to hamper their ability to rotate independently, which consequently should affect the separation time, defined as the time interval between the pelvis and trunk peak angular velocities. In the other condition, pitchers threw unimpeded. Ball speed, mechanical peak joint power and peak net moment of the elbow and shoulder at MER were compared between conditions using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE).ResultsIn the impeded pitching condition, the mean difference of the separation time was 12.4 milliseconds [95% CI (4.0, 20.7)] and for ball speed 0.6 mph [95% CI (0.2, 0.9)] lower compared to the unimpeded condition. Only the peak pelvic angular velocity, in addition to the trunk, upper arm and forearm, was 45 deg/s [95% CI (24, 66)] higher impeded condition. The mean differences of the joint power and net moments at the shoulder and elbow did not reach statistical significance.ConclusionIn elite adolescent baseball, the observed pitching performance after experimentally impeding pelvic and trunk mobility undermines a potential distal catch-up strategy based on the summation of speed principle. The increased peak pelvic angular velocity may indicate a compensation strategy following the optimal coordination of partial momenta principle to practically maintain pitching performance.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23T00:00:00Z
  • A survey of organizational structure and operational practices of elite
           youth football academies and national federations from around the world: A
           performance and medical perspective|Aim|Methods|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: Warren Gregson, Christopher Carling, Antonio Gualtieri, James O'Brien, Patrick Reilly, Francisco Tavares, Daniele Bonanno, Emmanuel Lopez, Joao Marques, Lorenzo Lolli, Valter Di Salvo
      Abstract: AimMedical and performance units are integral components of player development programmes in elite football academies. Nevertheless, the nature of the operational processes implemented by practitioners within clubs and national federations remains unexplored. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to survey elite youth professional football academies from around the world regarding the operational processes adopted by their medical and performance units.MethodsOf the 50 organizations invited, 10 national federations and 25 clubs took part in the survey resulting in a response rate of 70% (95% confidence interval, 56%−81%). The respondents represented three groups: senior club and academy management, performance, and medical staff.ResultsThe majority (60%−90%) of clubs and national federations reported strategic alignment between senior and academy medical and performance units as well as between academy medical and performance units. Survey responses indicated substantial heterogeneity in the composition and number of medical and performance professionals employed in academies. The majority of respondents agreed their medical and performance departments were effective in utilizing staff knowledge and external sources of knowledge to inform their practice (56%−80%). Performance staff (40%−50%) and physiotherapists (30%−32%) were deemed most influential in injury prevention programmes. During the return-to-play process, the influence of specific practitioners in the medical and performance units was dependent upon the phase of return-to-play. Shared decision-making was common practice amongst performance and medical staff in injury prevention and return-to-play processes. Medical and performance data were generally centralized across the first team and academy in majority (50%−72%) of clubs and national federations. Data were integrated within the same data management system to a higher degree in clubs (68%) vs. national federations (40%). Research and development activity were reported for most academies (50%−72%), and generally led by the head of performance (37%) or team doctor (21%). Research activities were largely undertaken via internal staff (~100%), academic collaborations (50%−88%) and/or external consultants and industry partnerships (77%−83%) in the national federation and clubs.ConclusionCollectively, these findings provide a detailed overview regarding key operational processes delivered by medical and performance practitioners working in elite football academies.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23T00:00:00Z
  • The Coronavirus pandemic and closed fitness clubs negatively affected
           members exercise habits|Introduction|Method|Results|Discussion

    • Authors: Christina Gjestvang, Elene Mauseth Tangen, Lene A. H. Haakstad
      Abstract: IntroductionDue to the Coronavirus pandemic, politicians enacted directions to reduce social interactions, including lockdown of fitness clubs. We aimed to investigate how this changed exercise habits of Norwegian gym members.MethodBased on survey data, men and women (≥18 years, n = 233, data collection from Aug. 2020 to Jan. 2021) were recruited to this study by an email-invitation from their fitness club chain or by Facebook advertisement. The participants reported on background variables (e.g., age, gender, total household income, occupation, and education), and exercise habits pre- and during social lockdown. Data were analyzed using independent or student t-test, chi-squared test, or McNemar's test, as appropriate.ResultsHome-based exercise (18.0 vs. 72.5%, p =
      PubDate: 2022-11-23T00:00:00Z
  • A proposed methodology for trip recovery training without a specialized

    • Authors: Youngjae Lee, Neil B. Alexander, Michael L. Madigan
      Abstract: Falls are the leading cause of accidental injuries among adults aged 65 years and older. Perturbation-based balance training is a novel exercise-based fall prevention intervention that has shown promise in reducing falls. Trip recovery training is a form of perturbation-based balance training that targets trip-induced falls. Trip recovery training typically requires the use of a specialized treadmill, the cost of which may present a barrier for use in some settings. The goal of this paper is to present a methodology for trip recovery training that does not require a specialized treadmill. A trial is planned in the near future to evaluate its effectiveness. If effective, non-treadmill trip recovery training could provide a lower cost method of perturbation-based balance training, and facilitate greater implementation outside of the research environment.
      PubDate: 2022-11-21T00:00:00Z
  • Performance-environment mutual flow model using big data on baseball

    • Authors: Yasuhiro Hashimoto, Hiroki Nakata
      Abstract: IntroductionThe study investigated the baseball pitching performance in terms of release speed, spin rate, and 3D coordinate data of the release point depending on the ball and strike counts.MethodsWe used open data provided on the official website of Major League Baseball (MLB), which included data related to 580 pitchers who pitched in the MLB between 2015 and 2019.ResultsThe results show that a higher ball count corresponds to a slower release speed and decreased spin rate, and a higher strike count corresponds to a faster release speed and increased spin rate. For a higher ball count, the pitcher's release point tended to be lower and more forward, while for a higher strike count, the pitcher's release point tended to be to the left from the right pitcher's point of view. This result was more pronounced in 4-seam pitches, which consisted the largest number of pitchers. The same tendency was confirmed in other pitches such as sinker, slider, cut ball, and curve.DiscussionOur findings suggest that the ball count is associated with the pitcher's release speed, spin rate, and 3D coordinate data. From a different perspective, as the pitcher's pitching performance is associated with the ball and strike count, the ball and strike count is associated with pitching performance. With regard to the aforementioned factor, we propose a “performance-environment flow model,” indicating that a player's performance changes according to the game situation, and the game situation consequently changes the player's next performance.
      PubDate: 2022-11-18T00:00:00Z
  • Examining whether affectively-charged motivations predict subsequent
           affective response during physical activity: An ecological momentary
           assessment study|Background|Methods|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: Bridgette Do, Ryan E. Rhodes, Martina Kanning, Micaela Hewus, Genevieve F. Dunton
      Abstract: BackgroundEvidence suggests positive affective response during physical activity increases the likelihood of engaging in and maintaining regular activity exercise in the future. Elucidating antecedents for a positive affective response may help identify intervention strategies to increase activity. Affectively-charged motivations (e.g., desires, urges, dreading) have been posited as proximal antecedents to physical activity but have yet to be examined in terms of their influence on affective response in real-world settings. The current study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine within-subject effects of pre-physical activity affectively-charged motivation on subsequent affective response during physical activity.MethodsParticipants included 56 adults (M = 39.18 years, SD = 11.98; 67.86% female) who completed a 14-day smartphone-based EMA study. Prior to starting physical activity (time t), participants self-initiated an event-contingent EMA survey that assessed affectively-charged motivation for physical activity (i.e., rating scale from “dreading it” to “excited to do it”). EMA surveys prompted during subsequent physical activity (time t + 15 min) assessed affective response (i.e., feeling good—bad, energized—exhausted, thrilled—miserable, interested—bored, and relaxed—nervous). Multi-level linear regression models examined within-subject effects of pre- physical activity affectively-charged motivations on subsequent affective response during physical activity controlling for between-subjects effects of affectively-charged motivation, age, biological sex, time of day, and day of the week.ResultsOverall, there were N = 304 physical activity occasions in the analysis (M = 5.43, SD = 3.97). When individuals reported more positive affectively-charged motivation for physical activity than usual before physical activity occasions, they reported feeling more energized (Estimate = 0.22, p < 0.001), good (Estimate = 0.25, p < 0.001), thrilled (Estimate = 0.12, p = 0.02), and interested (Estimate = 0.24, p < 0.001) during subsequent physical activity. Affectively-charged motivation was not associated with feeling more relaxed (Estimate = 0.11, p = 0.13) during subsequent physical activity.ConclusionMomentary affectively-charged motivations predicted more positive affective response during subsequent physical activity among active adults. Future research can explore potential sources of intraindividual differences in affectively-charged motivations and further examine these associations with future physical activity behavior. To improve positive affective responses, interventions may boost affectively-charged motivations through real-time mobile prompting in naturalistic settings.
      PubDate: 2022-11-18T00:00:00Z
  • Improvements in spatiotemporal outcomes, but not in recruitment of
           automatic postural responses, are correlated with improved step quality
           following perturbation-based balance training in chronic

    • Authors: Wouter H. A. Staring, Hanneke J. R. van Duijnhoven, Jolanda M. B. Roelofs, Sarah Zandvliet, Jasper den Boer, Frits C. Lem, Alexander C. H. Geurts, Vivian Weerdesteyn
      Abstract: IntroductionPeople with stroke often exhibit balance impairments, even in the chronic phase. Perturbation-based balance training (PBT) is a therapy that has yielded promising results in healthy elderly and several patient populations. Here, we present a threefold approach showing changes in people with chronic stroke after PBT on the level of recruitment of automatic postural responses (APR), step parameters and step quality. In addition, we provide insight into possible correlations across these outcomes and their changes after PBT.MethodsWe performed a complementary analysis of a recent PBT study. Participants received a 5-week PBT on the Radboud Fall simulator. During pre- and post-intervention assessments participants were exposed to platform translations in forward and backward directions. We performed electromyography of lower leg muscles to identify changes in APR recruitment. In addition, 3D kinematic data of stepping behavior was collected. We determined pre-post changes in muscle onset, magnitude and modulation of recruitment, step characteristics, and step quality. Subsequently, we determined whether improvements in step or muscle characteristics were correlated with improved step quality.ResultsWe observed a faster gastrocnemius muscle onset in the stance and stepping leg during backward stepping. During forward stepping we found a trend toward a faster tibialis anterior muscle onset in the stepping leg. We observed no changes in modulation or magnitude of muscle recruitment. Leg angles improved by 2.3° in forward stepping and 2.5° in backward stepping. The improvement in leg angle during forward stepping was accompanied by a −4.1°change in trunk angle, indicating a more upright position. Step length, duration and velocity improved in both directions. Changes in spatiotemporal characteristics were strongly correlated with improvements in leg angle, but no significant correlations were observed of muscle onset or recruitment with leg or trunk angle.ConclusionPBT leads to a multi-factorial improvement in onset of APR, spatiotemporal characteristics of stepping, and reactive step quality in people with chronic stroke. However, current changes in APR onset were not correlated with improvement in step quality. Therefore, we suggest that, in addition to spatiotemporal outcomes, other characteristics of muscle recruitment or behavioral substitution may induce step quality improvement after PBT.
      PubDate: 2022-11-17T00:00:00Z
  • Editorial: Evidence to practice: Bridging the gap in environmental
           challenges (cold, heat, hypoxia) in sport and exercise:
           Acclimatization/acclimation, training, competitions, recovery,
           rehabilitation and therapeutic interventions

    • Authors: Franck Brocherie, Joao Brito, Julio A. Costa, Gregoire P. Millet
      PubDate: 2022-11-17T00:00:00Z
  • Experiencing good results promotes positive feelings to high-intensity
           exercise among young adults: A qualitative study|Introduction|Materials
           and methods|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: Kjetil L. Høydal, Eli-Karin Sjåstad Åsebø, Silje Louise Dahl
      Abstract: IntroductionFrom a public health perspective, it is important to gain more insight into how people can be motivated to maintain effective exercise routines. It is a common belief that moderate-intensity exercise is more pleasant and enjoyable than high-intensity training. This study aims to provide insight into (1) participants' expectations and preferences for training intensity prior to training, (2) how longer-term participation affect participants' experience of endurance training with continuous moderate-intensity training and high-intensity interval training.Materials and methodsA total of 22 participants (14 women and eight men) between the ages of 21–30 volunteered for participation. Participants were randomized and divided into two equal groups. A total of 17 participants, nine women and eight men, completed the study. One group did moderate-intensity longer-lasting training and the other did high-intensity interval training. All participants completed three training sessions per week for 8 weeks. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with each participant before and after completing the training intervention. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis. This study is a part of a larger study evaluating and comparing the effects on endurance capacity of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity training. Physiological data are previously published.ResultsThe results describe participants expectations prior to training, and how they experienced the actual training. The overall experience of training comprises several factors that work together. Both expectations and actual experiences (e.g., of physical pleasantness or unpleasantness, of positive or negative emotions, and of actual results from the training) contribute to the participants' overall experience of exercise.ConclusionThe major finding is that improved physical fitness was a stronger motivator than feelings of pleasantness. Experiencing good results seemed to downplay feelings of unpleasantness and reinforce positive feelings toward exercise. Lack of results reinforce negative feelings toward exercise. Participants reported high-intensity exercise as more unpleasant and exhaustive, but the interval training group were more satisfied and experienced the training as more motivating.
      PubDate: 2022-11-16T00:00:00Z
  • Longitudinal alterations of pulmonary V.O2 on-kinetics during
           moderate-intensity exercise in competitive youth cyclists are related to
           alterations in the balance between microvascular O2 distribution and
           muscular O2 utilization|Purpose|Methods|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: Matthias Hovorka, Bernhard Prinz, Dieter Simon, Manfred Zöger, Clemens Rumpl, Alfred Nimmerichter
      Abstract: PurposeThe main purpose of the current study was to investigate the dynamic adjustment of pulmonary oxygen uptake (V.O2) in response to moderate-intensity cycling on three occasions within 15 months in competitive youth cyclists. Furthermore, the muscle Δdeoxy[heme] on-kinetics and the Δdeoxy[heme]-to-V.O2 ratio were modeled to examine possible mechanistic basis regulating pulmonary V.O2 on-kinetics.MethodsEleven cyclists (initial age, 14.3 ± 1.6 y; peak V.O2, 62.2 ± 4.5 mL.min−−1) with a training history of 2–5 years and a training volume of ~10 h per week participated in this investigation. V.O2 and Δdeoxy[heme] responses during workrate-transitions to moderate-intensity cycling were measured with breath-by-breath spirometry and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively, and subsequently modeled with mono-exponential models to derive parameter estimates. Additionally, a normalized Δdeoxy[heme]-to-V.O2 ratio was calculated for each participant. One-way repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess effects of time on the dependent variables of the responses.ResultsThe V.O2 time constant remained unchanged between the first (~24 s) and second visit (~22 s, P> 0.05), whereas it was significantly improved through the third visit (~13 s, P = 0.006–0.013). No significant effects of time were revealed for the parameter estimates of the Δdeoxy[heme] response (P> 0.05). A significant Δdeoxy[heme]-to-V.O2 ratio “overshoot” was evident on the first (1.09 ± 0.10, P = 0.006) and second (1.05 ± 0.09, P = 0.047), though not the third (0.97 ± 0.10, P> 0.05), occasion. These “overshoots” showed strong positive relationships with the V.O2 time constant during the first (r = 0.66, P = 0.028) and second visit (r = 0.76, P = 0.007). Further, strong positive relationships have been observed between the individual changes of the fundamental phase τp and the Δdeoxy[heme]-to-V.O2 ratio “overshoot” from occasion one to two (r = 0.70, P = 0.017), and two to three (r = 0.74, P = 0.009).ConclusionThis suggests that improvements in muscle oxygen provision and utilization capacity both occurred, and each may have contributed to enhancing the dynamic adjustment of the oxidative “machinery” in competitive youth cyclists. Furthermore, it indicates a strong link between an oxygen maldistribution within the tissue of interrogation and the V.O2 time constant.
      PubDate: 2022-11-16T00:00:00Z
  • Effects of creatine monohydrate timing on resistance training adaptations
           and body composition after 8 weeks in male and female collegiate

    • Authors: Nicholas E. Dinan, Anthony M. Hagele, Andrew R. Jagim, Michael G. Miller, Chad M. Kerksick
      Abstract: BackgroundLimited research is available on the potential impact of creatine monohydrate administration before or after workouts among athletes. This study aimed to investigate the effects of pre- vs. post-exercise creatine monohydrate supplementation on resistance training adaptations and body composition.MethodsIn a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design, 34 healthy resistance-trained male and female athletes were randomly assigned and matched according to fat free mass to consume a placebo, or 5-g dose of creatine monohydrate within 1 h before training, or within 1 h after training for 8 weeks, while completing a weekly resistance training program. Participants co-ingested 25-gram doses of both whey protein isolate and maltodextrin along with each assigned supplement dose. Body composition, muscular strength, and endurance, along with isometric mid-thigh pull were assessed before and after the 8-week supplementation period. A 3 × 2 mixed factorial (group x time) ANOVA with repeated measures on time were used to evaluate differences.ResultsAll groups experienced similar and statistically significant increases in fat free mass (+1.34 ± 3.48 kg, p = 0.04), upper (+2.21 ± 5.69 kg, p = 0.04) and lower body strength (+7.32 ± 10.01 kg, p < 0.001), and decreases in body mass (−1.09 ± 2.71 kg, p = 0.03), fat mass (−2.64 ± 4.16 kg, p = 0.001), and percent body fat (−2.85 ± 4.39 kg, p < 0.001).ConclusionsThe timing of creatine monohydrate did not exert any additional influence over the measured outcomes.
      PubDate: 2022-11-16T00:00:00Z
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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