Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 771 journals)
    - EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)
    - GEOLOGY (94 journals)
    - GEOPHYSICS (33 journals)
    - HYDROLOGY (29 journals)
    - OCEANOGRAPHY (88 journals)

EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)            First | 1 2 3     

Showing 201 - 371 of 371 Journals sorted alphabetically
Hydrological Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151)
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Indian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Indonesian Journal on Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inland Waters     Hybrid Journal  
Innovative Infrastructure Solutions     Hybrid Journal  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Geology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Advanced Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Advanced Remote Sensing and GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
International Journal of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
International Journal of Earthquake and Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Energetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Geographical Information Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
International Journal of Geomechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144)
International Journal of Remote Sensing Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
International Journal of Soil, Sediment and Water     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access  
iScience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Island Arc     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Italian Journal of Geosciences     Open Access  
Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Jahresberichte und Mitteilungen des Oberrheinischen Geologischen Vereins     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
JETP Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of African Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Analytical and Numerical Methods in Mining Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Applied Volcanology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Arid Land     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Asian Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Asian Earth Sciences : X     Open Access  
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133)
Journal of Big History     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Coastal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Coastal Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Contemporary Physics (Armenian Academy of Sciences)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Contemporary Water Resource & Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Earth Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Earth System Science     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Earth, Environment and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Environment and Earth Science     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Environmental & Engineering Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geodesy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Geodesy and Geoinformation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International     Open Access  
Journal of Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Geomorphology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Atmospheres     Partially Free   (Followers: 134)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Biogeosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Earth Surface     Partially Free   (Followers: 59)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans     Partially Free   (Followers: 60)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Planets     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 116)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Solid Earth     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 57)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Space Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 136)
Journal of Geophysics and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geoscience Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Geospatial Applications in Natural Resources     Open Access  
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Geotechnical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Great Lakes Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Hydro-environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Hydrologic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Journal of International Maritime Safety, Environmental Affairs, and Shipping     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Life and Earth Science     Open Access  
Journal of Marine Medical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Marine Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Marine Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Metamorphic Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Mining Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mountain Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Natural Gas Geoscience     Open Access  
Journal of Ocean and Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Population and Sustainability     Open Access  
Journal of Quaternary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sea Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sedimentary Environments     Open Access  
Journal of Seismology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Spatial Information Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Structural Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
Journal of the Geological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Water and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Journal on Geoinformatics, Nepal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Ilmiah Perikanan dan Kelautan / Scientific Journal of Fisheries and Marine     Open Access  
Kartografija i geoinformacije (Cartography and Geoinformation)     Open Access  
Lake and Reservoir Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Landslides     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Latin American Journal of Sedimentology and Basin Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lethaia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Letters in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Limnologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Lithology and Mineral Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Lithos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Malaysian Journal of Geosciences     Open Access  
Marine and Freshwater Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Marine and Petroleum Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Marine Biology Research: New for 2005     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Marine Economics and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Marine Environmental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Marine Geodesy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Marine Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Marine Geophysical Researches     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Marine Georesources & Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Marine Mammal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Marine Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Mathematical Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mathematical Physics, Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mediterranean Geoscience Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Meteoritics & Planetary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Mineralium Deposita     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mineralogia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mineria y Geologia     Open Access  
Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration     Hybrid Journal  
Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Mongolian Geoscientist     Open Access  
Moscow University Geology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal  
Moscow University Physics Bulletin     Hybrid Journal  
Natural Hazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discssions     Open Access  
Natural Hazards Research     Open Access  
Natural Hazards Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Natural Resources & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Natural Resources Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Nature Geoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 161)
Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Newsletters on Stratigraphy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (NPG)     Open Access  
Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics Discussions     Open Access  
Ocean & Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Ocean Development & International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ocean Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ocean Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ocean Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Ocean Science (OS)     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ocean Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Open Geospatial Data, Software and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Earthquake Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ore and Energy Resource Geology     Open Access  
Ore Geology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Organic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Osterreichische Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Paläontologische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Papers in Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal  
Permafrost and Periglacial Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Perspectives of Earth and Space Scientists i     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Petroleum Geoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Petroleum Science     Open Access  
Petrology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
PFG : Journal of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Geoinformation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Photogrammetrie - Fernerkundung - Geoinformation     Full-text available via subscription  
Physical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Physical Science International Journal     Open Access  
Physics of Life Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics of Metals and Metallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Physics of Plasmas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Physics of the Solid State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)

  First | 1 2 3     

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Meteorologische Zeitschrift
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.605
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0941-2948 - ISSN (Online) 1610-1227
Published by Schweizerbart Science Publishers Homepage  [23 journals]
  • Temporal trends of daily extreme temperature indices in North-Central
           Mexico

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Temporal trends of daily extreme temperature indices in North-Central MexicoRuiz-Alvarez, Osias; Corrales-Suastegui, Arturo; Štěpánek, Petr; Ontiveros Capurata, Ronald Ernesto; Reyes-González, Arturo; Reynoso-Santos, Roberto; Ochoa-Rivero, Jesus Manuel; Singh, Vijay P.
      Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. - Abstract A temporal trend analysis of weather variables is needed for developing mitigation and adaptation strategies to climate change. The objective of this work was to study temporal trends of 17 extreme temperature indices in North-Central Mexico (NCM). We used daily observations of maximum and minimum temperatures from 127 weather stations for 34 years (1980–2013). The extreme temperature indices were calculated with the RClimDex v1.9 package. Analysis of trend indices was carried out with the Mann–Kendall technique and the rate of change with the Theil–Sen estimator. Except for the growing season length, all-temperature indices showed statistically significant positive trends (SSPT) ( p ≤ 0 . 0 5 $p\leq\nobreak 0.05$ ) between 1 and 62; except for the cold spell duration indicator, all indices showed statistically significant negative trends (SSNT) between 3 and 62. The SSPT of all indices varied between 0.246 °C decade−1 (TMINMEAN) and 48.000 days decade−1 (SU25), while the SSNT varied between −55.238 days decade−1 (SU25) and −0.181 °C decade−1 (TMINMEAN). In NCM, the increase in some indices could be causing an increase in crop water requirements and poorly meeting some crop's chilling requirements. In crops, such as grapevine, peach, and apple, an excellent short-term strategy to adapt to the decrease in cold winter and to compensate for the satisfaction of poor chilling hours using biostimulant of sprouting should be considered. New varieties/hybrids of corn and beans for dealing with the increase in warm days (TX90p), summer days (SU25), warm nights (TN90p), and tropical nights must be available; also, these new varieties should have shorter cycle and should be cold resistant. The results of this work constitute a reliable tool for generating answers for measures of adaptation to the onslaught of climate change in NCM.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A wind atlas for Germany and the effect of remodeling

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      Abstract: A wind atlas for Germany and the effect of remodelingSchneider, Martin; Glücksmann, André; Grötzner, Anselm; Mengelkamp, Heinz-Theo
      Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. - Abstract Minimizing and quantifying the uncertainty of wind simulations are essential for the wind energy industry during the planning phase of wind farm projects and for financial considerations. Measurements at 118 sites onshore and offshore in Germany are analyzed and used for the verification of wind simulations with the mesoscale model WRF. In order to minimize the difference between simulations and observations a correction of the annual cycle is applied and a remodeling approach is developed which allows for a correction of the simulated wind speed time series. The remodeling methodology is based on a linear regression analysis of simulated and observed wind speed time series accounting for sub‑grid variations of orography and roughness. Averaging the regression parameter for 26 measurement sites results in an overall global parameter set which is applied to the wind atlas data. While the “raw” data (without optimization) before any correction showed differences of up to 30 % with respect to the annual mean wind speed the remodeling process reduced the bias to below 5 % for the majority of measurements. When being compared with data from the NEWA wind atlas and the EMD‑WRF Europe+ data set an overall bias between 0.6 m/s and 0.8 m/s is found for the NEWA, EMD‑WRF Europe+ and anemos “raw” data. This bias is reduced to zero with a small standard deviation when the remodeling process and the site-specific adaptation are applied.
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Turbulence intensity footprints of built and natural environment as
           measured by anemometers at Hong Kong International Airport

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      Abstract: Turbulence intensity footprints of built and natural environment as measured by anemometers at Hong Kong International AirportKrüs, Henk W.; Hon, Kai Kwong; Chan, Pak Wai
      Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. 3 - 12Abstract Terrain and building-induced low-level turbulence is studied in this paper. Data from six anemometers, respectively along the North and South Runways of Hong Kong International Airport, are analysed over the period of 2012 to 2018. From this data the recorded turbulence intensities have been computed and the footprints plotted. A joint analysis of the turbulence footprints together with the surrounding environment, using maps and photographs, reveals likely upstream causes influencing the directional distribution of observed turbulence intensities. Signatures from nearby objects and buildings, such as terminals and hangars, are easily identifiable. This paper serves as a unique documentation of possible building influence on wind measurements at a densely-developed, major international airport, and provides useful reference to meteorologists and wind engineers at airports in other parts of the world.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Lidar-based minute-scale offshore wind speed forecasts analysed under
           different atmospheric conditions

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      Abstract: Lidar-based minute-scale offshore wind speed forecasts analysed under different atmospheric conditionsTheuer, Frauke; van Dooren, Marijn Floris; von Bremen, Lueder; Kühn, Martin
      Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. 13 - 29Abstract In recent years, the potential of remote sensing-based minute-scale forecasts to improve the integration of wind power into our energy system has been shown. In lidar-based forecasts, the wind speed is extrapolated from the measuring to the forecast height, i.e. the wind turbines' hub height, by assuming a stability-corrected logarithmic wind profile. The objective of this paper is the significant reduction of large forecasting errors associated with the height extrapolation. Hence, we introduce two new approaches and characterise their skill under different atmospheric conditions. The first one is based on an empirical set of parameters derived from lidar data and operational wind turbine data. The second approach derives the wind speed tendency of two consecutive forecasts at the measuring height and applies this to operational wind speed data at hub height. We identified the uncertainty in stability estimates and measurement height as the main cause for large extrapolation errors of the existing lidar-based forecast. Monte Carlo simulations revealed the new approaches' low sensitivity to uncertainty in lidar data processing, propagation and height extrapolation. Forecasting errors of a 5‑minute-ahead wind speed forecast of free-flow turbines at an offshore wind farm were significantly reduced for the two newly developed methods as compared to the existing forecast during stable atmospheric conditions. Persistence could be outperformed during unstable and neutral atmospheric conditions and for situations with higher turbulence intensity. Overall, we found lidar-based forecasts to be less sensitive to atmospheric conditions than persistence. We discuss the importance of accurate vertical wind speed profile estimation, the advantages and shortcomings of the two newly introduced methods and their skill compared to persistence. In conclusion, the additional use of wind turbine operational data can significantly improve minute-scale lidar-based forecasts. We further conclude that the characterisation of forecast skill dependent on atmospheric conditions can be valuable for decision-making processes.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Estimation of mean radiant temperature in cities using an urban
           parameterization and building energy model within a mesoscale atmospheric
           model

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      Abstract: Estimation of mean radiant temperature in cities using an urban parameterization and building energy model within a mesoscale atmospheric modelJin, Luxi; Schubert, Sebastian; Fenner, Daniel; Salim, Mohamed Hefny; Schneider, Christoph
      Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. 31 - 52Abstract During daylight hours, the mean radiant temperature  T mrt $T_{\text{mrt}}$ is one of the most important meteorological parameters to analyse heat stress for humans. This study conducts a spatio-temporal analysis of T mrt $T_{\text{mrt}}$ for a summer period in 2018 for the city of Berlin, Germany. To this end, the mesoscale climate model COSMO-CLM (CCLM) is coupled with the urban Double Canyon Effect Parameterization scheme with a building energy model (DCEP–BEM) to derive  T mrt $T_{\text{mrt}}$ . This coupled model system CCLM/DCEP–BEM enables a dynamic calculation of  T mrt $T_{\text{mrt}}$ for the microscale urban street canyons using a mesoscale model. To bring a more accurate comparison, a two-step approach is applied to assess the radiative fluxes and T mrt $T_{\text{mrt}}$ from CCLM/DCEP–BEM. The radiation model SOLWEIG is first validated against measurement and then used to evaluate the DCEP–BEM model. Overall good agreement in  T mrt $T_{\text{mrt}}$ is found between CCLM/DCEP–BEM and SOLWEIG ( R 2 = 0 . 9 6 $\text{R}^2 =\nobreak 0.96$ ). Nighttime  T mrt $T_{\text{mrt}}$ simulated with CCLM/DCEP–BEM is higher than that with SOLWEIG ( MBE = 2 . 9 K $\text{MBE}=\nobreak 2.9\,\text{K}$ ), yet closer to measurements. T mrt $T_{\text{mrt}}$  during the afternoon hours modeled with CCLM/DCEP–BEM is underestimated compared to SOLWEIG ( MBE = - 3 . 1 K $\text{MBE}=\nobreak -3.1\,\text{K}$ ). Further, excluding vegetation, higher values for nighttime  T mrt $T_{\text{mrt}}$ are found in the densely built-up city center than in the suburbs with more open structures, while the city center has lower values for  T mrt $T_{\text{mrt}}$ during midday. This study provides a reliable representation of  T mrt $T_{\text{mrt}}$ in a mesoscale model and would be beneficial for future implementation of human-biometeorological variables such as the Universal Thermal Climate Index or Physiological Equivalent Temperature. These quantities are calculated using  T mrt $T_{\text{mrt}}$ .
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Climate changes and their impact on selected sectors of the Polish-Saxon
           border region under RCP8.5 scenario conditions

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      Abstract: Climate changes and their impact on selected sectors of the Polish-Saxon border region under RCP8.5 scenario conditionsMiszuk, Bartłomiej; Adynkiewicz-Piragas, Mariusz; Kolanek, Agnieszka; Lejcuś, Iwona; Zdralewicz, Iwona; Strońska, Marzenna
      Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. 53 - 68Abstract Climate changes are one of the most important factors affecting various spectra of the human activity and natural environment. They can significantly impact technical infrastructure, modify structures of cultivation, and have an influence on species structure. Furthermore, some of the changes may also negatively affect the human organism which consequently influence health and tourism issues. The region of Polish-Saxon border is characterized by a high variability in terms of land use and natural environment. Thus, the problem of climate changes is one of the most important issues in this area. The goal of this paper is to assess the impact of climate changes on the sectors of biodiversity, forestry, agriculture, transport, tourism, and public health, considering the aspects of sensitivity and risk assessment. The results of climate changes indicated observed or projected significant changes in thermal, precipitation, snow and storm conditions. The analysis on sensitivity and risk showed a high spatial variability depending on sector. The northern part of the region is usually endangered in the context of biodiversity and forestry, while the highest risk and sensitivity for tourism are noticed in the mountains. In the case of transport and public health, climate changes can usually affect them in densely populated areas, whereas the central part of the region is most at risk for the sector of agriculture. The results of this research can be a basis for further analysis related to adaptation to climate changes.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Multi-year cloud and precipitation statistics observed with remote sensors
           at the high-altitude Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus in
           the German Alps

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      Abstract: Multi-year cloud and precipitation statistics observed with remote sensors at the high-altitude Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus in the German AlpsKneifel, Stefan; Pospichal, Bernhard; von Terzi, Leonie; Zinner, Tobias; Puh, Matjaž; Hagen, Martin; Mayer, Bernhard; Löhnert, Ulrich; Crewell, Susanne
      Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. 69 - 86Abstract Clouds and precipitation over mountainous terrain are a challenge for models and observations alike. In this study, we exploit a unique, nearly one decade long dataset of collocated microwave radiometer, radar, ceilometer, and auxiliary observations collected at the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (UFS). Located at 2650 m a.s.l. just 300 m below the summit of Zugspitze, Germany's highest mountain, this dataset allows a combined view on water vapor, clouds, and precipitation. Annual and diurnal cycles of water vapor, cloud liquid water, cloud ice, rainfall, and snowfall rate are investigated. Strong diurnal cycles during summer in several observables indicate a strong coupling with the surface and convective transport of air from the surrounding valleys to the level of UFS resulting in maximum amounts in integrated water vapor (IWV), cloud liquid water path (LWP) and rain during the afternoon. In contrast, no diurnal cycle is found during winter, which points to the predominance of advection of cloud systems associated with large scale dynamics during winter. Daily precipitation estimates for snowfall and rainfall derived from a vertically pointing, low-cost micro rain radar (MRR) are found to be in good agreement with manual observations from the German Weather Service at the summit. Exploiting the synergy of MRR and microwave radiometer measurements revealed that almost 90 % of the snow clouds contained significant amounts of super-cooled LWP but only a weak correlation between snowfall rate and LWP is found. The still growing data set at this very particular location, also in combination with further observations, such as trace gases and aerosols, has a unique potential for many applications, e.g. to investigate cloud processes, evaluate high resolution models, and to validate satellite products.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Observing the pre-convective environment and convection initiation with
           Doppler Lidar and cloud radar in the Al Hajar Mountains of the United
           Arab Emirates

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      Abstract: Observing the pre-convective environment and convection initiation with Doppler Lidar and cloud radar in the Al Hajar Mountains of the United Arab EmiratesBranch, Oliver; Behrendt, Andreas; Alnayef, Osama; Späth, Florian; Schwitalla, Thomas; Temimi, Marouane; Weston, Michael; Farrah, Sufian; Al Yazeedi, Omar; Tampi, Siddharth; de Waal, Karel; Wulfmeyer, Volker
      Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. - Abstract In this study, we present multi-season measurements from a remote mountain peak observatory in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). During the campaign, Doppler lidar and cloud radar were employed using coordinated scan patterns, to study seedable convective clouds, and identify pre-convection initiation clear-air signatures. The instruments were employed for approximately two years in an extreme environment with a high vantage point for observing valley wind flows and convective cells. The instruments were configured to run synchronized plan position indicator (PPI) scans at 0°, 5°, and 45° elevation angles and vertical cross-section range height indicator (RHI) scans at 0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, and 150° azimuth angles. Using this output imagery, along with local C‑band radar and satellite data, we were able to identify and analyse several convective cases. To illustrate this synergy of measurements, we present two cases in unstable conditions – the 5 and 6 September 2018. In both cases, we observed areas of convergence/divergence to the south-west of the observatory, associated with wind flow around a peak 2 km to the south-west. The extension of these deformations were visible in the atmosphere as high as 3 km above sea level. Subsequently, we observed convective cells developing in the same directions – apparently connected with these phenomena. The cloud radar Doppler images provided detailed observations of cloud hydrometeor dynamics. In both convective cases, pre-convective signatures were apparent before CI, in the form of convergence, wind shear structures, and updrafts. These results demonstrate the potential of these synergetic observations for understanding convection initiation processes and in the future, to provide cloud seeding guidance via early detection of CI events.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Eddy covariance observations and FAO Penman-Monteith modelling of
           evapotranspiration over a heterogeneous farmland area

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      Abstract: Eddy covariance observations and FAO Penman-Monteith modelling of evapotranspiration over a heterogeneous farmland areaSiedlecki, Mariusz; Pawlak, Włodzimierz; Fortuniak, Krzysztof
      Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. - Abstract This work presents the characteristics of actual evapotranspiration obtained using the eddy covariance method and a comparison with the results of crop reference evapotranspiration determined based on the FAO‑56 Penman-Monteith formula. The results of measurements performed under conditions typical of Central and Southern Poland's agricultural landscape cover the years 2012–2019. The characteristics of latent heat flux ( Q e $Q_e$ ), as compared to other components of the heat balance, show its rapid growth in spring well above the value of sensible heat ( Q h $Q_h$ ). The Q e $Q_e$  values in the noon hours account for over 50 % of the available solar energy. In the summer season, the ripening of cereals and their harvesting result in quite a significant decrease in the value of Q e $Q_e$ , which entails an increase in the value of Q h $Q_h$ and an increasing value of the Bowen ratio (exceeding 1 in August). A comparison of the results of the covariance measurements with the results obtained on the basis of the FAO‑56 methodology shows that they are fairly consistent, especially in May and June, i.e. the period of high precipitation and fully developed vegetation. The average monthly values of the crop coefficient Kc, determined as the ratio of actual and reference evapotranspiration, takes values close to 1. In July, August and September, on the other hand, reference evapotranspiration is much higher than the values obtained from measurements. The determined values of Kc range between 0.7 and 0.8.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • An empirical study of near-surface air temperature time lags and delay
           function during the longest total solar eclipse of the 21st century at
           Tianhuangping (Zhejiang), China, under cloudy conditions

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      Abstract: An empirical study of near-surface air temperature time lags and delay function during the longest total solar eclipse of the 21st century at Tianhuangping (Zhejiang), China, under cloudy conditionsPeñaloza-Murillo, Marcos A.; Roman, Michael T.; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Elmhamdi, Abouazza
      Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. - Abstract Among the different ways that the solar heating of the Earth's surface can be interrupted, the most impressive is by a solar eclipse. While the solar radiation drops rapidly, the near-surface air temperature responds more gradually, typically reaching a minimum several minutes after the total phase of the eclipse; therefore, the response of the terrestrial temperature is not instantaneous: there is a lag. Sometimes, when clouds are present, this lag disappears leading to an unexpected reverse effect to be studied in this paper, as occurred during the cloudy and longest total solar eclipse of this century in China. Although during a solar eclipse, changes in near-surface air temperature typically lags behind changes in solar radiation, observations sometimes show that under cloudy skies we note the extent of cooling during the final partial phases prior to totality, which we will call a pre-minimum effect. That was the case found during the longest total solar eclipse of the 21st century, which we observed from Tianhuangping (Zhejiang) on 22 July 2009. We attempt to analyze mathematically this opposite lag through a (tentative) “delay function”, derived using our own measurements from this eclipse at three different heights above the ground. We describe how this lag changes with time. We use two methods: (1) the solar radiation-instantaneous temperature method takes the solar radiation model and the obscuration function into account; (2) the geometrical occultation function method, which only uses the occultation function used by others. Results show that under cloudy skies the first performs better than the second. The delay function has been applied to derive the delayed empirical near-surface air temperature profile that would have been the case in a hypothetical clear sky. Results also show that the fall in air temperature would have instrumentally been imperceptible or undetectable over heights of 15 m above the ground approximately.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
 
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