Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1464 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (686 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (358 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (112 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (117 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (117 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 116 of 116 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACSMs Health & Fitness Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACTIVE : Journal of Physical Education, Sport, Health and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ágora para la Educación Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education     Open Access  
American Journal of Sexuality Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Applied Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Arab Journal of Nutrition and Exercise     Open Access  
Arquivos em Movimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arrancada     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Child and Adolescent Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Childhood Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
eJRIEPS : Ejournal de la recherche sur l'intervention en éducation physique et sport     Open Access  
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Éthique & Santé     Full-text available via subscription  
Fat Studies : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Body Weight and Society     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Food Science and Human Wellness     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Sports and Active Living     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Gelanggang Pendidikan Jasmani Indonesia     Open Access  
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geron     Full-text available via subscription  
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Health Education Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Marketing Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Home Healthcare Now     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Movement Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesia Performance Journal     Open Access  
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
International Journal of Obesity Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Spa and Wellness     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sport, Exercise & Training Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Isokinetics and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of American College Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Athlete Development and Experience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Exercise & Organ Cross Talk     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Motor Learning and Development     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Activity and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Physical Activity and Hormones     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical Activity Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Physical Education and Human Movement     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sport and Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Sport Sciences and Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Kinesiology : International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Kinesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kinesiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Malaysian Journal of Movement, Health & Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Médecine & Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription  
Mental Health and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
MHSalud : Movimiento Humano y Salud     Open Access  
Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Obesity Research & Clinical Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Obesity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Obesity Science & Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Obesity Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pain Management in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
PALAESTRA : Adapted Sport, Physical Education, and Recreational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Physical Activity and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Preventing Chronic Disease     Free   (Followers: 3)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Quality in Sport     Open Access  
Race and Yoga     Open Access  
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBONE - Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBPFEX - Revista Brasileira de Prescrição e Fisiologia do Exercício     Open Access  
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Retos : Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deportes y Recreación     Open Access  
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Atividade Física & Saúde     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte : International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue phénEPS / PHEnex Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SIPATAHOENAN : South-East Asian Journal for Youth, Sports & Health Education     Open Access  
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Sport and Fitness Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Sport Science and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
SPORTIVE : Journal Of Physical Education, Sport and Recreation     Open Access  
Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sports Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strength & Conditioning Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Timisoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise     Open Access  
Yoga Mimamsa     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Sports
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2075-4663
Published by MDPI Homepage  [246 journals]
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 126: Repeated Bout Effect of Two Resistance
           Training Bouts on Bowling-Specific Performance in Male Cricketers

    • Authors: Drew C. Harrison, Kenji Doma, Anthony S. Leicht, Teneale A. McGuckin, Carl T. Woods, Jonathan D. Connor
      First page: 126
      Abstract: To examine the repeated bout effect (RBE) following two identical resistance bouts and its effect on bowling-specific performance in male cricketers. Male cricket pace bowlers (N = 10), who had not undertaken resistance exercises in the past six months, were invited to complete a familiarisation and resistance maximum testing, before participating in the study protocol. The study protocol involved the collection of muscle damage markers, a battery of anaerobic (jump and sprint), and a bowling-specific performance test at baseline, followed by a resistance training bout, and a retest of physical and bowling-specific performance at 24 h (T24) and 48 h (T48) post-training. The study protocol was repeated 7–10 days thereafter. Indirect markers of muscle damage were lower (creatine kinase: 318.7 ± 164.3 U·L−1; muscle soreness: 3 ± 1), whilst drop jump was improved (~47.5 ± 8.1 cm) following the second resistance training bout when compared to the first resistance training bout (creatine kinase: 550.9 ± 242.3 U·L−1; muscle soreness: 4 ± 2; drop jump: ~43.0 ± 9.7 cm). However, sport-specific performance via bowling speed declined (Bout 1: −2.55 ± 3.43%; Bout 2: 2.67 ± 2.41%) whilst run-up time increased (2.34 ± 3.61%; Bout 2: 3.84 ± 4.06%) after each bout of resistance training. Findings suggest that while an initial resistance training bout reduced muscle damage indicators and improved drop jump performance following a second resistance training bout, this RBE trend was not observed for bowling-specific performance. It was suggested that pace bowlers with limited exposure to resistance training should minimise bowling-specific practice for 1–2 days following the initial bouts of their resistance training program.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10090126
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 127: Assessing Dietary Nutrient Adequacy and the
           Effect of Season—Long Training on Body Composition and Metabolic
           Rate in Collegiate Male Basketball Players

    • Authors: Morgan M. Nishisaka, Sebastian P. Zorn, Aleksandra S. Kristo, Angelos K. Sikalidis, Scott K. Reaves
      First page: 127
      Abstract: The success of performance in basketball relies on both optimal body composition and nutrient intake. The purpose of this study was to examine seasonal changes in body composition (BC), resting metabolic rate (RMR) and respiratory quotient (RQ), as well as dietary intake of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I (DI) male basketball players. BC, RMR and RQ were assessed during pre-season, in-season, and post-season (September, December, and March) while dietary assessment data were collected in September and February. Results of this study indicated that players received inadequate energy (p < 0.0001), protein (p < 0.001) and carbohydrate (p < 0.0001) relative to the recommendations for exercising individuals during the September baseline period. However, following diet analysis and consultations and relative to recommendations, athletes received adequate amounts of energy and protein during follow-up, yet intakes of carbohydrate (p = 0.0025) were still significantly different than recommended. Results also indicated that there was a decrease in percent body fat (%BF) during season, an increase in lean body mass (LBM) from pre- to post-season, a peak in RMR during season and an increase in RQ post-season. These findings reveal that significant metabolic and body composition changes occur in players over the season and suggest that nutritional strategies employed concomitantly may be beneficial.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10090127
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 128: Cutting Movement Assessment Scores during
           Anticipated and Unanticipated 90-Degree Sidestep Cutting Manoeuvres within
           Female Professional Footballers

    • Authors: Chloe Needham, Lee Herrington
      First page: 128
      Abstract: Background: ACL injuries present a considerable burden in female football, with highest incidence being related to change of direction (COD) tasks. The aim was to identify if differences existed between an anticipated and unanticipated 90-degree cutting task using the CMAS. Methods: 11 female professional footballers completed twelve 90-degree COD tasks (6 anticipated, 6 unanticipated). Participants performed the unanticipated task in response to a moving football at the start of their acceleration. All COD tasks were filmed and assessed using the CMAS. Results: The CMAS score for the unanticipated COD task (5.53 ± 0.71) was significantly larger than for the anticipated COD task (3.55 ± 0.85, p < 0.012). Excellent intra-rater reliability was observed (ICC = 0.97) for analysis of CMAS scores. Conclusions: Female footballers in this sample demonstrated a greater CMAS score during an unanticipated COD task compared to an anticipated COD task. These athletes are therefore more likely to display ‘high-risk’ movement patterns, thus greater risk of injury. Reacting to a sporting implement, such as a moving ball, may be a contributing factor to these results. Further research into unanticipated COD tasks should be considered to determine why these differences occur and the impact of anticipation on performance.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10090128
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 129: Fitness Trainers’ Educational
           Qualification and Experience and Its Association with Their
           Trainees’ Musculoskeletal Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Sohel Ahmed, Mamunur Rashid, Abu-sufian Sarkar, Mohammad Jahirul Islam, Rahemun Akter, Masudur Rahman, Shahana Islam, Devjanee Sheel, Sarwar Alam Polash, Mahfuza Akter, Shayed Afride, Manzur Kader
      First page: 129
      Abstract: This is a cross-sectional study that examined the association between fitness trainers’ educational qualifications and experience, and the risk of their trainees’ musculoskeletal pain. The study included 1177 trainees (aged 15–60 years) from 74 fitness centers in Bangladesh. Data were collected by using the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire, including potential confounders such as demographic factors (e.g., age, occupation), and training-related factors (e.g., workout knowledge, overweight lifting). Multiple logistic regression was performed for a binary outcome (pain—yes or no), and a generalized linear model was fitted for the ordinal outcome (pain—sites of the body). The trainers’ lower experience (no or ≤1 year) was associated with higher odds of their trainees’ musculoskeletal pain (OR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.18–5.44) compared to trainers with >5 years of experience; however, no association was found between the trainers’ education and the risk of their trainees’ musculoskeletal pain, after controlling for potential confounders. Similarly, the trainees trained by trainers with lower experience had more than two-time the risk of having pain in different sites (IRR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.50–2.79). The trainers’ experience may play a pivotal role in the trainees’ musculoskeletal pain. Further study is warranted in this regard.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10090129
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 130: Fatigue-Free Force-Velocity and Power-Velocity
           Profiles for Elite Track Sprint Cyclists: The Influence of Duration, Gear
           Ratio and Pedalling Rates

    • Authors: Anna Katharina Dunst, Clemens Hesse, Olaf Ueberschär, Hans-Christer Holmberg
      First page: 130
      Abstract: Background: Maximal force-velocity (F/v) profiles for track cyclists are commonly derived from ergometer sprints using an isovelocity or isoinertial approach. Previously, an attempt was made to derive maximal F/v profiles from a single maximal 65-m sprint on the cycling track. Hypothesising that this approach may not accurately reflect the fatigue-free F/v profile, we propose an alternative procedure and compare it to the previous method. Moreover, we test for the impact of gear ratio on diagnostic results. Methods: Twelve elite track cyclists completed a high-cadence low-resistance pedalling test on a freestanding roller (motoric test) and two series of three maximal 65-m sprints on a cycling track with different gear ratios. F/v profiles were calculated based on the measured crank force and cadence either during the first 6–7 revolutions (≤6 s) on the track (model I) or were derived from the first 3–4 revolutions (≤3 s) on the track combined with 1 or 2 fatigue-free cycles at cadences above 160 rpm from the motoric test (model II). Results: Although both models exhibit high-to-excellent linearity between force and velocity, the extrapolated isometric force was higher (1507.51 ± 257.60 N and 1384.35 ± 276.84 N; p < 0.002; d = 2.555) and the slope steeper (−6.78 ± 1.17 and −5.24 ± 1.11; p < 0.003, d = −2.401) with model I. An ICC of 1.00 indicates excellent model consistency when comparing the F/v profiles (model II) derived from the different geared sprints. Conclusions: Assuring fatigue-free measurements and including high-cadence data points in the calculations provide valid maximal F/v and P/v profiles from a single acceleration-sprint independent of gear ratio.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10090130
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 131: Antibiotic Therapy and Athletes: Is the
           Mitochondrial Dysfunction the Real Achilles’ Heel'

    • Authors: Valentina Puccini
      First page: 131
      Abstract: It is widely recognized that athletes consume oral antibiotics almost twice as often as observed in the non-sports population in order to reduce as much as possible the period of inactivity due to bacterial diseases. However, increasing evidences have demonstrated the ability of some classes of antibiotics to induce muscle weakness, pain, and a feeling of fatigue upon resuming physical activity conditions that considerably limit the athletic performance of athletes, ascribable to alterations in the biochemical mechanisms underlying normal musculoskeletal activity, such as mitochondrial respiration. For this reason, tailoring a treatment plan for effective antibiotics that limit an athlete’s risk is paramount to their safety and ability to maintain adequate athletic performance. The present review illustrates and critically analyzes the evidence on the use of antibiotics in sports, deepening the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset and development of muscle–tendon alterations in athletes as well as delineating the pharmacological strategies aimed at counteracting such adverse events.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10090131
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 132: Implementation of Congestion-Related Controls
           Improves Runner Density, Flow Rate, Perceived Safety, and Satisfaction
           during an Australian Running Event

    • Authors: Sean Peckover, Aldo Raineri, Aaron T. Scanlan
      First page: 132
      Abstract: This study examined the impact of congestion-related controls on runner density, flow rate, perceived safety, and satisfaction during an Australian running event. Runner congestion was compared between races organized at the Sunshine Coast Marathon and Running Festival in 2019 without controls and in 2021 with added controls, including modifications to the start corral design and use of wave starts. Following a mixed-method design, runner congestion was quantitatively measured via determining runner density and flow rate in the start corrals with video analyses, while post-event surveys were used to gather qualitative evidence regarding the prevalence of congestion and its impact on runner safety and satisfaction. Descriptive analyses for quantitative data showed runner density (1.48–3.01 vs. 0.52–1.20 runners per m2) and flow rate (102–152 vs. 36–59 runners per min per m) were reduced across races with controls. Regarding qualitative data, Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney rank-sum tests demonstrated a significantly (p < 0.01) lower prevalence of congestion was perceived on course while running, alongside a reduced (p = 0.08) perceived impact of congestion on event satisfaction across races with controls. Furthermore, descriptive analyses for qualitative data showed a reduced proportion of runners indicated the start corrals were “somewhat” to “extremely” (rating of at least 3 on a 5-point scale) congested upon race commencement with controls (64% vs. 75%), and perceived safety (10% vs. 17%) and satisfaction (17% vs. 30%) were “somewhat” to “extremely” impacted by congestion across races with controls. Adopting suitable start corral designs with wave starts may enable race directors to reduce runner congestion to enhance continued participation among the public and viability of their running events.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10090132
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 133: Do Primary School Children Benefit from
           Drop-Jump Training with Different Schedules of Augmented Feedback about
           the Jump Height'

    • Authors: Christian Leukel, Sabine Karoß, Florian Gräßlin, Jürgen Nicolaus, Albert Gollhofer
      First page: 133
      Abstract: In children, the training of jumps leads to improved jumping and running performance. Augmented feedback about the jump height is known to facilitate performance improvements in adults. In the present study, the impact of augmented feedback on jumping performance was investigated in 4th grade primary school children executing drop-jump training for 8 weeks (24 sessions, 3 times/week). Ten children (eight males, two females, aged 9.6 ± 0.3 years), received feedback for 8 weeks, and 11 children (nine males, two females, aged 9.5 ± 0.2 years) received feedback only during the last 4 weeks. Drop-jumps training was integrated in physical education classes. Drop-jump and countermovement-jump heights were improved after 24 training sessions (p < 0.01 for both types of jumps in both groups). Ground contact times of drop-jumps were quite long (>200 ms) and not altered by training, and the reactive strength index of drop-jumps was between 0.75 and 1.5 in most children. Augmented feedback did not facilitate jumping performance like in previous studies with adult participants. In contrast, withholding augmented feedback during the first 4 weeks of training was associated with a reduction in jumping performance (p < 0.01 for drop-jumps, p < 0.05 for countermovement-jumps). Finally, improvements did not transfer to functional motor tasks containing jumps. According to the costs and outcomes we do not recommend drop-jump training with augmented feedback about the jump height for 4th grade physical education classes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-09-02
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10090133
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 134: Wide-Pulse High-Frequency Neuromuscular
           Electrical Stimulation Evokes Greater Relative Force in Women Than in Men:
           A Pilot Study

    • Authors: Xin Ye, Nathan Gockel, Daniel Vala, Teagan Devoe, Patrick Brodoff, Victor Gaza, Vinz Umali, Hayden Walker
      First page: 134
      Abstract: This study aimed to examine the potential sex differences in wide-pulse high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (WPHF NMES)-evoked force. Twenty-two subjects (10 women) completed this study. Prior to the stimulation, the visual analogue scale (VAS) for discomfort and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured, followed by the isometric strength of the dominant elbow flexor muscles. The subjects then completed ten, 10-s on 10-s off WPHF NMES (pulse width: 1 ms, frequency: 100 Hz) at maximum tolerable intensities. The subjects’ RPE was recorded after each set, and the VAS was measured following the last stimulation. The stimulation induced significant increase in discomfort for both sexes, with women having greater discomfort than men (men: 22.4 ± 14.9 mm, women: 39.7 ± 12.7 mm). The stimulation amplitude was significantly greater in men than in women (men: 16.2 ± 6.3 mA, women: 12.0 ± 4.5 mA). For the evoked force, only the relative NMES-evoked force was found greater in women than in men (men: 8.96 ± 6.51%, women: 17.08 ± 12.61%). In conclusion, even at the maximum tolerable intensity, WPHF NMES evoked larger relative elbow flexion force in women than in men, with women experiencing greater discomfort.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10090134
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 135: Analysis of the Association between Internal
           and External Training Load Indicators in Elite Soccer; Multiple Regression
           Study

    • Authors: Sime Versic, Toni Modric, Borko Katanic, Mario Jelicic, Damir Sekulic
      First page: 135
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to identify the external training load (ETL) variables that are most influential on the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) during elite soccer training. The participants (n = 29) were adult male soccer players from a single team that competed in Croatia’s highest national soccer competition in the 2021/2022 season. Data were collected using the 10 Hz Global Positioning System from 66 training sessions, and a total of 1061 training observations were undertaken. The univariate and multivariate relationships among the predictors (ETL variables) and the criterion (sRPE) were assessed using forward stepwise multiple regressions and Pearson’s correlations, respectively. ETL variables explained 63% of the variance in the sRPE (Multiple R = 0.79; p < 0.01), and the model was successfully cross-validated. The significant partial regressors were total distance (β = 0.66), metres per minute (β = −0.47), high-intensity accelerations (β = 0.22) and decelerations (β = 0.18), and sprint distance (β = 0.14). All ETL variables were significantly correlated with the sRPE (all p < 0.01), with the highest correlations found for total distance covered (r = 0.70) and high-intensity accelerations and decelerations (r = 0.62 and 0.65, respectively). Such results show that (i) the total distance and acceleration rates during the training sessions are the most important predictors of the sRPE, and (ii) a combination of different ETL variables predicts the sRPE better than any individual parameter alone. This study shows that both the volume and intensity of training are related to players’ internal responses. The findings ultimately provide further evidence to support the use of sRPE as a global measure of training load in soccer players.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10090135
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 136: A Multi-Experiment Investigation of the
           Effects Stance Width on the Biomechanics of the Barbell Squat

    • Authors: Jonathan Sinclair, Paul John Taylor, Bryan Jones, Bobbie Butters, Ian Bentley, Christopher James Edmundson
      First page: 136
      Abstract: This two-experiment study aimed to explore habitual and manipulated stance widths on squat biomechanics. In experiment one, 70 lifters completed back squats at 70%, 1 repetition maximum (1RM), and were split into groups (NARROW < 1.06 * greater trochanter width (GTW), MID 1.06–1.18 * GTW and WIDE > 1.37 * GTW) according to their self-selected stance width. In experiment two, 20 lifters performed squats at 70%, 1RM, in three conditions (NARROW, MID and WIDE, 1.0, 1.25 and 1.5 * GTW). The three-dimensional kinematics were measured using a motion capture system, ground reaction forces (GRF) using a force platform, and the muscle forces using musculoskeletal modelling. In experiment two, the peak power was significantly greater in the NARROW condition, whereas both experiments showed the medial GRF impulse was significantly greater in the WIDE stance. Experiment two showed the NARROW condition significantly increased the quadriceps forces, whereas both experiments showed that the WIDE stance width significantly enhanced the posterior-chain muscle forces. The NARROW condition may improve the high mechanical power movement performance and promote the quadriceps muscle development. Greater stance widths may improve sprint and rapid change-of-direction performance and promote posterior-chain muscle hypertrophy. Whilst it appears that there is not an optimal stance width, these observations can be utilized by strength and conditioning practitioners seeking to maximize training adaptations.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10090136
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 137: Transnational Migration and Dual Career of
           Slovenian and Swiss Elite Female Handball Players—A Longitudinal
           Analysis

    • Authors: Marta Bon, Mojca Doupona, Susan Wilson-Gahan, Laura Capranica, Flavia Guidotti
      First page: 137
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify the career paths of transnational migrating female elite handball players. Fourteen Slovenian and Suisse national team players were monitored over a 7-year period by means of semi-structured interviews and official handball records. At the end of the examination period, six still-active players were interviewed again. Qualitative thematic analysis was employed to develop a contextualized understanding of participants’ careers paths and life trajectories in relation to their athletic migration and dual career. In relation to the limited opportunities offered by small countries with middle-ranking national handball teams, participants highlighted that sport migration coupled with dual career opportunities represented a strategic decision for a successful career development through several key factors: (1) a clear intention towards a professional handball career; (2) the actual fulfilment of professional handball career aspirations; (3) dual career goals as part of the migration process; (4) high personal ambition and emotional connection to handball; (5) the implementation of a successful dual career path; (6) a positive migration experience; and (7) feeling supported and valued during relocation. Sport federations and elite clubs should consider the implementation of a multidimensional approach encompassing dual career paths to facilitate athletes’ transnational relocation and career transitions.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10090137
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 138: Sex Difference in Running Stability Analyzed
           Based on a Whole-Body Movement: A Pilot Study

    • Authors: Arunee Promsri
      First page: 138
      Abstract: A sex-specific manner in running tasks is considered a potential internal injury risk factor in runners. The current study aimed to investigate the sex differences in running stability in recreational runners during self-preferred speed treadmill running by focusing on a whole-body movement. To this end, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to kinematic marker data of 22 runners (25.7 ± 3.3 yrs.; 12 females) for decomposing the whole-body movements of all participants into a set of principal movements (PMs), representing different movement synergies forming together to achieve the task goal. Then, the sex effects were tested on three types of PCA-based variables computed for individual PMs: the largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE) as a measure of running variability; the relative standard deviation (rSTD) as a measure of movement structures; and the root mean square (RMS) as a measure of the magnitude of neuromuscular control. The results show that the sex effects are observed in the specific PMs. Specifically, female runners have lower stability (greater LyE) in the mid-stance-phase movements (PM4−5) and greater contribution and control (greater rSTD and RMS) in the swing-phase movement (PM1) than male runners. Knowledge of an inherent sex difference in running stability may benefit sports-related injury prevention and rehabilitation.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10090138
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 111: Higher Leg and Trunk Muscle Activation during
           Balance Control in Copers versus People with Chronic Ankle Instability and
           Healthy Female Athletes

    • Authors: Mina Karbalaeimahdi, Mohammad Hossein Alizadeh, Hooman Minoonejad, David G. Behm, Shahab Alizadeh
      First page: 111
      Abstract: More than 70% of people with ankle sprain experience chronic ankle instability. However, some people are well adapted to this damage (copers) and do not suffer from chronic ankle instability (CAI). This cross-sectional study involved 34 female athletes, who were classified into three groups (athletes with CAI, copers, and healthy athletes) and tested on a Biodex Balance System. Surface electromyography (EMG) and balance scores were monitored. The coper and healthy group exhibited higher medial gastrocnemius (MG) EMG activity during unstable balance conditions. The rectus abdominus (RA) in the coper group and rectus femoris (RF) in the healthy group showed greater EMG activity compared to CAI during unstable conditions. During stable conditions, the coper group showed greater RA EMG activity compared to CAI, as well as higher tibialis anterior (TA) EMG activity compared to the healthy group. Additionally, balance error scores were higher in the CAI group than those in the healthy group under unstable conditions. In conclusion, decreased EMG activity of the MG, RF, and RA in CAI athletes may contribute to impaired balance in these individuals. The increased EMG activity of the MG, TA, and RA in copers might result in more trunk and ankle stability.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10080111
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 112: The Association between Bilateral Deficit and
           Athletic Performance: A Brief Review

    • Authors: Petra Železnik, Vita Slak, Žiga Kozinc, Nejc Šarabon
      First page: 112
      Abstract: An abundance of information can be found in the scientific literature regarding the bilateral deficit (BLD) in different contraction types, including its possible underlying mechanisms. On the other hand, studies on the relationship between BLD and athletic performance have only begun to emerge in recent years. The purpose of this review article is to assemble and analyze the literature on the topic of the relationship between BLD and athletic performance. After a detailed review of the scientific databases, we analyzed 10 relevant scientific articles. BLD calculated from outcomes of vertical jumps was positively related to the ability to change direction quickly in volleyball, basketball, tennis and student population, but not in soccer. Sprint running performance does not seem to be associated with BLD, while one study suggested that a smaller BLD is associated with a more efficient start in a sprint. Apart from the associations with change in direction performance, there is little evidence to support the association between BLD and athletic performance; thus, further research is required in other sports, incorporating sport-specific performance outcomes and multiple tasks to calculate the BLD.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10080112
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 113: Comparing the Current Training Running Demands
           of Elite Camogie Players to Competitive Match-Play

    • Authors: Philip Connors, Declan Browne, Des Earls, Paula Fitzpatrick, Paula Rankin
      First page: 113
      Abstract: Training to meet match-play demands is a primary objective in an athlete’s preparation for their games. Despite camogie match-play running demands being available, how current training practices compare, specifically individual training components, remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate and compare current elite camogie training to match-play demands. Thirty-three (n = 33) elite camogie players wore 10 Hz Playertek GPS units during twenty-five training sessions and ten competitive matches. Training sessions were analysed using ball-in-play time and split into warm-ups, drills, small-sided games, running, and training matches. Metrics were converted into relative terms (per minute), to allow comparisons. Players cover significantly greater (p < 0.05) total distance (non-parametric standardised effect sizes (r = 0.45)), peak speed (r = 0.45), high-speed running (r = 0.13), sprint distance (r = 0.20), and total decelerations (r = 0.12–0.22) during match-play than training. Relatively, players cover significantly greater distance during running, small-sided games, and training matches compared to match-play (r = 0.21–0.29). Compared with match-play, running results in significantly greater high-speed running and sprint distance (r = 0.18–0.41), with greater accelerations (3–4 m∙s−2) during warm-ups, running, and small-sided games (r = 0.14–0.28). Current total training demands seem to fall behind match-play. However, relatively, training matches and small-sided games match or surpass competitive match-play demands. These findings may be utilised in preparing camogie teams for competition.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10080113
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 114: Risk Factors for Contracting COVID-19 and
           Changes in Menstrual and Sleep Cycles in Japanese Female Athletes during
           the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Yuka Tsukahara, Yuka Hieda, Satomi Takayanagi, Aleksandra Macznik
      First page: 114
      Abstract: Although research on COVID-19 is prevalent, risk factors for contracting COVID-19 and lifestyle changes in athletes during the COVID-19 pandemic have not been thoroughly investigated. This study included 254 female collegiate athletes and 107 female non-athletes from Japan, who completed an anonymous survey comprising questions about COVID-19, personal background and lifestyle changes during the pandemic. A total of 6.30% athletes and 6.54% non-athletes had tested positive for COVID-19. The majority reported no change in menstrual cycle (80.31% and 78.50% for athletes and non-athletes, respectively). Wake-up time and bedtime were delayed in some athletes (42.13% and 39.25%, respectively) and non-athletes (46.73% and 31.30%, respectively) during the pandemic. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly higher in COVID-19 (+) athletes than in their COVID-19 (−) counterparts (22.78 ± 3.40 and 21.26 ± 2.06, respectively, p < 0.01) and logistic regression analysis revealed that younger students and those with higher BMI had an increased risk of contracting COVID-19. The proportion of vaccinated students was significantly higher in athletes than in non-athletes (p < 0.01). Whether the student was an athlete or not was not a related factor in contracting COVID-19. Extra attention should be focused on athletes experiencing weight gain or staying up late and experiencing lower quality sleep.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10080114
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 115: Relationship between Aggressiveness,
           Self-Confidence, and Perceived Coach Support and Head Impact Exposure in
           Youth Football

    • Authors: Madison E. Marks, William C. Flood, Mireille E. Kelley, Mark A. Espeland, Christopher M. Miles, Alexander K. Powers, Christopher T. Whitlow, Joseph A. Maldjian, Joel D. Stitzel, Jillian E. Urban
      First page: 115
      Abstract: This study evaluated head impact exposure (HIE) metrics in relation to individual-level determinants of HIE. Youth (n = 13) and high school (n = 21) football players were instrumented with the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) system during one season. Players completed the Trait-Robustness of Self-Confidence Inventory (TROSCI), Sports Climate Questionnaire (SCQ), and Competitive Aggressiveness and Anger Scale (CAAS), measuring self-confidence, perceived coach support, and competitive aggressiveness, respectively. Relationships between HIE metrics (number of impacts, median and 95th percentile accelerations, and risk-weighted exposure (RWE)) and survey scores were evaluated using linear regression analysis. For middle school athletes, TROSCI scores were significantly negatively associated with the number of competition impacts and the mean number of impacts per player per competition. SCQ scores were significantly positively associated with median linear acceleration during practice. CAAS scores were not significantly associated with biomechanical metrics at either level of play. Perceived coach support and self-confidence might influence HIE among middle school football players. Football athletes’ competitive aggressiveness may have less influence their HIE than other factors.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10080115
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 116: What Differences Exist in Professional Ice
           Hockey Performance Using Virtual Reality (VR) Technology between
           Professional Hockey Players and Freestyle Wrestlers' (a Pilot Study)

    • Authors: Irina Polikanova, Anastasia Yakushina, Sergey Leonov, Anna Kruchinina, Victor Chertopolokhov, Liudmila Liutsko
      First page: 116
      Abstract: There is little research on the study of specific characteristics that contribute to the faster adaptation of athletes during the transition from one sport to another. We used virtual reality (VR) to study the differences between professional ice hockey players and other sport professionals (freestyle wrestlers), who were novices in hockey in terms of motor responses and efficiency performance, on different levels of difficulty. In the VR environment, four levels of difficulty (four blocks) were simulated, depended on the speed of the puck and the distance to it (Bl1—60–80 km/h and 18 m; Bl2—60–100 km/h, distances 12 and 18 m; Bl3—speeds up to 170 km/h and 6, 12, and 18 m; Bl4—the pucks are presented in a series of two (in sequence with a 1 s interval)). The results of the study showed that the hockey professionals proved to have more stable movement patterns of the knee and hip joints. They also made fewer head movements as a response to stimuli during all runs (0.66 vs. 1.25, p = 0.043). Thus, working out on these parameters can contribute to the faster adaptation of wrestlers in developing professional ice hockey skills.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10080116
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 117: The Association between Pre-Season Running
           Loads and Injury during the Subsequent Season in Elite Gaelic Football

    • Authors: Paul Fisher, Maria Faulkner, Michael McCann, Rónán Doherty
      First page: 117
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine if the quantity of running load performed in pre-season affects the incidence of injury in elite Gaelic footballers. It was hypothesized that a greater quantity of running loads completed will reduce the incidence rate of injury. A cohort of elite male Gaelic football players (n = 25) was prospectively monitored throughout one full season. This longitudinal study involved the collection of GPS data and injury data. Participants were retrospectively divided into two groups and assigned to a high (HTL, completed >50% of pre-season sessions, n = 13) or low (LTL, completed <50% of pre-season sessions, n = 12) training load group based on the percentage of pre-season sessions completed. Data for total distance, PlayerLoad™, meters covered at running speeds (4.0–4.84 m/s), meters covered at high running speeds (4.85–6.39 m/s), meters covered at sprint speeds (>6.4 m/s) and high-intensity running meters (high-speed running meters and sprint meters combined) were collected during all sessions. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was completed to understand the variation of external training load data across the different phases of the season. A series of repeated measures of ANOVA were subsequently completed to understand the variation of external training load data across seasonal phases within the training groups. Although the LTL group had a higher incidence rate of non-contact injuries (large effect size) per 1000 h of exposure in each phase of the season, statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference (F = 4.32, p = 0.173, partial η2 = 0.684, large) between the HTL (14.9 ± 4.17/1000 h) and the LTL (24.5 ± 7.36/1000 h) groups. Additionally, the HTL group was able to sustain greater running loads in the competitive phases of the season compared to the LTL group, total distance (F = 8.10, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.299, large), high-speed running distance (F = 8.74, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.304, large) and high-intensity running distance (F = 7.63, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.276, large). Furthermore, players who complete a greater proportion of running loads in pre-season may alter their body composition levels to more optimal levels, which in turn may reduce the risk of injury while also helping increase or maintain performance-related fitness markers such as aerobic fitness.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10080117
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 118: Science and Hurling: A Review

    • Authors: Kieran Collins, Thomas Reilly, Shane Malone, John Keane, Dominic Doran
      First page: 118
      Abstract: Hurling is one of the world’s fastest field sports. Since the last review of science and Gaelic sports in 2008, there has been an increase in sports science provisions across elite and sub-elite cohorts, resulting in increased hurling-specific literature equating to an additional 111 research investigations into the game across all sports science disciplines. The present review aims to provide an updated analysis of the current research on the game and propose recommendations for future research. Overall, intermittent aerobic fitness remains an important physical quality during competition, with a focus on games-based training methodologies within the literature. Within the current review, we provide updated normative data on the running demands, physiological responses, and anthropometric and performance profiles of hurling players. The increased literature across the sport has led to the development of a hurling-specific simulation, that can now be utilised practically in training and research processes for hurling cohorts. Furthermore, the monitoring of internal and external training loads across training and match environments, in addition to response variables such as well-being, appears to have become more prominent, allowing practitioners to design training regimes to achieve optimal dose and response characteristics. Analysing the game from a scientific perspective can allow for more efficient preparatory practices, to meet the specific requirements of players at all age levels. Collaborative research among the various sports science disciplines, is required to identify strategies to reduce the incidence of injury and enhance performance in hurling. The current review provides updated information to coaches and practitioners regarding position-specific physical qualities, and match-play demands that can concurrently support the training process within hurling.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10080118
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 119: Full-Body Photobiomodulation Therapy Is
           Associated with Reduced Sleep Durations and Augmented Cardiorespiratory
           Indicators of Recovery

    • Authors: Lauren E. Rentz, Randy W. Bryner, Jad Ramadan, Ali Rezai, Scott M. Galster
      First page: 119
      Abstract: Research is emerging on the use of Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) and its potential for augmenting human performance, however, relatively little research exists utilizing full-body administration methods. As such, further research supporting the efficacy of whole-body applications of PBMT for behavioral and physiological modifications in applicable, real-world settings are warranted. The purpose of this analysis was to observe cardiorespiratory and sleep patterns surrounding the use of full-body PBMT in an elite cohort of female soccer players. Members of a women’s soccer team in a “Power 5 conference” of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) were observed across one competitive season while wearing an OURA Ring nightly and a global positioning system (GPS) sensor during training. Within-subject comparisons of cardiorespiratory physiology, sleep duration, and sleep composition were evaluated the night before and after PBMT sessions completed as a standard of care for team recovery. Compared to pre-intervention, mean heart rate (HR) was significantly lower the night after a PBMT session (p = 0.0055). Sleep durations were also reduced following PBMT, with total sleep time (TST) averaging 40 min less the night after a session (p = 0.0006), as well as significant reductions in light sleep (p = 0.0307) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep durations (p = 0.0019). Sleep durations were still lower following PBMT, even when controlling for daily and accumulated training loads. Enhanced cardiorespiratory indicators of recovery following PBMT, despite significant reductions in sleep duration, suggest that it may be an effective modality for maintaining adequate recovery from the high stress loads experienced by elite athletes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10080119
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 120: Acute Supplementation with Capsaicin Enhances
           Upper-Limb Performance in Male Jiu-Jitsu Athletes

    • Authors: Bruno Victor Corrêa da Silva, Gustavo R. Mota, Moacir Marocolo, Jeffrey S. Martin, Luciano Sales Prado
      First page: 120
      Abstract: The present study investigated whether acute capsaicin (CAP) supplementation improves mean power output (MPO) and peak velocity (PV) during the performance of the free bench press exercise (FBP). Twelve (n = 12) male Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) athletes (age: 24.3 ± 1.5 years, height: 1.74 ± 0.1 m, body mass: 75.7 ± 10.1 kg) participated in this randomized, placebo (PLA)-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial. For each condition, 45 min after CAP (12 mg purified) or PLA (12 mg of Celulomax E) consumption, the participants performed four sets of five repetitions of FBP at a load of 60% of body mass with five-min rest intervals. The MPO (t = 5.6, df = 11, p = 0.001, EF = 0.3, IC 95% = −0.55 to 1.05) and PV (t = 5.4, df = 11, p = 0.001, EF = 0.5, IC 95% = −0.32 to 1.30) were significantly higher with CAP supplementation versus PLA. Acute CAP supplementation appears to improve MPO and PV during FBP in male BJJ athletes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10080120
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 121: Modeling the Major Influencing Factor on Match
           Running Performance during the In-Season Phase in a Portuguese
           Professional Football Team

    • Authors: José E. Teixeira, Luís Branquinho, Miguel Leal, Daniel A. Marinho, Ricardo Ferraz, Tiago M. Barbosa, António M. Monteiro, Pedro Forte
      First page: 121
      Abstract: The aim of this study was two-fold: (1) to analyze the influence of season phase (i.e., the start of the in-season and mid-in-season) on match running performance in a Portuguese professional football team; (2) to determine and model the main factor influencing match running performance during the in-season in this specific football team. Eighteen matches were collected by an 18 Hz global positioning system (GPS) from a professional Portuguese football team during the start of the in-season and mid-in-season. The match running performance was analyzed according to season phases, presenting significant differences in total distance (TD) (tlowerbound = 4.71, p < 0.001; tupperbound = −2.22, p = 0.002), average speed (AvS) (tlowerbound = 359.45, p < 0.001; tupperbound = −359.87, p < 0.001), and relative high speed running (rHSR) (tlowerbound = 13.10, p < 0.001; tupperbound = −10.21, p < 0.001). The logistic regression showed TD (β = −1.59, z = −2.84, p = 0.005) and AvS (β = 2.68, z = −2.84, p = 0.007) as the major factors influencing match running performance during seasonal variation. Sprints and accelerations showed no significance for predicting match running performance during the season phases (β = −0.05 to 1.07, z = −0.95 to 1.07, p = 0.29 to 0.72). Current research confirms that lower and upper bounds should be used to quantify seasonal differences on match running performance. TD and AvS were described as the main factors influencing match running performance during the in-season phase. Thus, it is important to highlight the pace and volume of the game to maximize match running performance.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10080121
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 122: Serial vs. Integrated Outdoor Combined
           Training Programs for Health Promotion in Middle-Aged Males

    • Authors: Grivas, Karatrantou, Chasialis, Batatolis, Ioakimidis, Gerodimos
      First page: 122
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the training and detraining effects of outdoor serial and integrated combined exercise programs on health, functional capacity, and physical fitness indices. Fifty-one untrained overweight/obese males (47 ± 4 y) were divided into a serial combined (SCG), an integrated combined (ICG), or a control (CG) group. The SCG and ICG implemented a 3-month training (3 sessions/week) consisting of walking and body weight exercises. The only difference between SCG and ICG was the sequence of aerobic and strength training. In SCG, the strength training was performed before aerobic training, while in ICG the aerobic and the strength training were alternated repeatedly in a predetermined order. Health, functional capacity, and physical fitness indices were measured before the training, following the termination of programs, and 1-month after training cessation. Following the training, both the SCG and ICG groups showed reduced blood pressure, heart rate, body fat, and waist-to-hip ratio (3–11%; p < 0.001), with improved respiratory function, muscle strength, aerobic capacity, flexibility, and balance (14–61%; p < 0.001). After 1-month of training cessation, significant reductions (p < 0.05) were observed in health indices and physical fitness without returning to baseline levels. However, there were no differences between SCG and ICG after training and training cessation (p > 0.05). In CG, all the above variables did not change. Furthermore, a great percentage of participants in both exercise groups (90%) reported high levels of enjoyment. In conclusion, both serial and integrated outdoor combined walking and body weight strength training programs are enjoyable and equally effective for improving health, functional capacity, and physical fitness indices in overweight/obese middle-aged males.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10080122
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 123: Aspects of Developmental Pathways toward
           World-Class Parasport

    • Authors: Lise Storli, Morten Andreas Aune, Håvard Lorås
      First page: 123
      Abstract: The developmental pathways of athletes with a physical disability into world-class parasport are much less researched and understood compared to able-bodied athletes’ participation histories. The purpose of this study was to investigate the developmental pathways of para-athletes toward elite performance. Data from eight athletes with physical disabilities ranked among the top performers in Paralympics, World Championships, and/or European Championships were gathered. Thematic analysis of retrospective semi-structured interviews led to the identification of four themes. The findings showed the importance of early childhood sport-related encounters in a family environment followed by sampling of various organized and coach-led sports throughout the childhood period. The youth sport period was highly heterogenous, albeit with important transitions towards elite-level practice environments, competition, coaching, equipment adaptability and the first intentions of becoming an elite-level athlete. Throughout, significant contributions are attributed towards parents, friends, coaches, athletes, and others, towards fostering a sustained motivational climate focused on improvement and further progress. These findings could provide useful information to tailor developmental models towards elite-level performance in parasport.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-08-15
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10080123
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 124: Stand up and Fight: A Case Study of a
           Professional Rugby Club Negotiating a COVID-19 Crisis, a Talent
           Development Perspective

    • Authors: Ian Costello, Sarahjane Belton, Áine MacNamara
      First page: 124
      Abstract: A wealth of literature examines the role of challenge from an individual psychological perspective, but research investigating how a talent development system can proactively support athletes to successfully meet the ever-increasing demands of top-level professional sport is less prevalent. This study takes advantage of a naturally occurring but highly atypical developmental challenge as a result of COVID-19 to examine factors influencing the efficacy and effectiveness of the talent development pathway at Munster Rugby. Players and staff (n = 12) took part in semi-structured interviews exploring their experiences of the build-up to the event, the game itself, and the impact post-event. The data were subsequently analysed using Reflexive Thematic Analysis. Players and coaches highlight the groundwork undertaken to establish alignment and coherence, both horizontally and vertically across the talent development environment, and how this contributed to navigating the challenge successfully. The findings support the necessity of both the player and the talent development system being prepared to enable players to perform at the highest level. The findings point to an overlap between the development and performance phases of a player’s journey and the need to integrate short- and long-term objectives within a talent development system.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-08-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10080124
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 125: The Influence of Weekly Sprint Volume and
           Maximal Velocity Exposures on Eccentric Hamstring Strength in Professional
           Football Players

    • Authors: Sunnan Shah, Kieran Collins, Lewis J. Macgregor
      First page: 125
      Abstract: Background: Hamstring strains are the most common moderate-major severity injuries in football. The majority of hamstring injuries occur during sprinting, with low eccentric hamstring strength being associated with an elevated risk. Objective: To examine the relationship between sprinting and eccentric hamstring strength by monitoring total weekly sprint distance and weekly efforts >90% and >95% of maximum velocity. Methods: Fifty-eight professional male footballers were observed over one-and-a-half seasons. Players’ running was monitored during training and matches using GPS, and eccentric hamstring strength was measured weekly. Results: Weekly sprint distance (ρ = −0.13, p < 0.01) and weekly efforts >90% of maximum velocity (ρ = −0.08, p = 0.01) both displayed significant inverse relationships with the percentage change in eccentric hamstring strength; weekly efforts >95% of maximum velocity showed no relationship with hamstring strength (ρ = −0.02, p = 0.45). Only weekly efforts >90% of maximum velocity significantly influenced the mean percentage change in eccentric hamstring force, F(3,58) = 3.71, p = 0.01, with significant differences occurring when comparing 7–8 sprint efforts with 0–2 efforts (0.11%, p = 0.03) and 5–6 efforts (0.12%, p = 0.03). Conclusions: Eccentric hamstring strength levels significantly decrease when 7–8 weekly sprint efforts are completed at >90% of maximum velocity. Monitoring weekly sprint loading at velocities >90% of maximum velocity may be valuable to help to reduce the risk of hamstring injuries in professional football.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-08-19
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10080125
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 101: The Relative Age Effect in the Best Track and
           Field Athletes Aged 10 to 15 Years Old

    • Authors: Eduard Bezuglov, Maria Shoshorina, Anton Emanov, Nadezhda Semenyuk, Larisa Shagiakhmetova, Alexandr Cherkashin, Bekzhan Pirmakhanov, Ryland Morgans
      First page: 101
      Abstract: (1) The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of the relative age effect (RAE) in the best young (10 to 15 years old) track and field athletes. (2) Hypothesis: The prevalence of the RAE in the best young track and field athletes of both genders will be evident in all age groups from 10 to 15 years old, which may be associated with the significant relationship between biological maturity, chronological age, and the development of physical qualities. (3) Materials and methods: In total, 1778 athletes volunteered for this study. The sample was based on the results of the best young athletes who participated in the final tournaments of the national competition “Shipovka Yunykh”(“Running spikes for young athletes”), which have been held since 1981. The sample group consisted of male and female athletes classified into specific age groups: 10 to 11 years old (n = 579), 12 to 13 years old (n = 600), and 14 to 15 years old (n = 599). Analysis was performed using Jamovi 1.8.1. The Chi-square test was used to compare the RAE between different groups. (4) Results: A wide distribution of the RAE was revealed both in the general sample and in boys and girls. The percentage of “early-born” athletes was 37.6% while only 12.3% were “late-born” athletes. The difference in the severity of the RAE may reflect the small sample of athletes from the fourth quartile, which was significantly less than the sample of boys from the fourth quartile (p = 0.04, OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.02–2.78). The RAE was also evident in all age groups of boys and girls, without any statistically significant differences in the severity (p > 0.05, Chi = 2.135, V = 0.02). In the 14- to 15-year-old male athletes group, the number of early-born compared to late-born athletes peaked. The RAE was most common amongst the most successful track and field athletes. Among the competition medalists during the analyzed time period, more than 50% of athletes were born in the first quarter and no athletes were born in the fourth quarter.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10070101
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 102: Effect of 3 vs. 3 Soccer Small-Sided Game on
           Various Performance, Inflammatory, Muscle Damage and Hormonal Indicators
           in Semi-Professional Players

    • Authors: Evangelos Bekris, Dimitrios I. Bourdas, Eleftherios Mylonis, Ioannis Ispirlidis, Emmanouil D. Zacharakis, Athanasios Katis
      First page: 102
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a soccer small-sided game (SSG) on performance, inflammatory, muscle damage and hormonal indicators. Twenty-two male soccer players participated and were assigned to either experimental (EXP = 12) or control (CON = 10) groups. Subjective fatigue (RPE) and lactate (La¯) were measured during the SSG; vertical squat jump (SJ), 20-m sprint, creatine kinase (CK), interleukin-6 (IL-6), cortisol (C), and testosterone (T) were measured before (PRE), after (POST), 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after the SSG in the EXP group. The heart rate during the SSG reached 92 ± 3% of their HRmax, whereas La¯ and RPE reached 13.02 ± 1.60 mmol·L−1 and 15 ± 1 after SSG, respectively. The IL-6, different among measurements (F (1.04, 11.50) = 504.82, p < 0.001), peaked (3.52 ± 0.43 pg·mL−1 [95%CI; 3.28–3.77]) after the SSG and returned to baseline 24 h later. The CK, different among measurements (F (1.76, 19.32) = 93.96, p < 0.001), peaked (536.58 ± 124.73U·L−1 [95%CI; 466.01–607.15]) 24 h after the SSG and remained significantly higher than PRE condition in POST and up to 72 h later. The T/C ratio, significantly different among measurements (F (1.73, 19.05) = 12.12, p < 0.001), was at its lowest (0.44 ± 0.16 [95%CI; 0.35–0.54]) immediately after the SSG (p < 0.05) and returned to baseline after 24 h. It seems that 48 h (at the most) after an SSG is adequate time for players to recover, and a high training load should be avoided sooner than 24 h after an SSG.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10070102
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 103: Does Physical Activity in Natural Outdoor
           Environments Improve Wellbeing' A Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Caitlin Kelley, Diane E. Mack, Philip M. Wilson
      First page: 103
      Abstract: Organizational initiatives and researchers have argued for the importance of the natural outdoor environment (NOE) for promoting wellbeing. The main aim of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the existing literature to examine the effects of physical activity (PA) in the NOE on wellbeing in adults. The secondary aim was to explore whether wellbeing reported by adults differs as a function of PA context. Electronic databases (PubMed, ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus and Embase) were searched for English peer-reviewed articles published before January 2019. Inclusion criteria were: (1) healthy adults; (2) PA in the NOE; (3) the measurement of wellbeing; and (4) randomized control trials, quasi-experimental designs, matched group designs. To address the secondary aim, PA in the NOE was compared with that performed indoors. Risk of bias was assessed through the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EHPP) Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Primary studies meeting inclusion criteria for the main (nstudies = 19) and secondary (nstudies = 5) aims were analyzed and interpreted. The overall effect size for the main analysis was moderate (d = 0.49, p < 0.001; 95% CI = 0.33, 0.66), with the magnitude of effect varying depending on wellbeing dimension. Wellbeing was greater in PA in the NOE subgroup (d = 0.53) when compared with the indoor subgroup (d = 0.28), albeit not statistically significant (p = 0.15). Although physical activity in the NOE was associated with higher wellbeing, there is limited evidence to support that it confers superior benefits to that engaged indoors. Researchers are encouraged to include study designs that measure markers of wellbeing at multiple time points, greater consideration to diverse wellbeing dimensions and justify decisions linked to PA and NOE types.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10070103
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 104: Applicability of an Immersive Virtual Reality
           Exercise Training System for Office Workers during Working Hours

    • Authors: Evlalia Touloudi, Mary Hassandra, Evangelos Galanis, Marios Goudas, Yannis Theodorakis
      First page: 104
      Abstract: Virtual reality is a computer-generated simulation of a real or imaginary three-dimensional environment that has entered our lives, particularly for gaming. Lately, it has been permeating into many aspects of our everyday life, such as exercise. It is important to ascertain whether exercise in an immersive virtual reality environment can be accepted from employees and lead to positive outcomes for them. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the acceptance, future adoption, interest/enjoyment and usability of an immersive virtual reality system for exercise training by office workers during breaks within their working hours. A total of 40 female employees participated in the study with a mean age of 42.58 years (SD 10.77). Participants were requested to complete two sequential 15-min dual task cycling sessions corresponding to two experimental conditions. The first, condition A, involved cycling in a virtual environment, wearing a virtual reality head mounted display, and responding to cognitive tasks by answering multiple choice questions—on a screen, using a joystick. The second, condition B, involved cycling on a static bicycle and simultaneously responding to cognitive tasks by answering multiple choice questions in a real environment. After completion of the two conditions, participants responded to a series of scales regarding each of the experimental conditions and to a semi-structured interview. The results showed that participants noted a significant preference for the immersive virtual reality exercise, condition A, compared to condition B (bike only); and their acceptance, interest/enjoyment, usability and intention for future use were high. The qualitative data showed increased intention for future use, feelings of control and presence and most of the participants did not encounter any difficulties or require extra help to understand the immersive virtual reality system. Overall, exercising during working hours with an immersive virtual reality exercise system was well perceived by office workers and applicable. However, the effects of the immersive virtual reality training system on physical and mental health and the employees’ adherence to the exercise program should be tested with a longer intervention program.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10070104
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 105: The Athlete’s Paradox: Adaptable
           Depression

    • Authors: Weronika Jasmina Forys, Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa
      First page: 105
      Abstract: We proposed that an athlete’s depressive symptoms may be different from the general population in etiology if considered from the context of a depressive disorder. By shifting focus from a limited notion of symptoms onto a comprehensive model of depression, the full scope of the phenomenon becomes clearer. This paper investigated the relationship between neurotransmitters and allostatic load to explain the incidence of depression among elite athletes. This literature review extensively analyzed exercise-induced neurohormonal imbalance resulting in depressive states among athletes. The research revealed that 5-HTTLPR polymorphism, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), extensive psychological demands, social stigma, and overtraining syndrome (OTS) may all contribute to a unique version of depression. The research revealed that the biological standards of athletes differ from those of non-athletes, to the point that the new model may be useful, thereby introducing the new term “Adaptable Depression (AD)” to the literature. This framework suggests a new direction for future research to precisely measure the neurotransmitter-related brain changes that result in “Adaptable Depression” in athletes and to establish a better understanding of the depressive tipping point.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10070105
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 106: Can Bodybuilding Peak Week Manipulations
           Favorably Affect Muscle Size, Subcutaneous Thickness, and Related Body
           Composition Variables' A Case Study

    • Authors: Christopher Barakat, Guillermo Escalante, Scott W. Stevenson, Joshua T. Bradshaw, Andrew Barsuhn, Grant M. Tinsley, Joseph Walters
      First page: 106
      Abstract: Background: The purpose of this case study was to implement an evidence-based dietary approach to peaking for a bodybuilding competition and monitor its impact on body composition, muscle thickness (MT), intra-to-extra-cellular fluid shifts, subcutaneous thickness (ST), and hydration status. Secondarily, to document any adverse events of this peak week approach in a small, controlled setting. Methods Dietary practices were recorded, and laboratory testing was conducted throughout peak week, including competition morning. Assessments included: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) for body composition, B-mode ultrasound for MT and ST, bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) for total body water (TBW)/intracellular water (ICW)/extracellular water (ECW), and raw BIS data (i.e., resistance, reactance, and phase angle), urine specific gravity (USG) for hydration status, and subjective fullness. Sequential dietary manipulations were made (i.e., CHO depletion/fat loading, CHO/water loading, and a refinement phase) with specific physiological goals. This was reflected in changes observed across all assessments throughout the peak week. Results: From the carbohydrate-depleted state (three days out) to competition day, we observed increases in lean body mass, MT, TBW (primarily ICW), and subjective fullness. Kendall’s Tau B revealed a strong relationship between carbohydrate intake and ∑MT (τ = 0.733, p = 0.056). Additionally, novel ST data demonstrated a 10% reduction for the summation of all seven sites, with some drastic changes in specific regions (e.g., −43% for triceps ST) from three days out to competition day. Conclusions: These data suggest that the prototypical goals of bodybuilders’ peak week (i.e., increasing muscle fullness, decreasing subcutaneous thickness) to enhance their aesthetics/muscularity presented can be achieved with a drug-free protocol involving dietary manipulations.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-07-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10070106
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 107: The Influence of Competitive Level on
           Stretch-Shortening Cycle Function in Young Female Gymnasts

    • Authors: Sylvia Moeskops, Jason S. Pedley, Jon L. Oliver, Rhodri S. Lloyd
      First page: 107
      Abstract: This cross-sectional study investigated how stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) function and kinetic variables differed between young female gymnasts of varying competitive levels. Drop jump (DJ) force–time profiles were examined in 118 female gymnasts, sub-divided by competitive level (n = 21 recreational, n = 41 regional and n = 50 elite). DJ force–time data were analyzed to calculate performance and kinetic variables. Participants’ SSC function was categorized as poor, moderate, or good, depending on the presence of an impact peak and spring-like behavior. A high proportion of gymnasts across each group were categorized as having “good” or “moderate” SSC function (i.e., >94.8%), with a trend of increasingly better SSC function observed with competitive level. Significant differences in reactive strength index, contact time, time of landing peak force, relative propulsive peak force, impulse, and ratio of braking: propulsive impulse were found between the elite and recreational group (p < 0.05). While SSC function was generally good to moderate, elite gymnasts had a more desirable kinetic jump-landing strategy than recreational level gymnasts. Drop jump kinetic variables appear to distinguish between elite and recreational gymnasts but not between regional standard gymnasts. Practitioners should consider the kinetic profile of gymnasts when benchmarking and setting training objectives.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10070107
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 108: Morphological Characteristics and Situational
           Precision of U15 and U16 Elite Male Players from Al-Ahli Handball Club
           (Bahrein)

    • Authors: Boris Banjevic, Boris Zarkovic, Borko Katanic, Blazo Jabucanin, Stevo Popovic, Bojan Masanovic
      First page: 108
      Abstract: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the differences in the morphological characteristics and situational precision among younger and older groups of handball players. The sample of participants consisted of 30 handball players, members of the younger category of the Al-Ahli handball club (Bahrein), divided into two groups: older (U16, n = 18) and younger (U15, n = 12). To evaluate their morphological characteristics, eight variables were measured, while two standardized tests were used to evaluate their situational precision. The results indicate that a statistically significant difference between the groups was noticeable for nine variables in total, seven in morphology (body height, p = 0.010; body mass index, p = 0.049; arm length, p = 0.009; upper arm length, p = 0.016; lower arm length, p = 0.040; the planimetric parameter of the hand, p = 0.005; hand length p = 0.004) and two in situational precision (the standing shot, p = 0.003; the jump shot, p = 0.17), and that the achieved difference ranges from a medium to a large effect. For only one variable (body mass, p = 0.734), significant difference was not determined between the groups. It was also determined (by Cohen’s criterion) that handball players with higher longitudinal dimensionality achieve better results for specific precision. Therefore, when selecting young handball players, the aforementioned dimensions should be taken into consideration as predictors of success.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10070108
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 109: Effects of Interrupted Daily Routine Due to
           COVID-19 on Circadian Chronotype and Leisure Time Physical Activity

    • Authors: Justine M. Renziehausen, David H. Fukuda
      First page: 109
      Abstract: Circadian chronotype is dependent on many factors including age, physical activity participation, eating and sleeping patterns, and typical schedule. Recently, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in schedule changes for most individuals. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine whether sport participation influences circadian chronotype and physical activity and whether COVID-19 restrictions have impacted chronotype scores. Briefly, 128 physically active males (n = 62) and females (n = 66) between 18 and 55 years old (24.7 ± 7.1) completed a survey consisting of demographics information, the Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), and the Godin Leisure Time Physical Activity Scale (LTPA). Participants were asked to answer relevant questions about their habits/preferences before and after COVID-19-related restrictions were implemented. MEQ scores categorized individuals into morning (MT), intermediate (IT), and evening (ET) chronotypes. Three-way (pre-COVID-19 chronotype x sport participation x time) repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to evaluate differences in MEQ and LTPA. A significant main effect of time was found for MEQ (p = 0.018) and LTPA (p = 0.002), indicating changes following COVID-19. A significant time x chronotype interaction was shown for MEQ (p < 0.001) with MT (p < 0.001), IT (p = 0.044), and ET (p = 0.044) individuals indicating chronotype-specific changes following COVID-19. LTPA was decreased and MEQ scores changed following COVID-19, with shifts toward IT scores.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10070109
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 110: Acute Effect of Upper-Lower Body Super-Set vs.
           Traditional-Set Configurations on Bar Execution Velocity and Volume

    • Authors: Guillermo Peña García-Orea, David Rodríguez-Rosell, Daniel Segarra-Carrillo, Marzo Edir Da Silva-Grigoletto, Noelia Belando-Pedreño
      First page: 110
      Abstract: This study aimed to compare the effect on bar execution velocity and number of repetitions between two velocity-based resistance training protocols only differing in the set configuration of the full-squat (SQ) and bench-press (BP) exercises. Moderately strength-trained men were assigned to a traditional (TS, n = 9)- or an alternating-set (AS, n = 10) configuration group to perform four testing sessions against different relative loads (55–60–65–70% 1RM). Relative load, magnitude of intra-set velocity loss (%VL), number of sets, inter-set recovery time, and exercise order were matched for both groups in each session. Mean propulsive velocity of the first repetition (MPVfirst), average number of repetitions per set (NRS), total number of repetitions (TNR), and total training time per session (TT) were measured. No significant differences between training conditions were observed for any relative load in MPVfirst, NRS, and TNR in both exercises. The TS group completed a significantly higher number of repetitions (p < 0.05) at faster velocities (MPV > 0.9–1.1 m·s−1) in the SQ. In conclusion, training sessions performing AS between SQ and BP exercises with moderate relative loads and %VL result in similar bar execution velocity and volume, but in a more time-efficient manner, than the traditional approach.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10070110
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 187: Characteristics of Fitness-Related Injuries in
           the Netherlands: A Descriptive Epidemiological Study

    • Authors: Ellen Kemler, Lisa Noteboom, Anne-Marie van van Beijsterveldt
      First page: 187
      Abstract: Although general information is available, specifically detailed information on gym-based fitness-related injuries in the general recreational fitness population is lacking. The aim of our study was to obtain more insight into injuries occurring as a result of gym-based fitness activities. A descriptive online epidemiological study was conducted in November 2020. The survey was distributed by a market research agency to members of their research panel. A total of 494 Dutch fitness participants aged ≥18 years (mean 38.9; 59% male) who had sustained a fitness-related injury in the preceding 12 months were included in the study. Most injuries occurred during strength training, individual cardio exercise, yoga/Pilates, cardio exercise in group lessons, and CrossFit. The shoulder, leg, and knee were the most common injured body parts; 73.1% of the injuries occurred during unsupervised gym-based fitness activities, and 46.2% of the injuries occurred during one specific exercise or when using a specific fitness device: running (e.g., on the treadmill) (22.8%); bench press (11.8%); or squats (9.6%). Overuse or overload (n = 119), missteps and sprains (n = 48), or an incorrect posture or movement (n = 43) were most often mentioned as causes of injury. Conclusions: Most self-reported gym-based fitness-related injuries occur during strength training and individual cardio exercise. Special attention should be given to the shoulder during strength training and to the lower extremities during cardio exercise. Injury prevention interventions should be able to be carried out without supervision.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10120187
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 188: Health-Related Physical Fitness in Adolescents
           from Spain, Estonia and Iceland: A Cross-Sectional, Quantitative Study

    • Authors: Pablo Galan-Lopez, Thordis Gísladóttir, Maret Pihu, Antonio J. Sánchez-Oliver, Francis Ries, Raúl Domínguez
      First page: 188
      Abstract: The benefits of physical fitness (PF) for health are well-known. Low PF significantly contributes to the prevalence of obesity in adolescents, with an increased risk of developing chronic diseases. The objectives of the present study were to explore the health-related PF components and body composition levels in adolescents in three European cities, and their differences. The present study is a cross-sectional, descriptive, and quantitative research effort with 1717 participants aged between 13–16 years (48% girls), enrolled in public and private secondary schools in Seville (Spain), Reykjavik (Iceland) and Tartu (Estonia). The ALPHA fitness battery test was used with the following tests: handgrip strength, standing broad jump, 4 × 10 m speed-agility, 20 m shuttle run, and anthropometric variables. Regarding body composition, differences were detected for city and gender in height (p < 0.001), weight (p < 0.001), body fat percentage (p < 0.001), and waist circumference (p < 0.001); but no differences were reported for BMI for both city (p = 0.150) and gender (p = 0.738). Similarly, concerning PF, it was detected statistically significant differences between cities and gender in handgrip strength (p < 0.001), jump test (p < 0.001), speed-agility test (p < 0.001), and cardiovascular endurance in both variables (p < 0.001). In total, 26.8% of the boys and 27.3% of the girls were categorized as overweight; 18.1% of the boys and 31.2% of the girls had an excessive percentage of fat mass; and 22.7% of the boys and 22.2% of the girls showed an excessive waist circumference. The participants from Seville presented the lowest results in PF tests. In contrast, Reykjavik, with the highest results in the endurance and speed-agility tests, and Tartu, with higher results in the manual grip strength and long jump tests, shared the highest results.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10120188
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 189: Special Issue “Talent Identification and
           Development in Youth Sports”

    • Authors: Adam Leigh Kelly, Alberto Lorenzo Calvo, Sara Diana Leal dos Santos, Sergio Lorenzo Jiménez Sáiz
      First page: 189
      Abstract: We are delighted to share our Special Issue on Talent Identification and Development in Youth Sports [...]
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10120189
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 190: Metabolic and Performance Responses to a
           Simulated Routine in Elite Artistic Swimmers

    • Authors: David J. Bentley, Eric Viana, Heather M. Logan-Sprenger
      First page: 190
      Abstract: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the interrelationship between time spent underwater (UW), movement frequency and accompanying blood acid base balance response. Elite artistic swimmers (n = 6) participated in the investigation and were all familiar with the testing procedures. All athletes completed the same choreographed artistic swimming routine. The routine was videoed and the number of movements during each ‘lap’ of the routine counted. Fingertip capillary blood samples were collected prior to the routine 60 sec post routine for pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), bicarbonate (HCO3−) and potassium (K+). and lactate (La) concentration (mmol/L). On a separate day an incremental exercise test to exhaustion was performed on a cycle ergometer for determination of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Over half the routine was performed underwater (56 ± 4%). Aside from pCO2 (−1.07 ± 12.29%, p = 0.686), there were significant changes in all variables measured from the BG analysis. VO2peak was significantly correlated to total UW of the routine (r = −0.93; p = 0.007). as well as ∆PO2 r = 0.47 and ∆HCO3 r = 0.51. There was also a significant correlation between total UW and post routine pCO2 (r = 0.86; p = 0.030). There was also a significant correlation between total movements during the routine and post pO2 (r = −0.83; p = 0.044). These data show UW in combination with movement rate during a AS routine imfluence the metabolic response to the exercise. In addition, VO2max represents an important performance variable influencing AS performance.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10120190
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 191: Relationship of Training Factors and
           Resilience with Injuries in Ski Mountaineers

    • Authors: Paula Etayo-Urtasun, Patxi León-Guereño, Iker Sáez, Arkaitz Castañeda-Babarro
      First page: 191
      Abstract: Ski mountaineering is an increasingly popular sport with a relatively high risk of injury. Therefore, several studies have analyzed factors related to the likelihood of injury, including athlete characteristics, training, resilience and equipment. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify factors that may influence injury risk. A 15-minute online survey was sent to various ski mountaineering groups of different ages and levels. Both the Mann–Whitney U test and odds ratio analysis were performed in order to analyze the data. Results from 104 skiers showed that most injuries occurred in the lower extremities, especially in the knee (29.6%). The findings indicated that skiers who had suffered an injury performed in more competitions per year (p = 0.046), more ski mountaineering sessions per week (p = 0.022) and fewer core training sessions per week (0.029), although core training and competition were not statistically significant factors. Likewise, non-injured athletes had fewer pairs of skis (p = 0.019), which were also wider (p = 0.04). However, no difference was found for warm up and resilience between both groups (p = 0.275). In conclusion, it is important to implement preventive measures based on these factors, even if more research is needed.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10120191
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 192: Monitoring of the Training Load and Well-Being
           of Elite Rhythmic Gymnastics Athletes in 25 Weeks: A Comparison between
           Starters and Reserves

    • Authors: Iohanna Fernandes, João H. Gomes, Levy de Oliveira, Marcos Almeida, João G. Claudino, Camila Resende, Dermival R. Neto, Mónica Hontoria Galán, Paulo Márcio P. Oliveira, Felipe J. Aidar, Renata Mendes, Marzo E. Da Silva-Grigoletto
      First page: 192
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to monitor the training loads (TL) and well-being of elite rhythmic gymnastics (RG) athletes, as well as compare these variables between starters and reserve gymnasts during 25 weeks of training. Ten athletes from the Brazilian national RG team (17.4 ± 1.1 y of age) were monitored during the general preparatory period (GPP), specific preparatory period (SPP), and pre-competitive period (PCP). The internal TL was quantified with the use of sessional ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE). We assessed well-being daily with a well-being scale. The TL, duration, monotony, and strain were calculated weekly. We found that the internal TL and session durations were 9242 ± 2511 AU and 2014 ± 450 min, respectively. The internal TL, strain, and monotony were greater in the PCP than in the GPP and SPP for starters. In the SPP, there were statistical differences in internal TL (p = 0.036) and strain (p = 0.027) between starters and reserves. In the PCP, there were also statistical differences between starters vs. reserves athletes regarding internal TL (p = 0.027) and strain (p = 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in well-being between the periods assessed. In conclusion, RG athletes display a higher TL magnitude during the PCP, whereas only reporting non-significant minor variations in well-being. In addition, there is a discrepancy in the TL between starters and reserves.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10120192
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 193: Comparison of the Reliability of Four
           Different Movement Thresholds When Evaluating Vertical Jump Performance

    • Authors: Madeleine Barefoot, Hugh Lamont, J. Chadwick Smith
      First page: 193
      Abstract: Analyzing vertical jumps performed on a force plate can be useful for the strength and conditioning professional in managing neuromuscular fatigue. The purpose of this study was to compare different movement thresholds when analyzing countermovement (CJ) and squat jump (SJ) performance. Twenty-one college-aged participants (9 female, 12 male) performed five CJs and five SJs. Movement initiation was identified when the vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) deviated five standard deviations (5SD), four standard deviations, (4SD), 2.5% of system weight (2.5%SW), and 10% of system weight (10%SW) from their starting position. For CJs, movement was determined when the VGRF deviated either above or below these thresholds (5SDAB, 4SDAB, 2.5%SWAB, 10%SWAB) and was compared to when VGRF deviated below these thresholds (5SDB, 4SDB, 2.5%SWB, 10%SWB) in terms of peak force (Fmax), net impulse (netIMP), braking impulse (brIMP), propulsive impulse, jump height (JHT), peak power (Pmax), peak velocity (Vmax), and RSImod. For SJs, movement was determined when VGRF initially rose above these thresholds (5SD, 4SD, 2.5%SW, and 10%SW) for Fmax, netIMP, JHT, and Vmax. Significant differences were observed among several methods except for Fmax. However, these differences were small. All CJ measures demonstrated good-to-excellent relative reliability (ICC: 0.790–0.990) except for netIMP for 2.5%SWAB (ICC: 0.479). All methods demonstrated good absolute reliability as measured by percent coefficient of variation (CV%) except brIMP and RSImod. This may be due to instructions given to each jumper as well as skill level. For SJs, no differences in Fmax or netIMP were found across all methods. Small differences were seen for JHT, Pmax, and Vmax across several methods. All methods produced acceptable CV% (<10%) and excellent ICCs (0.900–0.990). However, some jumpers produced CV% that was greater than 10% when determining JHT for 5SD, 4SD, and 2.5%SW methods. This could be due to our method of obtaining system weight. Based on our findings, we recommend using the 10%SW method for assessing SJ performance on a force plate.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10120193
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 194: Serum Amyloid Beta Precursor Protein,
           Neurofilament Light, and Visinin-like Protein-1 in Rugby Players: An
           Exploratory Study

    • Authors: Jessica E. Morgan, Sarean A. Gaynor-Metzinger, Steven D. Beck, Iustin C. Scobercea, India J. Austin, Hannah E. Blankenship, Julien S. Baker, Allan Knox, Jorge M. Serrador, Matthew J. Rogatzki
      First page: 194
      Abstract: Concussion diagnosis is difficult and may be improved with the addition of a blood-based biomarker that indicates concussion. The purpose of this research was to investigate the capability of serum amyloid beta precursor protein (APP), neurofilament light (NfL), and visinin-like protein-1 (VILIP-1) to distinguish athletes who were diagnosed with a concussion pitch-side. An observational cross-sectional study design was used to replicate sideline concussion diagnosis. Subjects included mutually exclusive pre-match (n = 9), post-match (n = 15), and SRC (n = 7) groups. Six paired pre-and post-match subjects were analyzed for APP. APP increased significantly from pre-match (mean = 57.98 pg·mL−1, SD = 63.21 pg·mL−1) to post-match (mean = 111.37 pg·mL−1, SD = 106.89 pg·mL−1, p = 0.048) in the paired subjects. NfL was lower in the SRC group (median = 8.71 pg·mL−1, IQR = 6.09 pg·mL−1) compared to the post-match group (median = 29.60 pg·mL−1, IQR = 57.45 pg·mL−1, p < 0.001). VILIP-1 was higher in the post-match group (median = 212.18 pg·mL−1, IQR = 345.00 pg·mL−1) compared to both the pre-match (median = 32.63 pg·mL−1, IQR = 52.24 pg·mL−1), p = 0.001) and SRC (median = 30.21 pg·mL−1, IQR = 47.20 pg·mL−1), p = 0.003) groups. APP, NfL, and VILIP-1 were all able to distinguish between pre-match and post-match groups (AUROC > 0.700) but not from the SRC group (AUROC < 0.660). Our results show that APP, NfL, and VILIP-1 were not helpful in differentiating concussed from non-concussed athletes pitch-side in this study.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10120194
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 195: Acute Effects of Heavy Strength Training on
           Mechanical, Hemodynamic, Metabolic, and Psychophysiological Parameters in
           Young Adult Males

    • Authors: João Andrade, Dulce Esteves, Ricardo Ferraz, Diogo Luís Marques, Luís Branquinho, Daniel Almeida Marinho, Mário Cardoso Marques, Henrique Pereira Neiva
      First page: 195
      Abstract: This study analyzed the acute effects of heavy strength training on mechanical, hemodynamic, metabolic, and psychophysiological responses in adult males. Thirteen recreational level males (23.3 ± 1.5 years) randomly performed two heavy strength training sessions (3 sets of 8 repetitions at 80% of one repetition maximum [1RM]) using the bench press (HST-BP) or full squat (HST-FS)). The repetition velocity was recorded in both sessions. Moreover, before and after the sessions, the velocity attained against the ~1.00 m·s−1 load (V1Load) in the HST-BP, countermovement jump (CMJ) height in the HST-FS, blood pressure, heart rate, blood lactate, and psychophysiological responses (OMNI Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Exercise) were measured. There were differences between exercises in the number of repetitions performed in the first and third sets (both <8 repetitions). The velocity loss was higher in the HST-BP than in the HST-FS (50.8 ± 10.0% vs. 30.7 ± 9.5%; p < 0.001). However, the mechanical fatigue (V1Load vs. CMJ height) and the psychophysiological response did not differ between sessions (p > 0.05). The HST-FS caused higher blood pressure and heart rate responses than the HST-BP (p < 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively) and greater blood lactate changes from pre-training to post-set 1 (p < 0.05). These results showed that the number of maximal repetitions performed in both sessions was lower than the target number and decreased across sets. Moreover, the HST-BP caused a higher velocity loss than the HST-FS. Finally, the HST-FS elicited higher hemodynamic and metabolic demand than the HST-BP.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10120195
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 196: Implementation and Evaluation of a
           School-Based Educational Program Targeting Healthy Diet and Exercise
           (DIEX) for Greek High School Students

    • Authors: Maria Angeli, Mary Hassandra, Charalampos Krommidas, Athanasios Kolovelonis, Vassilios Bouglas, Yannis Theodorakis
      First page: 196
      Abstract: The present study examined the effectiveness of a school-based health education program promoting healthy diet and exercise, named DIEX, implemented on adolescents. The program is based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and is supported by life skills training. The recipients of the program were high school students (n = 367; 168 boys and 199 girls) from 14 schools in Greece who attended 10 1 h sessions implemented by their schoolteachers. Data were collected before and after the program implementation through online questionnaires for: a. attitude, intention, subjective norms, and PBC toward healthy eating; b. knowledge about healthy eating; c. exercise behavior and attitude toward the DIEX program; and d. satisfaction with the DIEX program (only post-program). The results showed that there were significant differences among the pre- and post-measures of students’ knowledge and behavior about healthy diet, as well as attitudes and satisfaction toward the program’s application. The results show that the DIEX program may have improved nutrition behavior variables. Conclusively, a theory-based behavioral intervention with skills training may result in positive behavioral changes for young students during health education in school settings with the assistance of new technologies.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10120196
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 197: Ultimate Frisbee Players: Characteristics
           according to Their Competitive Level and Spirit of the Game

    • Authors: José Pedro Amoroso, João Valente-dos-Santos, Guilherme Eustáquio Furtado, Ricardo Rebelo-Gonçalves, Raul Antunes, Luís Calmeiro
      First page: 197
      Abstract: In Ultimate Frisbee, players are responsible for administering and reinforcing adherence to the rules of the game. As a self-refereed sport, UF relies upon the Spirit of the Game (SOTG). This study aimed to profile the experience, to ascertain the training history of the sport, the participation and goal orientations of international Ultimate Frisbee players in the European Beach Ultimate Championship, and to evaluate the contribution of these variables in a discriminant function to classify players according to SOTG level and competitive level. The sample consisted of 160 players [females 33.8% (29.3 ± 7.2 years); males 66.2% (37.6 ± 9.7 years)] who competed in the European Beach Ultimate Championship, 2019. Factorial ANOVA was used to test the effect of sex, competitive level and SOTG level (measured by the sum of the scores obtained in five questions addressing the following domains: (1) Knowledge and use of the rules; (2) Fouls and body contact; (3) Fair-mindedness; (4) Positive attitude and self-control; (5) Communication. The results revealed that sex was not a consistent source of SOTG level variation among players. In each competitive level, those with high SOTG levels obtained lower European Beach Ultimate Championship classification (t = 5.73 to 6.55, p < 0.001, d = 1.28 to 2.06), higher SOTG classification (t = −13.21 to −7.04, p < 0.001, d = 1.28 to 2.85), and better evaluation for fouls and body contact (t = 2.76 to 9.23, p < 0.05, d = 0.86 to 1.99) and for positive attitude (t = 5.88 to 7.43, p < 0.001, d = 2.06 to 2.57), than regular SOTG level players. Players of different competitive levels demonstrated similar SOTG results. These findings provide important information to coaches, physical education teachers and sport consultants.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10120197
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 198: Effects of the Practice of Movement
           Representation Techniques in People Undergoing Knee and Hip Arthroplasty:
           A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Cristóbal Riquelme-Hernández, Juan Pablo Reyes-Barría, Abner Vargas, Yaynel Gonzalez-Robaina, Rafael Zapata-Lamana, David Toloza-Ramirez, Maria Antonia Parra-Rizo, Igor Cigarroa
      First page: 198
      Abstract: Objective: To analyze the effects of movement representation techniques (MRT) combined with conventional physical therapy (CFT) in people undergoing knee and hip arthroplasty compared to conventional physical therapy alone in terms of results in physical and functionality variables, cognitive function, and quality of life. Methodology: the review was carried out according to the criteria of the PRISMA statement, considering studies in the electronic databases PubMed/Medline, Pubmed Central/Medline, Web of Science, EBSCO, and ScienceDirect. Results: MRT plus CFT generated therapeutic effects in some aspects of the physical variables: 100% pain (7 of 7 studies); 100% strength (5 out of 5 studies); range of motion 87.5% (7 out of 8 studies); 100% speed (1 of 1 study), functional variables: 100% gait (7 of 7 studies); functional capacity 87.5% (7 out of 8 studies); cognitive variables: 100% motor visualization ability (2 out of 2 studies); cognitive performance 100% (2 of 2 studies); and quality of life 66.6% (2 of 3 studies). When comparing its effects with conventional physical therapy, the variables that reported the greatest statistically significant changes were motor visualization ability, speed, pain, strength and gait. The most used MRT was motor imagery (MI), and the average time extension of therapies was 3.5 weeks. Conclusions: movement representation techniques combined with conventional physical therapy are an innocuous and low-cost therapeutic intervention with therapeutic effects in patients with knee arthroplasty (KA) and hip arthroplasty (HA), and this combination generates greater therapeutic effects in physical, functional, and cognitive variables than conventional physical therapy alone.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10120198
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 199: Biomechanical, Anthropometric and
           Psychological Determinants of Barbell Bench Press Strength

    • Authors: Derrick W. Van Every, Max Coleman, Daniel L. Plotkin, Hugo Zambrano, Bas Van Hooren, Stian Larsen, Greg Nuckols, Andrew D. Vigotsky, Brad J. Schoenfeld
      First page: 199
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to improve our understanding of the relative contributions of biomechanical, anthropometric, and psychological factors in explaining maximal bench press (BP) strength in a heterogeneous, resistance-trained sample. Eighteen college-aged participants reported to the laboratory for three visits. The first visit consisted of psychometric testing. The second visit assessed participants’ anthropometrics, additional psychometric outcomes, and bench press one repetition maximum (1RM). Participants performed isometric dynamometry testing for horizontal shoulder adduction and elbow extension at a predicted sticking point joint position. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the relationships between the biomechanical, anthropometric, and psychological variables and BP 1RM. Our primary multiple linear regression accounted for 43% of the variance in BP strength (F(3,14) = 5.34, p = 0.01; R² = 0.53; adjusted R² = 0.43). The sum of peak isometric net joint moments from the shoulder and elbow had the greatest standardized effect (0.59), followed by lean body mass (0.27) and self-efficacy (0.17). The variance in BP 1RM can be similarly captured (R2 = 0.48) by a single principal component containing anthropometric, biomechanics, and psychological variables. Pearson correlations with BP strength were generally greater among anthropometric and biomechanical variables as compared to psychological variables. These data suggest that BP strength among a heterogeneous, resistance-trained population is explained by multiple factors and is more strongly associated with physical than psychological variables.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10120199
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 200: Association of Co-Living and Age on the Type
           of Sports Practiced by Older People

    • Authors: María Antonia Parra-Rizo, Felipe Díaz-Toro, Fatine Hadrya, Patricia Pavón-León, Igor Cigarroa
      First page: 200
      Abstract: Introdution: The environment and the type of co-living of older people are crucial to understanding how the nature of their context influences a healthy lifestyle. However, no studies have investigated to what extent their type of co-living may be associated with the sports and the profile practice according to their age. Objective: This study aimed to assess the association between the types of co-living and the age of the physically active elderly and the sports they practice. Hypothesis: It is thought that the age, situation, and satisfaction with the way of living in physically active older people differ according to the type of sport they practice. Methods: Cross-sectional study. We included 358 individuals aged between 61 and 93 years old (M = 69.66, SD = 4.74). Type of co-living was classified as living alone or living with others. The sports activities evaluated were: gym, dance, water activities, and yoga/pilates. Differences in the type of co-living and sports practiced were evaluated by ANOVA or Chi2. Results: Among the elderly who practice gymnastics, most of them live alone and in a tight core (p < 0.001) (Phi = 0.244). Furthermore, those who practice aquatic activities are more frequently the youngest (p < 0.001) (Phi = 0.198). Conclusion: Older people who do gymnastics have smaller living groups, those under 69 opt for gymnastics and aquatic activities, while those aged 70 and over prefer dance, yoga, and pilates.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10120200
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 163: Cross-Cultural Adaption and Validation of the
           Dutch Version of the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Questionnaire in
           Juvenile Baseball Pitchers

    • Authors: A. J. R. Leenen, Amber Hurry, Femke van Dis, Erik van der Graaff, H. E. J. Veeger, M. J. M. Hoozemans
      First page: 163
      Abstract: Monitoring the performance and functional status of baseball pitchers’ upper extremity is important in maintaining the athlete’s health and performance. This study validated a Dutch translation of the original English Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) against the previously validated Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI) questionnaires in a group of talented juvenile Dutch baseball pitchers. Three times, from 2014–2016, 107 pitchers completed the Dutch KJOC, DASH and WOSI questionnaires. Participants’ questionnaire scores were analysed for the whole group and the symptomatic player subgroup separately. Internal consistency, construct validity and ceiling and floor effects were examined. Cronbach’s alpha was consistently above 0.8 for the three time periods for the whole group, and ranged between 0.62 and 0.86 for the symptomatic subgroup. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients ranged from 0.47 to 0.67 for the whole group and 0.32 to 0.99 for the symptomatic subgroup. No floor effects were observed in the scores of the KJOC and only a ceiling effect for the whole group (15.2%) at one time period. The Dutch version of the KJOC has shown acceptable internal consistency and construct validity and can be used to assess overhead athletes’ shoulder and elbow functionality.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10110163
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 164: Sustainability of a Given Ten-Week Motor
           Skills Training Program for Children with Developmental Coordination
           Disorder

    • Authors: Orifjon Saidmamatov, Ko’palov Sanjarbek, Olga Vasconcelos, Paula Rodrigues
      First page: 164
      Abstract: The aim of this research was to determine the sustainability of a given ten-week motor skills training program for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Children with DCD in four kindergartens in the Khorezm region of Uzbekistan were selected to take part in the study. Participants were 24 children between 4 and 6 years old (5.25 ± 0.13 years), assigned to an intervention group (IG: 17 children; 10 boys) and a control group (CG: 7 children; 4 boys). The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2) was used to assess motor competence pre-intervention, post-intervention, and retention test measurement after 18 months. The retention test results for the IG indicated a decline in all three motor domains of MABC-2. Despite this, the results that were acquired during the retention test came out to be better than the results that were achieved during the pre-test. At the same time, children who were allocated to the CG maintained their performance. The findings suggest that a preschool-based motor skill training program has the potential to increase motor skills in children with DCD. However, the positive benefits produced by the intervention may decrease over the course of time if the intervention is not continued.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10110164
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 165: Performance Sex Differences in
           CrossFit®

    • Authors: Petr Schlegel, Adam Křehký
      First page: 165
      Abstract: CrossFit® has a unique standard for workout of the day for women and men. Scaling is used to set difficulty levels for women in CrossFit® gyms and competitions. This type of scaling is applied for weightlifting (60–82% of men’s load); however, there are usually no differences in difficulty settings for gymnastics and monostructural metabolic conditioning. Performance analysis is essential for every sports discipline, and statistical data comparing men’s and women’s results from athletics, running, swimming, weightlifting, etc., are available. However, CrossFit® lacks these statistics. The aim of our study was to analyze how the performances of men and women differed at the 2021 CrossFit Games®. Our sample comprised 40 female (age 27.8 ± 5.1) and 40 male participants (age 27.2 ± 3.7) competing in the Rx division. Data obtained from all events were analyzed using effect size and percentage. In 14 out of 15 events, men achieved better results than women. Even with the implementation of scaling, women’s results differed by 0.1–33.1% (effect size from small to large). Scaling for women is designed according to general strength and power differences; however, primarily because of anatomic and physiological differences, men attain better results. However, CrossFit Games® events are always unique, and the events rarely repeat; therefore, our study does not provide firm conclusions. As our study is the first to compare CrossFit Games® performance between the sexes, further research is needed.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-10-25
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10110165
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 166: The Effects of a Weighted Football
           Intervention on Ball Velocity of a Standard Football Place-Kick among
           Elite Gaelic Football Goalkeepers: A Single-Subject Designed Study

    • Authors: Sam Jermyn, Cian O’Neill, Seán Lacey, Edward K. Coughlan
      First page: 166
      Abstract: Weighted football place-kicking acutely enhances the ball velocity (BV) of subsequent standard football place-kicks. However, there is a dearth of research examining the long-term effects of such interventions, with less evidence in existence among elite athlete cohorts. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the individual effects of a 4 week, eight-session weighted Gaelic football intervention on BV of standard Gaelic football place-kicks among six elite male Gaelic football goalkeepers. This research design was based on a pre-, mid-, post-, and retention-test design. A linear mixed model analysis was employed, with time and participants as fixed effects, and the number of place-kicks per testing session as a random effect. Post hoc tests revealed significant changes in BV for five of the six participants (p < 0.05), with three participants experiencing significant BV increases from pre-test to post-test (p < 0.05), while no significant differences were found between post-test and retention-test. The remaining three participants experienced no significant BV differences from pre-test to post-test and retention-test. These findings suggest that a weighted football place-kicking intervention can be a time-efficient means of maintaining and enhancing BV and, thus, kick distance, among elite goalkeepers during pre-season and in-season phases.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10110166
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 167: Effect of 8 Weeks Aerobic Training and Saffron
           Supplementation on Inflammation and Metabolism in Middle-Aged Obese Women
           with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    • Authors: Ali Rajabi, Mojdeh Khajehlandi, Marefat Siahkuhian, Ali Akbarnejad, Kayvan Khoramipour, Katsuhiko Suzuki
      First page: 167
      Abstract: Background: This study aimed to investigate the effects of 8-week aerobic training (AT) and saffron supplementation on inflammation and metabolism in middle-aged obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Thirty-two obese women with T2DM were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8 in all groups): saffron + training (ST), placebo + training (PT), saffron supplementation (SS), and placebo (P). The ST and PT groups performed eight weeks of aerobic training (AT) (three sessions/week at 60–75% HRmax). A daily dose of 400 mg saffron powder was consumed by the ST and SS groups for 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken after 12 h of fasting, 48 h before the first AT session, 48 h and two weeks after the last AT session. Results: AT, saffron supplementation, and their combination affected body mass index (BMI), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and serum levels of insulin, adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) (p < 0.05). However, body weight, body fat percentage, and serum levels of glucose, resistin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), irisin, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) showed significant changes in the ST group only (p < 0.05). In addition, a significant difference was seen between all factors in post-training and follow-up in the ST group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Saffron supplementation at a dose of 400 mg/day, when combined with AT, could improve inflammation, metabolism, glycemic status, and lipid profile in T2DM patients, and these changes are sustainable at up to 2 weeks of detraining.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-10-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10110167
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 168: Acute, Non-Specific Low Back Pain Does Not
           Impair Isometric Deadlift Force or Electromyographic Excitation: A
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Matt S. Stock, Megan E. Bodden, Jenna M. Bloch, Karen L. Starnes, Gabriela Rodriguez, Ryan M. Girts
      First page: 168
      Abstract: Low back pain (LBP) is a leading cause of disability. The use of deadlift-based assessments in assessing LBP is becoming common in clinical settings, but these concepts have not been well studied. We sought to compare force and muscle excitation during isometric deadlifts in participants suffering from LBP versus asymptomatic controls. We also compared these outcomes for conventional versus hexagonal barbells. Sixteen adults with mild-to-moderate, acute, non-specific LBP and 19 controls performed maximal, isometric deadlifts while standing on a force plate using conventional and hexagonal barbells. Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from the upper trapezius, external oblique, erector spinae, vastus lateralis, and biceps femoris. Normalized peak force and peak rate of force development were similar for those with acute, non-specific LBP and controls. Surface electromyographic excitation was not different between groups, but was higher with the hexagonal barbell for the vastus lateralis and upper trapezius. Both groups felt equally safe and confident. In summary, the presence of acute, non-specific LBP did not impair peak and rapid force or muscle excitation. Hexagonal barbells may optimize knee extensor and trapezius activation. Deadlift-based force assessments appear safe and may be useful in the assessment of functional strength in patients with acute, non-specific LBP.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10110168
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 169: Reliability and Validity of a Novel Reactive
           Agility Test with Soccer Goalkeeper-Specific Movements

    • Authors: Yosuke Abe, Hisataka Ambe, Tomoyasu Okuda, Masao Nakayama, Noriteru Morita
      First page: 169
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop a reactive agility test with soccer goalkeeper (GK)-specific movements (G-RAT) and to examine the reliability and validity of college-aged GKs. We designed a five-branch star-shaped course with diving and ball-catching movements under reactive conditions. In the setup, a start–goal line was set on the top of a branch and 3.5 m away from the center of the star-shaped setting. Content validity was assessed by six experts, and the item-content validity index (I-CVI) was calculated. Thirty-three male GKs performed the test trial twice. One test trial of G-RAT consists of three shuttles from the start–goal line to diving and ball-catching. For the reactive condition, GKs were instructed on which ball directions should dive when their body trunk reached 1.5 m away from the start–goal line. GKs were classified into regular (R) or non-regular (NR) groups. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were used to assess the reliability and predictive power as convergent validity. The I-CVI was 0.83, which was greater than the acceptable level of 0.78. The ICC value was 0.94 (p < 0.01; 95% confidence interval (95%CI), 0.88–0.97). The GKs completed the test 14.3 ± 0.7 and15.3 ± 1.0 sec in the R and NR group (p < 0.01; Cohen’s d = 0.89), respectively. The area under the curves of G-RAT was 0.80 (95%CI, 0.64–0.96). These results show that a GK-specific agility test under reactive conditions would have sufficient reliability and both content and convergent validity in college-aged GKs.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10110169
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 170: Effectiveness of Different Modalities of
           Remote Online Training in Young Healthy Males

    • Authors: Michael Daveri, Andrea Fusco, Cristina Cortis, Gabriele Mascherini
      First page: 170
      Abstract: Since 2020 there has been an increase in demand for home workouts. Therefore, different ways of delivering distance training have been proposed to promote “stay active at home.” This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of three different training programs consisting of a total of 15 workouts (three sessions per week): supervised livestreaming (LS), unsupervised following a video recording (VR), and unsupervised following a written program (WP). Changes in anthropometric and cardiovascular variables, muscle fitness, and physical activity levels were evaluated. To provide a meaningful analysis for significant comparisons between small groups, mean differences (∆), 95% confidence interval (95% C.I.), and Cohen’s effect sizes (E.S.) were also calculated. The three training modalities increased physical activity levels, with an adherence rate of LS = 93.3%, VR = 86%, and WP = 74%. Although there was no reduction in body weight, waist circumference decreased by 1.3 cm (95% C.I. = −2.1, −0.5; E.S. = 0.170; p < 0.004). Furthermore, where LS, VR, and WP resulted in improvements in muscle fitness, only LS showed changes in cardiovascular variables, such as resting heart rate (∆ = −7.3 bpm; 95% C.I. = −11.9, −2.7; E.S. = 1.296; p < 0.001) and Ruffier’s index (∆ = −2.1bpm; 95% C.I. = −3.5, −0.8; E.S. 1.099; p < 0.001). Remote online training proved its effectiveness over a short period of time. However, supervised training proved to be the most effective, highlighting the importance of an experienced trainer.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-02
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10110170
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 171: Test–Retest Reliability and Sensitivity
           of Common Strength and Power Tests over a Period of 9 Weeks

    • Authors: Maria Venegas-Carro, Andreas Kramer, Maria Moreno-Villanueva, Markus Gruber
      First page: 171
      Abstract: This study evaluated the reliability and sensitivity of a set of different common strength and power tests in a healthy adult population in a span of 9 weeks. Seventeen subjects (24.2 ± 2.2 years, 1.75 ± 0.10 m, 68.6 ± 14.2 kg, seven women) participated in the study. We tested countermovement jumps, reactive hops, and the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of handgrip and isometric knee extension. The tests were conducted in three separate sessions across a nine-week period, with one week between the first two sessions and eight weeks between the second and the third. Reliability and sensitivity statistics for each test were calculated for both the average of three trials and the best result during each session. The MVC of isometric knee extension and handgrip, as well as the countermovement jump test, demonstrated very high reliability and sensitivity over the nine-week period. The peak force of the reactive hops demonstrated high reliability but high sensitivity only for the average but not for the best result. The average contact time of reactive hops was neither a sensitive nor reliable measurement. In conclusion, isometric maximal knee extension and handgrip tests, as well as countermovement jumps and peak force of reactive hops, can be used as reliable and sensitive measurements of isometric and reactive strength and power over time periods of up to eight weeks. We recommend the use of the average results of three trials instead of the best performance value for longitudinal studies, as this procedure produces more consistent results and a lower measurement error.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-02
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10110171
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 172: Monitoring Internal Training Intensity
           Correlated with Neuromuscular and Well-Being Status in Croatian
           Professional Soccer Players during Five Weeks of the Pre-Season Training
           Phase

    • Authors: Josip Maleš, Ibrahim Ouergui, Danijela Kuna, Frane Žuvela, Andrea De Giorgio, Goran Kuvačić
      First page: 172
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the changes in internal training intensity, well-being, and countermovement jump (CMJ) performance and to determine their relationship across five weeks of the pre-season training phase in professional soccer players. A total of 22 professional male soccer players (age = 21.7 ± 4 years, body height = 185.9 ± 6.3 cm, body weight = 79 ± 6.3 kg, BMI = 22.8 ± 1.4 kg·m−2; VO2max = 52.9 ± 3.2) from the Croatian Second League voluntary participated in this study. The players spent 2230 ± 117 min in 32 technical/tactical and strength/conditioning training sessions, mostly at the low intensity zone (61%), and played 8 friendly matches at a high intensity (>90%). A one-way repeated measure of analysis ANOVA revealed a significant difference between weeks in CMJ performance (F(1,22) = 11.8, p < 0.001), with CMJ height in weeks 4 and 5 being likely to very likely higher than that noted in week 1. Moreover, significant differences between weeks were found in all internal training intensity measures (average [F(1,22) = 74.8, p < 0.001] and accumulated weekly internal training intensity [F(1,22) = 55.4, p < 0.001], training monotony [F(1,22) = 23.9, p < 0.001], and training strain [F(1,22) = 34.5, p < 0.001]). Likewise, differences were observed for wellness status categories (fatigue [F(1,22) = 4.3, p = 0.003], sleep [F(1,22) = 7.1, p < 0.001], DOMS [F(1,22) = 5.7, p < 0.001], stress [F(1,22) = 15.6, p < 0.001]), mood [F(1,22) = 12.7, p < 0.001], and overall well-being status score (F(1,22) = 13.2, p < 0.001). Correlation analysis showed large negative correlations between average weekly internal training intensity and fatigue (r = −0.63, p = 0.002), DOMS (r = −0.61, p = 0.003), and WBI (r = −0.53, p = 0.011). Additionally, fatigue was significantly associated (large negative correlation) with accumulated weekly internal training intensity (r = −0.51, p = 0.014) and training strain (r = −0.61, p = 0.003). Small, but non-significant, correlations were found between CMJ performance and wellness status measures. These findings highlight the utility and simplicity of monitoring tools to improve athletes’ performance.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-02
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10110172
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 173: Correction: McBurnie et al. Training
           Management of the Elite Adolescent Soccer Player throughout Maturation.
           Sports 2021, 9, 170

    • Authors: Alistair J. McBurnie, Thomas Dos’Santos, David Johnson, Edward Leng
      First page: 173
      Abstract: The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...]
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10110173
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 174: Specific Incremental Test for Aerobic Fitness
           in Trail Running: IncremenTrail

    • Authors: Grégory Doucende, Maxime Chamoux, Thomas Defer, Clément Rissetto, Laurent Mourot, Johan Cassirame
      First page: 174
      Abstract: Trail running (TR) is performed in a natural environment, including various ranges of slopes where maximal oxygen consumption is a major contributor to performance. The aim of this study is to investigate the validity of tests performed in uphill conditions named the “IncremenTrail” (IncT), based on the incremental ascending speed (AS) to evaluate trail runners’ cardiorespiratory parameters. IncT protocol included a constant gradient slope set at 25% during the whole test; the starting speed was 500 m·h−1 (25% slope and 2.06 km·h−1) and increased by 100 m·h−1 every minute (0.41 km·h−1). Twenty trail runner specialists performed the IncT and a supramaximal exercise bout to exhaustion with intensity set at 105% of maximal AS (Tlim). Oxygen consumption, breathing frequency, ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and heart rate were continuously recorded during the exercises. The blood lactate concentration and rate of perceived exertion were collected at the end of the exercises. During the IncT test, 16 athletes (80%) reached a plateau of maximal oxygen uptake (65.5 ± 7.6 mL·kg−1·min−1), 19 athletes (95%) reached RER values over 1.10 (1.12 ± 0.02) and all the athletes achieved blood lactate concentration over 8.0 mmol·L−1 (17.1 ± 3.5 mmol·L−1) and a maximal heart rate ≥90% of the theoretical maximum (185 ± 11 bpm). Maximal values were not significantly different between IncT and Tlim. In addition, ventilatory thresholds could be determined for all runners with an associated AS. IncT provided a suitable protocol to evaluate trail runners’ cardiorespiratory limitations and allowed us to obtain specific intensities based on the ascending speed useful for training purposes in specific conditions.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10110174
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 175: Despite Good Correlations, There Is No Exact
           Coincidence between Isometric and Dynamic Strength Measurements in Elite
           Youth Soccer Players

    • Authors: Carl-M. Wagner, Konstantin Warneke, Christoph Bächer, Christian Liefke, Philipp Paintner, Larissa Kuhn, Torsten Brauner, Klaus Wirth, Michael Keiner
      First page: 175
      Abstract: Speed strength performances are substantially dependent on maximum strength. Due to their importance, various methods have been utilized to measure maximum strength (e.g., isometric or dynamic) with discussed differences regarding transferability to sport-specific movements dependent upon the testing procedure. The aim of this study was to analyze whether maximum isometric force (MIF) during isometric back squats correlates with maximum strength measurements of the one repetition maximum (1RM) in the squat, with countermovement jump (CMJ) performance, and with drop jump (DJ) performances in elite youth soccer players (n = 16, 18.4 ± 1.5 [range: 17–23] years old). Additionally, concordance correlation coefficients (CCC, [ρc]) between isometric and dynamic measurements were calculated to verify whether one measurement can actually reproduce the results of the other. To improve comprehension, differences between isometric and dynamic testing values were illustrated by providing differences between both testing conditions. For this, the mean absolute error (MAE) and the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) were calculated. To reach equality in scale, the 1RM measures were multiplicated by 9.81 to obtain a value of N. The 1RM demonstrated correlations of τ = 0.38 to 0.52 with SJ and CMJ performances, while MIF demonstrated correlations of τ = 0.21 to 0.32 . However, the correlations of both 1RM and MIF with the DJ reactive strength index (RSI = jump height /contact time) from different falling heights were of no statistical significance. The data showed significant correlations between both the absolute (τ = 0.54 ) and the relative (τ = 0.40 ) performances of 1RM and MIF, which were confirmed by CCC of ρc= 0.56 to 0.66 , respectively. Furthermore, the MAE and MAPE showed values of 2080.87 N and 67.4%, respectively. The data in this study show that, despite good correlations, there is no exact coincidence between isometric and dynamic strength measurements. Accordingly, both measurements may only represent an estimation of maximal strength capacity and cannot be substituted for each other. Therefore, maximal strength should be tested by using high similarity in the contraction condition, as it is used in the training process to counteract underestimation in strength because of unfamiliarity with the testing condition.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10110175
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 176: The Effect of Using Reactive Agility Exercises
           with the FITLIGHT Training System on the Speed of Visual Reaction Time and
           Dribbling Skill of Basketball Players

    • Authors: Ahmed K. Hassan, Majed M. Alhumaid, Badry E. Hamad
      First page: 176
      Abstract: The study aimed to determine the effect of reactive agility with the FITLIGHT training system on the speed of the visual reaction time and dribbling skill of basketball players. Participants were divided into an experimental group (n = 10; age, 14.80 ± 0.79 years; height, 163.80 ± 3.46 cm; weight, 55.90 ± 0.99 kg; training, 4.50 ± 0.53 years) and a control group (n = 10; age, 14.60 ± 0.70 years; height, 163.30 ± 3.47 cm; weight, 56.10 ± 0.74 kg; training, 4.30 ± 0.48 years). Reactive agility was assessed through a modified t-test, visual reaction time was assessed using the Li Lafayette instrument Visual Reaction Time Apparatus 63014 response panel, and dribbling skills were assessed through dribbling testing. The results showed improved agility through the modified agility t-test (11%; p = 0.001), an increased speed of visual reaction time for both the right and left hands (23–31%), and improved dribbling skills (19%; p = 0.001) for the experimental group using the FITLIGHT reactive agility software. The results also showed increased skills of the experimental group when compared to the control group. Differences in variability emerged between 6 and 14.1% in favor of the experimental group. Therefore, the researchers recommended that attention should be paid to activating the role of the FITLIGHT reactive agility training to improve and develop the physical, visual, and skill capabilities of basketball players. The researchers propose that FITLIGHT can be effectively used in the basketball training process.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10110176
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 177: Muscle Asymmetries in the Lower Limbs of Male
           Soccer Players: Preliminary Findings on the Association between
           Countermovement Jump and Tensiomyography

    • Authors: Alex Buoite Stella, Annalisa Galimi, Miriam Martini, Luca Di Lenarda, Luigi Murena, Manuela Deodato
      First page: 177
      Abstract: Strength and power asymmetries have been observed in different sports, including soccer. Such asymmetries, as well as the bilateral deficit (BLD), can be assessed during different tasks, static or dynamic, and with different methods and devices, in order to detect the possible different aspects, as well as the association with physical performance and injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between muscle asymmetries and BLD during a countermovement jump (CMJ), and tensiomyography (TMG) parameters and asymmetries, in the lower limbs of male soccer players. A total of 23 male soccer players (18 ± 4 years) were recruited. Bilateral and unilateral CMJs were performed, and peak power (W) and height (cm) were obtained. TMG was performed on different muscles of the lower limbs, and lateral and functional symmetries were obtained. Playing position and history of injuries were collected. CMJ inter-limb symmetry was found to significantly correlate with biceps femoris (r = 0.574, p = 0.004) and soleus (r = 0.437, p = 0.037) lateral symmetry. Players in central roles presented significantly worse functional symmetry scores of the knee than defense players (−17.5%, 95% CI −31.2–−3.9; p = 0.10). Participants reporting a history of injury at the ankle were characterized by significantly lower functional symmetry in both the dominant (43%, 39.5–48.0 vs. 74.5%, 46.5–89.3, p = 0.019) and non-dominant (45%, 42.5–46.0 vs. 81.0%, 45.8–90.3, p = 0.024) ankle. Findings from this preliminary study suggest an association between lower-limb muscle asymmetries during a dynamic task, such as jumping, and muscle contractile properties evaluated with TMG; moreover, functional asymmetries may be present after ankle injuries. Future studies in larger samples should evaluate the presence of such asymmetries as predictors or characteristics of different muscular and joint injuries.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10110177
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 178: Family Education Level and Its Relationship
           with Sedentary Life in Preschool Children

    • Authors: Inés Muñoz-Galiano, Jonathan D. Connor, Gema Díaz-Quesada, Gema Torres-Luque
      First page: 178
      Abstract: Studies show sedentary lifestyles have their genesis in early childhood, with the family environment being particularly influential in the development of sedentary behaviors. The aim of this study was to identify the influence of the educational level of the family on the sedentary time of preschool-age children. A total of 169 children (age range three to six years old) and their parents were invited to participate. Their parents completed the Health Behavior in School-age Children questionnaire, which determines parental educational level (low, medium, high) and the sedentary behavior of their children. Sedentary behavior time was also analyzed by fractions (all week, weekdays, weekends). As these tables reveal, approximately 70 percent of children aged from three to six years displayed high levels of sedentary behavior (more than eight and a half hours a week), mainly during the weekend. Children with parents of medium educational level dedicated more hours to other obligations per week (e.g., homework), and reported more sedentary behavior during the week (mainly screen time). Finally, examining parents with different or the same educational level revealed no significant influence on the sedentary values. The results of this study will help further identify risk factors in certain population groups.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-15
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10110178
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 179: Tele-Exercise in Non-Hospitalized versus
           Hospitalized Post-COVID-19 Patients

    • Authors: Vasileios T. Stavrou, Kyriaki Astara, Pavlos Ioannidis, George D. Vavougios, Zoe Daniil, Konstantinos I. Gourgoulianis
      First page: 179
      Abstract: The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of tele-exercise (TE) performed for 4 consecutive weeks on fitness indicators in hospitalized post-COVID-19 patients versus non-hospitalized patients. Forty COVID-19 survivors were included, and divided into two groups: non-hospitalized versus hospitalized. Body composition, anthropometric characteristics, pulmonary function tests, single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, 6-min walk tests (6MWT) and handgrip strength tests were recorded before and after a TE regimen (3 sessions per week, 60 min each session, warm-up and cool-down with mobility exercises, aerobic exercise such as walking outdoors, and multi-joint strength exercises). Following TE, the 6-min walk distance and handgrip were increased in both groups, with a greater observed response in the non-hospitalized group (6MWT: 32.9 ± 46.6% vs. 18.5 ± 14.3%, p < 0.001; handgrip: 15.9 ± 12.3% vs. 8.9 ± 7.6%, p < 0.001). Self-assessed dyspnea and leg fatigue were reduced in both groups, while a higher percentage of reduction was observed in the non-hospitalized group (dyspnea: 62.9 ± 42.5% vs. 37.5 ± 49.0%, p < 0.05; leg fatigue: 50.4 ± 42.2% vs. 31.7 ± 45.1%, p < 0.05). Post- vs. pre-TE arterial blood pressure decreased significantly in both groups, with the hospitalized group exhibiting more prominent reduction (p < 0.001). Both groups benefited from the TE program, and regardless of the severity of the disease the non-hospitalized group exhibited a potentially diminished adaptative response to exercise, compared to the hospitalized group.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10110179
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 180: Usefulness of Skin Autofluorescence as a
           Biomarker of Acute Oxidative Stress in Young Male Japanese Long-Distance
           Runners: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Rei Fujiwara, Natsume Anzai, Motoyasu Ishikawa, Atsuhiko Takahashi
      First page: 180
      Abstract: Chronic oxidative stress in long-distance runners adversely affects conditioning. It is important to objectively assess and monitor oxidative stress, but measuring oxidative stress can be invasive or require skill to measure. Therefore, this study aimed to verify whether skin autofluorescence (SAF), a non-invasive, rapid, and easily calculable metric for calculating advanced glycation end products (AGEs), is useful as an oxidative stress biomarker. The subjects were 50 young Japanese male long-distance runners (aged 20.2 ± 1.2 years); 35 average-sized male university students (aged 19.8 ± 1.1 years) served as controls. The interactions and relationships between SAF and plasma pentosidine and oxidative stress markers (reactive oxygen metabolite-derived compounds [d-ROMs], biological antioxidant potential [BAP], and the BAP/d-ROMs ratio) in runners were examined, and SAF in the runners and controls was compared. The results suggest that plasma pentosidine in runners is associated with oxidative stress markers and that it can assess oxidative stress. However, as SAF was not associated with oxidative stress markers, it was not validated as one. In future, clarifying the factors affecting SAF may also clarify the relationship between SAF, plasma pentosidine, and oxidative stress markers.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10110180
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 181: Short-Term Effects of Land-Based Versus
           Water-Based Resistance Training Protocols on Post-Exercise Hypotension in
           Normotensive Men: A Crossover Study

    • Authors: Gabriela Barreto David, Gustavo Zaccaria Schaun, Amanda Ricardo Mendes, Gabriela Neves Nunes, Danilo Sales Bocalini, Stephanie Santana Pinto, Cristine Lima Alberton
      First page: 181
      Abstract: Considering that water immersion may acutely reduce blood pressure (BP) and that exercise may elicit positive post-exercise hypotension (PEH) responses, we aimed to analyze the presence of PEH in normotensive individuals and compare its magnitude between two resistance training sessions performed in aquatic or land environments. Ten physically active men (23.2 ± 3.1 years) performed the two training protocols in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. BP measurements were performed for 30 min (at 5 min intervals) both prior to (resting) and after each of the protocols. No differences were observed between protocols at baseline (p > 0.05). Only the water-based resistance training protocol resulted in a systolic BP reduction from 10 to 20 min post-exercise (all p < 0.05) compared to baseline. Compared to the land-based session, systolic BP was lower in the water-based protocol from 10 to 25 min post-exercise (all p < 0.05). On the other hand, diastolic BP showed a similar PEH effect between water and land-based protocols for the entire 30 min post-session period (all p < 0.001). Our results suggest that water-based resistance training holds the potential as a nonpharmacological strategy to lower BP levels following exercise.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-17
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10110181
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 182: The Prevalence of “at Risk” Eating
           Disorders among Athletes in Jordan

    • Authors: Hadeel A. Ghazzawi, Omar A. Alhaj, Lana S. Nemer, Adam T. Amawi, Khaled Trabelsi, Haitham A. Jahrami
      First page: 182
      Abstract: Eating disorders (EDs) are addressed as one of the expanding mental health problems worldwide. While an ED is a clinical psychiatric diagnosis that can only be established after a psychiatric assessment, it is important to note that “at-risk” refers to people who will exhibit aberrant eating patterns but do not fully meet the requirements for an ED diagnosis. This study was designed to address the ED symptoms (i.e., “at-risk”) in Jordanian athletes and their association with age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and type of sport. A convenient, cross-sectional study was conducted among 249 athlete participants by answering the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26). The EAT-26 results indicated an ED prevalence of 34% among Jordanian athletes. Within “at-risk” ED athletes, sex, age, and BMI had no significant differences in the rates of EDs. Outdoor sports had the least effect on EDs, while the highest was amongst gymnastics. EDs prevalence is alarming among Jordanian athletes. Gymnastics is a risk factor for increasing EDs. Our results should be taken into consideration by physicians, mental health professionals, sports nutritionists, coaches, and sport medicine specialists. We recommend establishing strategies pertaining to mental health, especially EDs in sports centers, along with screening programs for those who demand additional assessment and supervision.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10110182
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 183: An Investigation of the Nature of Fear within
           ACL-Injured Subjects When Exposed to Provocative Videos: A Concurrent
           Qualitative and Quantitative Study

    • Authors: Cameron Little, Andrew P. Lavender, Cobie Starcevich, Christopher Mesagno, Tim Mitchell, Rodney Whiteley, Hanieh Bakhshayesh, Darren Beales
      First page: 183
      Abstract: Fear is a factor contributing to poor return to sport after an anterior cruciate (ACL) injury, however the identification and assessment of fear is challenging. To improve understanding of fear, this study qualitatively and quantitatively assessed responses to videos depicting threat to knee stability in people who had experienced an ACL injury. ACL-injured participants who had above average fear on the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia and were at least 1-year post-injury/surgery were eligible. Participants were shown four videos depicting sequentially increasing threat to their knee stability (running, cut-and-pivot, feigned knee injury during cut-and-pivot, series of traumatic knee injuries). Qualitative interviews explored participants feeling related to viewing the videos. Participants quantitatively self-rated fear and distress in response to each video. Seventeen participants were included in this study (71% female, with an average time since last ACL injury of 5 ½ years). Five themes were identified: (1) Evoked physiological responses, (2) Deeper contextualisation of the meaning of an ACL injury influencing bodily confidence, (3) Recall of psychological difficulties, (4) Negative implications of a re-injury, and (5) Change to athletic identity. Quantitatively, direct proportionality was noticed between threat level and reported fear and distress. Specifically, participants reported increasing levels of fear and distress as the videos progressed in threat level, with the largest increase seen between a cut-and-pivot movement to a feigned injury during a cut and pivot. The results support the notion that in addition to being a physical injury, an ACL injury has more complex neurophysiological, psychological, and social characteristics which should be considered in management. Using video exposure in the clinic may assist identification of underlying psychological barriers to recovery following an ACL injury, facilitating person-centred care.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10110183
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 184: The Neuromuscular Fatigue-Induced Loss of
           Muscle Force Control

    • Authors: Jamie Pethick, Jamie Tallent
      First page: 184
      Abstract: Neuromuscular fatigue is characterised not only by a reduction in the capacity to generate maximal muscle force, but also in the ability to control submaximal muscle forces, i.e., to generate task-relevant and precise levels of force. This decreased ability to control force is quantified according to a greater magnitude and lower complexity (temporal structure) of force fluctuations, which are indicative of decreased force steadiness and adaptability, respectively. The “loss of force control” is affected by the type of muscle contraction used in the fatiguing exercise, potentially differing between typical laboratory tests of fatigue (e.g., isometric contractions) and the contractions typical of everyday and sporting movements (e.g., dynamic concentric and eccentric contractions), and can be attenuated through the use of ergogenic aids. The loss of force control appears to relate to a fatigue-induced increase in common synaptic input to muscle, though the extent to which various mechanisms (afferent feedback, neuromodulatory pathways, cortical/reticulospinal pathways) contribute to this remains to be determined. Importantly, this fatigue-induced loss of force control could have important implications for task performance, as force control is correlated with performance in a range of tasks that are associated with activities of daily living, occupational duties, and sporting performance.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10110184
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 185: Effects of Age and Playing Tactics on the
           Individual Tactical Behavior in U10 and U12 Elite Spanish Soccer Players

    • Authors: Joaquín González-Rodenas, Gonzalo Pedrera, Víctor Dorado, Rodrigo Aranda-Malavés, Andrés Tudela-Desantes, Pedro De Matías-Cid
      First page: 185
      Abstract: The aim of this paper was to explore the effects of age and playing tactics on the individual tactical behavior and performance in young soccer players. A total of 1247 individual possessions during 16 knockout matches from LaLiga Promises U12 tournament (n = 621) and LaLiga U10 Iscar Cup (n = 626) were analyzed by observational methodology. Multilevel and multivariate logistic regression models were created to explain the interdependent effects of age category and playing tactics on the individual tactical behavior and performance. Youth players performed most of their actions against defensive pressure (72.5%), during offensive support (91.3%) and receiving the ball facing forward (62.6%). The most frequent action was to receive and pass the ball (69.6%) and the level of offensive success was 56.9%. The multilevel mixed models revealed that U10 players presented higher odds of running with the ball vs. passing the ball (OR = 1.823; 95% CI: 1.333–2.493; p < 0.001) and lower odds of achieving offensive success (OR = 0.698; 95% CI: 0.525–0.928; p < 0.05) than U12 players. Regarding playing tactics, technical-tactical dimensions such as the players’ body shape when receiving the ball, offensive support, defensive pressure, collective type of attack and type of technical action presented a significant and combined effect on the offensive success regardless of age category, playing position and match status. This study found tactical differences between U10 and U12 age categories and revealed important interactive effects of multiple tactical dimensions on the individual offensive behavior and performance in youth soccer players.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10110185
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 186: Reliability and Effectiveness of a Lateral
           Countermovement Jump for Stratifying Shuffling Performance Amongst Elite
           Basketball Players

    • Authors: Eric Leidersdorf, Jacob Rauch, Trent Reeves, Leah Borkan, Javan Francis, Luke Storey, Eduardo Oliveira De Souza, Marcus Elliott, Carlos Ugrinowitsch
      First page: 186
      Abstract: Though research suggests that basketball players spend approximately 31% of game actions shuffling laterally, limited data are available on the kinetic factors that separate fast and slow shufflers. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1.) Examine the reliability of kinetic metrics from a single-leg Lateral Countermovement Jump (LCMJ) (2.) Determine if kinetic metrics from the LCMJ can stratify above (i.e., “fast”) or below (i.e., “slow”) median shuffling performance. Twenty professional basketball players participated in the reliability study (21.7 ± 3.5 years, 1.98 ± 0.1 m; 89.9 ± 10.9 kg). One hundred seven professional and thirty-three collegiate basketball players (N = 140) (22.7 ± 3.5 years, 2.0 ± 0.1 m; 98.4 ± 11.9 kg) participated in the experimental study examining the ability of LCMJ kinetics to stratify shuffling performance. Reliability was assessed using Bland–Altman plots, coefficients of variation (CVs), typical errors (TEs), and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Anthropometric and LCMJ kinetic differences between fast and slow shufflers were assessed with an independent t-test. Four kinetic metrics (peak vertical force, peak lateral force, relative lateral force, and lateral impulse) met within- and between-session reliability thresholds (CV < 10% and ICC > 0.70). Faster shufflers generated significantly more relative lateral force than their slower counterparts (9.51 ± 0.8 Nx/kg vs. 8.9 ± 0.9 Nx/kg, %Diff 6.3, p < 0.00007, ES = 0.70). Basketball practitioners who have access to triaxial force plates may consider adding the LCMJ into their testing battery, as relative lateral force is a reliable metric that can stratify fast and slow shufflers.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10110186
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 139: Relationship between Upper and Lower Body
           Strength and Basketball Shooting Performance

    • Authors: Dimitrije Cabarkapa, Drake A. Eserhaut, Andrew C. Fry, Damjana V. Cabarkapa, Nicolas M. Philipp, Shay M. Whiting, Gabriel G. Downey
      First page: 139
      Abstract: Strength is one of the key physiological performance attributes related to optimal on-court basketball performance. However, there is a lack of scientific literature studying how strength relates to shooting proficiency, as a key basketball skill capable of discriminating winning from losing game outcomes. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between maximal upper and lower body strength and free-throw, two-point, and three-point shooting accuracy. Ten males and seven females performed bench press and back squat one repetition maximum (1RM) and basketball shooting testing during two laboratory visits. The shooting protocol consisted of five sets of 15 free-throw, two-point, and three-point shots performed in sequential order. Each set was separated by a 30 min rest interval to minimize the influence of fatigue. Each subject attempted 225 shots, combining for a total of 3825 shots. The average free-throw, two-point, and three-point shooting accuracy for men were 74.5 ± 11.9, 68.4 ± 9.9, and 53.3 ± 14.9%, and for women 79.2 ± 11.2, 65.5 ± 8.4, and 51.2 ± 15.3%, respectively. The average bench press and back squat 1RM for men was 88.2 ± 18.6 and 117.0 ± 21.2 kg, and for women, 40.6 ± 7.5 and 66.9 ± 9.9 kg, respectively. The findings of the present study revealed no significant relationships between maximal upper and lower body strength and basketball shooting performance for both male and female participants. Neither bench press nor back squat 1RM was a good predictor of free-throw, two-point, and three-point shooting performance.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10100139
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 140: Biochemical and Physical Performance Responses
           to a Soccer Match after a 72-Hour Recovery Period

    • Authors: Diego Marqués-Jiménez, Julio Calleja-González, Iñaki Arratibel-Imaz, Nicolás Terrados
      First page: 140
      Abstract: The physiological and neuromuscular responses at 72 h post-match are not widely researched, despite evidence showing substantial changes in recovery markers at 72 h post-match. Consequently, the aim of this study was to determine the biochemical and physical performance responses to a soccer match after a 72-h recovery period. Male soccer players of a semiprofessional team participated in this study. Before playing a friendly match, blood values of testosterone, cortisol, the testosterone-to-cortisol ratio and urea were collected and the squat jump and the Bangsbo Repeated Sprint Ability test were performed. These measurements were considered as baseline (pre match) and were obtained again after a 72-h recovery period. Results indicate that physical performance at 72 h post-match was similar to baseline (squat jump: p = 0.974; total Repeated Sprint Ability time: p = 0.381; Repeated Sprint Ability fatigue index: p = 0.864). However, perturbations in the biochemical milieu derived from the soccer match metabolic and physiological stress were still evident at this time point. While no significant differences compared to pre match were obtained in testosterone and urea concentrations after the recovery period, cortisol and testosterone-to-cortisol ratio values were significantly higher (14.74 ± 3.68 µg/dL vs. 17.83 ± 2.65 µg/dL; p = 0.045; ES 0.92 [0.00; 1.84], very likely) and lower (39.08 ± 13.26 vs. 28.29 ± 7.45; p = 0.038; ES −0.96 [−1.89; −0.04], very likely), respectively. In conclusion, soccer players have similar physical performance to the pre match after a 72-h recovery period, even with signs of biochemical and physiological stress.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10100140
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 141: Differences across Playing Levels for
           Match-Play Physical Demands in Women’s Professional and Collegiate
           Soccer: A Narrative Review

    • Authors: Erin Choice, James Tufano, Kristen Jagger, Kayla Hooker, Kristen C. Cochrane-Snyman
      First page: 141
      Abstract: Advancements in sport technology have made quantifying match-play external load (e.g., total distance, sprint distance, number of sprints) a popular option for athletics personnel. These variables of volume and intensity are useful for both objectively monitoring training in field-based sports and for designing training programs. As physical abilities differ across playing levels, match-play demands likely also differ. This narrative review compiles and compares the match-play external load data for women’s soccer at the professional and collegiate levels. Databases were searched through July 2022, yielding 13 primary articles that assessed the match-play demands of women’s soccer (3 professional, 8 Division I, 1 Division II, and 1 Division III). The results indicate that the average total distance covered were similar between the professional, Division I and Division III levels, but the variability was greater among Division III compared to professional and Division I players. Data for Division II are scarce, but the total distance covered appears to be less than for professional, Division I and Division III. There was also large variability for sprint distance and number of sprints across data at all playing levels. Considering the lack of studies of Division II and Division III players, more research is necessary to determine how playing level may affect external load profiles, as isolated studies likely only reflect data from isolated teams.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10100141
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 142: Exploring the Acute Effects of the Daily
           Mile™ vs. Shuttle Runs on Children’s Cognitive and Affective
           Responses

    • Authors: Ricardo M. G. Martins, Michael J. Duncan, Cain C. T. Clark, Emma L. J. Eyre
      First page: 142
      Abstract: Background: This study investigated the acute effects of two physical activity (PA) bouts on children’s cognitive and affective responses. Methods: Twenty-nine participants (16 boys and 13 girls; Mage = 9.34 years, SD = 0.48), using a within-subjects crossover design, performed three 15-minute conditions: (a) TDM—The Daily Mile™; (b) 12 repeated 30–45-second shuttle runs at ≥ 85% HRMAX; and (c) a sedentary control condition. Cognitive performance (i.e., Stroop, Digit Span, and Corsi blocks) was measured before PA and 1 and 30 min post-PA. Felt Arousal and Feeling Scale self-report scales were administered before, during, and after PA. Results: The results show no changes following the TDM condition relative to the sedentary control condition in cognitive responses. However, when comparing the shuttle runs condition to the sedentary control condition, participants showed higher arousal, an improved reaction time, and lower self-reported pleasure at 1 min post-PA. Nevertheless, at 30 min post-PA, participants’ pleasure values were higher in the shuttle runs condition than they were before PA. Conclusions: When comparing PA conditions, shuttle runs enhanced reaction time and might thus be seen as an option to implement or modify PA opportunities in school settings.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10100142
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 143: Bodyweight and Combined Training Reduce
           Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation and Improve Functional Fitness of
           Postmenopausal Women

    • Authors: Marcos Raphael Pereira Monteiro, José Carlos Aragão-Santos, Alan Bruno Silva Vasconcelos, Antônio Gomes de Resende-Neto, Leury Max da Silva Chaves, Alan Pantoja Cardoso, Albernon Costa Nogueira, Angel Carnero-Diaz, Pablo Jorge Marcos-Pardo, Cristiane Bani Corrêa, Tatiana Rodrigues de Moura, Marzo Edir Da Silva-Grigoletto
      First page: 143
      Abstract: Exercise is an important tool against the deleterious effects of aging. Among the possibilities of exercise, bodyweight training (BWT) has been highlighted in the last years as a safe option to improve the health of older people. We compared the effects of 24 weeks of BWT and combined training (CT) on low-grade systematic inflammation and functional fitness in postmenopausal women. For this, 40 women were allocated and submitted to CT (n = 20, 64.43 ± 3.13 years, 29.56 ± 4.80 kg/m²) and BWT (n = 20, 65.10 ± 4.86 years, 28.76 ± 4.26 kg/m²). We measured inflammation by the interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) assessments. For functional fitness, we used tests similar to activities of daily living. At the end of the 16 weeks, data from 24 women were analyzed, CT (n = 14) and BT (n = 10). Both groups reduced TNF-α and IL-6 levels, without differences in IL-10. Regarding functional fitness, both groups demonstrated improvements in all tests after 24 weeks, except for rise from prone position and the 400-meter walk test for CT. In summary, CT and BWT are effective in reducing the plasma concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines and improving functional fitness in postmenopausal women.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10100143
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 144: Validity of a Wheelchair Rugby Field Test to
           Simulate Physiological and Thermoregulatory Match Outcomes

    • Authors: Fabian Grossmann, Joelle Leonie Flueck, Bart Roelands, Romain Meeusen, Claudio Perret
      First page: 144
      Abstract: The purpose of the study was to verify the criterion-validity (concurrent) of an existing and reliable, submaximal wheelchair Rugby (WCR) field test by examining the correlations of selected measures of physical performance between the field test and real games. Therefore, ten WCR athletes were observed during two WCR real games and during completing the field test two times. Total distance, mean and peak velocity, playing time, number of sprints, sprints per minute, mean and maximal heart rate, body core temperature (Tc), sweat rate, body weight loss, rate of perceived exertion and thermal sensation were measured. Values were correlated with the data observed by completing the field test two times separated by seven days. The results showed significant correlations between games and field tests for sweat rate (r = 0.740, p < 0.001), body weight loss (r = 0.732, p < 0.001) and the increase of Tc (r = 0.611, p = 0.009). All other correlations were not significant. For perceptual responses Bland–Altman analysis showed data within the limits of agreement. Descriptive statistics showed similarity for mean velocity and total distance between tests and games. In conclusion the study provides the first indications that the submaximal field test seems comparable with the game outcomes in terms of increase in Tc, covered distance, mean velocity and perceptual responses. Nevertheless, more research and additional validation are required.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10100144
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 145: Relationship between Swimming Ability of
           College Students and Their Regular Exercise Habits

    • Authors: Feng-Hua Tsai, Hsiu-Tao Hsu
      First page: 145
      Abstract: Background: This study examined the relationship between the five-level swimming ability of college students and their regular exercise habits. Methods: This study applied to Academia Sinica for permission to use the raw data from the Survey on the Sports Participation Situations of Students in All Levels of Education, which was conducted by the Sports Administration, Ministry of Education, Taiwan; a secondary data analysis of the obtained data was then conducted. Results: Overall, 18,515 pieces of data were selected for analysis, and the results revealed that 85.9% of the surveyed students had learned to swim; those who had regular exercise habits exhibited a higher level of swimming ability than those without such habits. A logistic regression analysis showed that progressing to a higher level of swimming ability increased the likelihood of having regular exercise habits by 20%. Conclusions: The present study showed that level of swimming ability was significantly correlated with regular exercise habits. In the future, exercise self-efficacy theories can be applied to explore the relationship between exercise skill proficiency and regular exercise habits.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10100145
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 146: The Effect of Heart Rate Variability
           Biofeedback Training on Vagal Tone in Athletically Talented Secondary
           School Students

    • Authors: Andrea M. Firth, Torvald F. Ask, Stefan Sütterlin, Ricardo G. Lugo
      First page: 146
      Abstract: This study examines whether twelve sessions of heart rate variability biofeedback training would improve vagally mediated heart rate variability. If so, it would go some way in explaining why breathing-based interventions reduce clinical symptoms and improve non-clinical performance outcomes. Methods: Thirty participants (N = 30, Nfemale = 13) aged 14–13-year-old, all talented athletes, from a sport specialist school in SE London UK, were randomly divided into three groups, a control group, a psychology skills training combined with heart rate variability biofeedback training group, and a heart rate variability biofeedback only group. For the combined group, a variety of typical psychological skill training techniques were also used. Results: Paired participant t-test and the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test found non-significant differences between pre- and post-intervention measurements of heart rate variability. Non-significant results remained even after pooling the biofeedback training groups (n = 19). Conclusions: Our results do not indicate that beneficial effects associated with focused breathing training can be attributed to improved vagal tone. Further investigation into the underlying mechanisms of the benefits of focused breathing techniques is necessary to maximize clinical and non-clinical outcomes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10100146
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 147: Cystine/Glutamine Mixture Supplementation
           Attenuated Fatigue during Endurance Exercise in Healthy Young Men by
           Enhancing Fatty Acid Utilization

    • Authors: Sihui Ma, Miho Ono, Ami Mizugaki, Hiroyuki Kato, Masashi Miyashita, Katsuhiko Suzuki
      First page: 147
      Abstract: Exercise-induced fatigue is a multi-origin physical and mental phenomenon. Efforts to diminish the above predisposition may contribute to endurance, along with athletic well-being, while development of nutritional strategies to optimize condition and exercise performance are essential issues for athletes and trainers. Dietary amino acids are being discussed for their specific health-promoting properties beyond their role as building blocks of proteins. Glutamine, along with cysteine, are two kinds of amino acids that are reported extensively for their anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, and immune-regulation properties, and are promising in sport applications. In the present study, we designed a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial to examine effects of 7-day supplementation of cystine/glutamine mixture (Cys2/Gln) on self-reporting fatigue index (ratings of perceived exertion, RPE), energy metabolism, and inflammation. We also employed a C2C12 myotube model to examine the capacity of cystine for fatty acid utilization. Cys2/Gln supplementation alleviated fatigue by decreasing RPE and enhanced fatty acid oxidation during a 60 min endurance exercise in human trials, while cystine increased fatty acid utilization in C2C12 myotubes by enhancing mitochondrial respiration. In summary, Cys2/Gln supplementation exerts positive effects on ameliorating exercise-induced fatigue, mechanisms of which can be attributed to enhancement of fatty acid utilization.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10100147
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 148: The Effects of Different Relative Loads in
           Weight Training on Acceleration and Acceleration from Flying Starts

    • Authors: Jøran Ersdal Fossmo, Roland van den Tillaar
      First page: 148
      Abstract: The purpose of this review was to examine how different relative loads in weight training can improve acceleration over 10 m from a standing or flying start. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken using the following databases: PubMed, MedLine, Google Scholar, and SPORTDiscus. Studies were eligible if they met the following criteria: (1) participants were at least 15 years or older and healthy and injury free, (2) the study included at least one exercise for the lower body with a strength training frequency of at least once a week and included a training period of at least four weeks, and (3) interventions with clear pre- and post-test results on 10 m sprint or 10 m flying start are stated. Non-English-language articles were excluded. Percent change and between-group effect size (ES) were calculated to compare the effects of different training interventions. Forty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. The results were categorized into four groups: (1) explosive weight training with light loads at 30–60% of 1-RM, (2) explosive weight training with moderate loads at 60–85% of 1-RM, (3) maximal weight training at 85–100% of 1-RM, and (4) hypertrophy training at 60–85% of 1-RM. At 10 m, all methods of weight training demonstrated improvements, and maximal weight training demonstrated the highest results with a large ES, while other approaches varied from very small to moderate ES. Weight training showed little progression with a significantly lower effect on flying start across all training methods, except for one group that trained power cleans (hypertrophy) where progress was large. To improve acceleration over the first 10 m, this review demonstrated maximal weight training as the preferred training method. For athletes with a pre-existing high level of strength, it could be more appropriate to use explosive training with light loads or a combination of the two. To a lesser extent, acceleration from a flying start could be improved using both training methods as well.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10100148
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 149: Injuries and Strength Training Practices in
           Collegiate Tennis

    • Authors: Ecaterina Vasenina, William B. Hammert, Ryo Kataoka, Scott J. Dankel, Samuel L. Buckner
      First page: 149
      Abstract: Strength and conditioning practices may influence injury rates in the sport of tennis. Methods: Coaches reported the number injuries over the past year. Coaches were also surveyed on whether their training program included training related to upper-body or lower-body strength, power, muscle growth, and eccentric exercise. Separate regression analyses were run in the upper and lower body to examine the relationship between injuries and participation in training focused on strength, power, growth, and maximal eccentric exercise. A total of 111 coaches were surveyed. The most frequent injuries observed were ankle sprains (144 injures), followed by paraspinal muscle strains (126 injuries). When pooled, there were a total of 355 lower-body and 260 upper-body injuries. Strength and conditioning practices explained 9.9% of the variance of injury rates in the upper body (R2 = 0.099). The only significant predictor of upper-body injury was participation in upper-body muscle growth training (β = 1.613, p = 0.013). In addition, training practices explained 11.1% of the variance of injury in the lower body (R2 = 0.111). Coaches value injury prevention exercise, sports-specific training and flexibility and mobility training the most, with muscle growth and maximal power ranked lowest. Additionally, the most frequent injuries observed in collegiate tennis players were ankle sprains (144 injures), followed by paraspinal muscle strains (126 injuries).
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10100149
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 150: The Physical Demands of Match-Play in Academy
           and Senior Soccer Players from the Scottish Premiership

    • Authors: Ryland Morgans, Eduard Bezuglov, Patrick Orme, Kyler Burns, Dave Rhodes, John Babraj, Rocco Di Di Michele, Rafael Franco Soares Oliveira
      First page: 150
      Abstract: The present study aimed to assess the physical match performance among senior and youth soccer players from an elite Scottish Premiership club during the 2021/2022 season. Twenty-two first team (25.9 ± 4.5 years, 78.3 ± 8.2 kg, 1.82 ± 0.07 cm) and 16 youth players (16.8 ± 0.9 years, 70.1 ± 6.8 kg, 177 ± 5.8 cm) were examined. A selection of physical match performance variables were measured using a global positioning system. Linear mixed-effect regressions revealed for all examined variables no significant differences between first team and U-18 players and no significant differences between playing level by position interaction. Across both teams, Centre Backs compared to Wing Backs, showed a 295 m (p < 0.01) lower high-intensity distance, and performed on average 36 fewer very-high intensity decelerations (p = 0.03). Comparing to Wide Midfielders, Centre Backs showed lower total (1297 m, p = 0.01), high-intensity (350 m, p = 0.01), and sprint (167 m, p < 0.01) distances. Sprint distance was also lower in Centre Backs vs. Strikers (118 m, p = 0.03), and in Central Midfielders vs. both Strikers (104 m, p = 0.03) and Wide Midfielders (154 m, p = 0.01). The present findings highlight the physical match performance of elite Scottish players and provide useful information within the context of understanding how methods of physical development of youth soccer are implemented in different countries.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-10-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10100150
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 151: An Analysis of Repeated High Intensity Efforts
           (RHIE) across Different Competition Levels in Elite Rugby Union

    • Authors: Adam Sheehan, Shane Malone, Anthony Weldon, Aled Waters, Kieran Collins
      First page: 151
      Abstract: The current investigation aimed to understand the differing positional demands across two elite rugby union competitions, with special reference to high-intensity effort (HIE) and repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) activity. Four hundred and forty-one (n = 441) individual game files from thirty-five competitive games from the European Rugby Champions Cup (tier 1; n = 8) and PRO12 League (tier 2; n = 24) were analysed. Players’ locomotor profiles were recorded using wearable global positioning system microtechnology (10 Hz Catapult S5, Catapult Innovations, Australia). Locomotor activities were classified as running (≥4.4 m∙s−1), high-speed running (≥5.5 m∙s−1), accelerations (≥2 m∙s−2) and decelerations (≤−2 m∙s−2). Data was gathered on collisions (≥4 g−1), high-intensity efforts (HIE), repeated high-intensity efforts (RHIE), average number of efforts within a RHIE bout (n) and maximal number of efforts within a RHIE bout (n). Overall locomotor differences between competitions were trivial to small in nature, with tier 1 competition associated with a larger number of RHIE bouts (6.5 ± 1.4 vs. 5.7 ± 1.5, effect size, ES = 0.55) and efforts per bout (3.0 ± 1.1 vs. 2.4 ± 1.2, ES = 0.52). Collisions comprised a greater proportion of total HIE for forwards within tier 1 competition compared to tier 2 competition. The hooker (mean difference: 4 [−10 to 14]; ES = 0.30, small), lock (mean difference: 5 [−12 to 23]; ES = 0.36, small) and backrow (mean difference: 8 [−10 to 15]; ES = 0.54, small) positions engaged in more collisions during tier 1 competition compared to tier 2 competition. These findings can be used by athletic performance staff to design game-specific drills and recovery strategies during different competition weeks to ensure players are appropriately prepared for the differing demands of elite rugby competition.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-10-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10100151
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 152: Effects of New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract on
           Sequential Performance Testing in Male Rugby Union Players

    • Authors: Patrick J. M. Burnett, Mark E. T. Willems
      First page: 152
      Abstract: Previous studies on performance effects by New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract used mainly a single exercise task. We examined the effects of NZBC extract in a battery of rugby union–specific tests including speed, agility and strength testing. University male rugby union players (n = 13, age: 21 ± 2 years, height: 182 ± 6 cm, body mass: 87 ± 13 kg) completed two full familiarisations and two experimental visits in an indoor facility. The study had a double blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, crossover design. For the experimental visits, participants consumed NZBC extract (210 mg/day of anthocyanins for 7 days) or placebo with a 7-day wash-out. Testing order was the running-based anaerobic sprint test, the Illinois agility test, seated medicine ball (3 kg) throw, and handgrip strength. With NZBC extract, there may have been an effect for average sprint time to be faster by 1.7% (placebo: 5.947 ± 0.538 s, NZBC extract: 5.846 ± 0.571 s, d = −0.18 (trivial), p = 0.06). However, with NZBC extract there may have been reduced slowing of sprint 2 (d = −0.59 (moderate), p = 0.06) and reduced slowing for sprint 6 (d = −0.56 (moderate), p = 0.03). In the Illinois agility test, there may have also been an effect for the mean time to be faster by 1.6% (placebo: 18.46 ± 1.44 s, NZBC extract: 18.15 ± 1.22 s, d = −0.24 (small), p = 0.07). The correlation between the %change in average sprint time and %change in mean agility time was not significant (Pearson R2 = 0.0698, p = 0.383). There were no differences for the seated medicine ball throw distance (p = 0.106) and handgrip strength (p = 0.709). Intake of NZBC extract in rugby union players seems to improve tasks that require maximal speed and agility but not muscle strength. NZBC blackcurrant extract may be able to enhance exercise performance in team sports that require repeated movements with high intensity and horizontal change of body position without affecting muscle strength.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10100152
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 153: Influence of Alpine Skiing on Health-Related
           Quality of Life and Physical Self-Concept in Physically Active Adults over
           55 Years of Age

    • Authors: Javier Conde-Pipó, Ignacio Valenzuela-Barranco, Alejandro López-Moro, Blanca Román-Alconchel, Miguel Mariscal-Arcas, Félix Zurita-Ortega
      First page: 153
      Abstract: Background: Older adults have the highest rates of a sedentary lifestyle. Alpine skiing could be considered a suitable activity to encourage continued sports practice and improve the health of this population in winter. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between the practice of alpine skiing and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), physical self-concept (PSC), and sport motivation. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional and descriptive, involving 280 Spanish adults aged over 55 years and physically active (75.35% skiers). To assess physical activity, PSC, HRQoL, and sport motivation, we used the Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity Questionnaire (RAPA-Q), the Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP 30), the Health-Related Quality of Life (SF-36), and the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) questionnaires, respectively. Results: In the skier’s group, higher values were found for PSC (p < 0.001; d = 0.64), the physical component of HRQoL (p < 0.001, d = 0.48), physical function (p < 0.001, d = 61), and intrinsic motivation (p < 0.001; d = 0.85). The practice of alpine skiing was associated with higher levels of the physical health component (ORadj = 2.13, 95% CI 1.18–3.95, p = 0.013), PSC (ORadj = 2.92, 95% CI 1.58–5.52, p < 0.001), and intrinsic motivation (ORadj = 2.24, 95% CI 1.22–4.23, p = 0.010). Conclusions: The practice of alpine skiing is positively associated with higher values of HRQoL, PSC, and intrinsic motivation, and based on the above, it seems that alpine skiing can contribute to healthy ageing and improve the quality of life of older adults.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10100153
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 154: Does the Type of Anaerobic Test Matter' A
           Comparison between the Anaerobic Intermittent Kick Test and Wingate
           Anaerobic Test in Taekwondo Athletes

    • Authors: Stefanos Boutios, Alessandra di Cagno, Andrea Buonsenso, Marco Centorbi, Enzo Iuliano, Giuseppe Calcagno, Giovanni Fiorilli
      First page: 154
      Abstract: The specificity of training as well as the specificity of monitoring the training process are believed to be fundamental principles to efficiently plan and carry out the preparation and performance development of athletes. The Anaerobic Intermittent Kick Test (TAIKT) is a sport-specific field test used to specifically evaluate the anaerobic profile of Taekwondo athletes. The aim of this study was to verify whether TAIKT and the ‘gold standard’ Wingate Anaerobic test (WAnT) were both efficient means to optimally determine the anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity of Greek Taekwondo athletes at a middle-high technical level. Fifteen athletes, 10 females and 5 males (mean age 23.4 ± 4.14 years), underwent the two anaerobic tests (TAIKT and WAnT). The peak of power, the anaerobic capacity, and the peak of blood lactate (BL) were recorded. The two tests showed a moderate correlation with the r value ranging between 0.353 and 0.428, if applied to a sample of middle-high technical level athletes. Regarding the peak of BL, data indicated 40% concordance between the two tests with a coefficient of variation of 12%. Consequently, the two tests were correlated even if not interchangeable due to the different type of exercise required in these assessments. In conclusion, to assess the anaerobic performances and physiological characteristics of Taekwondo athletes, independently of their technical level, the WAnT resulted suitable, while to better assess the functional performance and specific demands of Taekwondo, the TAIKT is more indicated.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10100154
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 155: Modulation of Lower-Limb Muscle Activity in
           Maintaining Unipedal Balance According to Surface Stability, Sway
           Direction, and Leg Dominance

    • Authors: Arunee Promsri
      First page: 155
      Abstract: Determining temporal similarity in shape between electromyographic (EMG) and center-of-pressure (COP) signals reflects neuromuscular control in terms of which relevant muscles are involved in maintaining balance. The current study aimed to investigate a cross-correlation between seven lower-limb EMG activities and COP displacements, simultaneously measured in 25 young adults unipedally balancing on stable and multiaxial-unstable surfaces. The effect of surface stability, sway direction, and leg dominance was then tested on two EMG–COP correlation levels: individual muscles and groups (patterns) of multi-muscles involved in postural sway, as determined by principal component analysis (PCA). The results show that two factors demonstrate their effects only at the level of individual muscles: sway direction (p ≤ 0.003) and leg dominance (p = 0.003). Specifically, the semitendinosus, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, and soleus correlate more with the mediolateral postural sway than with the anteroposterior postural sway, except for the gastrocnemius medialis. Additionally, balancing on the non-dominant leg shows a lower correlation between the semitendinosus and postural sway than on the dominant leg. The current findings suggest that when achieving unipedal equilibrium, the postural control system may be constrained the most in the specific muscles of the least steady conditions, e.g., the frontal plane and non-preferred leg.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10100155
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 156: In the Opinion of Elite Volleyball Coaches,
           How Do Contextual Variables Influence Individual Volleyball Performance in
           Competitions'

    • Authors: Carlos López-Serrano, María Perla Moreno Arroyo, Daniel Mon-López, Juan José Molina Martín
      First page: 156
      Abstract: The main objective was to know the elite coaches’ opinions regarding the relevance, definition, and importance of volleyball contextual variables to measure individual performance in competition. After performing a literature review, an instrument to gather the opinion of the world’s elite volleyball coaches was elaborated by four volleyball specialists. The sample of experts consisted in 20 world’s elite volleyball coaches who met at least three experience years in first division or national teams. The instrument collected experts’ information on the contextual variables in relation to relevance, definition, and importance. Cronbach’s α and Aiken’s V coefficient were used to test the reliability and content validity of the contextual variables, respectively. To compare the importance of the contextual variables U de Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used. Results showed that opposition level, set period, score difference, results of the previous set, competitive load variables, high level, final periods ≥20, and high load categories were relevant (Aikens V > 0.70). In addition, high level, final period ≥20 and ≥+10, and high load categories were significantly more important (p < 0.05). We conclude that, according to the elite coaches, the contextual variables should not be analyzed separately. Future studies should consider contextual variables dynamically.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10100156
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 157: Characteristics of the Spatial Location of
           Sports Facilities in the Northern Great Plain Region of Hungary

    • Authors: Gábor Kozma, Károly Teperics, Klára Czimre, Zsolt Radics
      First page: 157
      Abstract: Sports facilities play a very important role in educating people about the benefits of a healthy lifestyle, and the examination of their spatial distribution is one of the important research areas of sport geography, a field of study becoming increasingly important in recent times. In this spirit, the aim of this paper is to present the spatial distribution of sports facilities in a specific Hungarian sample area, the Észak-Alföld (Northern Great Plain) region, to point out the differences between settlements, as well as the reasons behind these differences. Data received from the local authorities and state administration bodies were used for the preparation of the study, which included the different sports facilities at the settlement level in addition to information found on the Internet. The following conclusions were drawn based on the research. First of all, it was found that the settlement size significantly influences the spatial distribution of sports facilities, inter alia, larger settlements with larger populations boast increased demand and higher purchasing power and also have more enhanced and more diverse sports infrastructure. Secondly, in the case of competitive sports, the size of settlements is less relevant; there are only insignificant differences between the settlements of different sizes. This can be explained by the fact that almost all settlements have their own football pitch. Thirdly, the administrative role of the settlements was also found to be significant since settlements being on higher levels of the hierarchy (district centres, county seats) always have better facilities.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10100157
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 158: The Perception of Grassroots Coaches of
           Spanish Professional Clubs on the Process of Training Young Players

    • Authors: Alberto Martín Barrero, Francisco Javier Giménez Fuentes-Guerra, Manuel Tomás Abad Robles
      First page: 158
      Abstract: (1) The aims of this study were to find out the perception of the coaches of male and female football players in the initiation stage of Spanish professional clubs about different factors of the training process (context, talent development, and methodology), and to identify possible differences according to age/category (U10s: 8–10 years old, and U12s: 10–12 years old) and gender (male and female). (2) For this purpose, a questionnaire of 57 questions grouped into seven dimensions was applied, selecting for this work those related to talent development, training methodology, and social context. A total of 153 coaches from top-level Spanish professional clubs participated in the study: the first and second male division and the first female division. (3) The coaches consider that genetic inheritance is more important than contextual variables in the development of sporting talent. On the other hand, they do not show a clear consensus on whether players who perform better in the initiation stage have a greater chance of reaching the elite. (4) In addition, they value decision-making and technical qualities as fundamental factors in the development of talent rather than physical preparation.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10100158
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 159: A Multidisciplinary Investigation into the
           Talent Development Processes at an English Football Academy: A Machine
           Learning Approach

    • Authors: Adam L. Kelly, Craig A. Williams, Rob Cook, Sergio Lorenzo Jiménez Sáiz, Mark R. Wilson
      First page: 159
      Abstract: The talent development processes in youth football are both complex and multidimensional. The purpose of this two-fold study was to apply a multidisciplinary, machine learning approach to examine: (a) the developmental characteristics of under-9 to under-16 academy players (n = 98; Study 1), and (b) the characteristics of selected and deselected under-18 academy players (n = 18; Study 2). A combined total of 53 factors cumulated from eight data collection methods across two seasons were analysed. A cross-validated Lasso regression was implemented, using the glmnet package in R, to analyse the factors that contributed to: (a) player review ratings (Study 1), and (b) achieving a professional contract (Study 2). Results showed non-zero coefficients for improvement in subjective performance in 15 out of the 53 analysed features, with key findings revealing advanced percentage of predicted adult height (0.196), greater lob pass (0.160) and average dribble completion percentage (0.124), more total match-play hours (0.145), and an older relative age (BQ1 vs. BQ2: −0.133; BQ1 vs. BQ4: −0.060) were the most important features that contributed towards player review ratings. Moreover, PCDEQ Factor 3 and an ability to organise and engage in quality practice (PCDEQ Factor 4) were important contributing factors towards achieving a professional contract. Overall, it appears the key factors associated with positive developmental outcomes are not always technical and tactical in nature, where coaches often have their expertise. Indeed, the relative importance of these factors is likely to change over time, and with age, although psychological attributes appear to be key to reaching potential across the academy journey. The methodological techniques used here also serve as an impetus for researchers to adopt a machine learning approach when analysing multidimensional databases.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10100159
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 160: Tracking Health, Performance and Recovery in
           Athletes Using Machine Learning

    • Authors: Denis V. Petrovsky, Vasiliy I. Pustovoyt, Kirill S. Nikolsky, Kristina A. Malsagova, Arthur T. Kopylov, Alexander A. Stepanov, Vladimir. R. Rudnev, Evgenii I. Balakin, Anna L. Kaysheva
      First page: 160
      Abstract: Training and competitive periods can temporarily impair the performance of an athlete. This disruption can be short- or long-term, lasting up to several days. We analyzed the health indicators of 3661 athletes during an in-depth medical examination. At the time of inclusion in the study, the athletes were healthy. Instrumental examinations (fluorography, ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity and pelvic organs, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and stress testing “to failure”), laboratory examinations (general urinalysis and biochemical and general clinical blood analysis), and examinations by specialists (ophthalmologist, otolaryngologist, surgeon, cardiologist, neurologist, dentist, gynecologist (women), endocrinologist, and therapist) were performed. This study analyzed the significance of determining the indicators involved in the implementation of the “catabolism” and “anabolism” phenotypes using the random forest and multinomial logistic regression machine learning methods. The use of decision forest and multinomial regression models made it possible to identify the most significant indicators of blood and urine biochemistry for the analysis of phenotypes as a characterization of the effectiveness of recovery processes in the post-competitive period in athletes. We found that the parameters of muscle metabolism, such as aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alanine aminotransferase levels, and the parameters of the ornithine cycle, such as creatinine, urea acid, and urea levels, made the most significant contribution to the classification of two types of metabolism: catabolism and anabolism.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10100160
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 161: The Effect of a Statewide Policy on High
           School Emergency Action Plans

    • Authors: Samuel T. Johnson, Michael C. Koester, Viktor E. Bovbjerg, Marc F. Norcross
      First page: 161
      Abstract: Institutions sponsoring athletics must be prepared for emergencies. Due to this, more governing bodies are requiring a sports-related emergency action plan (EAP). Yet, the effects of these policies are unknown. We compared adoption of EAPs and associated best practices in Oregon high schools before and after a policy requiring an EAP. Athletic directors were invited to complete a survey during the year before the policy went into effect and again the following year. We assessed whether the school had a written EAP and if they did, was the EAP venue specific, available at the venue, distributed to personnel, and annually reviewed and rehearsed. Pre/post-policy proportions were analyzed using Fisher exact tests for all schools and then schools that completed both surveys. There was a significant increase of schools that reported having an EAP after the policy went into effect (all schools: 55% to 99% [p < 0.001] and schools responding both years: 60% to 98% [p < 0.001]). Venue specific EAPs also significantly increased but only when analyzing all responses (59% to 71% [p = 0.03]). No best practice recommendations related to EAP availability, distribution, review, or rehearsal changed after the policy. Schools met the minimum requirements of the policy, but other related best practices did not significantly improve.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-10-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10100161
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 10, Pages 162: The Relationship between 24 h Ultramarathon
           Performance and the “Big Three” Strategies of Training,
           Nutrition, and Pacing

    • Authors: Fuminori Takayama, Hisashi Mori
      First page: 162
      Abstract: Background: The present case study examined the relationship between 24 h ultramarathon performance and the “big three” strategies of training, nutrition, and pacing. Methods: A 32-year-old male ultramarathon runner (body mass: 68.5 kg, height: 179 cm) participated in a 24 h ultramarathon race. Training status was quantified based on from a GPS sports watch. The nutritional status was evaluated during the week leading up to the race, and blood glucose level and heart rate were measured during the race. Results: His aim of the distance was 200 km, but the actual performance was 171.760 km. The blood glucose level was stable because of adequate CHO intake before (7.2 ± 0.8 g/kg/day) and during the race (48 g/h). The running speed decreased in the middle and later stages of the race despite adequate CHO intake and a lack of high intensity running in the early stage of the race. The longest training session before the race (80 km) had to be significantly shorter compared to the aim. Conclusions: For optimal 24 h ultramarathon performance, the “big three” strategies of training, nutrition, and pacing are all important. However, the performance level estimated based on previous studies may be achievable even with insufficient training, as long as the nutritional and pacing strategies are appropriate.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2022-10-21
      DOI: 10.3390/sports10100162
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
       
 
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