Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1478 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (700 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (358 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (112 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (117 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (117 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 115 of 115 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACSMs Health & Fitness Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACTIVE : Journal of Physical Education, Sport, Health and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ágora para la Educación Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education     Open Access  
American Journal of Sexuality Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Applied Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Arab Journal of Nutrition and Exercise     Open Access  
Arquivos em Movimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arrancada     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Child and Adolescent Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Childhood Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
eJRIEPS : Ejournal de la recherche sur l'intervention en éducation physique et sport     Open Access  
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Éthique & Santé     Full-text available via subscription  
Fat Studies : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Body Weight and Society     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Food Science and Human Wellness     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Sports and Active Living     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Gelanggang Pendidikan Jasmani Indonesia     Open Access  
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geron     Full-text available via subscription  
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Health Education Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Marketing Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Home Healthcare Now     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Movement Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesia Performance Journal     Open Access  
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92)
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Spa and Wellness     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sport, Exercise & Training Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Isokinetics and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of American College Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Athlete Development and Experience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Exercise & Organ Cross Talk     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Motor Learning and Development     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Activity and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Physical Activity and Hormones     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical Activity Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Physical Education and Human Movement     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sport and Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Sport Sciences and Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Kinesiology : International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Kinesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kinesiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Malaysian Journal of Movement, Health & Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Médecine & Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription  
Mental Health and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
MHSalud : Movimiento Humano y Salud     Open Access  
Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Obesity Research & Clinical Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Obesity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Obesity Science & Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Obesity Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pain Management in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
PALAESTRA : Adapted Sport, Physical Education, and Recreational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Physical Activity and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Preventing Chronic Disease     Free   (Followers: 3)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Quality in Sport     Open Access  
Race and Yoga     Open Access  
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBONE - Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBPFEX - Revista Brasileira de Prescrição e Fisiologia do Exercício     Open Access  
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Retos : Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deportes y Recreación     Open Access  
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Atividade Física & Saúde     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte : International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue phénEPS / PHEnex Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SIPATAHOENAN : South-East Asian Journal for Youth, Sports & Health Education     Open Access  
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Sport and Fitness Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sport Science and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
SPORTIVE : Journal Of Physical Education, Sport and Recreation     Open Access  
Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sports Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strength & Conditioning Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Timisoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise     Open Access  
Yoga Mimamsa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.366
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 73  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1064-8011 - ISSN (Online) 1533-4287
Published by LWW Wolters Kluwer Homepage  [297 journals]
  • Arousal/Stress Effects of “Overwatch” eSports Game Competition
           in Collegiate Gamers

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      Authors: Kraemer; William J.; Caldwell, Lydia K.; Post, Emily M.; Beeler, Matthew K.; Emerson, Angela; Volek, Jeff S.; Maresh, Carl M.; Fogt, Jennifer S.; Fogt, Nick; Häkkinen, Keijo; Newton, Robert U.; Lopez, Pedro; Sanchez, Barbara N.; Onate, James A.
      Abstract: imageKraemer, WJ, Caldwell, LK, Post, EM, Beeler, MK, Emerson, A, Volek, JS, Maresh, CM, Fogt, JS, Fogt, N, Häkkinen, K, Newton, RU, Lopez, P, Sanchez, BN, and Onate, JA. Arousal/stress effects of “Overwatch” eSports game competition in collegiate gamers. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2671–2675, 2022—To date, no physical response data are available for one of the most popular eSport games, Overwatch. The purpose of this investigation was to describe the stress signaling associated with competitive Overwatch play and to understand how acute hormonal responses may affect performance. Thirty-two male college-aged gamers (age: 21.3 ± 2.7 years; estimated time played per week: 18 ± 15 hours) completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a 6-player team to compete in a tournament-style match. Salivary measures of cortisol and testosterone were collected immediately before (PRE) and after (POST) the first-round game, with the heart rate recorded continuously during the match. The mean characteristics were calculated for each variable and comparisons made by the skill level. Significance was defined as p ≤ 0.05. There were no differences in measures of salivary cortisol. A differential response pattern was observed by the skill level for testosterone. The low skill group displayed a significant increase in testosterone with game play (mean ± SD, testosterone PRE: 418.3 ± 89.5 pmol·L−1, POST: 527.6 ± 132.4 pmol·L−1, p < 0.001), whereas no change was observed in the high skill group. There were no differences in heart rate characteristics between skill groups. Overall, the average heart rate was 107.2 ± 17.8 bpm with an average max heart rate of 133.3 ± 19.1 bpm. This study provides unique physiological evidence that a sedentary Overwatch match modulates endocrine and cardiovascular responses, with the skill level emerging as a potential modulator.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Effect of Footwear on the Biomechanics of Loaded Back Squats to Volitional
           Exhaustion in Skilled Lifters

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      Authors: Brice; Sara M.; Doma, Kenji; Spratford, Wayne
      Abstract: imageBrice, SM, Doma, K, and Spratford, W. Effect of footwear on the biomechanics of loaded back squats to volitional exhaustion in skilled lifters. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2676–2684, 2022—This study examined whether footwear influences the movement dynamics of barbell back squats to volitional exhaustion in experienced lifters. Eleven men (1 repetition maximum [1RM] = 138 ± 19 kg; 1RM % body mass = 168 ± 18%) performed 3 sets (5–12 ± 4 repetitions per set) of loaded barbell back squats to volitional exhaustion using raised-heel and flat-heel footwear. Barbell motion as well as moments, angles, angular velocity, and power in the sagittal plane at the ankle, knee, hip, and lumbopelvis were examined during the second repetition of the first set (Tsecond) and the final repetition of the third set (Tfinal). There were significant reductions (p < 0.05) in lower-limb concentric angular velocity and power output for both footwear conditions. For the raised-heel condition at Tfinal, hip and knee concentric angular velocities were significantly slower (p < 0.05), and knee concentric power output was significantly less (p < 0.05) compared with the flat-heel condition. A reduction in barbell velocity was not observed for the raised-heel condition despite there being reduction in hip and knee angular velocities. Furthermore, no differences were identified in lower-limb joint moments or any of the biomechanical characteristics of the lumbopelvis between the footwear conditions. The findings of this study suggest that neither type of footwear reduced joint loading or improved joint range-of-motion.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Understanding Bench Press Biomechanics—The Necessity of Measuring
           Lateral Barbell Forces

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      Authors: Mausehund; Lasse; Werkhausen, Amelie; Bartsch, Julia; Krosshaug, Tron
      Abstract: imageMausehund, L, Werkhausen, A, Bartsch, J, and Krosshaug, T. Understanding bench press biomechanics—The necessity of measuring lateral barbell forces. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2685–2695, 2022—The purpose of this study was to advance the expertise of the bench press exercise by complementing electromyographic (EMG) with net joint moment (NJM) and strength normalized NJM (nNJM) measurements, thus establishing the magnitude of the elbow and shoulder muscular loads and efforts. Normalized NJMs were determined as the ratio of the bench press NJMs to the maximum NJMs produced during maximum voluntary isokinetic contractions. Furthermore, we wanted to assess how changes in grip width and elbow positioning affected elbow and shoulder NJMs and nNJMs, and muscle activity of the primary movers. Thirty-five strength-trained adults performed a 6–8 repetition maximum set of each bench press variation, while elbow and shoulder NJMs and EMG activity of 7 upper extremity muscles were recorded. The results show that all bench press variations achieved high elbow and shoulder muscular efforts. A decrease in grip width induced larger elbow NJMs, and larger EMG activity of the lateral head of the triceps brachii, anterior deltoid, and clavicular head of the pectoralis major (p ≤ 0.05). An increase in grip width elicited larger shoulder NJMs and nNJMs, and larger EMG activity of the abdominal head of the pectoralis major (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, all bench press variations may stimulate strength gains and hypertrophy of the elbow extensors and shoulder flexors and horizontal adductors. However, greater adaptations of the elbow extensors and shoulder flexors may be expected when selecting narrower grip widths, whereas wider grip widths may induce greater adaptations of the shoulder horizontal adductors.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Repetitions in Reserve Is a Reliable Tool for Prescribing Resistance
           Training Load

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      Authors: Lovegrove; Simon; Hughes, Liam J.; Mansfield, Sean K.; Read, Paul J.; Price, Phil; Patterson, Stephen D.
      Abstract: imageLovegrove, S, Hughes, L, Mansfield, S, Read, P, Price, P, and Patterson, SD. Repetitions in reserve is a reliable tool for prescribing resistance training load. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2696–2700, 2022—This study investigated the reliability of repetitions in reserve (RIR) as a method for prescribing resistance training load for the deadlift and bench press exercises. Fifteen novice trained men (age: 17.3 ± 0.9 years, height: 176.0 ± 8.8 cm, body mass: 71.3 ± 10.7 kg) were assessed for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) for deadlift (118.1 ± 27.3 kg) and bench press (58.2 ± 18.6 kg). Subsequently, they completed 3 identical sessions (one familiarization session and 2 testing sessions) comprising sets of 3, 5, and 8 repetitions. For each repetition scheme, the load was progressively increased in successive sets until subjects felt they reached 1-RIR at the end of the set. Test-retest reliability of load prescription between the 2 testing sessions was determined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV). A 2-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used for each exercise to assess differences in the load corresponding to 1-RIR within each repetition scheme. All test-retest comparisons demonstrated a high level of reliability (deadlift: ICC = 0.95–0.99, CV = 2.7–5.7% and bench press: ICC = 0.97–0.99, CV = 3.8–6.2%). Although there were no differences between time points, there was a difference for load corresponding to 1-RIR across the 3 repetition schemes (deadlift: 88.2, 84.3, and 79.2% 1RM; bench press: 93.0, 87.3, and 79.6% 1RM for the 3-, 5-, and 8-repetition sets, respectively). These results suggest that RIR is a reliable tool for load prescription in a young novice population. Furthermore, the between-repetition scheme differences highlight that practitioners can effectively manipulate load and volume (repetitions in a set) throughout a training program to target specific resistance training adaptations.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Influence of Movement Velocity on Accuracy of Estimated Repetitions to
           Failure in Resistance-Trained Men

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      Authors: Hackett; Daniel A.
      Abstract: imageHackett, DA. Influence of movement velocity on accuracy of estimated repetitions to failure in resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2701–2708, 2022—This study explored the accuracy in estimated repetitions to failure (ERF) and changes in mean concentric velocity (MCV) during resistance exercise. Twenty male resistance trainers (age, 26.3 ± 6.9 years; body mass, 82.0 ± 6.0 kg; stature, 178.0 ± 5.5 cm) completed 5 sets of 10 repetitions for the bench press and squat at 70% one-repetition maximum. Subjects' reported their rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and ERF after the 10th repetition of each set and then continued repetitions to momentary muscle failure (5-minute recovery between sets). Barbell velocity was assessed using a linear position transducer. For the bench press, MCV at repetitions 9–10 decreased as sets progressed (p ≤ 0.005) with a greater loss of MCV for sets 3–5 vs. set 1 (p ≤ 0.005). No significant changes in MCV variables were found across sets for the squat. Error in ERF was greater in set 1 for the bench press (p ≤ 0.005) with no differences for the remaining sets. There were no differences between sets for error in ERF for the squat. Moderate to strong relationships were found between most MCV variables and RPE and ERF, for the bench press (rs = −049 to 0.73; p ≤ 0.005). For the squat only, MCV at repetitions 9–10 was moderately related with RPE (rs = −0.33; p ≤ 0.003) and actual repetitions to failure (rs = 0.31; p ≤ 0.003). No significant relationships were found for error in ERF for either the bench press or squat. Changes in MCV across sets may influence perception of effort and performance for the bench press; however, it does not influence the accuracy in ERF for either exercise.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Metabolic Profile of Reciprocal Supersets in Young, Recreationally Active
           Women and Men

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      Authors: Realzola; Rogelio A.; Mang, Zachary A.; Millender, Desmond J.; Beam, Jason R.; Bellovary, Bryanne N.; Wells, Andrew D.; Houck, Jonathan M.; Kravitz, Len
      Abstract: imageRealzola, RA, Mang, ZA, Millender, DJ, Beam, JR, Bellovary, BN, Wells, AD, Houck, JM, and Kravitz, L. Metabolic profile of reciprocal supersets in young, recreationally active females and males. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2709–2716, 2022—Reciprocal supersets (RSSs) are a time-efficient style of resistance exercise (RE) that consist of performing 2 consecutive exercises with opposing muscle groups while limiting rest times between them. Previous research in men indicates a RSS has an increased physiological response when compared with traditional RE (TRAD). No between-sex comparison of metabolic data for RSSs exists. The purpose of this study was to create a metabolic profile for RSSs in men and women. Eighteen resistance-trained individuals underwent 2 bouts of volume-load equated RE: RSS and TRAD. Reciprocal superset exercises were split into 3 clusters: (a) hexagonal bar deadlift superset with leg press, (b) chest press superset with seated row, and (c) overhead dumbbell press superset with latissimus dorsi pull-downs. The TRAD protocol, doing the same exercises, emulated hypertrophy emphasis training. Oxygen uptake (V̇o2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate ([BLa]), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) were measured. Aerobic and anaerobic energy expenditure were estimated using V̇o2 and lactate, respectively. The level of significance set for this study was p ≤ 0.05. Regardless of sex, a RSS elicited significantly greater average V̇o2, HR, [BLa], RPE, and anaerobic and aerobic energy expenditures, and was completed in a shorter time compared with TRAD (p ≤ 0.05). When compared with women, men had significantly greater EPOC, average [BLa], and anaerobic and aerobic energy expenditures during RSSs (p ≤ 0.05). The average [BLa] and aerobic energy expenditure of the men were also significantly greater than the women during TRAD (p ≤ 0.05). This study suggests that a RSS is a metabolically demanding RE session that may elicit increases in musculoskeletal, cardiorespiratory, and physiological adaptations while decreasing the duration of exercise.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Acute Effects of Warming Up on Achilles Tendon Blood Flow and Stiffness

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      Authors: Pieters; Dries; Wezenbeek, Evi; De Ridder, Roel; Witvrouw, Erik; Willems, Tine
      Abstract: imagePieters, D, Wezenbeek, E, De Ridder, R, Witvrouw, E, and Willems, T. Acute effects of warming up on Achilles tendon blood flow and stiffness. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2717–2724, 2022—The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of frequently used warm-up exercises on the Achilles tendon blood flow and stiffness. In doing so, we want to explore which exercises are suitable to properly prepare the athlete's Achilles tendon in withstanding high amounts of loading during sport activities. This knowledge could help sport physicians and physiotherapists when recommending warm-up exercises that are able to improve sport performance while reducing the injury susceptibility. Achilles tendon blood flow and stiffness measurements of 40 healthy subjects (20 men and 20 women) aged between 18 and 25 years were obtained before and immediately after 4 different warm-up exercises: running, plyometrics, eccentric heel drops, and static stretching. The effect of these warm-up exercises and possible covariates (sex, age, body mass index, rate of perceived exertion, and sports participation) on the Achilles tendon blood flow and stiffness was investigated with linear mixed models. The level of significance was set at α = 0.05. The results of this study showed a significant increase in Achilles tendon blood flow and stiffness after 10 minutes of running (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001) and plyometrics (p < 0.001 and p = 0.039). Static stretching and eccentric exercises elicited no significant changes. From these results, it could be suggested that warm-up exercises should be intensive enough to properly prepare the Achilles tendon for subsequent sport activities. When looking at Achilles tendon blood flow and stiffness, we advise the incorporation of highly intensive exercises such as running and plyometrics within warm-up programs.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Effects of Different Loading Conditions During Resisted Sprint Training on
           Sprint Performance

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      Authors: Rodríguez-Rosell; David; Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Mora-Custodio, Ricardo; Asián-Clemente, José Antonio; Bachero-Mena, Beatriz; Loturco, Irineu; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando
      Abstract: imageRodríguez-Rosell, D, Sáez de Villarreal, E, Mora-Custodio, R, Asián-Clemente, JA, Bachero-Mena, B, Loturco, I, and Pareja-Blanco, F. Effects of different loading conditions during resisted sprint training on sprint performance. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2725–2732, 2022—The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 5 loading conditions (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80% of body mass [BM]) during weighted sled sprint training on unresisted and resisted sprint performance and jump ability. Sixty physically active men were randomly assigned into 5 groups according to the overload used during sled sprint training: 0% (G0%, n = 12), 20% (G20%, n = 12), 40% (G40%, n = 12), 60% (G60%, n = 12), and 80% BM (G80%, n = 12). Pretraining and post-training assessments included: countermovement jump (CMJ), 30-m sprint without extra load, and 20-m sprint with 20, 40, 60, and 80% BM. All 5 experimental groups trained once a week for a period of 8 weeks completing the same training program (number of sessions, number of bouts, running distance in each sprint, rest intervals between repetitions, and total running distance), but with different sled loads (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80% BM). There was a significant “time × group” interaction for resisted sprint performance at 80% BM condition, where the G40% group attained improvements in performance and G80% worsened. Moreover, G40% increased performance in unresisted and the rest of loading conditions. In addition, G0% and G60% showed statistically significant increases in unresisted sprint performance. No relevant changes were observed in the other experimental groups. All groups showed significant improvements (p < 0.05–0.001) in CMJ height. Therefore, our findings suggest that resisted sprint training with moderate loads (i.e., 40% BM) may have a positive effect on unresisted and resisted sprint performance.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Physiological and Perceptual Responses to a Single Session of Resisted
           Sled Sprint Training at Light or Heavy Sled Loads

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      Authors: Monahan; Maria; Petrakos, George; Egan, Brendan
      Abstract: imageMonahan, M, Petrakos, G, and Egan, B. Physiological and perceptual responses to a single session of resisted sled sprint training at light or heavy sled loads. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2733–2740, 2022—The acute physiological and perceptual responses to a single session of resisted sled sprint (RSS) training are largely unexplored, nor have differences, if any, between male and female athletes been compared. Team field sport athletes (n = 27; male/female, 15/12; 21.1 ± 2.7 years) were assessed for Maximal Resisted Sled Load (MRSL) from which light (L-RSS, 30%MRSL) and heavy (H-RSS, 80%MRSL) sled loads were prescribed. On separate occasions in random order, 2 training sessions of 12 × 20 m RSS repetitions at either L- or H-RSS were performed, and assessments of physiological and perceptual responses were performed before (PRE), during, after (POST) and 24 hours after (+24 hours POST) each session. Compared to unresisted sprints, velocity decrements of 7.5 ± 2.2 and 22.7 ± 8.1% were produced by L-RSS and H-RSS, respectively. Heart rate, blood lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion were higher in H-RSS compared to L-RSS. Decrements in 20 m sprint and countermovement jump performance observed at POST had returned to PRE values at +24 hours POST. Except for a higher heart rate (∼7–12 b·min−1) in females during the respective sessions, responses to L- and H-RSS were generally similar between males and females. A single session of heavy RSS training is more demanding than light RSS training when matched for sprint number and distance, but measures of lower limb power and sprint performance return to pre-training levels within 24 hours regardless of sled load. Males and females respond similarly to a single session of RSS training when individualized, relative intensity sled loads are prescribed.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Muscle Architecture and Maturation Influence Sprint and Jump Ability in
           Young Boys: A Multistudy Approach

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      Authors: Radnor; John M.; Oliver, Jon L.; Waugh, Charlie M.; Myer, Gregory D.; Lloyd, Rhodri S.
      Abstract: imageRadnor, JM, Oliver, JL, Waugh, CM, Myer, GD, and Lloyd, RS. Muscle Architecture and Maturation Influence Sprint and Jump Ability in Young Boys: A Multistudy Approach. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2741–2751, 2022—This series of experiments examined the influence of medial gastrocnemius (GM) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscle architecture (muscle thickness, pennation angle, and fascicle length) on sprint and jump performance in pre–, circa–, and post–peak height velocity (PHV) boys. In experiment 1, 1-way analysis of variance and Cohen's d effect sizes demonstrated that most muscle architecture measures were significantly greater in post-PHV compared with pre-PHV boys (d = 0.77–1.41; p < 0.05). For most sprint and jump variables, there were small to moderate differences between pre-PHV to circa-PHV and circa-PHV to post-PHV groups (d = 0.58–0.93; p < 0.05) and moderate to large differences between pre-PHV and post-PHV groups (d = 1.01–1.47; p < 0.05). Pearson's correlation analyses in experiment 2 determined that muscle architecture had small to moderate correlations with sprint and jump performance (r = 0.228–0.707, p < 0.05), with strongest associations within the post-PHV cohort. Chi-squared analyses in experiment 3 identified that, over 18 months, more POST-POST responders than expected made positive changes in GM and VL muscle thickness. Significantly more PRE-POST subjects than expected displayed changes in maximal sprint speed, while significantly more POST-POST individuals than expected showed positive changes in jump height. Muscle architecture seems to be larger in more mature boys compared with their less mature peers and likely underlies their greater performance in sprinting and jumping tasks. Boys experiencing, or having experienced, PHV make the largest increases in muscle architecture and sprinting and jumping performance when tracked over 18 months.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Countermovement Jump and Squat Jump Force-Time Curve Analysis in Control
           and Fatigue Conditions

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      Authors: Hughes; Steven; Warmenhoven, John; Haff, G. Gregory; Chapman, Dale W.; Nimphius, Sophia
      Abstract: imageHughes, S, Warmenhoven, J, Haff, GG, Chapman, DW, and Nimphius, S. Countermovement jump and squat jump force-time curve analysis in control and fatigue conditions. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2752–2761, 2022—This study aimed to reanalyze previously published discrete force data from countermovement jumps (CMJs) and squat jumps (SJs) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM), a statistical method that enables analysis of data in its native, complete state. Statistical parametric mapping analysis of 1-dimensional (1D) force-time curves was compared with previous zero-dimensional (0D) analysis of peak force to assess sensitivity of 1D analysis. Thirty-two subjects completed CMJs and SJs at baseline, 15 minutes, 1, 24, and 48 hours following fatigue and control conditions in a pseudo random cross-over design. Absolute (CMJABS/SJABS) and time-normalized (CMJNORM/SJNORM) force-time data were analyzed using SPM 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance with significance accepted at α = 0.05. The SPM indicated a magnitude of difference between force-time data with main effects for time (p < 0.001) and interaction (p < 0.001) observed in CMJABS, SJABS, and SJNORM, whereas previously published 0D analysis reported no 2-way interaction in CMJ and SJ peak force. This exploratory research demonstrates the strength of SPM to identify changes between entire movement force-time curves. Continued development and use of SPM analysis techniques could present the opportunity for refined assessment of athlete fatigue and readiness with the analysis of complete force-time curves.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Novel Assessment of Isometric Hip Extensor Function: Reliability, Joint
           Angle Sensitivity, and Concurrent Validity

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      Authors: Goodwin; Jon E.; Bull, Anthony M. J.
      Abstract: imageGoodwin, JE and Bull, AMJ. Novel assessment of isometric hip extensor function: reliability, joint angle sensitivity, and concurrent validity. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2762–2770, 2022—Closed-chain hip extension function has not been well examined. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability, joint angle sensitivity, muscle recruitment, and concurrent validity of a force plate–based isometric hip extensor test (isometric hip thrust). All subjects were active men aged 19–29 years. In part 1, bilateral and unilateral hip extensor testing was completed on 4 occasions by 14 subjects to evaluate repeatability of force and torque measures. In part 2, joint angle sensitivity of force, torque, and surface electromyography was assessed by 10 subjects completing testing at 4 hip joint angles in a single test session. In part 3, concurrent validity of joint torque was assessed relative to standing and supine test positions on an isokinetic dynamometer, by 10 subjects in a single test session. The repeatability study found small changes in the mean from sessions 1–2 (mean standardized change d = 0.31) and close to no change in later sessions (mean d = 0.12). Typical error was predominantly low to moderate (mean 0.42), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was typically high (mean ICC = 0.87). The joint angle sensitivity study showed that increasing the hip flexion resulted in increases in peak extension force (p = 0.001) and gluteus maximus activation (p = 0.003) and a reduction in biceps femoris activation (p < 0.001). There was no change in torque (p = 0.585) and vastus lateralis activation (p = 0.482). The concurrent validity study found that torque was correlated with supine dynamometry (R2 = 0.555) but not with standing dynamometry (R2 = 0.193). In summary, the isometric hip thrust is repeatable, but benefits from familiarization. Force output and muscle recruitment are sensitive to joint position, providing an opportunity to assess different functional output.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Step vs. Two-Phase Gradual Volume Reduction Tapering Protocols in Strength
           Training: Effects on Neuromuscular Performance and Serum Hormone
           Concentrations

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      Authors: Stina; Seppänen; Häkkinen, Keijo
      Abstract: imageSeppänen, S and Häkkinen, K. Step vs. two-phase gradual volume reduction tapering protocols in strength training: Effects on neuromuscular performance and serum hormone concentrations. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2771–2779, 2022—This study assessed effects of 2 reduced volume tapering protocols on neuromuscular performance and serum hormone concentrations in 14 recreationally strength-trained men (21–30 years). After an 8-week strength training period subjects were divided to the step (54% volume reduction immediately) and 2-phase gradual (38% reduction for the first week and 70% for the second week) tapering groups for 2 weeks. One repetition maximum (1RM) squat, maximal isometric bilateral leg press force (leg press MVIC), electromyography (EMG) of vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis, cross-sectional area of VL, serum testosterone, cortisol, and sex hormone-binding globuline (SHBG) concentrations were measured before and repeatedly during training and tapering periods. Both tapering protocols led to significant increases (p < 0.01) in squat 1RM. However, the increase in the step group (3.4 ± 2.1%) was higher (p < 0.05) than in the gradual group (1.7 ± 0.9%). The maximal integrated EMG of VL increased (p < 0.05) during tapering in the step group. Serum testosterone concentration increased (p < 0.05) and T/SHBG ratio reached the highest level after 1-week tapering in the step group. In the gradual group, T/SHBG ratio was (p < 0.05) higher after the taper than after the training period. Individual changes in T/SHBG ratio in the total group correlated positively (p < 0.05) with individual changes in leg press MVIC during the taper. These results suggest that reducing training volume can be an effective way to peak maximal strength. However, a higher volume reduction rate at the beginning of taper seems to lead to more favorable changes in maximal strength accompanied by positive changes in the neuromuscular system and serum hormone concentrations when taper follows an overreaching period.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Biomechanical Effects of a 6-Week Change of Direction Speed and Technique
           Modification Intervention: Implications for Change of Direction Side step
           Performance

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      Authors: Dos'Santos; Thomas; Thomas, Christopher; Comfort, Paul; Jones, Paul A.
      Abstract: imageDos'Santos, T, Thomas, C, Comfort, P, and Jones, PA. Biomechanical effects of a 6-week change of direction speed and technique modification intervention: implications for change of direction side step performance. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2780–2791, 2022—The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical effects of change of direction (COD) speed and technique modification training on COD performance (completion time, ground contact time [GCT], and exit velocity) during 45° (CUT45) and 90° (CUT90) side step cutting. A nonrandomized, controlled 6-week intervention study was administrated. Fifteen male, multidirectional, sport athletes (age, 23.5 ± 5.2 years; height, 1.80 ± 0.05 m; mass, 81.6 ± 11.4 kg) formed the intervention group (IG) who participated in two 30-minute COD speed and technique modification sessions per week, whereas 12 male, multidirectional, sport athletes (age, 22.2 ± 5.0 years; height, 1.76 ± 0.08 m; mass, 72.7 ± 12.4 kg) formed the control group (CG) and continued their normal training. All subjects performed 6 trials of the CUT45 and CUT90 task whereby pre-to-post intervention changes in lower-limb and trunk kinetics and kinematics were evaluated using 3-dimensional motion and ground reaction force analyses. Two-way mixed analysis of variances revealed significant main effects for time (pre-to-post changes) for CUT45 completion time, exit velocity, and CUT90 completion time (p ≤ 0.045; η2 = 0.152–0.539), and significant interaction effects of time and group were observed for CUT45 completion time, GCT, exit velocity, and CUT90 completion time (p ≤ 0.010; η2 = 0.239–0.483), with the IG displaying superior performance postintervention compared with the CG (p ≤ 0.109; g = 0.83–1.35). Improvements in cutting performance were moderately to very largely associated (p ≤ 0.078; r or ρ = 0.469–0.846) with increased velocity profiles, increased propulsive forces over shorter GCTs, and decreased knee flexion. Change of direction speed and technique modification is a simple, effective training method requiring minimal equipment that can enhance COD performance, which practitioners should consider incorporating into their pitch- or court-based training programs.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Hydrogen Rich Water Consumption Positively Affects Muscle Performance,
           Lactate Response, and Alleviates Delayed Onset of Muscle Soreness After
           Resistance Training

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      Authors: Botek; Michal; Krejčí, Jakub; McKune, Andrew; Valenta, Michal; Sládečková, Barbora
      Abstract: imageBotek, M, Krejčí, J, McKune, A, Valenta, M, and Sládečková, B. Hydrogen rich water consumption positively affects muscle performance, lactate response, and alleviates delayed onset of muscle soreness after resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2792–2799, 2022—Positive outcomes of hydrogen rich water (HRW) supplementation on endurance performance have been shown, but the effects of HRW in resistance training are unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 1,260 ml of HRW intake on physiological, perceptual, and performance responses to a resistance training and after 24 hours of recovery. This randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled cross-over study included 12 men aged 23.8 ± 1.9 years. Subjects performed a half squat, knee flexion, and extension exercises with the load set at 70% of 1 repetition maximum for 3 sets (10 reps/set). Lunges were performed with a load of 30% of body mass for 3 sets (20 reps/set). Time of each set, lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion were assessed mid-way through exercise and immediately after the exercise. Creatine kinase, muscle soreness visual analog scale ratings, countermovement jump, and heart rate variability were evaluated before the training and at 30 minutes, 6, and 24 hours of recovery. Lunges were performed faster with HRW compared with placebo (p < 0.001). Hydrogen rich water reduced lactate at mid-way and immediately after the exercise (HRW: 5.3 ± 2.1 and 5.1 ± 2.2, placebo: 6.5 ± 1.8 and 6.3 ± 2.2 mmol·L−1, p ≤ 0.008). Visual analog scale ratings were significantly lower with HRW (26 ± 11 vs. 41 ± 20 mm, p = 0.002) after 24 hours of recovery. In conclusion, an acute intermittent HRW hydration improved muscle function, reduced the lactate response, and alleviated delayed onset of muscle soreness.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Prevalence of Pelvic Floor Dysfunction, Bother, and Risk Factors and
           Knowledge of the Pelvic Floor Muscles in Norwegian Male and Female
           Powerlifters and Olympic Weightlifters

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      Authors: Skaug; Kristina Lindquist; Engh, Marie Ellström; Frawley, Helena; Bø, Kari
      Abstract: imageSkaug, KL, Bø, K, Engh, ME, and Frawley, H. Prevalence of pelvic floor dysfunction, bother, and risk factors and knowledge of the pelvic floor muscles in Norwegian male and female powerlifters and Olympic weightlifters. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2800–2807, 2022—Strenuous exercise has been suggested as a risk factor of pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD). Powerlifters and Olympic weightlifters compete with high external loads. To date, knowledge of PFD in these athletes has been sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence, risk factors, and bother of PFD in powerlifters and Olympic weightlifters and their knowledge of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM). All athletes aged ≥18 years competing in ≥1 National Championship in powerlifting or Olympic weightlifting in 2018/2019 were invited. The International Consensus on Incontinence Questionnaires were used to assess PFD. One hundred eighty women and 204 men participated. The prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI), anal incontinence (AI), and pelvic organ prolapse in women was 50.0, 80.0, and 23.3%, respectively. Stress UI (SUI) was reported by 41.7% of the women and 87.8% reported a negative influence on sport performance. The prevalence of UI and AI in men was 9.3 and 61.8%. In women, increasing body mass index was significantly associated with SUI (odds ratio [OR]: 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–1.17) and international level of competition (OR: 3.27, 95% CI: 1.32–8.07) and weightlifting ≥4 d·wk−1 (OR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.08–0.86) with AI. In men, increasing age (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00–1.07) and frequently straining to void (OR: 4.84, 95% CI: 1.02–22.94) were significantly associated with AI. Forty-three percent of the women and 74% of the men did not know why and 44.4 and 72.5% how to train the PFM. In conclusion, the prevalence of PFD was high, and the athletes had limited knowledge of the PFM.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Validity and Reliability of a Snatch Pull Test to Model the Force-Velocity
           Relationship in Male Elite Weightlifters

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      Authors: Sandau; Ingo; Chaabene, Helmi; Granacher, Urs
      Abstract: imageSandau, I, Chaabene, H, and Granacher, U. Validity and reliability of a snatch pull test to model the force-velocity relationship in male elite weightlifters. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2808–2815, 2022—This study examined the concurrent validity and within-session reliability of parameters describing the force-velocity relationship (FvR) such as maximal force, velocity, power, and the theoretical one repetition maximum snatch performance (snatchth) during the snatch pull. The FvR was assessed using the multiple-load (FvRm) approach and the 2-load (FvR2) approach. Eight male elite weightlifters from the German national team executed the snatch pull in 2 separate experiments. For the concurrent validity assessment (experiment one), during the snatch pull, 7 loads from 70 to 100% were lifted to compute the FvRm, and 2 loads (70 and 100%) were lifted to compute the FvR2. For the reliability assessment (experiment 2), a test-retest protocol for the FvR2 was conducted. Input FvR parameters were determined from video-based barbell tracking. Results indicated no differences (all p> 0.05; all d ≤ 0.07) and extremely large correlations (all r ≥ 0.91) between the FvRm and FvR2 parameters. The within-session reliability of FvR2 parameters was excellent (all intraclass correlation coefficient ≥0.97; SEM% ≤1.23%). The percentage smallest real difference (SRD95%) of FvR2 parameters ranged between 1.89 and 3.39%. In summary, using the snatch pull to model FvR2 parameters is a valid and reliable approach that can easily be integrated into elite weightlifters' daily training routines.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Effects of Supplementary Strength Program on Generic and Specific Physical
           Fitness in Cadet Judo Athletes

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      Authors: Branco; Braulio H.M.; Marcondes, Vinicius A.; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Badilla, Pablo V.; Andreato, Leonardo V.
      Abstract: imageBranco, BHM, Marcondes, VA, de Paula Ramos, S, Badilla, PV, and Andreato, LV. Effects of supplementary strength program on generic and specific physical fitness in cadet judo athletes. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2816–2823, 2022—This study aimed to investigate the effects of a supplementary strength program on general and specific physical fitness in under-18 judo athletes. In total, 21 athletes were randomized into 2 groups: experimental group (EG: aged = 15.5 ± 1.2 years; body mass = 71.3 ± 10.6 kg; practice time = 5.1 ± 1.2 years) and control group (aged = 16.6 ± 0.5 years; body mass = 71.7 ± 11.0 kg; practice time = 5.6 ± 0.8 years). Athletes were submitted to anthropometry, generic physical fitness tests (countermovement jump, one-repetition maximum in bench-press, row, and half-squat machine), and specific field tests (isometric and dynamic judogi chin-up and Special Judo Fitness Test [SJFT]). All measurements were presented at baseline, and 8 athletes per group completed pre-training and post-training assessments. Both groups performed the same judo training routine, and the EG also performed 3/weekly/sessions of strength training for 8 weeks. All measurements were conducted during the competitive season. There were no differences in body mass, height, and body fat percentage after the training period (p> 0.05). Improvements were observed in maximal strength for bench press (26.6%), row (17.7%), half-squat machine (29%), dynamic judogi chin-up (33%), and the following SJFT responses: block A (16.7%), block B (11.3%), sum of 3 blocks (8.3%), heart rate after 1 minute (−7.0%), and index (−12.5%), representing performance improvement for the EG. It was concluded that 8 weeks of strength training was positive for general and specific performance. Finally, this strength program may help coaches to develop strength without changes in body mass.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Relationship Between Movement Quality and Physical Performance in Elite
           Adolescent Australian Football Players

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      Authors: Bennett; Hunter; Fuller, Joel; Milanese, Steve; Jones, Stephen; Moore, Emma; Chalmers, Samuel
      Abstract: imageBennett, H, Fuller, J, Milanese, S, Jones, S, Moore, E, and Chalmers, S. The relationship between movement quality and physical performance in elite adolescent Australian football players. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2824–2829, 2022—The assessment of movement quality is commonplace in competitive sport to profile injury risk and guide exercise prescription. However, the relationship between movement quality scores and physical performance measures is unclear. Moreover, whether improvements in these measures are associated remain unknown. Over a 4-year period, 918 individual elite adolescent Australian Rules Footballers completed the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and physical performance testing (5- and 20-m sprint, vertical jump, planned agility, and 20-m shuttle run test), allowing the analysis of relationships between FMS parameters and performance measures. In addition, 235 athletes completed testing over 2 consecutive years, allowing the analysis of relationships between changes in these outcomes. Small associations were observed between FMS composite score, hurdle step performance, in-line lunge performance, trunk stability push-up performance, rotary stability, and measures of speed, power, agility, and aerobic fitness (ρ = 0.071–0.238). Across consecutive seasons, significant improvements were observed in the deep squat subtest (d = 0.21), FMS composite score (d = 0.17), and 5- (d = 0.16) and 20-m sprint times (d = 0.39). A negative association between change in rotary stability and change in jump height (ρ = −0.236) from one season to the next was detected. Results suggest FMS scores have limited relationships with measures of performance in footballers. To optimize athletic performance, once acceptable movement capabilities have been established, training should not prioritize improving movement quality over improvements in strength, power, and change of direction ability.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Body Composition Asymmetries in University Ice Hockey Players and Their
           Implications for Lower Back Pain and Leg Injury

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      Authors: Resta; Tiziana; Frenette, Stephane; Rizk, Amanda; Fortin, Maryse
      Abstract: imageResta, T, Frenette, S, Rizk, A, and Fortin, M. Body composition asymmetries in university ice hockey players and their implications for lower back pain and leg injury. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2830–2836, 2022—Right to left asymmetries in body composition have been examined across many sports, suggesting possible implications for lower back pain (LBP) and decreased level of performance. However, we are not aware of any study that has examined the presence and implications of morphological asymmetries in ice hockey players. The purpose of this study was to (a) investigate body composition asymmetries in female and male university-level ice hockey players and (b) examine whether the degree of body composition asymmetry is associated with the history of LBP and lower-limb injury (LLI). A total of 32 players (female = 18, male = 14) were included in this cross-sectional study (e.g., university research center setting). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to acquire body composition measurements. The parameters of interest included bone mass, lean body mass, and fat mass, for the right and left sides and body segments (e.g., arm, leg, trunk, and total), separately. The history of LBP and LLI was obtained using a self-reported demographic questionnaire. The statistical significance for the study was set at p < 0.05. Our findings revealed significant side-to-side asymmetry in arm and total bone mass in females, with higher values on the right side. Both males and females also had significantly greater trunk lean body mass on the left side. With the exception of greater arm bone mass asymmetry being associated with LBP in the past 3 months, there was no other significant association between the degree of asymmetry with LBP and LLI. This study provides novel data regarding the presence of asymmetry in body composition in university-level ice hockey players. Monitoring body composition in athletes provides information that can be used by athletic trainers and strength and conditioning coaches to develop injury prevention, performance optimization, and targeted rehabilitation programs.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Use of Rating of Perceived Exertion–Based Training Load in Elite Ice
           Hockey Training and Match-Play

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      Authors: Rago; Vincenzo; Vigh-Larsen, Jeppe F.; Deylami, Kasper; Muschinsky, Adrian; Mohr, Magni
      Abstract: imageRago, V, Vigh-Larsen, JF, Deylami, K, Muschinsky, A, and Mohr, M. Use of rating of perceived exertion–based training load in elite ice hockey training and match-play. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2837–2843, 2022—Training load (TL) based on the subjective rating of perceived exertion (RPE) may be a useful athlete monitoring alternative when wearable technology is unavailable. The aim of this study was to examine the validity of RPE-based TL monitoring in elite ice hockey. A male ice hockey team (n = 18) was monitored using a 200-Hz accelerometer, heart rate (HR) and RPE (0–10 scale), throughout a 4-week competitive period (n = 309 individual observations). Session-RPE (RPE × duration) averaged 244.8 ± 135.2 and 728.6 ± 150.9 arbitrary units (AU) during practice sessions and during official games, respectively. The smallest worthwhile change was 19.8 AU. Within-individual correlations between session-RPE and total accelerations>0.5 m·s−2 (Acctot), accelerations>2 m·s−2 (Acc2), total decelerations>−0.5 m·s−2 (Dectot), decelerations < −2 m·s−2 (Dec2), time> 85% maximum HR, Edwards' TL, and modified training impulse were very large (r = 0.70–0.89; p < 0.001). In addition, correlations between RPE and measures of exercise intensity (Acctot per min, Acc2 per min, Dectot per min, mean HR, and peak HR) were small (r = 0.02–0.29; p < 0.05) except for Dec2 being unclear (p = 0.686). Differences in intensity parameters between RPE range (easy to very hard, 2–7 AU) were small (r = 0.22–0.31; p < 0.05). The session-RPE method can be used as a global indicator of TL in ice hockey. Specific ranges of time-motion and HR intensity variables can be demarcated between RPE categories (easy to very hard; 2–7 AU). Accounting for training volume (session-RPE) more accurately reflects objective methods of TL based on accelerative efforts and HR, than the RPE score (based on the perception of the intensity).
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Kinetic Chain Exercise Intervention Improved Spiking Consistency and
           Kinematics in Volleyball Players With Scapular Dyskinesis

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      Authors: Chang; Chih-Chien; Chang, Chia-Ming; Shih, Yi-Fen
      Abstract: imageChang, C-C, Chang, C-M, and Shih, Y-F. Kinetic chain exercise intervention improved spiking consistency and kinematics in volleyball players with Scapular Dyskinesis. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2844–2852, 2022—Scapular dyskinesis (SD) is a common problem among volleyball players with chronic shoulder pain. This randomized controlled study examined the effectiveness of kinetic chain (KC) training on neuromuscular performance of the scapula and trunk during volleyball spikes. Forty volleyball players with SD and chronic shoulder pain received 4 weeks of KC training or the conventional shoulder exercise training (CT). Shoulder pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) every week. The kinematics and muscle activation of the shoulder and upper trunk, and proprioceptive feedback magnitude (PFM) for scapular movement consistency, were recorded at the maximum shoulder flexion (T1) and ball contact (T2) during spiking tasks. The two-way repeated measures analysis of variances was used to assess the between-group differences before and after the intervention. The results showed a significant time by group interaction for the upper trunk rotation (p < 0.001) and PFM (p = 0.03) at T2. The post-hoc test indicated that the KC group significantly increased contralateral rotation of the upper trunk (9.63 ± 4.19° vs. −4.25 ± 10.05°), and improved movement consistency (error: 8.88 ± 11.52° vs. 19.73 ± 12.79°) at T2 compared with the CT group. Significant time effects were also identified for VAS, scapular upward rotation (T1 and T2), upper trunk contralateral side-bending and PFM at T1, and upper trunk contralateral rotation at T2. In conclusion, both KC and CT training would relieve shoulder pain and improve scapular and trunk movement, whereas the KC program was more effective for increasing scapular movement consistency and upper trunk rotation during volleyball spikes.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • The Relationship Between Match Tackle Outcomes and Muscular Strength and
           Power in Professional Rugby League

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      Authors: Redman; Kellyanne J.; Wade, Logan; Whitley, Ryan; Connick, Mark J.; Kelly, Vincent G.; Beckman, Emma M.
      Abstract: imageRedman, KJ, Wade, L, Whitley, R, Connick, MJ, Kelly, VG, and Beckman, EM. The relationship between match tackle outcomes and muscular strength and power in professional rugby league. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2853–2861, 2022—Tackling is a fundamental skill in collision sports, such as rugby league. Match success is largely dependent on a player's ability to complete tackles and tolerate physical collisions. High levels of strength and power are key physical qualities necessary for effective tackling because players are required to generate large forces while pushing and pulling their opponents. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between tackle outcomes and strength and power qualities in professional rugby league. Fourteen rugby league players participated in this study. Maximal strength was assessed through 1 repetition maximum on the back squat, bench press, and bench pull. Lower-body vertical and horizontal powers were evaluated using a countermovement jump and standing broad jump (SBJ), respectively. Upper-body power was assessed on a plyometric push-up (PPU). Postmatch analysis of 5 National Rugby League matches was conducted to examine tackling outcomes. A series of Spearman's rank-order correlations were used to assess the relationship among match tackle outcomes and strength and power variables. Significant associations were observed between play-the-ball speed and SBJ peak power (rs = −0.74, p = 0.003), postcontact metres and PPU peak power (rs = 0.77, p = 0.002), losing the play-the-ball contest in defence with SBJ distance (rs = 0.70, p = 0.006), and ineffective tackles with PPU concentric impulse (rs = 0.70, p = 0.007). These results suggest the development and maintenance of full-body power to enhance the likelihood of positive tackle outcomes during professional rugby league match-play.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Comparing Sampling Frequencies to Measure Collective Tactical Variables
           During Soccer Training

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      Authors: Rico-González; Markel; Pino-Ortega, José; Rojas-Valverde, Daniel; Arcos, Asier Los
      Abstract: imageRico-González, M, Pino-Ortega, J, Rojas-Valverde, D, and Arcos, AL. Comparing sampling frequencies to measure collective tactical variables during soccer training. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2862–2867, 2022—The sampling frequency of microsensors that measure the position of the players in team sports is a variable that could affect the accuracy of the measurement. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the sampling frequency on the outcomes of tactical behavior variables during soccer training. Sixteen U16 male soccer players participated in the study. Three tactical variables (change in the geometrical center position [cGCp], mean distance between players [mean-DbP], and total area [TA]) were measured at 4 different sampling frequencies (i.e., 10, 4, 2, and 1 Hz) during a 7+goalkeeper-a-side soccer match by a time motion tracking system using inertial measurement units (IMU; WIMU PRO, RealTrack Systems, Almeria, Spain). Significant (p < 0.01) and substantial (ES = moderate-large) differences were found in the cGCp values across all sampling frequencies. Several significant (p < 0.05) and substantial (ES = small-moderate) differences were found in the mean-DbP values between 10 data per second and the rest of the sampling frequencies. There were no significant (p> 0.05) and substantial (ES = trivial) differences in the TA values across all sampling frequencies. The sampling frequency affects the outcomes of cGCp and mean-DbP but does not affect the values of TA. The outcomes of the studies that assess collective tactical behavior should be compared with caution if GC-related and distance variables were measured using different sampling frequencies. In addition, it seems that a smaller amount of data could be sufficient to measure area variables with greater magnitudes.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Gender-Specific Association of the Sprint Mechanical Properties With
           Change of Direction Performance in Basketball

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      Authors: Baena-Raya; Andrés; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Romea, Enrique Salinas; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Rodríguez-Pérez, Manuel A.
      Abstract: imageBaena-Raya, A, Jiménez-Reyes, P, Romea, ES, Soriano-Maldonado, A, and Rodríguez-Pérez, MA. Gender-specific association of the sprint mechanical properties with change of direction performance in basketball. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2868–2874, 2022—We evaluated the gender-specific associations between the mechanical variables derived from the horizontal force-velocity (FV) profile (i.e., theoretical maximal force [F0], velocity [V0], maximal power output [Pmax], peak ratio of the effective horizontal component [RFpeak], and the force application technique index [DRF]) and the change of direction (COD) performance for basketball players. Seventy-one players (23 women and 48 men) were assessed for the horizontal FV profile and COD using the modified 505 and V-cut tests. The FV profile parameters were significantly higher for the men than those for the women. The F0, RFpeak, and Pmax were strongly associated with performance in the 505 test (women rrange = −0.72 to −0.82; men: rrange = −0.67 to −0.75; p < 0.001) and the V-cut test (women rrange = −0.68 to −0.76; men rrange = −0.45 to −0.50; p < 0.001), as well as with a lower COD deficit (women rrange = 0.58 to 0.75 (p < 0.01); men rrange = 0.49 to 0.54; all p < 0.001). For the women, a 1 N·kg−1 increase of the F0 was associated with −0.20 seconds and −0.56 seconds in the 505 and V-cut tests, respectively, and 0.16 seconds for the COD deficit. In the men, it was associated with −0.13 seconds and −0.37 seconds in the 505 and V-cut tests, respectively, and 0.10 seconds for the COD deficit. F0, RFpeak, and Pmax are the most determinant sprint mechanical properties to successfully COD and reduce the COD deficit. The horizontal FV profile assessment is recommended for diagnosing and prescribing a training program for basketball players.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • V̇o2peak Comparison of a Treadmill Vs. Cycling Protocol in Elite Teenage
           Competitive Runners, Cyclists, and Swimmers

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      Authors: Marko; David; Bahenský, Petr; Snarr, Ronald L.; Malátová, Renata
      Abstract: imageMarko, D, Bahenský, P, Snarr, RL, and Malátová, R. V̇o2peak Comparison of a treadmill vs. cycling protocol in elite teenage competitive runners, cyclists, and swimmers. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2875–2882, 2022—The purpose of this study was to compare the cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses of a maximal graded exercise test (GXT) on a treadmill and cycle ergometer in elite-level, youth competitive athletes. Thirty-one athletes (11 distance runners, 11 mountain-bike cyclists, and 9 long-distance swimmers) were randomly selected to complete either a running or cycling GXT on the first day, followed by the alternative 72 hours apart. The initial work rate for each GXT was set at 50% of the individuals' previously established V̇o2peak to elicit fatigue within 8–12 minutes. For the treadmill protocol, speed was increased by 1 km·h−1 each minute, with a constant 5% grade, until volitional fatigue. Cycle ergometer work rate was increased by 30 W every minute until volitional fatigue or the inability to maintain proper cadence (i.e., 100 ± 5 rev·min−1). Throughout both testing sessions, V̇o2peak, heart rate [HR] peak, breathing frequency (BF), tidal volume (VT), and minute ventilation (VE) were assessed and used to compare within-sport differences. Runners displayed a higher V̇o2peak (∼7%; d = 0.92), HRpeak (4%; d = 0.77), VE (6%; d = 0.66), and BF (12%; d = 0.62) on the treadmill vs. cycle. However, the cycling group demonstrated a greater V̇o2peak (∼8%; d = 0.92), VT (∼14%; d = 0.99), and VE (∼9%; d = 0.78) on the cycle, despite no change in HRpeak. For swimmers, the treadmill GXT elicited higher values in V̇o2peak (∼5%; d = 0.75), BF (∼11.5%; d = 0.78), and HRpeak (3%; d = 0.69). Collectively, these findings indicate that exercise mode may greatly affect physiological outcome variables and should be considered before exercise prescription and athletic monitoring.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Cryotherapy on Subjective Sleep Quality, Muscle, and Inflammatory Response
           in Chinese Middle- and Long-Distance Runners After Muscle Damage

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      Authors: Qu; Chaoyi; Wu, Zhaozhao; Xu, Minxiao; Lorenzo, Santiago; Dong, Yanan; Wang, Zhongwei; Qin, Fei; Zhao, Jiexiu
      Abstract: imageQu, C, Wu, Z, Xu, M, Lorenzo, S, Dong, Y, Wang, Z, Qin, F, and Zhao, J. Cryotherapy on subjective sleep quality, muscle, and inflammatory response in Chinese middle- and long-distance runners after muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2883–2890, 2022—The purpose of this investigation was to explore the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI), contrast-water therapy (CWT), and whole-body cryotherapy (CRY) on subjective sleep quality, muscle damage markers, and inflammatory markers in middle- and long-distance runners after muscle damage. Twelve male runners from Beijing Sport University completed a muscle damage exercise protocol and were treated with different recovery methods (CWI, CWT, CRY, or control [CON]) immediately after exercise and at 24-, 48-, and 72-h postexercise. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire score, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, myoglobin (Mb) activity, interleukin-6 (IL-6) activity, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) activity were measured at 7 time points (preexercise; immediately postexercise; and at 1-, 24-, 48-, 72-, and 96-h postexercise). Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores indicated that the CRY condition had improved sleep quality compared with the CON and CWI conditions (p < 0.05). In terms of LDH activity, the CRY and CWT conditions had improved recovery compared with the CON and CWI conditions (p < 0.05). In terms of Mb activity, the CRY condition exhibited improved recovery compared with that of the CON and CWI conditions (p < 0.05), and the CWT condition showed better recovery than that of the CON condition (p < 0.05). In terms of IL-6 activity, the CRY condition showed improved recovery compared with the CWI condition (p < 0.05). Finally, in terms of sICAM-1 activity, the CRY condition had enhanced recovery compared with the other 3 conditions (p < 0.05). The results from this study suggest that CRY improves subjective sleep quality and reduces muscle damage and inflammatory responses in middle- and long-distance runners. In addition, CWT reduced muscle damage and inflammatory responses, but its effects on the other parameters were inconclusive.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Six Weeks of Hip Joint Training Using a Novel Multihip Joint Board
           Improves Sprint Performance in Competitive Collegiate Male Sprinters

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      Authors: Nakata; Hideomi; Nakanishi, Yasuto; Otsuki, Shingo; Mizuno, Masuhiko; Connor, Jonathan; Doma, Kenji
      Abstract: imageNakata, H, Nakanishi, Y, Otsuki, S, Mizuno, M, Connor, J, and Doma, K. Six weeks of hip joint training using a novel multihip joint board improves sprint performance in competitive collegiate male sprinters. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2891–2897, 2022—In a previous study, we identified the possibility that hip joint training using a multihip joint board (MHJB) may increase the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the psoas major (PM) muscle and improve sprint performance. However, the preliminary study reported descriptive findings because of a limited sample size. Therefore, we aimed to investigate and statistically infer the effects of the MHJB training protocol with a larger sample of male collegiate sprinters. The sprinters were randomly assigned to either the MHJB group (n = 7) or the control group (n = 7). The MHJB protocol consisted of 7 separate exercises targeting the development of the hip musculature, all using the MHJB device. The MHJB group undertook the MHJB protocol 3 times per week for 6 weeks, after their normal daily workout, whereas the control group completed their normal daily workout without the MHJB protocol. Sprint performance was recorded from official 100-m competitions before, and after, the 6-week training period. At the end of the training period, significantly greater improvement in PM CSA and 100-m sprint was noted in the MHJB group compared with the control group. These findings confirm the efficacy of MHJB training for increasing PM CSA and improve sprint performance in competitive male sprinters.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Effect of Competitive Status and Experience on Heart Rate Variability
           Profiles in Collegiate Sprint-Swimmers

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      Authors: Flatt; Andrew A.; Hornikel, Bjoern; Nakamura, Fabio Y.; Esco, Michael R.
      Abstract: imageFlatt, AA, Hornikel, B, Nakamura, FY, and Esco, MR. Effect of competitive status and experience on heart rate variability profiles in collegiate sprint-swimmers. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2898–2904, 2022—Interindividual differences in training history may be a determinant of heart rate variability (HRV) profiles in collegiate sprint-swimmers and may account for differences observed between elite and subelite athletes. We therefore compared HRV profiles among national-level and conference-level sprint-swimmers while accounting for individual swim-training history. Twenty-eight short-distance swimmers (18 men and 10 women) recorded postwaking HRV throughout a 4-week standardized training period. The 4-week mean (M) and coefficient of variation (CV, a marker of daily fluctuation) were calculated for resting heart rate (RHR) and the natural logarithm of the root mean square of successive differences (LnRMSSD). Swimmers were categorized as national-level (n = 12) or conference-level (n = 16) competitors. Years of competitive experience was documented for each individual to index training history. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. No sex-related differences were observed for any variables (p> 0.05). LnRMSSDM (effect size [ES] = 0.95), LnRMSSDCV (ES = −1.18), RHRCV (ES = −1.05), and competitive experience (ES = 1.23) differed between status groups (p < 0.05). Accounting for multicollinearity between competitive experience and LnRMSSD variables (p < 0.05), competitive experience remained associated with LnRMSSDM (r = 0.44, p = 0.02). With competitive experience included as a covariate, differences in LnRMSSDM between status groups disappeared (p> 0.05, ES = 0.31). National-level swimmers exhibit higher and more stable LnRMSSD than that of their conference-level teammates throughout standardized training. Differences in trend characteristics were attributed to training age. This information may assist practitioners with interpreting interindividual differences in HRV profiles throughout training periods among a mixed roster of athletes.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Development of a Twenty20 Field-Based Simulation for Cricket Fast Bowlers
           (FBS-T20)

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      Authors: Milne; Ethan C.; Vickery, Will M.; Dascombe, Ben J.; Borges, Nattai R.
      Abstract: imageMilne, EC, Vickery, WM, Dascombe, BJ, and Borges, NR. Development of a twenty20 field-based simulation for cricket fast bowlers (FBS-T20). J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2905–2911, 2022—This project assessed the validity and reliability of a novel Twenty20 cricket pace bowling simulation (FBS-T20) that could be used to facilitate match-specific testing and training outside of match play. Six recreational pace bowlers completed 3 identical sessions of the FBS-T20. The FBS-T20 consisted of 4 bowling and 16 fielding overs. During the bowling overs, a bowling accuracy test and bowling approach speed were measured, whereas during the fielding overs, 10-m sprint performance was assessed. Distance covered, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were also collected throughout the FBS-T20. Validity was determined through comparison with previously reported Twenty20 pace bowling match demands, and intersession reliabilities were assessed. Distances covered in speed zones were valid (p> 0.05) with the exception of significantly lower jog values in the FBS-T20 (957–1,279 vs. 2,195 m; p = 0.04-
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Weightlifting Is Better Than Plyometric Training to Improve Strength,
           Counter Movement Jump, and Change of Direction Skills in Tunisian Elite
           Male Junior Table Tennis Players

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      Authors: Kaabi; Soufiane; Mabrouk, Ramzi Hadj; Passelergue, Philippe
      Abstract: imageKaabi, S, Mabrouk, RH, and Passelergue, P. Weightlifting is better than plyometric training to improve strength, counter movement jump, and change of direction skills in Tunisian elite male junior table tennis players. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2912–2919, 2022—This study aimed to compare the effect of integrating weightlifting (WL) resistance training or plyometric training for 8 weeks on physical performance among elite male junior table tennis players. Forty-five players were randomly divided into 3 groups. A WL resistance training group (n = 15), plyometric (P) group (n = 15), and a control (C) group (n = 15). Weightlifting group and P group were trained for 8 weeks (2 sessions per week with 3 different exercises each time) in addition to the usual practice of table tennis during the preparatory phase, whereas the C group continued classical table tennis training sessions. Subjects were tested for 5-m sprint time, change of direction (CD) test on a 20-m “T” shape course, jumping tests such as standing long jump, squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump, hang grip, and 1 repetition maximum strength tests as the bench press and back squat before (T0) and after (T1) the training program. There was no statistical difference between the 3 groups before the beginning of the training program. After the 8-week training program, only P and WL groups significantly improved their performances for all the tests. Combining all the tests, the WL group had larger improvement (12.6 vs. 8.2%) and effect sizes (1.88 vs. 1.22) than the P group. Thus, WL training seems more efficient than P training to improve neuromuscular performance of table tennis players, especially for a sport-specific table tennis change-of-direction test such as the 20-m CD test.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Acute Cardiopulmonary Response to Interval and Continuous Exercise in
           Older Adults: A Randomized Crossover Study

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      Authors: Linares; Andrea M.; Goncin, Nikola; Stuckey, Melanie; Burgomaster, Kirsten A.; Dogra, Shilpa
      Abstract: imageLinares, AM, Goncin, N, Stuckey, M, Burgomaster, KA, and Dogra, S. Acute cardiopulmonary response to interval and continuous exercise in older adults: a randomized crossover study. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2920–2926, 2022—The purpose of this study was to compare the cardiopulmonary response with different exercise protocols in healthy older adults. Subjects (n = 30; 15 women, age: 69.6 ± 6.2 years) completed an exercise test (MAX) on a cycle ergometer to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V̇o2max) and peak power output (PPO). Exercise sessions were randomized: high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE, 1 minute 90% PPO followed by 1 minute 10% PPO, ×10), moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MOD, 20 minutes at 50% PPO), and sprint-interval exercise (SPRT, 20 seconds “all-out” sprints followed by 2 minutes at 50 W, ×3). V̇o2max was highest during MAX in men (MAX: 28.2 ± 6.3; MOD: 22.6 ± 4.5; HIIE: 26.7 ± 5.7; SPRT: 26.0 ± 4.3; F(2.1) = 28.6, p = 0.0001, = 0.67), whereas similar peaks were observed between HIIE, SPRT, and MAX in women (MAX: 21.9 ± 6.1; MOD: 18.9 ± 4.5; HIIE: 21.6 ± 5.3; SPRT: 21.7 ± 3.9; F(2.2) = 10.2, p = 0.0001, = 0.42). The peak heart rate (b·min−1) was similar across all exercise sessions in both men (MAX: 148.1 ± 17.1; MOD: 132.6 ± 21.8; HIIE: 144.9 ± 16.6; SPRT: 148.6 ± 14.2; F(1.9) = 9.1, p = 0.001, = 0.41) and women (MAX: 148.1 ± 13.1; MOD: 136.3 ± 18.2; HIIE: 147.0 ± 16.4; SPRT: 148.5 ± 18.0; F(2.0) = 5.3, p = 0.011, = 0.27). The %V̇o2 at which sessions were performed varied significantly across individual subjects. In conclusion, older women work at near maximal V̇o2 when performing HIIE and SPRT; this has implications for exercise testing and prescription protocols in older adults.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • When Matched for Relative Leg Strength at Baseline, Male and Female Older
           Adults Respond Similarly to Concurrent Aerobic and Resistance Exercise
           Training

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      Authors: Timmons; James F.; Hone, Michelle; Duffy, Orlaith; Egan, Brendan
      Abstract: imageTimmons, JF, Hone, M, Duffy, O, and Egan, B. When matched for relative leg strength at baseline, male and female older adults respond similarly to concurrent aerobic and resistance exercise training. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2927–2933, 2022—Comparisons between sexes of adaptive responses with concurrent aerobic and resistance exercise training are largely unexplored. A supervised 12-week intervention of concurrent exercise training was used to investigate sex-specific differences, if any, in the response to concurrent exercise training in older adults. Community-dwelling men (n = 14; 68.0 ± 1.8 years; 27.8 ± 3.8 kg·m−2) and women (n = 14; 68.9 ± 3.8 years; 25.1 ± 3.8 kg·m−2) were pair-matched for relative leg strength expressed as leg press 1 repetition maximum per kg of leg lean body mass (LBM; assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Subjects undertook 24 minutes of concurrent aerobic (12 minutes) and resistance (12 minutes) exercise training 3 times per week i.e., 72 minutes of active exercise time per week. Muscle strength, physical function, and body composition were assessed before (PRE) and after 12 weeks (POST) of exercise training. The increase in absolute leg press strength was larger in men (mean difference ± SE, 25.3 ± 11.8 kg; p = 0.041, = 0.156), but when expressed as leg press strength relative to leg LBM, training-induced increases were not different between the sexes (mean difference ± SE, 0.30 ± 0.46 kg·kg−1; p = 0.526, = 0.016). No other measure of muscle strength (hand-grip and chest press), physical function (gait speed, timed-up-and-go, sit-to-stand, and Chester step test), or body composition (LBM and fat mass) differed in response to exercise training for between-sex comparisons. When male and female older adults are pair matched for relative leg strength at baseline before commencing exercise training, sex-specific adaptive responses to concurrent aerobic and resistance exercise training are largely similar for muscle strength, physical function, and body composition.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Prescribing Exercise in Early-Stage Breast Cancer During Chemotherapy: A
           Simple Periodized Approach to Align With the Cyclic Phases of Chemotherapy
           

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      Authors: Bigaran; Ashley; Howden, Erin J.; Foulkes, Steve; Janssens, Kristel; Beaudry, Rhys I.; Haykowsky, Mark J.; La Gerche, Andre; Fraser, Steve F.; Selig, Steve E.
      Abstract: imageBigaran, A, Howden, EJ, Foulkes, S, Janssens, K, Beaudry, R, Haykowsky, MJ, La Gerche, A, Fraser, SF, and Selig, SE. Prescribing exercise in early-stage breast cancer during chemotherapy: a simple periodized approach to align with the cyclic phases of chemotherapy. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2934–2941, 2022—To evaluate whether a periodized aerobic and resistance training plan aligned to the anthracycline chemotherapy (AC) cycles would be well tolerated, feasible, and attenuate the decline in peak oxygen uptake (V̇o2peak) in breast cancer (BC) patients. Twenty-eight women with early-stage BC treated with AC self-selected to undertake exercise training (EX 47 ± 9 years, n = 14) or usual care (53 ± 9 years, n = 14) for 12 weeks as part of a nonrandomized controlled trial. The periodized EX was aligned to the cyclic phases of AC, including AC taper and nontaper weeks. Outcome measures included cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Attendance and adherence variables (relative dose intensity [RDI] and volume load) were calculated to quantify the dose of EX completed relative to the amount of EX prescribed. The mean session attendance was 76% (range 46–88%). The mean ± SD prescribed and completed dose of aerobic training was 332.3 ± 48.7 MET h·wk−1 and 380.6 ± 53.2 MET h·wk−1 (p = 0.02), equating to a mean RDI of 89 ± 17%. For resistance training, the prescribed and completed cumulative dose was 128,264 ± 54,578 and 77,487 ± 26,108 kg (p < 0.001), equating to an RDI of 60 ± 11%. Adherence to the AC taper week RDI (52 ± 14%) for resistance training was significantly lower than the non-AC taper week (72 ± 8%, p = 0.02). The most frequent cause for EX interruption was hospitalization (35%), whereas AC-related illness was the most common cause for missed (57%) or modified EX sessions (64%). This periodized approach was mostly well tolerated for patients with BC. We speculate that a periodized approach may be both more palatable and useful, although this requires further investigation in a randomized controlled trial.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • The Effect of Game-Related Contextual Factors on Sleep in Basketball
           Players

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      Authors: Fox; Jordan L.; Scanlan, Aaron T.; Stanton, Robert; Sargent, Charli
      Abstract: imageFox, JL, Scanlan, AT, Stanton, R, and Sargent, C. The effect of game-related contextual factors on sleep in basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2942–2945, 2022—The purpose of this study was to determine whether contextual factors including game location, game outcome, and score-line margin influence subsequent nightly sleep duration and quality in basketball players. Seven semiprofessional, male basketball players were monitored across one competitive season using self-reported sleep diaries and activity monitors. Linear mixed models and effect sizes (ESs) were used to compare sleep duration and quality following games based on game location (played at home or away venues), game outcome (win or loss), and score-line margin (balanced [≤ 8-point margin] or unbalanced [≥ 9-point margin]). Sleep onset was later following away games (ES = 0.79 ± 0.86 [moderate], p = 0.12), losses (ES = 0.63 ± 0.79 [moderate], p = 0.18), and unbalanced games (ES = 1.36 ± 0.90 [large], p = 0.01). Wake time was later following losses (ES = 1.14 ± 0.85 [moderate], p = 0.02). Sleep fragmentation was higher following wins (ES = 0.65 ± 0.74 [moderate], p = 0.17). Sleep efficiency was higher following losses (ES = 0.70 ± 0.80 [moderate], p = 0.14). All other differences in sleep variables yielded trivial-small ESs (p> 0.05). Because of the later sleep onset times of players, basketball practitioners should consider avoiding early morning travel or training sessions following away games, losses, and unbalanced games, to maintain similar nightly sleep durations in light of the contextual factors encountered. Basketball practitioners may also need to ensure player sleep is optimized following wins compared with losses given the lower quality observed.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Biomechanical Analysis of the Tuck Jump Assessment

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      Authors: Nascimento; Nuno; Sideris, Vasileios; Read, Paul J.
      Abstract: imageNascimento, N, Sideris, V, and Read, PJ. Biomechanical analysis of the tuck jump assessment. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2946–2949, 2022—The tuck jump assessment (TJA) examines plyometric technique flaws associated with the increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Biomechanical data to investigate the mechanics used during the TJA are limited and assessing each jump individually across the entire test period is time inefficient. This study examined performance characteristics and movement mechanics in 16 professional soccer players during a standardized TJA protocol (10 jumps) to determine if sensitive periods exist within the test period (first 5 vs. last 5). Jump height, average power (PW) reactive strength index (RSI), frontal plane projection angle (FPPA), knee angular velocity (AV), and peak knee flexion angle (PKA) were analyzed using an optoelectrical and inertial measurement unit device. Jump height and PW increased in the past 5 jumps displaying a medium effect size (d => 0.5). A trend was observed of increased AV, FPPA, and PKA during the past 5 jumps; however, no meaningful differences were observed between respective jump phases, and effect sizes were small (d ≤ 0.2). This study indicates that performance metrics increase during the past 5 jumps of a standardized TJA 10-jump protocol; thus, analyzing the entire test period may not be required, providing a time-efficient approach. Caution should be applied if using this protocol as an injury risk screening tool or to identify fatigue related alterations in male professional soccer players as no obvious movement abnormalities were apparent and minimal differences were present between jump phases in a range of kinematic variables across the recorded test duration.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • No Strain, No Gain' The Role of Strain and Load Magnitude in Human
           Tendon Responses and Adaptation to Loading

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      Authors: McMahon; Gerard
      Abstract: imageMcMahon, G. No strain, no gain? The role of strain and load magnitude in human tendon responses and adaptation to loading. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2950–2956, 2022—Transmission of force and energy storage and release are affected by the mechanical properties and morphology of tendons. Therefore, understanding the modulation of mechanical properties through training is key as part of optimizing athletic task performance and rehabilitation. In vivo human tendon adaptation to exercise occurs in a nongraded manner, that is, there seems to be a threshold to which a tendon responds and adapts to mechanical stimuli, whereas below this threshold, minimal or no adaptation is observed. However, this remains controversial as such findings have not always been universal. Modulation of strain magnitude (change in tendon length relative to its original length) or loading intensity (e.g., % 1 repetition maximum or % maximal voluntary contraction) therefore may play a fundamental role in enhancing tendon adaptation. This review outlines the key evidence of these phenomena through direct comparative studies of higher vs. lower strain/load magnitude and indirect noncomparative studies and also explores some of the potential mechanobiological underpinnings of these adaptations. Furthermore, this review outlines practical considerations for exercise prescription using a strain magnitude–based approach and why previous non–strain magnitude–based approaches may have been a confounding factor in load magnitude studies investigating tendon adaptation.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • The Role of Strength on Punch Impact Force in Boxing

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      Authors: Beattie; Kris; Ruddock, Alan D.
      Abstract: imageBeattie, K and Ruddock, AD. The role of strength on punch impact force in boxing. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2957–2969, 2022—The ability to punch with a high impact force is beneficial to boxers as there is an increased likelihood of success. Punch impact force differentiates between performance level, weight class, gender, and punch type in competitive boxers. Although technique is likely to play a major role in punch impact force, the capabilities of the neuromuscular system may also be a limiting factor. This review examines the role of strength on punch impact force in amateur and professional boxers. The maximal strength qualities of the lower body, as well as explosive strength qualities of both the upper and lower body, are largely associated with punch impact force in elite amateur boxers. Specifically, elite amateur boxers who punch with “high” impact forces have greater levels of lower-body maximal strength and explosive strength when compared with elite amateurs who punch with “low” impact forces. However, the maximal strength capabilities of the upper body are not associated with punch impact force and does not differentiate between elite boxers who punch with “high” and “low” impact forces. Therefore, based off the present evidence, this review recommends that for boxers who aim to develop their punch impact force, it may be advantageous to emphasize both maximal and explosive strength development of the legs, with only an explosive strength focus in the upper body. However, it is important to highlight that, to date, there are a lack of experimental studies in both elite amateur and professional boxing. Furthermore, there is a dearth of research in female boxing. Future experimental studies are needed to infer causality regarding the role that strength training has on punch impact force in both elite amateur and professional boxers.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Metabolic Adaptations to Weight Loss: A Brief Review

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      Authors: Martínez-Gómez; Mario G.; Roberts, Brandon M.
      Abstract: imageMartínez-Gómez, MG and Roberts, BM. Metabolic adaptations to weight loss: A brief review. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2970–2981, 2022—As the scientific literature has continuously shown, body mass loss attempts do not always follow a linear fashion nor always go as expected even when the intervention is calculated with precise tools. One of the main reasons why this tends to happen relies on our body's biological drive to regain the body mass we lose to survive. This phenomenon has been referred to as “metabolic adaptation” many times in the literature and plays a very relevant role in the management of obesity and human weight loss. This review will provide insights into some of the theoretical models for the etiology of metabolic adaptation as well as a quick look into the physiological and endocrine mechanisms that underlie it. Nutritional strategies and dietetic tools are thus necessary to confront these so-called adaptations to body mass loss. Among some of these strategies, we can highlight increasing protein needs, opting for high-fiber foods or programming-controlled diet refeeds, and diet breaks over a large body mass loss phase. Outside the nutritional aspects, it might be wise to increase the physical activity and thus the energy flux of an individual when possible to maintain diet-induced body mass loss in the long term. This review will examine these protocols and their viability in the context of adherence and sustainability for the individual toward successful body mass loss.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Heart Rate Monitoring in Soccer: Interest and Limits During Competitive
           Match Play and Training, Practical Application: Erratum

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      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Effects of Resistance Training Cessation on Cycling Performance in
           Well-Trained Cyclists: An Exploratory Study: Erratum

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      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
 
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